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Sample records for rertr reduced enrichment

  1. The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission /sup 99/Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U/sub 3/Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program.

  2. Fuel development activities of the US RERTR Program. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels for use with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors is reported. Swelling and blister-threshold temperature data obtained from the examination of miniature fuel plates containing UAl/sub x/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, or U/sub 3/Si dispersed in an aluminum matrix are presented. Combined with the results of metallurgical examinations, these data show that these four fuel types will perform adequately to full burnup of the /sup 235/U contained in the low-enriched fuel. The exothermic reaction of the uranium-silicide fuels with aluminum has been found to occur at about the same temperature as the melting of the aluminum matrix and cladding and to be essentially quenched by the melting endotherm. A new series of miniature fuel plate irradiations is also discussed.

  3. The RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1991 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  4. RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  5. RERTR-10 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-10 was designed to further test the effectiveness of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates. The experiment was conducted in two campaigns: RERTR-10A and RERTR-10B. The fuel plates tested in RERTR-10A were all fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and were designed to evaluate the effect of various Si levels in the interlayer and the thickness of the Zr interlayer (0.001”) using 0.010” and 0.020” nominal foil thicknesses. The fuel plates in RERTR-10B were fabricated by Friction Bonding (FB) with two different thickness Si layers and Nb and Zr diffusion barriers.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-10A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  6. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  7. RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  8. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  9. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  10. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1993-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1993 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1992 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  11. The RERTR Program. A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1992-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1991 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  12. RERTR program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1997-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 at the Argonne National Laboratory by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which continues to fund the program and to manage it in coordination with the U.S. Department of State, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The primary objective of the program is to develop the technology needed to use low-enrichment uranium (LEU) instead of high-enrichment uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors, without significant penalties in experiment performance, economics, or safety. Eliminating the continuing need of HEU supplies for research and test reactors has long been an integral part of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper reviews the main accomplishments of the program through the years.

  13. Using low-enriched uranium in research reactors: The RERTR program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the RERTR program is to minimize and eventually eliminate use of highway enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors. The program has been very successful, and has developed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel materials and designs which can be used effectively in approximately 90 percent of the research and test reactors which used HEU when the program began. This progress would not have been possible without active international cooperation among fuel developers, commercial vendors, and reactor operators. The new tasks which the RERTR program is undertaking at this time include development of new and better fuels that will allow use of LEU fuels in all research and test reactors; cooperation with Russian laboratories, which will make it possible to minimize and eventually eliminate use of HEU in research reactors throughout the world, irrespective of its origin; and development of an LEU-based process for the production of {sup 99}Mo. Continuation and intensification of international cooperation are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR program.

  14. Progress of the RERTR program in 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1999-09-29

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during 1999 and discusses planned activities for the coming year.

  15. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  16. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    November 9--10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event--the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and it established the basis for all later meetings. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort. This report provides presentations and discussions of this original meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. Status of the US RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1995-02-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1994 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1993 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR Program has moved aggressively to support President Clinton`s nonproliferation policy and his goal {open_quotes}to minimize the use of highly-enriched uranium in civil nuclear programs{close_quotes}. An Environmental Assessment which addresses the urgent-relief acceptance of 409 spent fuel elements was completed, and the first shipment of spent fuel elements is scheduled for this month. An Environmental Impact Statement addressing the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel containing enriched uranium of U.S. origin is scheduled for completion by the end of June 1995. The U.S. administration has decided to resume development of high-density LEU research reactor fuels. DOE funding and guidance are expected to begin soon. A preliminary plan for the resumption of fuel development has been prepared and is ready for implementation. The scope and main technical activities of a plan to develop and demonstrate within the next five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels was agreed upon by the RERTR Program and four Russian institutes lead by RDIPE. Both Secretary O`Leary and Minister Michailov have expressed strong support for this initiative. Joint studies have made significant progress, especially in assessing the technical and economic feasibility of using reduced enrichment fuels in the SAFARI-I reactor in South Africa and in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor under design at ORNL. Significant progress was achieved on several aspects of producing {sup 99}Mo from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU to the achievement of the common goal.

  18. The RERTR Program: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Travelli, A.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The past, present and future of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are discussed with an emphasis on some of the reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics codes and modelling required to accommodate research and test reactor analysis, and some of the development work still in progress is described. Some comparisons with physical measurements and Monte Carlo are provided. The efforts in fuels development and the experimental support are summarized. The accomplishments in joint study programs and the transfer of technology are high lighted. The joint study with the Russian reduced enrichment program presents many new challenges.

  19. US RERTR program, its fuel-development activities, and application in the KUHFR

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Stahl, D.

    1981-01-01

    The goals, structure, and accomplishments to date of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are described in detail. Plans and schedules for future program activities are outlined with the effect which these activities may potentially have on the research-reactor community. The fuel-development activities of the program are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the new low-enrichment, high-uranium-density fuels which the RERTR Program is developing for application in research reactors in the near future. The results of a joint study program between the RERTR Program and the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), aimed at converting the Kyoto University High-Flux Reactor (KUHFR) to the use of reduced-enrichment uranium, are presented. It is shown that the study has resulted in a positive decision and in a cooperative, well-structured plan for the KUHFR conversion.

  20. The U.S. RERTR program status and progress.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1998-01-21

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program since its inception in 1978 is described. A brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1996 in collaboration with its many international partners is followed by a detailed review of the major events, findings, and activities of 1997. Significant progress has been made during the past year. In the area of U.S. acceptance of spent fuel from foreign research reactors, several shipments have taken place and additional are being planned. Intense fuel development activities are in progress, including procurement of equipment, screening of candidate materials, and production of microplates. Irradiation of the first series of microplates began in August 1997 in the Advanced Test Reactor, in Idaho. Progress has been made in the Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate within five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels. The study of an alternative LEU core for the FRM-II design has been extended to address, with favorable results, controversial performance issues which were raised at last year's meeting. Progress was also made on several aspects of producing molybdenum-99 from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU. Various types of targets and processes are being pursued, with FDA approval of an LEU process projected to occur within two years. The feasibility of LEU Fuel conversion for three important DOE research reactors (BMRR, HFBR, and HFIR) has been evaluated by the RERTR program. In spite of the many momentous events which have occurred during the intervening years, and the excellent progress achieved, the most important challenges that the RERTR program faces today are not very different in type from those that were faced during the first RERTR meeting. Now, as then, the most important task is to develop new LEU fuels satisfying requirements which cannot be satisfied by any

  1. The RERTR Program : a status report.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1998-10-19

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners since its inception in 1978. A brief summary of the results that the program had attained by the end of 1997 is followed by a detailed review of the major events, findings, and activities that took place in 1998. The past year was characterized by exceptionally important accomplishments and events for the RERTR program. Four additional shipments of spent fuel from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. Altogether, 2,231 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors have been received by the U.S. under the acceptance policy. Fuel development activities began to yield solid results. Irradiations of the first two batches of microplates were completed. Preliminary postirradiation examinations of these microplates indicate excellent irradiation behavior of some of the fuel materials that were tested. These materials hold the promise of achieving the pro am goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium density in the 8-9 g /cm{sup 3} range. Progress was made in the Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels. Feasibility studies for converting to LEU fuel four Russian-designed research reactors (IR-8 in Russia, Budapest research reactor in Hungary, MARIA in Poland, and WWR-SM in Uzbekistan) were completed. A new program activity began to study the feasibility of converting three Russian plutonium production reactors to the use of low-enriched U0{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuel, so that they can continue to produce heat and electricity without producing significant amounts of plutonium. The study of an alternative LEU core for the FRM-II design has been extended to address, with favorable results, the transient performance of the core under hypothetical accident conditions. A

  2. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  3. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  4. Progress of the RERTR program in 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    2002-03-07

    This paper describes the 2001 progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners. Postirradiation examinations of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-Mo dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. Irradiation of two new batches of miniplates of greater sizes was completed in the ATR to investigate the swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm{sup 3} range. Qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuels has been delayed by a patent issue involving KAERI. Test fuel elements with uranium density of 6 g/cm{sup 3} are being fabricated by BWXT and are expected to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten reactor around March 2003, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by mid-2005. U-Mo fuel with uranium density of 8-9 g/cm{sup 3} is expected to be qualified by mid-2007. Final irradiation tests of LEU {sup 99}Mo targets in the RAS-GAS reactor at BATAN, in Indonesia, had to be postponed because of the 9/11 attacks, but the results collected to date indicate that these targets will soon be ready for commercial production. Excellent cooperation is also in progress with the CNEA in Argentina, MDSN/AECL in Canada, and ANSTO in Australia. Irradiation testing of five WWR-M2 tube-type fuel assemblies fabricated by the NZChK and containing LEU UO{sub 2} dispersion fuel was successfully completed within the Russian RERTR program. A new LEU U-Mo pin-type fuel that could be used to convert most Russian-designed research reactors has been developed by VNIINM and is ready for testing. Four additional shipments containing 822 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. by September 30, 2001. Altogether, 4,562 spent fuel assemblies from

  5. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm/sup 3/ was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed.

  6. RERTR-9 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The RERTR-9 experiment was designed to test the effect of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates and to demonstrate that the addition of Si to the matrix material in dispersion plates continued to be effective at high loading (~8.5 g U/cc). Several monolithic fuel plates were fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB) with thin layers of Si inserted and by HIP with a Zr diffusion barrier between the fuel and cladding. Si was applied to the interface by thermal spray of Al Si mixtures and by the insertion of thin Si-rich Al alloy foil between the fuel/clad interface. The dispersion fuel plates were fabricated by semi-standard rolling techniques (the reduction by rolling was lowered to limit fabrication defects). Matrix materials consisted of Al-Si alloys and mixtures with various levels of Si. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-9A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  7. Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched ({approx}93% {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm{sup 3}) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm{sup 3}) low-enrichment (<20% {sup 235}U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing.

  8. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to

  9. Microstructure of RERTR DU-Alloys Irradiated with Krypton Ions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; D. Wachs; B. Miller; T. Allen; M. Kirk; J. Rest

    2009-11-01

    Fuel development for reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in many research and test reactors worldwide. Radiation stability of the interaction product formed at fuel-matrix interface has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast that consist of the following 5 phases of interest to be investigated: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4. Irradiation of TEM disc samples with 500 keV Kr ions at 200?C to high doses up to ~100 dpa were conducted using an intermediate voltage electron microscope equipped with an ion accelerator. The irradiated microstructure of the 5 phases is characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results will be presented and the implication of the observed irradiated microstructure on the fuel performance will be discussed.

  10. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  11. Comments on the future activities of the RERTR program - part II

    SciTech Connect

    Krull, W.

    1997-08-01

    At the last RERTR meeting an historical overview was given and the status and consequences of enrichment reduction were discussed. At that time and somewhat more today many doubts are raised that enrichment reduction, as a tool for reducing the proliferation risk, is being done in the most efficient and convincing manner. The informations presented in this report were taken from IAEA, US-DOE, US-GAO publications and from proceedings of the RERTR meetings. The data presented should be compared only on a relative basis. It was not the intention for many reasons to present quantitative exact values as some figures used for developing the conclusions are being confidential. Others are available in the above mentioned publications and proceedings. But nevertheless conclusions drawn and recommendations developed are believed to be worth to be taken into account by research reactor operators, their funding organizations and administrators when they are faced with decisions about the future of their facilities. All of the international effort on reducing the enrichment on research and test reactors has their only justification from the INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation) conclusions to reduce the proliferation risk worldwide to a large extent. Worldwide is important. IAEA and others have to convince operators and organizations upon the necessity in doing so. One of the best way convincing people is giving convincing examples. At present none of the nations having a military nuclear weapons program is giving such a convincing example. Even in cases where the qualified fuel and all other necessary tools for converting specific research reactors are existing only small or no progress can be seen. Only non-weapon states are being pressed today.

  12. RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wachs

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report

  13. Investigation of the Cause of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell K Meyer

    2012-06-01

    Blister–threshold testing of fuel plates is a standard method through which the safety margin for operation of plate-type in research and test reactors is assessed. The blister-threshold temperature is indicative of the ability of fuel to operate at high temperatures for short periods of time (transient conditions) without failure. This method of testing was applied to the newly developed U-Mo monolithic fuel system. Blister annealing studies on the U-Mo monolithic fuel plates began in 2007, with the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-6 experiment, and they have continued as the U-Mo fuel system has evolved through the research and development process. Blister anneal threshold temperatures from early irradiation experiments (RERTR-6 through RERTR-10) ranged from 400 to 500°C. These temperatures were projected to be acceptable for NRC-licensed research reactors and the high-power Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) based on current safety-analysis reports (SARs). Initial blister testing results from the RERTR-12 experiment capsules X1 and X2 showed a decrease in the blister-threshold temperatures. Blister threshold temperatures from this experiment ranged from 300 to 400°C. Selected plates from the AFIP-4 experiment, which was fabricated using a process similar to that used to fabricate the RERTR-12 experiment, also underwent blister testing to determine whether results would be similar. The measured blister-threshold temperatures from the AFIP-4 plates fell within the same blister-threshold temperature range measured in the RERTR-12 plates. Investigation of the cause of this decrease in bister threshold temperature is being conducted under the guidance of Idaho National Laboratory PLN-4155, “Analysis of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments,” and is driven by hypotheses. The main focus of the investigation is in the following areas: 1. Fabrication variables 2. Pre

  14. High-density reduced-enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels have been conducted by the US RERTR Program in order to provide the technical means to reduce the enrichment of fuels for research and test reactors. The traditional aluminum dispersion fuel technology has been extended to include the highest practical loadings of uranium-aluminide (UAl/sub x/, 2.3 MgU/m/sup 3/), uranium-oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, 3.2 MgU/m/sup 3/), and uranium-silicide (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, 5.5 MgU/m/sup 3/; U/sub 3/Si, 7.0 MgU/m/sup 3/) fuels. A third uranium-silicide alloy, U/sub 3/SiAl (U + 3.5 wt % Si + 1.5 wt % Al) has been found to perform poorly at high burnup. Testing of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements is at an advanced stage for the highest loadings of the aluminide and oxide fuels and intermediate loadings of the silicide fuels, and good results have been obtained for low-enriched uranium. The data obtained to date are discussed. 1 reference, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    2000-09-28

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during the year 2000 and discusses the main activities planned for the year 2001. The past year was characterized by important accomplishments and events for the RERTR program. Four additional shipments containing 503 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. Altogether, 3,740 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors have been received by the U.S. under the acceptance policy. Postirradiation examinations of three batches of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-MO dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. h-radiation of two new batches of miniplates of greater sizes is in progress in the ATR to investigate me swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g /cm{sup 3} range. Qualification of the U-MO dispersion fuels is proceeding on schedule. Test fuel elements with 6 gU/cm{sup 3} are being fabricated by BWXT and are scheduled to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten in the spring of 2001, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by the end of 2003. U-Mo with 8-9 gU/cm{sup 3} is planned to be qualified by the end of 2005. Joint LEU conversion feasibility studies were completed for HFR-Petten and for SAFARI-1. Significant improvements were made in the design of LEU metal-foil annular targets that would allow efficient production of fission {sup 99}Mo. Irradiations in the RAS-GAS reactor showed that these targets can formed from aluminum tubes, and that the yield and purity of their product from the acidic process were at least as good as those from the HEU Cintichem targets. Progress was made on irradiation testing of LEU UO{sub 2

  16. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions.

  17. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important events affecting the RERTR program during the past year was the decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to request the U.S. Congress to significantly increase RERTR program funding. This decision was prompted, at least in part, by the terrible events of September 11, 2001, and by a high-level U.S./Russian Joint Expert Group recommendation to immediately accelerate RERTR program activities in both countries, with the goal of converting all the world's research reactors to low-enriched fuel at the earliest possible time, and including both Soviet-designed and United States-designed research reactors. The U.S. Congress is expected to approve this request very soon, and the RERTR program has prepared itself well for the intense activities that the 'Accelerated RERTR Program' will require. Promising results have been obtained in the development of a fabrication process for monolithic LEU U-Mo fuel. Most existing and future research reactors could be converted to LEU with this fuel, which has a uranium density between 15.4 and 16.4 g/cm{sup 3} and yielded promising irradiation results in 2002. The most promising method hinges on producing the monolithic meat by cold-rolling a thin ingot produced by casting. The aluminum clad and the meat are bonded by friction stir welding and the cladding surface is finished by a light cold roll. This method can be applied to the production of miniplates and appears to be extendable to the production of full-size plates, possibly with intermediate anneals. Other methods planned for investigation include high temperature bonding and hot isostatic pressing. The progress achieved within the Russian RERTR program, both for the traditional tube-type elements and for the new 'universal' LEU U-Mo pin-type elements, promises to enable soon the conversion of many Russian-designed research and test reactors. Irradiation testing of both fuel types with LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels has begun. Detailed studies are in

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT REDUCES THE MNEMONIC AND NEURAL BENEFITS OF ESTROGEN

    PubMed Central

    GRESACK, J. E.; FRICK, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The degree to which memory is enhanced by estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women may depend on environmental factors such as education. The present study utilized an animal model of environmental enrichment to determine whether environmental factors influence the mnemonic and neural response to estrogen. Female mice were raised in standard (SC) or enriched (EC) conditions from weaning until adulthood (7 months). All mice were ovariectomized at 10 weeks, and tested in object recognition and water-escape motivated radial arm maze (WRAM) tasks at 6 months. Each day at the completion of training, mice received injections of 0.1 mg/kg cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17-β-estradiol (E2), 0.2 mg/kg E2, or cyclodextrin vehicle (VEH). At the completion of behavioral testing, hippocampal levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. Enrichment effects were evident in VEH-treated mice; relative to SC-VEH females, EC-VEH females committed fewer working memory errors in the WRAM and exhibited increased hippocampal synaptophysin levels. Estrogen effects depended on environmental conditions. E2 (0.2 mg/kg) improved object memory only in SC females. The same dose improved working memory in SC females, but somewhat impaired working memory in EC females. Furthermore, both doses reduced hippocampal synaptophysin levels in EC, but not SC, females. In contrast, E2 reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in SC, but not EC, females. This study is the first to compare the effects of estrogen on memory and hippocampal function in enriched and non-enriched female mice. The results suggest that: (1) estrogen benefits object and working memory more in mice raised in non-enriched environments than in those raised in enriched environments, and (2) the changes induced by estrogen and/or enrichment may be associated with alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:15381276

  19. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500°C

    DOE PAGES

    Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Jue, Jan -Fong; Gan, Jian; ...

    2017-02-27

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research reactors. U–Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up tomore » a final temperature of 500°C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U- 7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Lastly, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 2 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ~20 nm diameter) during blister testing.« less

  20. Diffusion Barrier Selection from Refractory Metals (Zr, Mo and Nb) via Interdiffusion Investigation for U-Mo RERTR Fuel Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; C. Kammerer; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn

    2014-04-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Diffusional interactions between the U-Mo fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding within the monolithic fuel plate construct necessitate incorporation of a barrier layer. Fundamentally, a diffusion barrier candidate must have good thermal conductivity, high melting point, minimal metallurgical interaction, and good irradiation performance. Refractory metals, Zr, Mo, and Nb are considered based on their physical properties, and the diffusion behavior must be carefully examined first with U-Mo fuel alloy. Solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Mo, Zr, or Nb diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and chemical composition were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. For all three systems, the growth rate of interdiffusion zone were calculated at 1000, 900 and 800 degrees C under the assumption of parabolic growth, and calculated for lower temperature of 700, 600 and 500 degrees C according to Arrhenius relationship. The growth rate was determined to be about 10 3 times slower for Zr, 10 5 times slower for Mo and 10 6 times slower for Nb, than the growth rates reported for the interaction between the U-Mo fuel alloy and pure Al or Al-Si cladding alloys. Zr, however was selected as the barrier metal due to a concern for thermo- mechanical behavior of UMo/Nb interface observed from diffusion couples, and for ductile-to-brittle transition of Mo near room temperature.

  1. Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural

  2. US RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; D. E. Burkes; D. D. Keiser

    2008-10-01

    Post irradiation examinations of irradiated RERTR plate type fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory have led to in depth characterization of fuel behavior and performance. Both destructive and non-destructive examination capabilities at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) as well as recent results obtained are discussed herein. New equipment as well as more advanced techniques are also being developed to further advance the investigation into the performance of the high density U-Mo fuel.

  3. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF FUEL PLATES FOR THE RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; S.C. Taylor; G.A. Moore; D.M. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear fuel is the core component of reactors that is used to produce the neutron flux required for irradiation research purposes as well as commercial power generation. The development of nuclear fuels with low enrichments of uranium is a major endeavor of the RERTR program. In the development of these fuels, the RERTR program uses nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for the purpose of determining the properties of nuclear fuel plate experiments without imparting damage or altering the fuel specimens before they are irradiated in a reactor. The vast range of properties and information about the fuel plates that can be characterized using NDE makes them highly useful for quality assurance and for analyses used in modeling the behavior of the fuel while undergoing irradiation. NDE is also particularly useful for creating a control group for post-irradiation examination comparison. The two major categories of NDE discussed in this paper are X-ray radiography and ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection/evaluation. The radiographic scans are used for the characterization of fuel meat density and homogeneity as well as the determination of fuel location within the cladding. The UT scans are able to characterize indications such as voids, delaminations, inclusions, and other abnormalities in the fuel plates which are generally referred to as debonds as well as to determine the thickness of the cladding using ultrasonic acoustic microscopy methods. Additionally, the UT techniques are now also being applied to in-canal interim examination of fuel experiments undergoing irradiation and the mapping of the fuel plate surface profile to determine fuel swelling. The methods used to carry out these NDE techniques, as well as how they operate and function, are described along with a description of which properties are characterized.

  4. Meiotic genes are enriched in regions of reduced archaic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Jégou, B; Sankararaman, S; Rolland, A D; Reich, D; Chalmel, F

    2017-04-21

    About 1-6% of the genetic ancestry of modern humans today originates from admixture with archaic humans. It has recently been shown that autosomal genomic regions with a reduced proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestries are significantly enriched in genes that are more expressed in testis than in other tissues. To determine whether a cellular segregation pattern would exist, we combined maps of archaic introgression with a cross-analysis of three transcriptomic datasets deciphering the transcriptional landscape of human gonadal cell types. We reveal that the regions deficient in both Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestries contain a significant enrichment of genes transcribed in meiotic germ cells. The interbreeding of anatomically modern humans with archaic humans may have introduced archaic-derived alleles that contributed to genetic incompatibilities affecting meiosis that were subsequently purged by natural selection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    ). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  6. Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Meckenstock, R U; Annweiler, E; Michaelis, W; Richnow, H H; Schink, B

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture was studied by substrate utilization tests and identification of metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In substrate utilization tests, the culture was able to oxidize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-naphthoic acids, phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, and cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Neither hydroxylated 1- or 2-naphthoic acid derivatives and 1- or 2-naphthol nor the monoaromatic compounds ortho-phthalic acid, 2-carboxy-1-phenylacetic acid, and salicylic acid were utilized by the culture within 100 days. 2-Naphthoic acid accumulated in all naphthalene-grown cultures. Reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives could be identified by comparison of mass spectra and coelution with commercial reference compounds such as 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and chemically synthesized decahydro-2-naphthoic acid. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and octahydro-2-naphthoic acid were tentatively identified by their mass spectra. The metabolites identified suggest a stepwise reduction of the aromatic ring system before ring cleavage. In degradation experiments with [1-(13)C]naphthalene or deuterated D(8)-naphthalene, all metabolites mentioned derived from the introduced labeled naphthalene. When a [(13)C]bicarbonate-buffered growth medium was used in conjunction with unlabeled naphthalene, (13)C incorporation into the carboxylic group of 2-naphthoic acid was shown, indicating that activation of naphthalene by carboxylation was the initial degradation step. No ring fission products were identified.

  7. Anaerobic Naphthalene Degradation by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture†

    PubMed Central

    Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Richnow, Hans H.; Schink, Bernhard

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture was studied by substrate utilization tests and identification of metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In substrate utilization tests, the culture was able to oxidize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-naphthoic acids, phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, and cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Neither hydroxylated 1- or 2-naphthoic acid derivatives and 1- or 2-naphthol nor the monoaromatic compounds ortho-phthalic acid, 2-carboxy-1-phenylacetic acid, and salicylic acid were utilized by the culture within 100 days. 2-Naphthoic acid accumulated in all naphthalene-grown cultures. Reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives could be identified by comparison of mass spectra and coelution with commercial reference compounds such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and chemically synthesized decahydro-2-naphthoic acid. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and octahydro-2-naphthoic acid were tentatively identified by their mass spectra. The metabolites identified suggest a stepwise reduction of the aromatic ring system before ring cleavage. In degradation experiments with [1-13C]naphthalene or deuterated D8-naphthalene, all metabolites mentioned derived from the introduced labeled naphthalene. When a [13C]bicarbonate-buffered growth medium was used in conjunction with unlabeled naphthalene, 13C incorporation into the carboxylic group of 2-naphthoic acid was shown, indicating that activation of naphthalene by carboxylation was the initial degradation step. No ring fission products were identified. PMID:10877763

  8. RERTR-12 Post-irradiation Examination Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Francine; Williams, Walter; Robinson, Adam; Harp, Jason; Meyer, Mitch; Rabin, Barry

    2015-02-01

    The following report contains the results and conclusions for the post irradiation examinations performed on RERTR-12 Insertion 2 experiment plates. These exams include eddy-current testing to measure oxide growth; neutron radiography for evaluating the condition of the fuel prior to sectioning and determination of fuel relocation and geometry changes; gamma scanning to provide relative measurements for burnup and indication of fuel- and fission-product relocation; profilometry to measure dimensional changes of the fuel plate; analytical chemistry to benchmark the physics burnup calculations; metallography to examine the microstructural changes in the fuel, interlayer and cladding; and microhardness testing to determine the material-property changes of the fuel and cladding.

  9. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki; Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1997-08-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE.

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N.

    2008-07-15

    The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED RERTR FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B.D. Miller; D.D. Keiser Jr.; A.B. Robinson; J.W. Madden; P.G. Medvedev; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The recent development on TEM work of irradiated RERTR fuels includes microstructural characterization of the irradiated U-10Mo/alloy-6061 monolithic fuel plate, the RERTR-7 U-7Mo/Al-2Si and U-7Mo/Al-5Si dispersion fuel plates. It is the first time that a TEM sample of an irradiated nuclear fuel was prepared using the focused-ion-beam (FIB) lift-out technical at the Idaho National Laboratory. Multiple FIB TEM samples were prepared from the areas of interest in a SEM sample. The characterization was carried out using a 200kV TEM with a LaB6 filament. The three dimensional orderings of nanometer-sized fission gas bubbles are observed in the crystalline region of the U-Mo fuel. The co-existence of bubble superlattice and dislocations is evident. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of these fuels are discussed.

  12. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  13. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool.

    PubMed

    Clark, Neil R; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D; Jones, Matthew R; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2015-11-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community.

  14. Environmental Enrichment Reduces the Likelihood of Alopecia in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209

  15. U-Mo Foil/Cladding Interactions in Friction Stir Welded Monolithic RERTR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D.D. Keiser; J.F. Jue; C.R. Clark

    2006-10-01

    Interaction between U-Mo fuel and Al has proven to dramatically impact the overall irradiation performance of RERTR dispersion fuels. It is of interest to better understand how similar interactions may affect the performance of monolithic fuel plates, where a uranium alloy fuel is sandwiched between aluminum alloy cladding. The monolithic fuel plate removes the fuel matrix entirely, which reduces the total surface area of the fuel that is available to react with the aluminum and moves the interface between the fuel and cladding to a colder region of the fuel plate. One of the major fabrication techniques for producing monolithic fuel plates is friction stir welding. This paper will discuss the interactions that can occur between the U-Mo foil and 6061 Al cladding when applying this fabrication technique. It has been determined that the time at high temperatures should be limited as much as is possible during fabrication or any post-fabrication treatment to reduce as much as possible the interactions between the foil and cladding. Without careful control of the fabrication process, significant interaction between the U-Mo foil and Al alloy cladding can result. The reaction layers produced from such interactions can exhibit notably different morphologies vis-à-vis those typically observed for dispersion fuels.

  16. Environmental enrichment reduces brain damage in hydrocephalic immature rats.

    PubMed

    Catalão, Carlos Henrique Rocha; Shimizu, Glaucia Yuri; Tida, Jacqueline Atsuko; Garcia, Camila Araújo Bernardino; Dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Rocha, Maria José Alves; da Silva Lopes, Luiza

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on morphological alterations in different brain structures of pup rats submitted to hydrocephalus condition. Hydrocephalus was induced in 7-day-old pup rats by injection of 20% kaolin into the cisterna magna. Ventricular dilatation and magnetization transfer to analyze myelin were assessed by magnetic resonance. Hydrocephalic and control rats exposed to EE (n = 10 per group) were housed in cages with a tunnel, ramp, and colored plastic balls that would emit sound when touched. The walls of the housing were decorated with colored adhesive tape. Moreover, tactile and auditory stimulation was performed daily throughout the experiment. Hydrocephalic and control rats not exposed to EE (n = 10 per group) were allocated singly in standard cages. All animals were weighed daily and exposed to open-field conditions every 2 days until the end of the experiment when they were sacrificed and the brains removed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Solochrome cyanine staining was performed to assess the thickness of the corpus callosum. The glial fibrillary acidic protein method was used to evaluate reactive astrocytes, and the Ki67 method to assess cellular proliferation in the subventricular zone. The hydrocephalic animals exposed to EE showed better performance in Open Field tests (p < 0.05), while presenting lower weight gain. In addition, these animals showed better myelination as revealed by magnetization transfer (p < 0.05). Finally, the EE group showed a reduction in reactive astrocytes by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining and preservation of the proliferation potential of progenitor cells. The results suggest that EE can protect the developing brain against damaging effects caused by hydrocephalus.

  17. Direct enrichment of perchlorate-reducing microbial community for efficient electroactive perchlorate reduction in biocathodes.

    PubMed

    Mieseler, Maren; Atiyeh, Mays N; Hernandez, Hector H; Ahmad, Farrukh

    2013-11-01

    Biological reduction of perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) has emerged as a promising solution for the removal of perchlorate in contaminated water and soils. In this work, we demonstrate a simple process to enrich perchlorate-reducing microbial communities separately using acetate as electron donor and the municipal aerobic membrane bioreactor sludge as inoculum. Inoculation of cathodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with these enrichments, and further electrochemical enrichment at constant resistance operation of the MFCs, led to perchlorate-reducing biocathodes with peak reduction rates of 0.095 mM/day (2 mg/m²/day). Analysis of the microbial diversity of perchlorate-reducing biocathodes using PCR-DGGE revealed unique community profiles when compared to the denitrifying biocathode communities. More importantly, the total time taken for enrichment of the electroactive communities was reduced from several months reported previously in literature to less than a month in this work.

  18. RERTR progress in MO-99 production from LEU.

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Conner, C.; Aase, S.; Bakel, A.; Bowers, D.; Freiberg, E.; Gelis, A.; Quigley, K. J.; Snelgrove, J. L.

    2002-02-13

    The ANL RERTR program is performing R and D supporting conversion of {sup 99}Mo production from HEU to LEU targets. Irradiation and processing of LEU targets were demonstrated at the Argentine Ezeiza Atomic Center. Target irradiation and disassembly were flawless, but the processing is not fully developed. In addition to preparing for, assisting in, and analyzing results of the demonstration, they performed other R and D related to LEU conversion: (1) designing a prototype production dissolver for digesting irradiated LEU foils in alkaline solutions and developing means to simplify digestion, (2) modifying ion-exchange columns used in the CNEA recovery and purification of {sup 99}Mo to deal with the lower volumes generated from LEU-foil digestion, (3) measuring the performance of new inorganic sorbents that outperform alumina for recovering Mo(VI) from nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of uranium nitrate, and (4) developing means to facilitate the concentration and calcination of waste nitric-acid/LEU-nitrate solutions from {sup 99}Mo production.

  19. Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loraine Tarou; Bashaw, Meredith J; Sartor, Richard L; Bouwens, Nichole R; Maki, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. However, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates. Giraffe have been found to perform a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. According to a survey of zoological institutions, oral stereotypies, specifically the licking of nonfood objects are the most prevalent stereotypic behaviors observed in giraffe. Their performance appears to be related to feeding and rumination and may be a result of the inability of a highly motivated feeding behavior pattern, tongue manipulation, to be successfully completed. To test this hypothesis, the indoor and outdoor feeders for three giraffe housed at Zoo Atlanta were modified to require the giraffe to perform more naturalistic and complex foraging behaviors. Data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling in both exhibit and holding areas. Our results showed that, for the giraffe that engaged in the highest rates of oral stereotypic behavior in the baseline, more complex feeders that required tongue use to access grain or alfalfa had the greatest effect on behavior. For the giraffe that performed low baseline rates of oral stereotypic behavior, adding slatted tops to the alfalfa feeders indoors virtually eliminated the behavior. Although some changes in ruminating and feeding behavior were observed, the decreases in stereotypic behavior were not associated with the changes in ruminating or feeding behavior. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that oral stereotypy in herbivores can be reduced by encouraging giraffe to engage in more naturalistic foraging behavior.

  20. Dominance of Geobacteraceae in BTX-degrading enrichments from an iron-reducing aquifer.

    PubMed

    Botton, Sabrina; van Harmelen, Marijn; Braster, Martin; Parsons, John R; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2007-10-01

    Microbial community structure was linked to degradation potential in benzene-, toluene- or xylene- (BTX) degrading, iron-reducing enrichments derived from an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate. Enrichments were characterized using 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, targeting of the benzylsuccinate synthase-encoding bssA gene and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling in combination with tracking of labelled substrate. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated the dominance of Geobacteraceae, and one phylotype in particular, in all enrichments inoculated with polluted aquifer material. Upon cultivation, progressively higher degradation rates with a concomitant decrease in species richness occurred in all primary incubations and successive enrichments. Yet, the same Geobacteraceae phylotype remained common and dominant, indicating its involvement in BTX degradation. However, the bssA gene sequences in BTX degrading enrichments differed considerably from those of Geobacter isolates, suggesting that the first steps of toluene, but also benzene and xylene oxidation, are carried out by another member of the enrichments. Therefore, BTX would be synthrophically degraded by a bacterial consortium in which Geobacteraceae utilized intermediate metabolites. PLFA analysis in combination with (13)C-toluene indicated that the enriched Geobacteraceae were assimilating carbon originally present in toluene. Combined with previous studies, this research suggests that Geobacteraceae play a key role in the natural attenuation of each BTX compound in situ.

  1. Relative performance properties of the ORNL Advanced Neutron Source Reactor with reduced enrichment fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Deen, J.R.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, J.E.; Mo, S.C.; Pond, R.B.; Travelli, A.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Three cores for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor, differing in size, enrichment, and uranium density in the fuel meat, have been analyzed. Performance properties of the reduced enrichment cores are compared with those of the HEU reference configuration. Core lifetime estimates suggest that none of these configurations will operate for the design goal of 17 days at 330 MW. With modes increases in fuel density and/or enrichment, however, the operating lifetimes of the HEU and MEU designs can be extended to the desired length. Achieving this lifetime with LEU fuel in any of the three studies cores, however, will require the successful development of denser fuels and/or structural materials with thermal neutron absorption cross sections substantially less than that of Al-6061. Relative to the HEU reference case, the peak thermal neutron flux in cores with reduced enrichment will be diminished by about 25--30%.

  2. Characterization of a Sulfate- and U(VI)-Reducing Enrichment from Area 3 of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Jennifer L.; Gentile, Margaret; Criddle, Craig

    2005-04-18

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a sulfate-reducing enrichment from the location of the Oak Ridge FRC Area 3 field experiment; (2) assess the capacity of the enrichment community for U(VI) reduction; (3) characterize the metabolic activity of the enrichment community; (4) kinetically model microbial growth and U(VI) reduction by the enrichment; and (5) investigate the enrichment's community structure.

  3. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  4. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  5. Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

  6. Enriched Iron(III)-Reducing Bacterial Communities are Shaped by Carbon Substrate and Iron Oxide Mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Christopher J; Wankel, Scott D; Hansel, Colleen M

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  7. Enriched Iron(III)-Reducing Bacterial Communities are Shaped by Carbon Substrate and Iron Oxide Mineralogy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Christopher J.; Wankel, Scott D.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments. PMID

  8. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  9. Sensory evaluation of dairy supplements enriched with reduced iron, ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate.

    PubMed

    Morales, Josefina C; Sánchez-Vargas, Elena; García-Zepeda, Rodrigo; Villalpando, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS)--purees and beverages--added with different iron salts (IS): reduced iron (RI), ferrous sulphate (FS) or ferrous fumarate (FF) during 24 weeks of storage. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour.

  10. Irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements and fuel rods under the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is reported. Being tested are UAl/sub x/-Al, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al, and U/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion fuels and UZrH/sub x/ (TRIGA) fuel at uranium densities in the fuel meat ranging from 1.7 to 6.0 Mg/m/sup 3/. Generally good performance has been experienced to date. Some preliminary results of postirradiation examinations are also included. A whole-core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is planned. Some details of this demonstration are provided.

  11. Characterization of an Irradiated RERTR-7 Fuel Plate Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. D. Miller; A. B. Robinson; P. Medvedev

    2010-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize an irradiated fuel plate with Al-2Si matrix from the RERTR-7 experiment that was irradiated under moderate reactor conditions. The results of this work showed the presence of a bubble superlattice within the U-7Mo grains that accommodated fission gases (e.g., Xe). The presence of this structure helps the U-7Mo exhibit a stable swelling behaviour during irradiation. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed that the Si-rich interaction layers that develop around the fuel particles at the U-7Mo/matrix interface during fuel plate fabrication and irradiation become amorphous during irradiation, and in regions of the interaction layer that have relatively high Si concentrations the fission gas bubbles remain small and contained within the layer but in areas with lower Si concentrations the bubbles grow in size. An important question that remains to be answered about the irradiation behaviour of U-Mo dispersion fuels, is how do more aggressive irradiation conditions affect the behaviour of fission gases within the U-7Mo fuel particles and in the amorphous interaction layers on the microstructural scale that can be characterized using TEM? This paper discusses the results of TEM analysis that was performed on a sample taken from an irradiated RERTR-7 fuel plate with Al-2Si matrix. This plate was exposed to more aggressive irradiation conditions than was the sample taken from the RERTR-6 plate. The microstructural features present within the U-7Mo and the amorphous interaction layers will be discussed. The results of this analysis will be compared to what was observed in the earlier RERTR-6 fuel plate characterization.

  12. Postirradiation examination of high-U-loaded low-enriched U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, UAl/sub 2/, and U/sub 3/Si test fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.; Morando, R.; Perez, E.E.; Giorsetti, D.R.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofmann, G.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this work is to present an evaluation of the postirradiation examination of the second set of high-U-loaded low-enriched U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, UAl/sub 2/ and U/sub 3/Si miniature plates manufactured by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina, and irradiated and examinated, within the framework of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. This paper includes fabrication details of the plates, their irradiation history and the results of postirradiation examination which are compared to those of the previous test and to present results from other laboratories participating in the RERTR Program. Postirradiation examination of these plates showed satisfactory poerformance for the oxides, aluminides and silicides (except for the highest-loaded U/sub 3/Si plate) with the only indication of detrimental behavior during the slight bowing of some plates at about 80% burnup.

  13. Temperature-tolerant COLD-PCR reduces temperature stringency and enables robust mutation enrichment.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, E; Liu, Pingfang; Milbury, Coren A; Guha, Minakshi; Brisci, Angela; Cremonesi, Laura; Ferrari, Maurizio; Mamon, Harvey; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2012-07-01

    Low-level mutations in clinical tumor samples often reside below mutation detection limits, thus leading to false negatives that may impact clinical diagnosis and patient management. COLD-PCR (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR) is a technology that magnifies unknown mutations during PCR, thus enabling downstream mutation detection. However, a practical difficulty in applying COLD-PCR has been the requirement for strict control of the denaturation temperature for a given sequence, to within ±0.3 °C. This requirement precludes simultaneous mutation enrichment in sequences of substantially different melting temperature (T(m)) and limits the technique to a single sequence at a time. We present a temperature-tolerant (TT) approach (TT-COLD-PCR) that reduces this obstacle. We describe thermocycling programs featuring a gradual increase of the denaturation temperature during COLD-PCR. This approach enabled enrichment of mutations when the cycling achieves the appropriate critical denaturation temperature of each DNA amplicon that is being amplified. Validation was provided for KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) and TP53 (tumor protein p53) exons 6-9 by use of dilutions of mutated DNA, clinical cancer samples, and plasma-circulating DNA. A single thermocycling program with a denaturation-temperature window of 2.5-3.0 °C enriches mutations in all DNA amplicons simultaneously, despite their different T(m)s. Mutation enrichments of 6-9-fold were obtained with TT-full-COLD-PCR. Higher mutation enrichments were obtained for the other 2 forms of COLD-PCR, fast-COLD-PCR, and ice-COLD-PCR. Low-level mutations in diverse amplicons with different T(m)s can be mutation enriched via TT-COLD-PCR provided that their T(m)s fall within the denaturation-temperature window applied during amplification. This approach enables simultaneous enrichment of mutations in several amplicons and increases significantly the versatility of COLD-PCR.

  14. Spatial Dependence of Reduced Sulfur in Everglades Dissolved Organic Matter Controlled by Sulfate Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Nagy, Kathryn L; Stubbins, Aron; Dittmar, Thorsten; Orem, William; Krabbenhoft, David P; Aiken, George R

    2017-04-04

    Sulfate inputs to the Florida Everglades stimulate sulfidic conditions in freshwater wetland sediments that affect ecological and biogeochemical processes. An unexplored implication of sulfate enrichment is alteration of the content and speciation of sulfur in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which influences the reactivity of DOM with trace metals. Here, we describe the vertical and lateral spatial dependence of sulfur chemistry in the hydrophobic organic acid fraction of DOM from unimpacted and sulfate-impacted Everglades wetlands using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Spatial variation in DOM sulfur content and speciation reflects the degree of sulfate enrichment and resulting sulfide concentrations in sediment pore waters. Sulfur is incorporated into DOM predominantly as highly reduced species in sulfidic pore waters. Sulfur-enriched DOM in sediment pore waters exchanges with overlying surface waters and the sulfur likely undergoes oxidative transformations in the water column. Across all wetland sites and depths, the total sulfur content of DOM correlated with the relative abundance of highly reduced sulfur functionality. The results identify sulfate input as a primary determinant on DOM sulfur chemistry to be considered in the context of wetland restoration and sulfur and trace metal cycling.

  15. Spatial dependence of reduced sulfur in Everglades dissolved organic matter controlled by sulfate enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulin, Brett A.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Nagy, Kathryn L.; Stubbins, Aron; Dittmar, Thorsten; Orem, William H.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate inputs to the Florida Everglades stimulate sulfidic conditions in freshwater wetland sediments that affect ecological and biogeochemical processes. An unexplored implication of sulfate enrichment is alteration of the content and speciation of sulfur in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which influences the reactivity of DOM with trace metals. Here, we describe the vertical and lateral spatial dependence of sulfur chemistry in the hydrophobic organic acid fraction of DOM from unimpacted and sulfate-impacted Everglades wetlands using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Spatial variation in DOM sulfur content and speciation reflects the degree of sulfate enrichment and resulting sulfide concentrations in sediment pore waters. Sulfur is incorporated into DOM predominantly as highly reduced species in sulfidic pore waters. Sulfur-enriched DOM in sediment pore waters exchanges with overlying surface waters and the sulfur likely undergoes oxidative transformations in the water column. Across all wetland sites and depths, the total sulfur content of DOM correlated with the relative abundance of highly reduced sulfur functionality. The results identify sulfate input as a primary determinant on DOM sulfur chemistry to be considered in the context of wetland restoration and sulfur and trace metal cycling.

  16. A regulating method for reducing nitrogen loss based on enriched ammonia-oxidizing bacteria during composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Yanni; Lu, Qian; Li, Mingxiao; Wang, Xueqin; Wei, Yuquan; Xie, Xinyu; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, enriched ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were acquired by domesticated cultivation, followed by inoculation into the co-composting of rice straw and chicken manure. The effect of inoculation on nitrogen loss, the succession of bacterial community and the correlation between the key bacteria and environmental factors were investigated. The results showed that inoculation could reduce ammonia emission and nitrogen loss by transforming ammonium into nitrite. Inoculation also increased the amount and abundance of bacterial community. Redundancy analysis showed that indigenous and exogenous bacteria in inoculation group, compared with those in control group, were positively correlated with nitrite but negatively correlated with ammonium, demonstrating that the former contributed to the lower ammonia emission and nitrogen loss. Based on these results, the application of enriched AOB was proposed as a new method of resource recycle and improvement of composting technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wyatt F; Wallace, J Bruce; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-10-01

    predators (from -80% to 55%). Our results demonstrate that nutrient enrichment of detritus-based systems may reduce stoichiometric constraints on material flows, increase the contribution of consumers to C, N, and P cycling, alter the proportion of C inputs metabolized by consumers, and potentially lead to reduced ecosystem-level storage of C.

  18. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  19. Carbon-driven enrichment of the crucial nitrate-reducing bacteria in limed peat soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Zhang, X; Wu, X; Chen, G; Bakken, L R; Zhao, L; Frostegård, Å; Zhang, X

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of Dechloromonas were recognized as potential functional important denitrifiers in a long-term shell sand-amended peat soil. Different microcosms in a solid matrix and slurry systems with the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources, for example, clover leaves, glutamate and nitrate, were established. The bacterial community structures were analysed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to select the conditions for enriching bacteria of Dechloromonas. The results showed that a relatively even bacterial community in the initial soil shifted to communities dominated by a few types of nitrate-reducing bacteria after the incubation, which strongly responded to the carbon substrates addition and consumption. The bacteria of several genera including Dechloromonas, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Aeromonas and Ferribacterium were significantly enriched after a certain period of time. The bacteria of Dechloromonas became one of the most predominant bacteria in the incubated community. Especially when added the mixed carbon substrates into the solid soil matrix, as high as 34% of abundance was detected. This study proved that the functional important bacteria from the genus of Dechloromonas could be enriched to an extremely high abundance by using proper culture condition which will benefit to the isolation or direct metagenomics study for Dechloromonas. The study of key players in a microbial community is always of important. In this study, the functional important denitrifiers in a shell sand-amended peat soil were investigated. Using different carbon sources in the incubation, we found the bacteria from the genus of Dechloromonas were enriched to an abundance of higher than 34% with several other denitrifiers together. This work provides us helpful insights not only for knowing the diversity of denitrifiers in the studied peat soil, but also for understanding their response to the carbon sources and the culture conditions. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Anaerobic Degradation of Pristane in Nitrate-Reducing Microcosms and Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bregnard, T. P.; Haner, A.; Hohener, P.; Zeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Microcosm studies were conducted under nitrate-reducing conditions with diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer material from a site treated by in situ bioremediation. In the microcosms, the consumption of nitrate and the production of inorganic carbon were strongly stimulated by the addition of the isoprenoid alkane pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane). Within 102 days enrichment cultures degraded more than 90% of the pristane supplied as coatings on reticulated sinter glass rings. The study demonstrates that pristane can no longer be regarded as recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions. PMID:16535616

  1. Reduced order variational multiscale enrichment method for thermo-mechanical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhai; Oskay, Caglar

    2017-06-01

    This manuscript presents the formulation and implementation of the reduced order variational multiscale enrichment (ROVME) method for thermo-mechanical problems. ROVME is extended to model the inelastic behavior of heterogeneous structures, in which the constituent properties are temperature sensitive. The temperature-dependent coefficient tensors of the reduced order method are approximated in an efficient manner, retaining the computational efficiency of the reduced order model in the presence of spatial/temporal temperature variations. A Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is formulated and implemented for the numerical evaluation of nonlinear system of equations associated with the proposed ROVME method. Numerical verifications are performed to assess the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed computational framework. The results of the verifications reveal that ROVME retains reasonable accuracy and achieves high efficiency in the presence of hermo-mechanical loads.

  2. Reduced order variational multiscale enrichment method for thermo-mechanical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhai; Oskay, Caglar

    2017-02-01

    This manuscript presents the formulation and implementation of the reduced order variational multiscale enrichment (ROVME) method for thermo-mechanical problems. ROVME is extended to model the inelastic behavior of heterogeneous structures, in which the constituent properties are temperature sensitive. The temperature-dependent coefficient tensors of the reduced order method are approximated in an efficient manner, retaining the computational efficiency of the reduced order model in the presence of spatial/temporal temperature variations. A Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is formulated and implemented for the numerical evaluation of nonlinear system of equations associated with the proposed ROVME method. Numerical verifications are performed to assess the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed computational framework. The results of the verifications reveal that ROVME retains reasonable accuracy and achieves high efficiency in the presence of hermo-mechanical loads.

  3. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  4. Mo enrichment in black shale and reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Barton, L. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lower Cambrian Black shale in Zunyi area of Guizhou Province, Southern China contains significant amount of Mo, As, and sulfide minerals. Additionally, Mo and sulfides are closely associated with organic matter of kerogen. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show pyrite micro-crystals and Mo-As-S-bearing carbon (kerogen). High-resolution TEM image shows that Mo-rich areas are Mo-sulfide (molybdenite) layers that form poorly crystalline structures in organic carbon matrix. X-ray energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) indicate composition from the pyrite and the Mo-rich area. The black shale is very unique because of its high Mo concentration. One possible mechanism for enriching Mo from paleo-seawater is the involvement of SRB. Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB); however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. We followed the growth of Desulfovibrio gigas ATCC 19364, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, D. desulfuricans DSM 642, and D. desulfuricans DSM 27774 in media containing sub-lethal levels of molybdate and observed a red-brown color in the culture fluid. Spectral analysis of the culture fluid revealed absorption peaks at 467 nm, 395 nm and 314 nm and this color is proposed to be a molybdate-sulfide complex. Reduction of molybdate with the formation of molybdate disulfide occurs in the periplasm D. gigas and D. desulfuricans DSM 642. From these results we suggest that the occurrence of poorly crystalline Mo-sulfides in black shale may be a result from SRB reduction and selective enrichment of Mo in paleo-seawater. We suggest that similar SRB mechanism could cause the Mo enrichment in a ~ 2.5 billion years old late Archean McRae Shale, which is related to the great oxidation event of early earth atmosphere.

  5. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Gehin, Jess C

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  6. Enrichment and isolation of acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from Tinto River sediments.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    Although some acidophilic and alkaliphilic species have been described recently, most of the known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) grow optimally at neutral pH. In this study, sulfate reduction was studied with sediment samples from the extremely acidic Tinto River basin. Stable enrichments of SRB were obtained at pH 4 with glycerol, methanol and hydrogen; at pH 4.5 with lactate and at pH 5.5 with succinate as substrates. Inhibition of sulfate reduction by organic acids below their pKa was observed. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that fermentative bacteria (Paludibacter spp., Oscillibacter spp.) and SRB (Thermodesulfobium spp., Desulfosporosinus spp., Desulfitobacterium spp., Desulfotomaculum spp.) were co-enriched. By repeated serial dilutions and streaking on agar plates, four strains of SRB belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were obtained. Two of them show 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Desulfosporosinus acidophilus, and a third one with Desulfosporosinus orientis. Another isolate has just 93% rRNA gene sequence similarity with the Desulfosporosinus/Desulfitobacterium cluster and might represent a novel species within a novel genus. One of the Desulfosporosinus strains was further investigated showing maximum growth at pH 5.5, and a pH-dependent inhibitory effect of organic acids and sulfide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Enriched environment reduces glioma growth through immune and non-immune mechanisms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Stefano; D’Alessandro, Giuseppina; Chece, Giuseppina; Brau, Frederic; Maggi, Laura; Rosa, Alessandro; Porzia, Alessandra; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauro, Clotilde; Benigni, Giorgia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Santoni, Angela; Limatola, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mice exposed to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) were transplanted with murine or human glioma cells and differences in tumour development were evaluated. We report that EE exposure affects: (i) tumour size, increasing mice survival; (ii) glioma establishment, proliferation and invasion; (iii) microglia/macrophage (M/Mφ) activation; (iv) natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and activation; and (v) cerebral levels of IL-15 and BDNF. Direct infusion of IL-15 or BDNF in the brain of mice transplanted with glioma significantly reduces tumour growth. We demonstrate that brain infusion of IL-15 increases the frequency of NK cell infiltrating the tumour and that NK cell depletion reduces the efficacy of EE and IL-15 on tumour size and of EE on mice survival. BDNF infusion reduces M/Mφ infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in tumour mass and reduces glioma migration inhibiting the small G protein RhoA through the truncated TrkB.T1 receptor. These results suggest alternative approaches for glioma treatment. PMID:25818172

  8. Enriched environment reduces glioma growth through immune and non-immune mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Stefano; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Chece, Giuseppina; Brau, Frederic; Maggi, Laura; Rosa, Alessandro; Porzia, Alessandra; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauro, Clotilde; Benigni, Giorgia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Santoni, Angela; Limatola, Cristina

    2015-03-30

    Mice exposed to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) were transplanted with murine or human glioma cells and differences in tumour development were evaluated. We report that EE exposure affects: (i) tumour size, increasing mice survival; (ii) glioma establishment, proliferation and invasion; (iii) microglia/macrophage (M/Mφ) activation; (iv) natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and activation; and (v) cerebral levels of IL-15 and BDNF. Direct infusion of IL-15 or BDNF in the brain of mice transplanted with glioma significantly reduces tumour growth. We demonstrate that brain infusion of IL-15 increases the frequency of NK cell infiltrating the tumour and that NK cell depletion reduces the efficacy of EE and IL-15 on tumour size and of EE on mice survival. BDNF infusion reduces M/Mφ infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in tumour mass and reduces glioma migration inhibiting the small G protein RhoA through the truncated TrkB.T1 receptor. These results suggest alternative approaches for glioma treatment.

  9. Environmental enrichment restores CA1 hippocampal LTP and reduces severity of seizures in epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Emanuela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Pendolino, Valentina; Bagetta, Vincenza; Pignataro, Annabella; Fejtova, Anna; Costa, Cinzia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) in a seizure-prone mouse model in which the genetic disruption of the presynaptic protein Bassoon leads to structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and causes early spontaneous seizures mimicking human neurodevelopmental disorders. One-month EE starting at P21 reduced seizure severity, preserved long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse synaptic responses in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal population and prevented the reduction of spine density and dendrite branching of pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that EE exerts its therapeutic effect by normalizing multiple aspects of hippocampal function and provide experimental support for its use in the optimization of existent treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Satisfaction of farm animal behavioral needs in behaviorally restricted systems: reducing stressors and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    In modern intensive husbandry, systems often restrict farm animal behavior. Behavioral needs will be generated by external stimuli such as stressors deriving from environmental factors or the method of animal care, or some internal factor in farm animals. This means that behavioral restriction would induce maladaptation to stressors or chronic stress. Such a risk of behavioral restriction degrades an animal's physical and mental health and leads to economic loss at a farm. Methods to reduce the risk of behavioral restrictions are to ameliorate the source of a stressor through adequate animal management or to carry out environmental enrichment. This review is intended to describe the relation between animal management and behavioral needs from the perspective of animal motivation. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  12. Enrichment and Isolation of Rumen Bacteria That Reduce trans- Aconitic Acid to Tricarballylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James B.

    1985-01-01

    Bacteria from the bovine rumen capable of reducing trans-aconitate to tricarballylate were enriched in an anaerobic chemostat containing rumen fluid medium and aconitate. After 9 days at a dilution rate of 0.07 h−1, the medium was diluted and plated in an anaerobic glove box. Three types of isolates were obtained from the plates (a crescent-shaped organism, a pleomorphic rod, and a spiral-shaped organism), and all three produced tricarballylate in batch cultures that contained glucose and trans-aconitate. In glucose-limited chemostats (0.10 h−1), trans-aconitate reduction was associated with a decrease in the amount of reduced products formed from glucose. The crescent-shaped organism produced less propionate, the pleomorphic rod produced less ethanol, and the spiral made less succinate and possibly H2. Aconitate reduction by the pleomorphic rod and the spiral organism was associated with a significant increase in cellular dry matter. Experiments with stock cultures of predominant rumen bacteria indicated that Selenomonas ruminantium, a species taxonomically similar to the crescent-shaped isolate, was an active reducer of trans-aconitate. Strains of Bacteroides ruminicola, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Megasphaera elsdenii produced little if any tricarballylate. Wolinella succinogenes produced some tricarballylate. Based on its stability constant for magnesium (Keq = 115), tricarballylate could be a factor in the hypomagnesemia that leads to grass tetany. Images PMID:16346691

  13. Sulfur isotope enrichment during maintenance metabolism in the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum putei.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Mark M; Bisher, M E; Pratt, Lisa M; Fong, Jon; Southam, Gordon; Pfiffner, Susan M; Reches, Z; Onstott, Tullis C

    2009-09-01

    Values of Delta(34)S (=delta(34)S(HS)-delta(34)S(SO(4)), where delta(34)S(HS) and delta(34)S(SO(4)) indicate the differences in the isotopic compositions of the HS(-) and SO(4)(2-) in the eluent, respectively) for many modern marine sediments are in the range of -55 to -75 per thousand, much greater than the -2 to -46 per thousand epsilon(34)S (kinetic isotope enrichment) values commonly observed for microbial sulfate reduction in laboratory batch culture and chemostat experiments. It has been proposed that at extremely low sulfate reduction rates under hypersulfidic conditions with a nonlimited supply of sulfate, isotopic enrichment in laboratory culture experiments should increase to the levels recorded in nature. We examined the effect of extremely low sulfate reduction rates and electron donor limitation on S isotope fractionation by culturing a thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum putei, in a biomass-recycling culture vessel, or "retentostat." The cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction and the specific growth rate decreased progressively from the exponential phase to the maintenance phase, yielding average maintenance coefficients of 10(-16) to 10(-18) mol of SO(4) cell(-1) h(-1) toward the end of the experiments. Overall S mass and isotopic balance were conserved during the experiment. The differences in the delta(34)S values of the sulfate and sulfide eluting from the retentostat were significantly larger, attaining a maximum Delta(34)S of -20.9 per thousand, than the -9.7 per thousand observed during the batch culture experiment, but differences did not attain the values observed in marine sediments.

  14. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  15. Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine seeking and reinstatement induced by cues and stress but not by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Claudia; Lardeux, Virginie; Goldberg, Steven R.; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Whereas previous studies have focused on the preventive effects of enriched environments (EE) in drug addiction, in a recent study we suggested that EE can also have “curative” effects. In fact, we found that cocaine addiction-related behaviors can be eliminated by housing cocaine-treated mice in EE during periods of forced abstinence. However, those results were obtained with two simple models of addiction, conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. In this study, we used intravenous drug self-administration procedures in rats to further investigate the beneficial effects of EE on cocaine addiction in a reinstatement model of relapse. Singly housed rats learned to self-administer cocaine during 10 consecutive daily sessions (0.6 mg/injection, 6h/day). They were then housed three per cage in either standard environments (SE) or EE and were kept abstinent in the animal facility until testing for extinction and reinstatement. We found that 30 days of EE significantly and consistently reduced cocaine seeking during a 6-h extinction session. In addition, EE significantly reduced cue- and stress-induced reinstatement. Surprisingly, given our previous results in mice with CPP, EE did not reduce cocaine-induced reinstatement regardless of the level of exposure to cocaine and the duration of the period of abstinence and exposure to EE. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce cocaine-induced craving and highlight the importance of positive life conditions in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to cocaine addiction. PMID:19741591

  16. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice.

    PubMed

    Roopchand, Diana E; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05-10μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24-74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable Isotopic Studies of n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Davidova, Irene A.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium. PMID:16332800

  18. Stable isotopic studies of n-alkane metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Irene A; Gieg, Lisa M; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G; Suflita, Joseph M

    2005-12-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium.

  19. Effectiveness of a walnut-enriched diet on murine sperm: involvement of reduced peroxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Coffua, Lauren S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    A walnut supplement for a Western-style diet in men was shown to improve sperm motility, vitality, and morphology. To gain further insights into factors underlying this improvement, we administered a parallel walnut-enriched diet to mice [including those with a defect in sperm motility due to deletion of Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4 (Pmca4(-/-) )] to determine if there is a similar improvement that is accompanied by reduced sperm membrane peroxidative damage. Although sperm vitality and acrosome reaction rate were unaffected, the diet led to a significant improvement in motility (P < 0.05) and morphology (P < 0.04) in wild-type sperm and in morphology (P < 0.01) in Pmca4(-/-) , confirming the diet's efficacy, which appeared to be more modest in mice than in humans. In both strains of mice, the diet resulted in a significant decrease in sperm lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress) levels, but did not rescue the significantly increased apoptotic levels seen in the testis and epididymis of Pmca4 nulls. Our findings support the effectiveness of walnuts on sperm quality, associated with reduced peroxidative damage; and suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism(s) underlying male reproductive defects in Pmca4(-/-) .

  20. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  1. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    PubMed

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA.

  2. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  3. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  4. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  5. Environmental enrichment reduces methamphetamine cue-induced reinstatement but does not alter methamphetamine reward or VMAT2 function

    PubMed Central

    Hofford, Rebecca S.; Darna, Mahesh; Wilmouth, Carrie E.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors influence a variety of health-related outcomes. In general, being raised in an environment possessing social, sensory, and motor enrichment reduces the rewarding effects of various drugs, thus protecting against abuse vulnerability. However, in the case of methamphetamine (METH), which acts at the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) to enhance dopamine release from the cytosol, previous evidence suggests that METH reward may not be altered by environmental enrichment. This study examined the influence of an enriched environment on measures of METH reward, METH seeking, and VMAT2 function. Rats were raised from weaning to adulthood in either an enriched environment (presence of social cohorts and novel objects) or an isolated environment (no cohorts or novel objects). Rats in these two conditions were subsequently tested for their acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP), METH self-administration, maintenance of self-administration at various unit doses of METH (0.001–0.5 mg/kg/infusion), and cue-induced reinstatement. VMAT2 function in striatum from these two groups also was assessed. No significant environment effects were found in CPP or METH self-administration, which paralleled a lack of effect in VMAT2 function between groups. However, cue-induced reinstatement was reduced by environmental enrichment. Together, these results suggest that environmental enrichment does not alter VMAT2 function involved in METH reward. However, the enrichment-induced decrease in cue-induced reinstatement indicates that enrichment may have a beneficial effect against relapse following a period of extinction via a neural mechanism other than striatal VMAT2 function. PMID:24821405

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces methamphetamine cue-induced reinstatement but does not alter methamphetamine reward or VMAT2 function.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Darna, Mahesh; Wilmouth, Carrie E; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2014-08-15

    Environmental factors influence a variety of health-related outcomes. In general, being raised in an environment possessing social, sensory, and motor enrichment reduces the rewarding effects of various drugs, thus protecting against abuse vulnerability. However, in the case of methamphetamine (METH), which acts at the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) to enhance dopamine release from the cytosol, previous evidence suggests that METH reward may not be altered by environmental enrichment. This study examined the influence of an enriched environment on measures of METH reward, METH seeking, and VMAT2 function. Rats were raised from weaning to adulthood in either an enriched environment (presence of social cohorts and novel objects) or an isolated environment (no cohorts or novel objects). Rats in these two conditions were subsequently tested for their acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP), METH self-administration, maintenance of self-administration at various unit doses of METH (0.001-0.5mg/kg/infusion), and cue-induced reinstatement. VMAT2 function in striatum from these two groups also was assessed. No significant environment effects were found in CPP or METH self-administration, which paralleled a lack of effect in VMAT2 function between groups. However, cue-induced reinstatement was reduced by environmental enrichment. Together, these results suggest that environmental enrichment does not alter VMAT2 function involved in METH reward. However, the enrichment-induced decrease in cue-induced reinstatement indicates that enrichment may have a beneficial effect against relapse following a period of extinction via a neural mechanism other than striatal VMAT2 function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  8. Speciation and enrichment of arsenic in strongly reducing shallow aquifers at western Hetao Plain, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yamin; Wang, Yanxin; Ma, Teng; Gan, Yiqun

    2009-02-01

    High arsenic (As) groundwater is widely distributed in northwestern Hetao Plain, an arid region with sluggish groundwater flow. Observed As concentration in groundwater from wells ranges from 76 to 1,093 μg/l. Most water samples have high total dissolved solids, with Cl and HCO3 as the dominant anions and Na as the dominant cation. The major hydrochemical types of most saline groundwaters are Na-Mg-Cl-HCO3 and Na-Mg-Cl. By contrast, fresh groundwaters generally belong to the Na-Mg-HCO3 type. High concentrations of arsenic in shallow aquifers are associated with strongly reducing conditions, as evidenced by high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium, as well as dissolved sulfide and Fe, dominance of arsenite, relatively low concentrations of nitrate and sulfate, and occasionally high content of dissolved methane (CH4). High As groundwaters from different places at Hetao Plain experienced different redox processes. Fluoride is also present in high As groundwater, ranging between 0.40 and 3.36 mg/l. Although fluorosis poses an additional health problem in the region, it does not correlate well with As in spatial distribution. Geochemical analysis indicates that evapotranspiration is an important process controlling the enrichment of Na and Cl, as well as trace elements such as As, B, and Br in groundwater.

  9. Chitosan Enriched Three-Dimensional Matrix Reduces Inflammatory and Catabolic Mediators Production by Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oprenyeszk, Frederic; Sanchez, Christelle; Dubuc, Jean-Emile; Maquet, Véronique; Henrist, Catherine; Compère, Philippe; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for 28 days either in chitosan-alginate beads or in alginate beads. The beads were formed by slowly passing dropwise either the chitosan 0.6%–alginate 1.2% or the alginate 1.2% solution through a syringe into a 102 mM CaCl2 solution. Beads were analyzed histologically after 28 days. Interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, prostaglandin (PG) E2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan and aggrecan were quantified directly in the culture supernatant by specific ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by using a colorimetric method based on the Griess reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that chitosan was homogeneously distributed through the matrix and was in direct contact with chondrocytes. The production of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by chondrocytes significantly decreased in chitosan-alginate beads compared to alginate beads. PGE2 and NO decreased also significantly but only during the first three days of culture. Hyaluronan and aggrecan production tended to increase in chitosan-alginate beads after 28 days of culture. Chitosan-alginate beads reduced the production of inflammatory and catabolic mediators by OA chondrocytes and tended to stimulate the synthesis of cartilage matrix components. These particular effects indicate that chitosan-alginate beads are an interesting scaffold for chondrocytes encapsulation before transplantation to repair cartilage defects. PMID:26020773

  10. Prior exposure to enriched environment reduces nitric oxide synthase after transient MCAO in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yongshan; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Zhenzhen; Jia, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. However, little is known about of the neuroprotective effects of EE exposure prior to injury. The current study examined the effects of prior EE exposure on inducible and neuronal nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS and nNOS) after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats. A total of 72 rats were exposed to EE or standard housing condition (SC) for 1 month, followed by 90-min MCAO and reperfusion or sham surgery, leading to the following three groups: (1) EE+MCAO (n=24), (2) SC+MCAO (n=24), (3) SC+sham (n=24). Rats were sacrificed at 1, 6, or 24h after MCAO (n=6/group) for iNOS and nNOS mRNA quantification by real-time PCR and at 24h after MCAO (n=6/group) for iNOS and nNOS protein quantification by Western blot or were evaluated for neurological function outcomes, then sacrificed to assess infarct volume (n=6/group). Results showed that prior exposure to EE reduced iNOS and nNOS mRNA and protein and improved neurological status after MCAO without affecting infarct volume, suggesting that EE may provide neuroprotection via ischemic preconditioning.

  11. Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

  12. The Role of Enriched Microbial Consortium on Iron-Reducing Bioaugmentation in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xunan; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process and involved in various engineered processes, including the traditional clay dyeing processes. Bioaugmentation with iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is generally considered as an effective method to enhance the activity of iron reduction. However, limited information is available about the role of IRB on bioaugmentation. To reveal the roles of introduced IRB on bioaugmentation, an IRB consortium enriched with ferric citrate was inoculated into three Fe(II)-poor sediments which served as the pigments for Gambiered Guangdong silk dyeing. After bioaugmentation, the dyeabilities of all sediments met the demands of Gambiered Guangdong silk through increasing the concentration of key agent [precipitated Fe(II)] by 35, 27, and 61%, respectively. The microbial community analysis revealed that it was the minor species but not the dominant ones in the IRB consortium that promoted the activity of iron reduction. Meanwhile, some indigenous bacteria with the potential of iron reduction, such as Clostridium, Anaeromyxobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geothrix, and Acinetobacter, were also stimulated to form mutualistic interaction with introduced consortium. Interestingly, the same initial IRB consortium led to the different community successions among the three sediments and there was even no common genus increasing or decreasing synchronously among the potential IRB of all bioaugmented sediments. The Mantel and canonical correspondence analysis showed that different physiochemical properties of sediments influenced the microbial community structures. This study not only provides a novel bioremediation method for obtaining usable sediments for dyeing Gambiered Guangdong silk, but also contributes to understanding the microbial response to IRB bioaugmentation.

  13. RERTR fuel fabrication glovebox and facility development at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Lawrence, J.D.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    In order to support fuel plate production and physical metallurgy studies at ANL-W for the RERTR program, extensive facility modifications and equipment installation are underway. The particulate nature of the uranium alloys used in the fuel plate production requires glovebox isolation for several of the processing steps. A small glovebox was installed to meet the short-term powder processing needs of the project. A larger glovebox has been designed to handle the expanding needs of the project. In addition, a rolling mill and furnace were installed to allow hot rolling of the fuel plates. An arc-melting furnace will provide feedstock for powder production and metallurgy studies on uranium alloys. Future plans include the potential installation of a gas atomizer to aid in powder production.

  14. TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF FUEL PLATES FOR RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Wight; G.A. Moore; S.C. Taylor

    2008-10-01

    This paper discusses how candidate fuel plates for RERTR Fuel Development experiments are examined and tested for acceptance prior to reactor insertion. These tests include destructive and nondestructive examinations (DE and NDE). The DE includes blister annealing for dispersion fuel plates, bend testing of adjacent cladding, and microscopic examination of archive fuel plates. The NDE includes Ultrasonic (UT) scanning and radiography. UT tests include an ultrasonic scan for areas of “debonds” and a high frequency ultrasonic scan to determine the "minimum cladding" over the fuel. Radiography inspections include identifying fuel outside of the maximum fuel zone and measurements and calculations for fuel density. Details of each test are provided and acceptance criteria are defined. These tests help to provide a high level of confidence the fuel plate will perform in the reactor without a breach in the cladding.

  15. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Enriched Teaching Program for Reducing Resistance and Indices of Unhappiness among Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carolyn W.; Reid, Dennis H.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Passante, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an enriched teaching program for reducing resistance and indices of unhappiness displayed by 3 individuals with profound multiple disabilities during teaching sessions. The program involved presentation of preferred activities before, during, and after each teaching session, discontinuation of identified nonpreferred activities, and a…

  17. Diet enriched with procyanidins enhances antioxidant activity and reduces myocardial post-ischaemic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Facino, R M; Carini, M; Aldini, G; Berti, F; Rossoni, G; Bombardelli, E; Morazzoni, P

    1999-01-01

    Aim of this work was to study the efficacy of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds, a standardized mixture of polyphenol antioxidants, on cardiac mechanics following ischemia/reperfusion stunning in the rat, after 3 weeks supplementation. Young and aged male rats were fed a diet enriched with procyanidins complexed (1:3 w/w) with soybean lecithin (2.4%); control animals (CTR-young and CTR-aged) received an equal amount of lecithin and 2 additional groups of animals the standard diet. At the end of the treatment, the total plasma antioxidant defense (TRAP), vitamin E, ascorbic acid and uric acid were determined in plasma and the hearts from all groups of animals subjected to moderate ischemia (flow reduction to 1 ml/min for 20 min) and reperfusion (15 ml/min for 30 min). In both young and aged rats supplemented with procyanidins the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) at the end of reperfusion was 93% (p < 0.01) and 74% (p < 0.01) of the preischemic values and the values of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were maintained close to those of the preischemic period. Also creatine kinase (CK) outflow was restrained to baseline levels, while a 2-fold increase in prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1alpha) in the perfusate from hearts of young and aged rats was elicited during both ischemia and reperfusion. In parallel, procyanidins significantly increased the total antioxidant plasma capacity (by 40% in young and by 30% in aged rats) and the plasma levels of ascorbic acid, while tend to reduce vitamin E levels; no significant differences were observed in uric acid levels. The results of this study demonstrate that procyanidins supplementation in the rat (young and aged) makes the heart less susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage and that this is positively associated to an increase in plasma antioxidant activity.

  18. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-β oligomers in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  19. The Role of Enriched Microbial Consortium on Iron-Reducing Bioaugmentation in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xunan; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process and involved in various engineered processes, including the traditional clay dyeing processes. Bioaugmentation with iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is generally considered as an effective method to enhance the activity of iron reduction. However, limited information is available about the role of IRB on bioaugmentation. To reveal the roles of introduced IRB on bioaugmentation, an IRB consortium enriched with ferric citrate was inoculated into three Fe(II)-poor sediments which served as the pigments for Gambiered Guangdong silk dyeing. After bioaugmentation, the dyeabilities of all sediments met the demands of Gambiered Guangdong silk through increasing the concentration of key agent [precipitated Fe(II)] by 35, 27, and 61%, respectively. The microbial community analysis revealed that it was the minor species but not the dominant ones in the IRB consortium that promoted the activity of iron reduction. Meanwhile, some indigenous bacteria with the potential of iron reduction, such as Clostridium, Anaeromyxobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geothrix, and Acinetobacter, were also stimulated to form mutualistic interaction with introduced consortium. Interestingly, the same initial IRB consortium led to the different community successions among the three sediments and there was even no common genus increasing or decreasing synchronously among the potential IRB of all bioaugmented sediments. The Mantel and canonical correspondence analysis showed that different physiochemical properties of sediments influenced the microbial community structures. This study not only provides a novel bioremediation method for obtaining usable sediments for dyeing Gambiered Guangdong silk, but also contributes to understanding the microbial response to IRB bioaugmentation. PMID:28373869

  20. A linoleate-enriched cheese product reduces low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, P A; Platon, J F; Gershwin, M E; Halpern, G M; Keen, C L; DiPaolo, D; Alexander, J; Ziboh, V A

    1993-10-01

    To test the effect of substituting a modified-fat cheese product into the diets of hypercholesterolemic adults. A 4-month, randomized, double-blind, crossover substitution trial. General community outpatient study. Twenty-six healthy adult volunteers (17 men, 9 women) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > 5.69 mmol/L but < 7.24 mmol/L). Daily substitution of 100 g of cheese, either partial skim-milk mozzarella or modified-fat (vegetable oil) mozzarella cheese product, into participants' normal diets. Participants consumed an assigned cheese for 2 months, at which time they crossed over to consume the other study cheese. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured at baseline and at 2 and 4 months after initiation of the study. Compliance was assessed by body weight and by biweekly dietary records and interviews. No differences in weight or in the amount or type of calories consumed were found during the study. No statistically significant changes in lipid values resulted from consumption of mozzarella cheese. Modified-fat cheese substitution resulted in a decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level when compared with levels at both baseline (-0.28 mmol/L; 95% Cl, -0.14 to -0.42 mmol/L) and during consumption of the skim-milk mozzarella cheese (-0.38 mmol/L; 95% Cl, -0.2 to -0.70 mmol/L). Findings for total cholesterol were similar. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and apolipoprotein A-l and B-100 levels were unaltered. Both sexes responded similarly. A linoleate-enriched cheese product, in the absence of any other changes in diet or habits, substituted into the normal diets of hypercholesterolemic adults reduced low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol levels.

  1. Environmental enrichment reduces the response to stress of the cholinergic system in the prefrontal cortex during aging.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gregorio; Del Arco, Alberto; Garrido, Pedro; de Blas, Marta; Mora, Francisco

    2008-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) induced by handling stress during aging and also to investigate whether this response changed as a result of the animals living in an enriched environment. Male Wistar rats of 3 months of age were housed in control and enriched conditions during the entire period of their adult life and experiments were performed at 6, 15 and 24 months of age. Spontaneous motor activity was first monitored in an open field arena. Then, rats were stereotaxically implanted with guide cannula to perform microdialysis experiments in the PFC and to evaluate the effects of stress on extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine. Handling stress increased the extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine in the PFC of control and enriched rats. These increases were not modified by aging in control rats. However, environmental enrichment (EE) reduced the effects of stress on acetylcholine concentrations in all groups of age. Spontaneous motor activity in the open field was reduced by aging. EE also decreased motor activity in all groups of age. These results suggest that EE reduces the reactivity to stress of the cholinergic system in the prefrontal cortex during aging.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps

    PubMed Central

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-01-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with 13C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in 13C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture. PMID:23254512

  3. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    PubMed

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  4. Proceedings of the 1994 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This meeting brought together participants in the international effort to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civilian nuclear programs. Papers cover the following topics: National programs; fuel cycle; nuclear fuels; analyses; advanced reactors; and reactor conversions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web

    Treesearch

    Wyatt F. Cross; Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

    2007-01-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material...

  6. Toward the physical basis of thermophilic proteins: linking of enriched polar interactions and reduced heat capacity of unfolding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2002-12-01

    The enrichment of salt bridges and hydrogen bonding in thermophilic proteins has long been recognized. Another tendency, featuring lower heat capacity of unfolding (DeltaC(p)) than found in mesophilic proteins, is emerging from the recent literature. Here we present a simple electrostatic model to illustrate that formation of a salt-bridge or hydrogen-bonding network around an ionized group in the folded state leads to increased folding stability and decreased DeltaC(p). We thus suggest that the reduced DeltaC(p) of thermophilic proteins could partly be attributed to enriched polar interactions. A reduced DeltaC(p) might serve as an indicator for the contribution of polar interactions to folding stability.

  7. Biodegradation of an Alicyclic Hydrocarbon by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment from a Gas Condensate-Contaminated Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Hernandez, Luis A.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    We used ethylcyclopentane (ECP) as a model alicyclic hydrocarbon and investigated its metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment obtained from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. The enrichment coupled the consumption of ECP with the stoichiometrically expected amount of sulfate reduced. During ECP biodegradation, we observed the transient accumulation of metabolite peaks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, three of which had identical mass spectrometry profiles. Mass-spectral similarities to analogous authentic standards allowed us to identify these metabolites as ethylcyclopentylsuccinic acids, ethylcyclopentylpropionic acid, ethylcyclopentylcarboxylic acid, and ethylsuccinic acid. Based on these findings, we propose a pathway for the degradation of this alicyclic hydrocarbon. Furthermore, a putative metabolite similar to ethylcyclopentylsuccinic acid was also found in samples of contaminated groundwater from the aquifer. However, no such finding was evident for samples collected from wells located upgradient of the gas condensate spill. Microbial community analysis of the ECP-degrading enrichment by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least three different organisms using universal eubacterial primers targeting 550 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on sequence analysis, these organisms are phylogenetically related to the genera Syntrophobacter and Desulfotomaculum as well as a member of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group. The evidence suggests that alicyclic hydrocarbons such as ECP can be anaerobically activated by the addition to the double bond of fumarate to form alkylsuccinate derivatives under sulfate-reducing conditions and that the reaction occurs in the laboratory and in hydrocarbon-impacted environments. PMID:12514025

  8. Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key trigger for the inflammatory reaction during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Hydrogen treatment was recently associated with down-regulation of the expression of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines during sepsis and myocardial IRI, but it is not known whether hydrogen has an effect on HMGB1 in liver IRI. Methods A rat model of 60 minutes 70% partial liver ischemia reperfusion injury was used. Hydrogen enriched saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 10 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Liver injury was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme levels and histological changes. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 8-hydroxy-guanosine (8-OH-G) levels as markers of the peroxidation injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, and high mobility group box B1 protein (HMGB1) were measured as markers of post ischemia-reperfusion inflammation. Results Hydrogen enriched saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The treatment group showed reduced serum ALT activity and markers of lipid peroxidation and post ischemia reperfusion histological changes were reduced. Hydrogen enriched saline treatment inhibited HMGB1 expression and release, reflecting a reduced local and systemic inflammatory response to hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Conclusion These results suggest that, in our model, hydrogen enriched saline treatment is protective against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect may be mediated by both the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the solution. PMID:24410860

  9. Cardamonin reduces chemotherapy-enriched breast cancer stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Deyong; Tan, Yuan; Liu, Huijuan; Ooi, Sarah; Li, Li; Wright, Kathryn; Bennett, Steffany; Addison, Christina L; Wang, Lisheng

    2016-01-05

    The failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancers has been closely associated with the presence of drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, screening for small molecules that selectively inhibit growth of CSCs may offer great promise for cancer control, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. In this report, we provide the first demonstration that cardamonin, a small molecule, selectively inhibits breast CSCs that have been enriched by chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, cardamonin also sufficiently prevents the enrichment of CSCs when simultaneously used with chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, cardamonin effectively abolishes chemotherapeutic drug-induced up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 and activation of NF-κB/IKBα and Stat3. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, co-administration of cardamonin and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin significantly retards tumor growth and simultaneously decreases CSC pools in vivo. Since cardamonin has been found in some herbs, this work suggests a potential new approach for the effective treatment of breast CSCs by administration of cardamonin either concurrent with or after chemotherapeutic drugs.

  10. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  11. Metagenomic Analyses of the Autotrophic Fe(II)-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture KS

    PubMed Central

    Tominski, Claudia; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate-dependent ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation (NDFO) is a well-recognized chemolithotrophic pathway in anoxic sediments. The neutrophilic chemolithoautotrophic enrichment culture KS originally obtained from a freshwater sediment (K. L. Straub, M. Benz, B. Schink, and F. Widdel, Appl Environ Microbiol 62:1458–1460, 1996) has been used as a model system to study NDFO. However, the primary Fe(II) oxidizer in this culture has not been isolated, despite extensive efforts to do so. Here, we present a metagenomic analysis of this enrichment culture in order to gain insight into electron transfer pathways and the roles of different bacteria in the culture. We obtained a near-complete genome of the primary Fe(II) oxidizer, a species in the family Gallionellaceae, and draft genomes from its flanking community members. A search of the putative extracellular electron transfer pathways in these genomes led to the identification of a homolog of the MtoAB complex [a porin-multiheme cytochrome c system identified in neutrophilic microaerobic Fe(II)-oxidizing Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1] in a Gallionellaceae sp., and findings of other putative genes involving cytochrome c and multicopper oxidases, such as Cyc2 and OmpB. Genome-enabled metabolic reconstruction revealed that this Gallionellaceae sp. lacks nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductase genes and may partner with flanking populations capable of complete denitrification to avoid toxic metabolite accumulation, which may explain its resistance to growth in pure culture. This and other revealed interspecies interactions and metabolic interdependencies in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms may allow these organisms to cooperate effectively to achieve robust chemolithoautotrophic NDFO. Overall, the results significantly expand our knowledge of NDFO and suggest a range of genetic targets for further exploration. PMID:26896135

  12. Comparison of Sulphate-reducing Bacterial Communities in Japanese Fish Farm Sediments with Different Levels of Organic Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Sakami, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Fish farm sediments receive a large amount of organic matter from uneaten food and fecal material. This nutrient enrichment, or organic pollution, causes the accumulation of sulphide in the sediment from the action of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We investigated the effect of organic enrichment around coastal fish farms comparing the SRB community structure in these sediments. Sediment samples with different levels of organic pollution classified based upon the contents of acid-volatile sulphide and chemical oxygen demand were collected at three stations on the coast of western Japan. The SRB community composition was assessed using PCR amplification, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the dissimilatory sulphite reductase β-subunit gene (dsrB) fragments using directly extracted sediment DNA. Sequencing of the cloned PCR products of dsrB showed the existence of different SRB groups in the sediments. The majority of dsrB sequences were associated with the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae. Clones related to the phylum Firmicutes were also detected from all sediment samples. Statistical comparison of sequences revealed that community compositions of SRB from polluted sediments significantly differed from those of moderately polluted sediments and unpolluted sediments (LIBSHUFF, p<0.05), showing a different distribution of SRB in the fish farm sediments. There is evidence showing that the organic enrichment of sediments influences the composition of SRB communities in sediments at marine fish farms. PMID:22791053

  13. Microbial Diversity in Sulfate-Reducing Marine Sediment Enrichment Cultures Associated with Anaerobic Biotransformation of Coastal Stockpiled Phosphogypsum (Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Zouch, Hana; Karray, Fatma; Armougom, Fabrice; Chifflet, Sandrine; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Kharrat, Hanen; Kamoun, Lotfi; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Ollivier, Bernard; Sayadi, Sami; Quéméneur, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic biotechnology using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a promising alternative for reducing long-term stockpiling of phosphogypsum (PG), an acidic (pH ~3) by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries containing high amounts of sulfate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the diversity and ability of anaerobic marine microorganisms to convert sulfate from PG into sulfide, in order to look for marine SRB of biotechnological interest. A series of sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures were performed using different electron donors (i.e., acetate, formate, or lactate) and sulfate sources (i.e., sodium sulfate or PG) as electron acceptors. Significant sulfide production was observed from enrichment cultures inoculated with marine sediments, collected near the effluent discharge point of a Tunisian fertilizer industry (Sfax, Tunisia). Sulfate sources impacted sulfide production rates from marine sediments as well as the diversity of SRB species belonging to Deltaproteobacteria. When PG was used as sulfate source, Desulfovibrio species dominated microbial communities of marine sediments, while Desulfobacter species were mainly detected using sodium sulfate. Sulfide production was also affected depending on the electron donor used, with the highest production obtained using formate. In contrast, low sulfide production (acetate-containing cultures) was associated with an increase in the population of Firmicutes. These results suggested that marine Desulfovibrio species, to be further isolated, are potential candidates for bioremediation of PG by immobilizing metals and metalloids thanks to sulfide production by these SRB.

  14. Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thiosulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment via sulfate-reducing enrichment with Casamino acids.

    PubMed

    Takii, Susumu; Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ibe, Akihiro; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2007-10-01

    A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2(T), was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2(T) were non-motile rods (0.6-0.8 microm x 2.2-4.8 microm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2(T) stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28-30 degrees C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20-30 g l(-1). Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2(T) fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2(T) on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2(T) was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2(T) formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2(T) (=JCM 13356(T)=NBRC 101112(T)=DSM 17477(T)) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter

  15. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces the Growth of LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Hardman, W. Elaine; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Qi, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether a standard mouse diet (AIN-76A) supplemented with walnuts reduced the establishment and growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in nude (nu/nu) mice. The walnut-enriched diet reduced the number of tumors and the growth of the LNCaP xenografts; 3 of 16 (18.7%) of the walnut-fed mice developed tumors; conversely, 14 of 32 mice (44.0%) of the control diet-fed animals developed tumors. Similarly, the xenografts in the walnut-fed animals grew more slowly than those in the control diet mice. The final average tumor size in the walnut-diet animals was roughly one-fourth the average size of the prostate tumors in the mice that ate the control diet. PMID:23758186

  16. Degradative capacities and 16S rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anaerobic enrichment culture utilizing alkylbenzenes from crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rabus, R.; Widdel, F.; Fukui, Manabu

    1996-10-01

    Production of sulfide in oil field waters, a process which is referred to as souring, has been of concern. Hydrogen sulfide may lead to poisoning, contamination of oil and gas, corrosion of pipelines, conversion of iron mineral to ferrous sulfide. This study used a previously established sulfate-reducing enrichment culture on crude oil as a model system of bacterial habitats in which crude oil is the only potential source of organic substrates, and the enrichment culture was studied in detail including substrate preferences and major nutritional types of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the enrichment culture. 74 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  18. Diverse metal reduction and nano- mineral formation by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, B.; Seo, H.; Roh, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria utilize diverse metal oxides as electron acceptors and couple this microbial metal reduciton to growth. However, the microbe-metal interactions playing important roles in the metal geochemistry and organic matter degradation in the tidal flat sediments have not been uncovered enough to employ in various environmental and industrial applications. The objective of this study was to examine biomineralization and bioremediation by the facultative metal-reducing bacteria isolated from the inter-tidal flat sediments in southwestern of Korea. 16S-rRNA analysis showed bacterial consortium mainly consists of genus of Clostridium sp. The enriched bacteria were capable of reducing diverse metals such as iron oxide, maganese oxide, Cr(VI) and Se(VI) during glucose fermentation process at room temperature. The bacteria reduced highly toxic and reactive elements such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) to Cr(III) and Se(0). The results showed that microbial processes induced transformation from toxic states of heavy metals to less toxic and mobile states in natural environments. Andthe bacteria also reduced iron oxyhydroxide such as ferrihydrite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and formed nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4). This study indicates microbial processes not only can be used for bioremediation of inorganic contaminants existing in the marine environments, but also form the magnetite nanoparticles which are exhibit superparamagnetic properties that can be useful for relevant medical and industrial applications.

  19. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  20. Reducing Relative Food Reinforcement in Infants by an Enriched Music Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kai Ling; Eiden, Rina D.; Feda, Denise M.; Stier, Corrin L.; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Woodworth, Elizabeth M.; Paluch, Rocco A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The reinforcing value of food may be established early in life. Research shows that infant weight status is related to the relative reinforcing value of food versus non-food alternatives (food reinforcing ratio, FRR). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effects of a 6-week music enhancement program (Music Together®, n = 14) versus an active play date control group (n = 13) on the FRR in 9- to 16-month-old infants who were high in relative food reinforcement. Methods Participating parents and infants attended six weekly 45-min group classes. Parents in the music group and the play date group were encouraged to listen to the Music Together program CD or play with the play date group’s toy with their infants at home, respectively. Results Intent-to-treat analysis showed a decrease in FRR for infants in the music group (mean ± SD: −0.13 ± 0.13) in comparison to a slight increase in the control group (0.04 ± 0.11) (F[1, 24] = 11.86, P = 0.002). Conclusions These findings provide evidence that relative reinforcing value of food can be reduced by promoting alternative reinforcers at an early age. PMID:27028283

  1. Reducing relative food reinforcement in infants by an enriched music experience.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Eiden, Rina D; Feda, Denise M; Stier, Corrin L; Fletcher, Kelly D; Woodworth, Elizabeth M; Paluch, Rocco A; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-04-01

    The reinforcing value of food may be established early in life. Research shows that infant weight status is related to the relative reinforcing value of food versus non-food alternatives (food reinforcing ratio, FRR). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effects of a 6-week music enhancement program (Music Together®, n = 14) versus an active play date control group (n = 13) on the FRR in 9- to 16-month-old infants who were high in relative food reinforcement. Participating parents and infants attended six weekly 45-min group classes. Parents in the music group and the play date group were encouraged to listen to the Music Together program CD or play with the play date group's toy with their infants at home, respectively. Intent-to-treat analysis showed a decrease in FRR for infants in the music group (mean ± SD: -0.13 ± 0.13) in comparison to a slight increase in the control group (0.04 ± 0.11) (F[1, 24]  = 11.86, P = 0.002). These findings provide evidence that relative reinforcing value of food can be reduced by promoting alternative reinforcers at an early age. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. CO(2) enrichment reduces reproductive dominance in competing stands of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed).

    PubMed

    Stinson, K A; Bazzaz, F A

    2006-02-01

    Plants growing in dense stands may not equally acquire or utilize extra carbon gained in elevated CO(2). As a result, reproductive differences between dominant and subordinate plants may be altered under rising CO(2) conditions. We hypothesized that elevated CO(2) would enhance the reproductive allocation of shaded, subordinate Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae) individuals more than that of light-saturated dominants. We grew stands of A. artemisiifolia at either 360 or 720 muL L(-1) CO(2) levels and measured the growth and reproductive responses of competing individuals. To test whether elevated CO(2) altered size and reproductive inequalities within stands, we compared stand-level coefficients of variation (CV) in height growth and final shoot, root, and reproductive organ biomasses. Elevated CO(2) enhanced biomass and reduced the CV for all aspects of plant growth, especially reproductive biomass. Allocation to reproduction was higher in the elevated CO(2) than in the ambient treatment, and this difference was more pronounced in small, rather than large plant positive relationships between the CV and total stand productivity declined under elevated CO(2), indicating that growth enhancements to smaller plants diminished the relative biomass advantages of larger plants in increasingly crowded conditions. We conclude that elevated CO(2) stimulates stand-level reproduction while CO(2)-induced growth gains of subordinate A. artemisiifolia plants minimize differences in the reproductive output of small and large plants. Thus, more individuals are likely to produce greater amounts of seeds and pollen in future populations of this allergenic weed.

  3. Methylation is the initial reaction in anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Safinowski, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2006-02-01

    The sulfate-reducing culture N47 can utilize naphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene as the sole carbon source and electron donor. Here we show that the initial reaction in the naphthalene degradation pathway is a methylation to 2-methylnaphthalene which then undergoes the subsequent oxidation to the central metabolite 2-naphthoic acid, ring reduction and cleavage. Specific metabolites occurring exclusively during anaerobic degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene were detected during growth on naphthalene, i.e. naphthyl-2-methyl-succinate and naphthyl-2-methylene-succinate. Additionally, all three enzymes involved in anaerobic degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene to 2-naphthoic acid that could be measured in vitro so far, i.e. naphthyl-2-methyl-succinate synthase, succinyl-CoA:naphthyl-2-methyl-succinate CoA-transferase and naphthyl-2-methyl-succinyl-CoA dehydrogenase were also detected in naphthalene-grown cells with similar activities. Induction experiments were performed to study the growth behaviour of the cell when transferred from naphthalene to 2-methylnaphthalene or vice versa. When the cells were transferred from naphthalene to 2-methylnaphthalene they grew immediately, indicating that no new enzymes had to be induced. On the contrary, the transfer of cells from 2-methylnaphthalene to naphthalene caused a lag-phase of almost 100 days demonstrating that an additional catabolic enzyme has to be activated in this case. We propose the methylation as a novel general mechanism of activation reactions in anaerobic degradation of unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Microbial characterization of anode-respiring bacteria within biofilms developed from cultures previously enriched in dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pierra, Mélanie; Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro A; Trably, Eric; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    This work evaluated the use of a culture enriched in DMRB as a strategy to enrich ARB on anodes. DMRB were enriched with Fe(III) as final electron acceptor and then transferred to a potentiostatically-controlled system with an anode as sole final electron acceptor. Three successive iron-enrichment cultures were carried out. The first step of enrichment revealed a successful selection of the high current-producing ARB Geoalkalibacter subterraneus. After few successive enrichment steps, the microbial community analysis in electroactive biofilms showed a significant divergence with an impact on the biofilm electroactivity. Enrichment of ARB in electroactive biofilms through the pre-selection of DMRB should therefore be carefully considered.

  5. Enrichment of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria from groundwater of the Siklós BTEX-contaminated site (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Farkas, Milán; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Benedek, Tibor; Révész, Fruzsina; Veres, Péter Gábor; Kriszt, Balázs; Táncsics, András

    2017-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are commonly found in microbial communities of aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface environments where they often play key role in the degradation of the contaminants. The Siklós benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated area is one of the best characterized petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of Hungary. Continuous monitoring of the microbial community in the center of the contaminant plume indicated the presence of an emerging Geobacter population and a Rhodoferax phylotype highly associated with aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface environments. The aim of the present study was to make an initial effort to enrich Rhodoferax-related and other dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria from this environment. Accordingly, four slightly different freshwater media were used to enrich Fe(III) reducers, differing only in the form of nitrogen source (organic, inorganic nitrogen or gaseous headspace nitrogen). Although enrichment of the desired Rhodoferax phylotype was not succeeded, Geobacter-related bacteria were readily enriched. Moreover, the different nitrogen sources caused the enrichment of different Geobacter species. Investigation of the diversity of benzylsuccinate synthase gene both in the enrichments and in the initial groundwater sample indicated that the Geobacter population in the center of the contaminant plume may not play a significant role in the anaerobic degradation of toluene.

  6. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser(307). Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  7. Diversity of bacteria and Archaea in sulphate-reducing enrichment cultures inoculated from serial dilution of Zostera noltii rhizosphere samples.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Ana; Antón, Josefa; De Wit, Rutger; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco

    2003-09-01

    We have analysed the diversity of culturable sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Zostera noltii colonized sediments from Bassin d'Arcachon (France). Four organic substrates have been tested as well as the combination of H2 and CO2 to select for lithotrophic SRB. All energy sources were supplied in parallel cultures that were amended with yeast extract plus NH4+ and prepared without a source of combined nitrogen, the latter to select for diazotrophic SRB. The 10 different enrichment media were inoculated from serial dilution of rhizosphere samples. The highest dilution cultures yielding positive growth (i.e. 10-7) were studied by molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone libraries, RISA and ARDRA). Lactate as a single organic substrate in combination with a source of combined nitrogen resulted in selection of members of the Desulfovibrionaceae. Surprisingly, when lactate was added without a source of combined nitrogen, Desulfobacteriaceae were selected. A strong influence of the presence or absence of combined nitrogen was also observed for the substrates sucrose and fructose. Whereas the liquid culture growing on sucrose and NH4+ systematically yielded 16S rDNA clones related to an environmental unidentified green sulphur bacterium (OPS185), on plates we were able to isolate a SRB related to Desulfovibrio dechloracetivorans, which likely represents a non-described species. Under diazotrophic conditions, sucrose selected for SRB clones related to the cluster formed by Desulfovibrio zosterae, Desulfovibrio salexigens and Desulfovibrio bastinii. The corresponding isolate obtained on plates showed only low sequence similarity with this closest neighbour (93.8%), and we suggest that it also represents a non-described species. Surprisingly, a 16S rDNA sequence corresponding to an archaeon, i.e. a non-extremophile Crenoarchaeota, was retrieved from several of the SRB enrichment cultures even after subsequent transfers.

  8. Environmental Enrichment Modified Epigenetic Mechanisms in SAMP8 Mouse Hippocampus by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Inflammaging and Achieving Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Puigoriol-Illamola, Dolors; Palomera-Ávalos, Verónica; Pérez-Cáceres, David; Companys-Alemany, Júlia; Camins, Antonio; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Rodrigo, M. Teresa; Pallàs, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, aging and age-related cognitive impairments are becoming one of the most important issues for human health. At the same time, it has been shown that epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as universally important factors in life expectancy. The Senescence Accelerated Mouse P8 (SAMP8) strain exhibits age-related deterioration evidenced in learning and memory abilities and is a useful model of neurodegenerative disease. In SAMP8, Environmental Enrichment (EE) increased DNA-methylation levels (5-mC) and reduced hydroxymethylation levels (5-hmC), as well as increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Likewise, we found changes in the hippocampal gene expression of some chromatin-modifying enzyme genes, such as Dnmt3b. Hdac1. Hdac2. Sirt2, and Sirt6. Subsequently, we assessed the effects of EE on neuroprotection-related transcription factors, such as the Nuclear regulatory factor 2 (Nrf2)–Antioxidant Response Element pathway and Nuclear Factor kappa Beta (NF-κB), which play critical roles in inflammation. We found that EE produces an increased expression of antioxidant genes, such as Hmox1. Aox1, and Cox2, and reduced the expression of inflammatory genes such as IL-6 and Cxcl10, all of this within the epigenetic context modified by EE. In conclusion, EE prevents epigenetic changes that promote or drive oxidative stress and inflammaging. PMID:27803663

  9. Recent improvements to steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis of research reactors in the RERTR Program at ANL.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A. P.; Kalimullah; Feldman, E. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-01

    Recent reactor conversion studies in the RERTR Program have required expansion or revision of modeling capabilities for steady state thermalhydraulic analysis. For example, some reactors operate in laminar flow, necessitating new correlations for Nusselt number and for friction loss. Others have single-sided heating of edge channels. And some have geometrical details that require new modeling approaches to either simulate or validate. Computational fluid dynamics was compared with the 2-dimensional approximation to heat flow used by the PLTEMP/ANL V3.0 code. A very systematic approach to hot channel factors is implemented. A closed-form solution is now used in flat-plate geometry to improve both speed and accuracy of the solution. Direct heating to clad and coolant is now included. The Groenveld table lookup method is now available for determination of CHF. Flow excursion prediction is updated. All of these improvements have been incorporated in the PLTEMP/ANL V3.0 code.

  10. Characterization of nitrate-reducing and amino acid-using bacteria prominent in nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  11. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum. [Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400/sup 0/C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi)/sub 3/ and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  12. A reduced cost strategy for enriching chicken meat with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using dietary flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Kanakri, K; Carragher, J; Hughes, R; Muhlhausler, B; Gibson, R

    2017-06-01

    1. This study aimed to determine the minimal duration required for feeding male broilers (Cobb 500) with a flaxseed oil diet while still retaining long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) accumulation in the meat at a desirable level. 2. Three groups of broilers (60 each) were fed on a 3% flaxseed oil (high α-linolenic acid (ALA)) diet for either 6, 4 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter. During the remaining time they were maintained on a 3% macadamia oil (low ALA) diet. A fourth group (control, n = 60) was fed on a commercial diet for 6 weeks. 3. No significant difference was observed in growth performance of broilers between groups. The amounts of total n-3 and n-3 LCPUFA in breast and thigh meat were not different between broilers fed the flaxseed oil diet for 4 and 6 weeks, but they were lower (P < 0.001) in those fed the flaxseed diet for only 2 weeks. 4. These results suggest comparable levels of n-3 LCPUFA in the meat can be achieved by only feeding the flaxseed oil diet in the last 3-4 weeks of the growth period; this would result in a ≥ 9.4% reduction in the use of flaxseed oil compared to 6 weeks of feeding; thereby reducing the cost of the enrichment process.

  13. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  14. Reduced electrical performance of Zn enriched ZnTe nanoinclusion semiconductors thin films for buffer layer in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Waqar; Thomas, Andrew; Haq, Anwar ul; Shah, Nazar Abbas; Farooq Nasir, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Closed space sublimation (CSS) technique was employed to deposit thin films of zinc telluride (ZnTe) on a glass substrate under high vacuum. Two sets of ZnTe thin films and Zn enriched ZnTe thin films were prepared for comparative study. The enrichment for Zn onto the as-deposited ZnTe thin films was done by the novel manner of layer by layer deposition with subsequent annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed before and after the enrichment of Zn the preferred orientation is [1 1 1] having cubic phase. The lattice constant was found to be increased and the crystallite size decreased 28 nm to 24 nm after the enrichment of Zn. A morphological study was carried out through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For Zn enriched samples the average grain size is smaller as compared to ZnTe thin films. The local compositions of Zn and Te were confirmed by energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) from 51 atomic % of as-deposited ZnTe thin films to 68 atomic % in Zn enriched ZnTe thin films. The Zn enriched samples have a slight decrease in optical transmission in UV-VIS-NIR range as compared to the as-deposited ZnTe thin films. Due to the deposition of Zn there is a very small change in optical band gap energy. A four-probe technique was used to study electrical properties of as-deposited and Zn-enriched ZnTe thin films. These results shows that the as-deposited samples had the resistivity of 106 Ω · cm. For Zn enrichment samples resistivity increases from 106 Ω · cm to 108 Ω · cm, which shows that Zn-enriched samples are not suitable for back contact of II-VI solar cells. X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the elemental compositions and its bonding strength before and after the enrichment of Zn.

  15. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to

  16. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co

  17. A More Reduced Mantle Source for Enriched Shergottites; Insights from the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Lar 06319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hnatyshin, D.; Herd, C. D. K.; Walton, E. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed petrographic study of melt inclusions and Cr-Fe-Ti oxides of LAR 06319 leads to two main conclusions: 1) this enriched oxidized olivine- phyric shergottite represents nearly continuous crystallization of a basaltic shergottite melt, 2) the melt became more oxidized during differentiation. The first crystallized mineral assemblages record the oxygen fugacity which is closest to that of the melt s mantle source, and which is lower than generally attributed to the enriched shergottite group.

  18. An alum-based water treatment residual can reduce extractable phosphorus concentrations in three phosphorus-enriched coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Novak, J M; Watts, D W

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of excess soil phosphorus (P) in watersheds under intensive animal production has been linked to increases in dissolved P concentrations in rivers and streams draining these watersheds. Reductions in water dissolved P concentrations through very strong P sorption reactions may be obtainable after land application of alum-based drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). Our objectives were to (i) evaluate the ability of an alum-based WTR to reduce Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3P) and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) concentrations in three P-enriched Coastal Plain soils, (ii) estimate WTR application rates necessary to lower soil M3P levels to a target 150 mg kg(-1) soil M3P concentration threshold level, and (iii) determine the effects on soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Three soils containing elevated M3P (145-371 mg kg(-1)) and WSP (12.3-23.5 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were laboratory incubated with between 0 and 6% WTR (w w(-1)) for 84 d. Incorporation of WTR into the three soils caused a near linear and significant reduction in soil M3P and WSP concentrations. In two soils, 6% WTR application caused a soil M3P concentration decrease to below the soil P threshold level. An additional incubation on the third soil using higher WTR to soil treatments (10-15%) was required to reduce the mean soil M3P concentration to 178 mg kg(-1). After incubation, most treatments had less than a half pH unit decline and a slight increase in soil EC values suggesting a minimal impact on soil quality properties. The results showed that WTR incorporation into soils with high P concentrations caused larger relative reductions in extractable WSP than M3P concentrations. The larger relative reductions in the extractable WSP fraction suggest that WTR can be more effective at reducing potential runoff P losses than usage as an amendment to lower M3P concentrations.

  19. THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-,M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, m-, orp-cresol. GC/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds ...

  20. THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-,M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, m-, orp-cresol. GC/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds ...

  1. Glucomannan or Glucomannan Plus Spirulina-Enriched Squid-Surimi Diets Reduce Histological Damage to Liver and Heart in Zucker fa/fa Rats Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched and Non-Cholesterol-Enriched Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Glucomannan-enriched squid surimi improves cholesterolemia and liver antioxidant status. The effect of squid surimi enriched with glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina on liver and heart structures and cell damage markers was tested in fa/fa rats fed highly saturated-hyper-energetic diets. Animals were fed 70% AIN-93M rodent diet plus six versions of 30% squid surimi for 7 weeks: control (C), glucomannan (G), and glucomannan plus spirulina (GS). The cholesterol-control (HC), cholesterol-glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-glucomannan plus spirulina (HGS) groups were given similar diets that were enriched with 2% cholesterol and 0.4% cholic acid. G and GS diets versus C diet significantly inhibited weight gain and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, liver steatosis, lipogranulomas, and total inflammation and alteration scores. The hypercholesterolemic agent significantly increased the harmful effects of the C diet. Liver weight, the hepatosomatic index, all damage markers, and total histological scoring rose for HC versus C (at least P < .05). The addition of glucomannan (HG vs. HC) improved these biomarkers, and non-additional effects from spirulina were observed except for the total liver alteration score. In conclusion, glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina blocked the highly saturated-hyper-energetic diet negative effects both with and without added cholesterol. Results suggest the usefulness of including these functional ingredients in fish products.

  2. Chlorinated phenol treatment and in situ hydrogen peroxide production in a sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Miran, Waheed; Nawaz, Mohsin; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2017-04-05

    Wastewaters are increasingly being considered as renewable resources for the sustainable production of electricity, fuels, and chemicals. In recent years, bioelectrochemical treatment has come to light as a prospective technology for the production of energy from wastewaters. In this study, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) enriched with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the anodic chamber was proposed and evaluated for the biodegradation of recalcitrant chlorinated phenol, electricity generation (in the microbial fuel cell (MFC)), and production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (in the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)), which is a very strong oxidizing agent and often used for the degradation of complex organics. Maximum power generation of 253.5 mW/m(2), corresponding to a current density of 712.0 mA/m(2), was achieved in the presence of a chlorinated phenol pollutant (4-chlorophenol (4-CP) at 100 mg/L (0.78 mM)) and lactate (COD of 500 mg/L). In the anodic chamber, biodegradation of 4-CP was not limited to dechlorination, and further degradation of one of its metabolic products (phenol) was observed. In MEC operation mode, external voltage (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 V) was added via a power supply, with 0.4 V producing the highest concentration of H2O2 (13.3 g/L-m(2) or 974 μM) in the cathodic chamber after 6 h of operation. Consequently, SRB-based bioelectrochemical technology can be applied for chlorinated pollutant biodegradation in the anodic chamber and either net current or H2O2 production in the cathodic chamber by applying an optimum external voltage.

  3. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  4. Anterior thalamic lesions reduce spine density in both hippocampal CA1 and retrosplenial cortex, but enrichment rescues CA1 spines only.

    PubMed

    Harland, Bruce C; Collings, David A; McNaughton, Neil; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2014-10-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) may affect both hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex thus explaining some parallels between diencephalic and medial temporal lobe amnesias. We found that standard-housed rats with ATN lesions, compared with standard-housed controls, showed reduced spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons (basal dendrites, -11.2%; apical dendrites, -9.6%) and in retrospenial granular b cortex (Rgb) neurons (apical dendrites, -20.1%) together with spatial memory deficits on cross maze and radial-arm maze tasks. Additional rats with ATN lesions were also shown to display a severe deficit on spatial working memory in the cross-maze, but subsequent enriched housing ameliorated their performance on both this task and the radial-arm maze. These enriched rats with ATN lesions also showed recovery of both basal and apical CA1 spine density to levels comparable to that of the standard-housed controls, but no recovery of Rgb spine density. Inspection of spine types in the CA1 neurons showed that ATN lesions reduced the density of thin spines and mushroom spines, but not stubby spines; while enrichment promoted recovery of thin spines. Comparison with enriched rats that received pseudo-training, which provided comparable task-related experience, but no explicit spatial memory training, suggested that basal CA1 spine density in particular was associated with spatial learning and memory performance. Distal pathology in terms of reduced integrity of hippocampal and retrosplenial microstructure provides clear support for the influence of the ATN lesions on the extended hippocampal system. The reversal by postoperative enrichment of this deficit in the hippocampus but not the retrosplenial cortex may indicate region-specific mechanisms of recovery after ATN injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Stimulation of Strontium Accumulation in Linoleate-Enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is a Result of Reduced Sr2+ Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Simon V.; Smith, Shareeka L.; Ghazi, A. Mohamad; Hoptroff, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) (which results in 18:2 incorporation to ∼70% of total cellular and plasma membrane fatty acids, with no effect on growth rate) yielded cells that accumulated Sr2+ intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr2+ concentrations (25 μM to 5 mM) and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr2+ accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced inhibition of Sr2+ accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K+ efflux, increased intracellular Sr2+ accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of 18:2-supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr2+ release from Sr2+-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr2+-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr2+ efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr2+ accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr2+ efflux activity in these cells. PMID:10049882

  6. Stimulation of strontium accumulation in linoleate-enriched Saacharomyces cerevisiae is a result of reduced Sr{sup 2+} efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, S.V.; Smith, S.L.; Ghazi, A.M.; Hoptroff, M.J.

    1999-03-01

    The influence of modified plasma membrane fatty acid composition on cellular strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence of 1 mM linoleate (18:2) yielded cells that accumulated Sr{sup 2+} intracellularly at approximately twice the rate of S. cerevisiae grown without a fatty acid supplement. This effect was evident over a wide range of external Sr{sup 2+} concentrations and increased with the extent of cellular 18:2 incorporation. Stimulation of Sr{sup 2+} accumulation was not evident following enrichment of S. cerevisiae with either palmitoleate (16:1), linolenate (18:3) (n-3 and n-6 isomers), or eicosadienoate (20:2) (n-6 and n-9 isomers). Competition experiments revealed that Ca{sup 2+}- and Mg{sup 2+}-induced inhibition of Sr{sup 2+} accumulation did not differ between unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells. Treatment with trifluoperazine (TFP) (which can act as a calmodulin antagonist and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase inhibitor), at a low concentration that precluded nonspecific K{sup +} efflux, increased intracellular Sr{sup 2+} accumulation by approximately 3.6- and 1.4-fold in unsupplemented and 18:2-supplemented cells, respectively. Thus, TFP abolished the enhanced Sr{sup 2+} accumulation ability of 18:2 supplemented cells. Moreover, the rate of Sr{sup 2+} release from Sr{sup 2+}-loaded fatty acid-unsupplemented cells was found to be at least twice as great as that from Sr{sup 2+}-loaded 18:2-enriched cells. The influence of enrichment with other fatty acids on Sr{sup 2+} efflux was variable. The results reveal an enhanced Sr{sup 2+} accumulation ability of S. cerevisiae following 18:2-enrichment, which is attributed to diminished Sr{sup 2+} efflux activity in these cells.

  7. [NO3-/NO2- inhibits sulfate-reducing activity of the enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from an off-shore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ying-Yue; Yu, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Tan, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Long-term injection of sulfate-rich water into oil reservoirs stimulates the proliferation of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) therein and results in production of a great amount of H2S, leading to souring in oil reservoirs and related environmental problems. In this study, we first, using modified API RP 38 medium, enriched SRP present in production water from a producing well at Bohai Bay, China, and then examined the inhibitory effects of nitrate or nitrite on sulfate reduction activity of the SRP. Results showed that the enriched SRP culture exhibited a high sulfate reduction activity as indicated by a sulfate-reducing rate of 10.4 mmol SO4(2-) x d(-1) x g(-1) dry cell. In presence of 0.4, 0.8, 1.8, and 4.2 mmol x L(-1) nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited for 5, 9, 20, and over 35 days, respectively. With the addition of 0.6, 0.9, 1.4, 2.6 and 4.6 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite, the inhibitory period lasted 3, 12, 22, and over 39 days, respectively. The SRP enrichment culture could dissimilatorily reduce nitrate to ammonium. When sulfate, nitrate and nitrite coexisted, nitrate or nitrite was preferentially used over sulfate as electron acceptor by the enriched SRP. This competitive use of electron acceptor and the strong inhibitory effect of nitrite possibly accounted for the suppression of nitrate and nitrite on the sulfate-reducing activity of the enriched SRP cultures from offshore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay.

  8. Assessing the effects of iron enrichment across holobiont compartments reveals reduced microbial nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea coral Pocillopora verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Rädecker, Nils; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Ziegler, Maren; Ashok, Ananya; Barreto, Marcelle M; Chaidez, Veronica; Grupstra, Carsten G B; Ng, Yi Mei; Perna, Gabriela; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-08-01

    The productivity of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical waters is sustained by an efficient uptake and recycling of nutrients. In reef-building corals, the engineers of these ecosystems, this nutrient recycling is facilitated by a constant exchange of nutrients between the animal host and endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), bacteria, and other microbes. Due to the complex interactions in this so-called coral holobiont, it has proven difficult to understand the environmental limitations of productivity in corals. Among others, the micronutrient iron has been proposed to limit primary productivity due to its essential role in photosynthesis and bacterial processes. Here, we tested the effect of iron enrichment on the physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea during a 12-day experiment. Contrary to previous reports, we did not see an increase in zooxanthellae population density or gross photosynthesis. Conversely, respiration rates were significantly increased, and microbial nitrogen fixation was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data suggest that iron is not a limiting factor of primary productivity in Red Sea corals. Rather, increased metabolic demands in response to iron enrichment, as evidenced by increased respiration rates, may reduce carbon (i.e., energy) availability in the coral holobiont, resulting in reduced microbial nitrogen fixation. This decrease in nitrogen supply in turn may exacerbate the limitation of other nutrients, creating a negative feedback loop. Thereby, our results highlight that the effects of iron enrichment appear to be strongly dependent on local environmental conditions and ultimately may depend on the availability of other nutrients.

  9. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  10. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  11. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  12. Degradative capacities and 16S rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anaerobic enrichment culture utilizing alkylbenzenes from crude oil.

    PubMed Central

    Rabus, R; Fukui, M; Wilkes, H; Widdle, F

    1996-01-01

    A mesophilic sulfate-reducing enrichment culture growing anaerobically on crude oil was used as a model system to study which nutritional types of sulfate-reducing bacteria may develop on original petroleum constituents in oil wells, tanks, and pipelines. Chemical analysis of oil hydrocarbons during growth revealed depletion of toluene and o-xylene within 1 month and of m-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-propyltoluene, and m-isopropyltoluene within approximately 2 months. In anaerobic counting series, the highest numbers of CFU (6 x 10(6) to 8 x 10(6) CFU ml-1) were obtained with toluene and benzoate. Almost the same numbers were obtained with lactate, a substrate often used for detection of the vibrio-shaped, incompletely oxidizing Desulfovibrio sp. In the present study, however, lactate yielded mostly colonies of oval to rod-shaped, completely oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria which were able to grow slowly on toluene or crude oil. Desulfovibrio species were detected only at low numbers (3 x 10(5) CFU ml-1). In agreement with this finding, a fluorescently labeled, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe described in the literature as specific for members of the Desulfovibrionaceae (suggested family) hybridized only with a small portion (< 5%) of the cells in the enrichment culture. These results are consistent with the observation that known Desulfovibrio species do not utilize aromatic hydrocarbons, the predominant substrates in the enrichment culture. All known sulfate-reducing bacteria which utilize aromatic compounds belong to a separate branch, the Desulfobacteriaceae (suggested family). Most members of this family are complete oxidizers. For specific hybridization with members of this branch, the probe had to be modified by a nucleotide exchange. Indeed, this modified probe hybridized with more than 95% of the cells in the enrichment culture. The results show that completely oxidizing, alkylbenzene-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria rather than

  13. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Madinier, Alexandre; Quattromani, Miriana Jlenia; Sjölund, Carin; Ruscher, Karsten; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE) several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT), and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD) or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN) immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new therapies

  14. Selenium nanoparticle-enriched Lactobacillus brevis causes more efficient immune responses in vivo and reduces the liver metastasis in metastatic form of mouse breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Selenium enriched Lactobacillus has been reported as an immunostimulatory agent which can be used to increase the life span of cancer bearing animals. Lactic acid bacteria can reduce selenium ions to elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and deposit them in intracellular spaces. In this strategy two known immunostimulators, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and SeNPs, are concomitantly administered for enhancing of immune responses in cancer bearing mice. Methods Forty five female inbred BALB/c mice were divided into three groups of tests and control, each containing 15 mice. Test mice were orally administered with SeNP-enriched Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus brevis alone for 3 weeks before tumor induction. After that the administration was followed in three cycles of seven days on/three days off. Control group received phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at same condition. During the study the tumor growth was monitored using caliper method. At the end of study the spleen cell culture was carried out for both NK cytotoxicity assay and cytokines measurement. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were also assayed after 72h of tumor antigen recall. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured, the livers of mice were removed and prepared for histopathological analysis. Results High level of IFN-γ and IL-17 besides the significant raised in NK cytotoxicity and DTH responses were observed in SeNP-enriched L. brevis administered mice and the extended life span and decrease in the tumor metastasis to liver were also recorded in this group compared to the control mice or L.brevis alone administered mice. Conclusion Our results suggested that the better prognosis could be achieved by oral administration of SeNP-enriched L. brevis in highly metastatic breast cancer mice model. PMID:23631392

  15. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3 effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2016-07-22

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D3-enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D3. There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P < 0.001, respectively]. The percentages of study participants with 25(OH)D levels <30 (deficiency) and <50 nmol/L (insufficiency) were significantly higher at follow-up in the CG compared to the IG (41.0 vs. 0 %, P < 0.001 and 74.4 vs. 47.5 %, P < 0.001, respectively). The emotional well-being scale of the HRQL score increased in the IG compared to a decrease in the CG (3.2 vs. -3.8, P = 0.028). However, none of the other seven scales of the HRQL score significantly differentiated between study groups (P > 0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D3-enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  16. trans-trans Conjugated linoleic acid enriched soybean oil reduces fatty liver and lowers serum cholesterol in obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, William; Gadang, Vidya; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collection of octadecadienoic fatty acids that have been shown to possess numerous health benefits. The CLA used in our study was produced by the photoisomerization of soybean oil and consists of about 20% CLA; this CLA consists of 75% trans-trans (a mixture of t8,t10; t9,t11; t10,t12) isomers. This method could be readily used to increase the CLA content of all soybean oil used as a food ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil, fed as a dietary supplement, on body composition, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and markers of glucose control and liver function of obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil lowered the serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 41 and 50%, respectively, when compared to obese controls. Trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil supplementation also lowered the liver lipid content significantly (P < 0.05) with a concomitant decrease in the liver weight in the obese rats. In addition, glycated hemoglobin values were improved in the group receiving CLA-enriched soybean oil in comparison to the obese control. PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue was unchanged. In conclusion, trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil was effective in lowering total liver lipids and serum cholesterol.

  17. The effect of intraoral suction on oxygen-enriched surgical environments: a mechanism for reducing the risk of surgical fires.

    PubMed

    VanCleave, Andrea M; Jones, James E; McGlothlin, James D; Saxen, Mark A; Sanders, Brian J; Vinson, LaQuia A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was applied in order to replicate potential surgical fire conditions in an oxygen-enriched environment with and without high-volume suction typical for dental surgical applications. During 41 trials, 3 combustion events were measured: an audible pop, a visible flash of light, and full ignition. In at least 11 of 21 trials without suction, all 3 conditions were observed, sometimes with an extent of fire that required early termination of the experimental trial. By contrast, in 18 of 20 with-suction trials, ignition did not occur at all, and in the 2 cases where ignition did occur, the fire was qualitatively a much smaller, candle-like flame. Statistically comparing these 3 combustion events in the no-suction versus with-suction trials, ignition (P = .0005), audible pop (P = .0211), and flash (P = .0092) were all significantly more likely in the no-suction condition. These results suggest a possible significant and new element to be added to existing surgical fire safety protocols toward making surgical fires the "never-events" they should be.

  18. The Effect of Intraoral Suction on Oxygen-Enriched Surgical Environments: A Mechanism for Reducing the Risk of Surgical Fires

    PubMed Central

    VanCleave, Andrea M.; Jones, James E.; McGlothlin, James D.; Saxen, Mark A.; Sanders, Brian J.; Vinson, LaQuia A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was applied in order to replicate potential surgical fire conditions in an oxygen-enriched environment with and without high-volume suction typical for dental surgical applications. During 41 trials, 3 combustion events were measured: an audible pop, a visible flash of light, and full ignition. In at least 11 of 21 trials without suction, all 3 conditions were observed, sometimes with an extent of fire that required early termination of the experimental trial. By contrast, in 18 of 20 with-suction trials, ignition did not occur at all, and in the 2 cases where ignition did occur, the fire was qualitatively a much smaller, candle-like flame. Statistically comparing these 3 combustion events in the no-suction versus with-suction trials, ignition (P = .0005), audible pop (P = .0211), and flash (P = .0092) were all significantly more likely in the no-suction condition. These results suggest a possible significant and new element to be added to existing surgical fire safety protocols toward making surgical fires the “never-events” they should be. PMID:25517551

  19. Immunoglobulin M-enriched human intravenous immunoglobulins reduce leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and attenuate microvascular perfusion failure in normotensive endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Johannes N; Fertmann, Jan M; Vollmar, Brigitte; Laschke, Matthias W; Jauch, Karl W; Menger, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate potential differences in the efficacy of immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations in patients with sepsis. A recent meta-analysis showed improved survival rates with IgM-enriched Igs. It was the objective of the present study to characterize microcirculatory actions of different clinically used Ig preparations in a rodent endotoxin model by intravital microscopy. Male Syrian golden hamsters 6 to 8 weeks old with a body weight of 60 to 80 g were investigated by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Endotoxemia was induced by administration of 2 mg/kg (i.v.) endotoxin (LPS, Escherichia coli). Two different Ig preparations containing IgM, IgA, and IgG (intravenous IgM group; n = 6; 5 mL Pentaglobin/kg body weight, i.v.) or exclusively IgG (intravenous IgG group; n = 5; 5 mL Flebogamma/kg body weight, i.v.) were applied 5 min before LPS. Saline-treated endotoxemic animals served as controls (control; n = 8). In controls, LPS induced massive leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, pronounced microvascular leakage, a decrease of systemic platelet count, and distinct capillary perfusion failure (P < 0.05). Both intravenous IgM and IgG reduced venular leakage (P< 0.05) and ameliorated the decrease in platelet count (P < 0.05). Of interest, intravenous IgM was capable of significantly (P< 0.05) reducing leukocyte adhesion in venules. This was associated with normalization of capillary perfusion at 24 h of endotoxemia, whereas intravenous IgG could not prevent LPS-mediated microvascular perfusion failure. We demonstrate that IgM-enriched Igs are superior to IgG alone in attenuating LPS-induced leukocytic inflammation and microcirculatory dysfunction. Our findings can explain better efficacy of IgM-enriched Igs in patients with severe sepsis.

  20. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in humans: assessment of stress using heart rate variability and salivary chromogranin A.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Takishima, T; Kometani, T; Yokogoshi, H

    2009-01-01

    We studied the psychological stress-reducing effect of chocolate enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on stress induced by an arithmetic task using changes of heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary chromogranin A (CgA). Subjects ingested 10 g chocolate enriched with 28 mg GABA (GABA chocolate); 15 min after the ingestion, subjects were assigned an arithmetic task for 15 min. After the task, an electrocardiogram was recorded and saliva samples were collected. HRV was determined from the electrocardiogram, and the activity of the autonomic nervous system was estimated through HRV. The CgA concentration of all saliva samples, an index for acute psychological stress, was measured. From HRV, those taking GABA chocolate made a quick recovery to the normal state from the stressful state. The CgA value after the task in those taking GABA chocolate did not increased in comparison with that before ingestion. From these results, GABA chocolate was considered to have a psychological stress-reducing effect.

  2. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD.

  3. Enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and resulting mineral formation in media mimicking pore water metal ion concentrations and pH conditions of acidic pit lakes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jutta; Piva, Angela; Fortin, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage sites are extreme environments with high acidity and metal ion concentrations. Under anoxic conditions, microbial sulfate reduction may trigger the formation of secondary minerals as a result of H2S production and pH increase. This process was studied in batch experiments with enrichment cultures from acidic sediments of a pit lake using growth media set at different pH values and containing elevated concentrations of Fe²⁺ and Al³⁺. At initial pH values of 5 and 6, sulfate reduction occurred shortly after inoculation. Sulfate- reducing bacteria affiliated to the genus Desulfosporosinus predominated the microbial communities as shown by 16S rRNA gene analysis performed at the end of the incubation. At initial pH values of 3 and 4, sulfate reduction and cell growth occurred only after an extended lag phase, however, at a higher rate than in the less acidic assays. At the end of the growth phase, enrichments were dominated by Thermodesulfobium spp. suggesting that these sulfate reducers were better adapted to acidic conditions. Iron sulfides in the bulk phase were common in all assays, but specific aluminum precipitates formed in close association with cell surfaces and may function as a detoxification mechanism of dissolved Al species at low pH.

  4. Reducing progoitrin and enriching glucoraphanin in Brassica napus seeds through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Hirani, Arvind H; McVetty, Peter B E; Daayf, Fouad; Quiros, Carlos F; Li, Genyi

    2012-05-01

    The hydrolytic products of glucosinolates in brassica crops are bioactive compounds. Some glucosinolate derivatives such as oxazolidine-2-thione from progoitrin in brassica oilseed meal are toxic and detrimental to animals, but some isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane are potent anti-carcinogens that have preventive effects on several human cancers. In most B. rapa, B. napus and B. juncea vegetables and oilseeds, there is no or only trace amount of glucoraphanin that is the precursor to sulforaphane. In this paper, RNA interference (RNAi) of the GSL-ALK gene family was used to down-regulate the expression of GSL-ALK genes in B. napus. The detrimental glucosinolate progoitrin was reduced by 65 %, and the beneficial glucosinolate glucoraphanin was increased to a relatively high concentration (42.6 μmol g(-1) seed) in seeds of B. napus transgenic plants through silencing of the GSL-ALK gene family. Therefore, there is potential application of the new germplasm with reduced detrimental glucosinolates and increased beneficial glucosinolates for producing improved brassica vegetables.

  5. ORGANIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO REDUCED PREOPERATIVE FASTING TIME, WITH A CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN ENRICHED SOLUTION; A RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Gagheggi Ravanini, Guilherme; Portari Filho, Pedro Eder; Abrantes Luna, Renato; Almeida de Oliveira, Vinicius

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio es la evaluación de la respuesta inflamatoria orgánica a la colecistectomía laparoscópica mediante vídeo con una reducción del tiempo de ayuno preoperatorio a 2h y empleando una solución enriquecida con carbohidratos y proteínas. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio aleatorizado, prospectivo con pacientes divididos en los dos grupos siguientes: grupo A, ayuno convencional y grupo B, ayuno abreviado de 2h con ingesta oral de una solución enriquecida con carbohidratos y proteínas. Antes de la ingesta de la solución, se hicieron mediciones de glucosa sérica, insulina, interleucina 1y TNF-α; también se realizaron mediciones durante la inducción de la anestesia y 4h después de la intervención quirúrgica. Resultados: Treinta y ocho pacientes completaron el estudio sin presentar complicaciones pulmonares relacionadas con el broncoaspirado. La varianza HOMA-IR postoperatoria fue superior en el grupo A (p = 0,001). Conclusión: La reducción del tiempo de ayuno preoperatorio a 2h, empleando soluciones enriquecidas con carbohidratos y proteínas, es segura, reduce la resistencia a la insulina, y no aumenta el riesgo de broncoaspirado.

  6. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index < 30 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a group receiving green tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  7. Enriched early life experiences reduce adult anxiety-like behavior in rats: a role for insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Sara; Restani, Laura; Baroncelli, Laura; Coltelli, Maila; Franco, Roberta; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2013-07-10

    Early life experiences can affect brain development, contributing to shape interindividual differences in stress vulnerability and anxiety-like behavior. In rodents, high levels of maternal care have long-lasting positive effects on the behavior of the offspring and stress response; post-weaning rearing in an enriched environment (EE) or massage counteract the negative effects of maternal separation or prenatal stressors. We recently found that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a key mediator of early EE or massage on brain development. Whether early enrichment of experience can induce long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior and whether IGF-1 is involved in these effects is not known. We assessed anxiety-like behavior by means of the elevated plus maze in control adult rats and in adult rats subjected to early EE or to massage. We found that both EE and massage reduced adult anxiety-like behavior. Early IGF-1 systemic injections in rat pups reared in standard condition mimic the effects of EE and massage, reducing anxiety-like behavior in the adult; blocking early IGF-1 action in massaged and EE animals prevents massage and EE effects. In EE and IGF-1-treated animals, we assessed the hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at postnatal day 12 (P12) and P60, finding a significantly higher GR expression at P60 for both treatments. These results suggest that IGF-1 could be involved in mediating the long-lasting effects of early life experiences on vulnerability/resilience to stress in adults.

  8. Identification of bacteria in enrichment cultures of sulfate reducers in the Cariaco Basin water column employing Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Cariaco Basin is characterized by pronounced and predictable vertical layering of microbial communities dominated by reduced sulfur species at and below the redox transition zone. Marine water samples were collected in May, 2005 and 2006, at the sampling stations A (10°30′ N, 64°40′ W), B (10°40′ N, 64°45′ W) and D (10°43’N, 64°32’W) from different depths, including surface, redox interface, and anoxic zones. In order to enrich for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), water samples were inoculated into anaerobic media amended with lactate or acetate as carbon source. To analyze the composition of enrichment cultures, we performed DNA extraction, PCR-DGGE, and sequencing of selected bands. Results DGGE results indicate that many bacterial genera were present that are associated with the sulfur cycle, including Desulfovibrio spp., as well as heterotrophs belonging to Vibrio, Enterobacter, Shewanella, Fusobacterium, Marinifilum, Mariniliabilia, and Spirochaeta. These bacterial populations are related to sulfur coupling and carbon cycles in an environment of variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. Conclusions In our studies, we found an association of SRB-like Desulfovibrio with Vibrio species and other genera that have a previously defined relevant role in sulfur transformation and coupling of carbon and sulfur cycles in an environment where there are variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. This study provides new information about microbial species that were culturable on media for SRB at anaerobic conditions at several locations and water depths in the Cariaco Basin. PMID:23981583

  9. Deferiprone Reduces Amyloid-β and Tau Phosphorylation Levels but not Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hippocampus of Rabbits Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Jaya R.P.; Schrag, Matthew; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Kirsch, Wolff M.; Ghribi, Othman

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein are major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The causes of AD are not well known but a number of environmental and dietary factors are suggested to increase the risk of developing AD. Additionally, altered metabolism of iron may have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol-enriched diet causes AD-like pathology with iron deposition in rabbit brain. However, the extent to which chelation of iron protects against this pathology has not been determined. In this study, we administered the iron chelator deferiprone in drinking water to rabbits fed with a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. We found that deferiprone (both at 10 and 50 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 as well as BACE1, the enzyme that initiates cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor to yield Aβ. Deferiprone also reduced the cholesterol diet-induced increase in phosphorylation of tau but failed to reduce reactive oxygen species generation. While deferiprone treatment was not associated with any change in brain iron levels, it was associated with a significant reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels. These results demonstrate that deferiprone confers important protection against hypercholesterolemia-induced AD pathology but the mechanism(s) may involve reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels rather than chelation of brain iron. We propose that adding an antioxidant therapy to deferiprone may be necessary to fully protect against cholesterol-enriched diet-induced AD-like pathology. PMID:22406440

  10. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required.

  11. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Souday, Vincent; Koning, Nick J; Perez, Bruno; Grelon, Fabien; Mercat, Alain; Boer, Christa; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter; Asfar, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN) breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression. Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2) in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes). Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler. Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001). Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217). Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively. EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing. ISRCTN 31681480.

  12. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Souday, Vincent; Koning, Nick J.; Perez, Bruno; Grelon, Fabien; Mercat, Alain; Boer, Christa; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter; Asfar, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN) breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression. Methods Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2) in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes). Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler. Results Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0–3.5] vs. 8 [4.5–10]; P < 0.001). Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217). Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively. Conclusion EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing. Trial Registration ISRCTN 31681480 PMID:27163253

  13. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  14. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K C; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-02-09

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125ppm Zn and 100ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC(50) values, was Cu, Te>Cd>Fe, Co, Mn>F, Se>Ni, Al, Li>Zn.

  16. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  17. Inhibition of acyl-CoA cholesterol O-acyltransferase reduces the cholesteryl ester enrichment of atherosclerotic lesions in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed

    Bocan, T M; Mueller, S B; Uhlendorf, P D; Brown, E Q; Mazur, M J; Black, A E

    1993-03-01

    Atherosclerotic lesion development may be altered indirectly by regulating plasma cholesterol or directly by inhibition of acyl-CoA cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) within cells of the artery. Yucatan micropigs were meal-fed a 2% cholesterol, 8% peanut oil, 8% coconut oil purified diet for 1 month prior to administration of the potent, bioavailable ACAT inhibitor CI-976, and induction of atherosclerotic lesions by chronic endothelial damage. After 84-108 days of therapy, CI-976 decreased mean plasma VLDL-cholesterol 85-91% and cumulative VLDL-exposure (area under VLDL-time curve) by 65%. However, overall plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unchanged. CI-976 decreased liver cholesteryl ester (CE) content 65% without significantly affecting adrenal CE content. The CE content of the injured left femoral, left iliac and abdominal aorta and uninjured right femoral and iliac arteries and thoracic aorta was reduced 62-78% by CI-976. Systemic plasma CI-976 levels measured 24 h post-dose ranged from 2.26 to 4.05 micrograms/ml and significantly correlated with the reduction in both VLDL and vessel CE content. Thus, we conclude that inhibition of ACAT can blunt the cholesteryl ester enrichment of developing atherosclerotic lesions by preventing reesterification and storage of lipoprotein cholesterol within vascular cells and by reducing the plasma level and delivery to the arterial wall of such atherogenic lipoproteins as VLDL.

  18. Insights into Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II) Oxidation Mechanisms through Analysis of Cell-Mineral Associations, Cell Encrustation, and Mineralogy in the Chemolithoautotrophic Enrichment Culture KS.

    PubMed

    Nordhoff, M; Tominski, C; Halama, M; Byrne, J M; Obst, M; Kleindienst, S; Behrens, S; Kappler, A

    2017-07-01

    Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats.IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing

  19. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    SciTech Connect

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-04-18

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range ofDeltaproteobacteriadiversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. In addition, many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network

  20. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    PubMed Central

    Case, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  1. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    DOE PAGES

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-04-18

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range ofDeltaproteobacteriadiversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seepmore » sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. In addition, many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces neuronal intranuclear inclusion load but has no effect on messenger RNA expression in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Benn, Caroline L; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Kuhn, Alexandre; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Blankson, Kwabena L; Dalai, Sudeb C; Goldstein, Darlene R; Spires, Tara L; Pritchard, Joel; Olson, James M; van Dellen, Anton; Hannan, Anthony J; Cha, Jang-Ho J

    2010-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. In the R6/1 mouse model of HD, environmental enrichment delays the neurologic phenotype onset and prevents cerebral volume loss by unknown molecular mechanisms. We examined the effects of environmental enrichment on well-characterized neuropathological parameters in a mouse model of HD. We found a trend toward preservation of downregulated neurotransmitter receptors in striatum of environmentally enriched mice and assessed possible enrichment-related modifications in gene expression using microarrays. We observed similar gene expression changes in R6/1 and R6/2 transgenic mice but found no specific changes in enrichment-related microarray expression profiles in either transgenic or wild-type mice. Furthermore, specific corrections in transprotein-induced transcriptional dysregulation in R6/1 mice were not detected by microarray profiling. However, gene-specific analyses suggested that long-term environmental enrichment may beneficially modulate gene expression dysregulation. Finally, environmental enrichment significantly decreased neuronal intranuclear inclusion load, despite unaffected transgene expression levels. Thus, the therapeutic effects of environmental enrichment likely contribute to decreasing aggregated polyglutamine protein levels without exerting strong effects on gene expression.

  3. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  4. Tissue-resident Eomes(hi) T-bet(lo) CD56(bright) NK cells with reduced proinflammatory potential are enriched in the adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Cathal; Robinson, Mark W; Fahey, Ronan; Whelan, Sarah; Houlihan, Diarmaid D; Geoghegan, Justin; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-09-01

    The adult human liver is enriched with natural killer (NK) cells, accounting for 30-50% of hepatic lymphocytes, which include tissue-resident hepatic NK-cell subpopulations, distinct from peripheral blood NK cells. In murine liver, a subset of liver-resident hepatic NK cells have altered expression of the two highly related T-box transcription factors, T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes). Here, we investigate the heterogeneity of T-bet and Eomes expression in NK cells from healthy adult human liver with a view to identifying human liver-resident populations. Hepatic NK cells were isolated from donor liver perfusates and biopsies obtained during orthotopic liver transplantation (N = 28). Hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells were Eomes(hi) T-bet(lo) , a phenotype virtually absent from peripheral blood. These NK cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR6 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6), a marker of tissue residency, which is absent from hepatic CD56(dim) and blood NK cells. Compared to blood populations, these hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells have increased expression of activatory receptors (NKp44, NKp46, and NKG2D). They show reduced ability to produce IFN-γ but enhanced degranulation in response to challenge with target cells. This functionally distinct population of hepatic NK cells constitutes 20-30% of the total hepatic lymphocyte repertoire and represents a tissue-resident immune cell population adapted to the tolerogenic liver microenvironment.

  5. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison R.; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  6. Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Krista M; Grigoriyan, Alexander; Jenneman, Gary; Jennneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-05-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H(2)S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58 degrees C with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in NS-tSRB2. Nitrate (10 mM) had no effect on H(2)S production by mid-log phase cultures of NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, whereas nitrite (0.25 mM or higher) inhibited sulfate reduction. NS-tSRB1 did not recover from inhibition, whereas sulfate reduction activity of NS-tSRB2 recovered after 500 h. Nitrite was also effective in souring inhibition and H(2)S removal in upflow bioreactors, whereas nitrate was similarly ineffective. Hence, nitrite may be preferable for souring prevention in some high-temperature oil fields because it reacts directly with sulfide and provides long-lasting inhibition of sulfate reduction.

  7. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors.

  8. Improving efficiency and reducing costs: Design of an adaptive, seamless, and enriched pragmatic efficacy trial of an online asthma management program.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Ownby, Dennis R; Zoratti, Edward; Roblin, Douglas; Johnson, Dayna; Johnson, Christine Cole; Joseph, Christine L M

    2014-05-01

    Clinical trials are critical for medical decision-making, however, under the current paradigm, clinical trials are fraught with problems including low enrollment and high cost. Promising alternatives to increase trial efficiency and reduce costs include the use of (1) electronic initiatives that permit electronic remote data capture (EDC) for direct data collection at a site (2), electronic medical records (EMR) for patient identification and data collection, and (3) adaptive, enrichment designs with pragmatic approaches. We describe the design of a seamless, multi-site randomized Phase II/III trial to evaluate an asthma management intervention in urban adolescents with asthma. Patients are randomized, asked to access four online sessions of the intervention or control asthma management program, and are then followed for one year. The primary efficacy endpoint is self-reported asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Comparative effectiveness parametric approaches are utilized to conduct the trial in a real world setting with reduced costs. Escalated electronic initiatives are implemented for patient identification, assent, enrollment and tracking. Patient enrollment takes place during primary care visits. A centralized database with EDC is used for CRF data collection with integration of EMR data. This Phase II/III trial plans to have a total sample size of 500 patients with an interim look at the completion of Phase II (n=250), The interim analyses include an assessment of the intervention effect, marker(s) identification and the feasibility study of EMR data as the trial CRF data collection. Patient enrollment has begun and is ongoing.

  9. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Butterly, Clayton R.; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3–) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Methods Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3–-N kg–1 under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Key Results Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3–-N kg–1 than at 90 mg NO3–-N kg–1 soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85 % less nodule mass in the 90 NO3–-N kg–1 than in the 5 mg NO3–-N kg–1 treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3–. Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30 %) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3– on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Conclusions Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3– on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. PMID:26346721

  10. A reduced fraction of plant N derived from atmospheric N (%Ndfa) and reduced rhizobial nifH gene numbers indicate a lower capacity for nitrogen fixation in nodules of white clover exposed to long-term CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Bowatte, S.; Newton, P. C. D.

    2013-06-01

    Using the δ15N natural abundance method, we found that the fraction of nitrogen derived from atmospheric N (%Ndfa) in field grown white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants was significantly lower (72.0% vs. 89.5%, p = 0.047 in a grassland exposed to elevated CO2 for 13 yr using Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE). Twelve months later we conducted an experiment to investigate the reasons behind the reduced N fixation. We took cuttings from white clover plants growing in the FACE and established individual plants in a glasshouse using soil from the appropriate ambient or elevated CO2 treatments. The established plants were then transplanted back into their "rings of origin" and sampled over a 6 week period. We used molecular ecological analyses targeting nifH genes and transcripts of rhizobia in symbiosis with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to understand the potential mechanisms. Shoot biomass was significantly lower in eCO2 but there was no difference in nodule number or mass per plant. The numbers of nifH genes and gene transcripts per nodule were significantly reduced under eCO2 but the ratio of gene to transcript number and the strains of rhizobia present were the same in both treatments. We conclude that the capacity for biological nitrogen fixation was reduced by eCO2 in white clover and was related to the reduced rhizobia numbers in nodules. We discuss the finding of reduced gene number in relation to factors controlling bacteroid DNA amount which may imply an influence of nitrogen as well as phosphorus.

  11. A reduced fraction of plant N derived from atmospheric N (%Ndfa) and reduced rhizobial nifH gene numbers indicate a lower capacity for nitrogen fixation in nodules of white clover exposed to long-term CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Bowatte, S.; Newton, P. C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Using the δ15N natural abundance method, we found that the fraction of nitrogen derived from atmospheric N (%Ndfa) in field-grown white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants was significantly lower (72.0% vs. 89.8%, p = 0.047 in a grassland exposed to elevated CO2 for 13 yr using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). Twelve months later we conducted an experiment to investigate the reasons behind the reduced N fixation. We took cuttings from white clover plants growing in the FACE and established individual plants in a glasshouse using soil from the appropriate ambient or elevated CO2 treatments. The established plants were then transplanted back into their "rings of origin" and sampled over a 6-week period. We used molecular ecological analyses targeting nifH genes and transcripts of rhizobia in symbiosis with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to understand the potential mechanisms. Shoot biomass was significantly lower in eCO2, but there was no difference in nodule number or mass per plant. The numbers of nifH genes and gene transcripts per nodule were significantly reduced under eCO2, but the ratio of gene to transcript number and the strains of rhizobia present were the same in both treatments. We conclude that the capacity for biological nitrogen fixation was reduced by eCO2 in white clover and was related to the reduced rhizobia numbers in nodules. We discuss the finding of reduced gene number in relation to factors controlling bacteroid DNA amount, which may imply an influence of nitrogen as well as phosphorus.

  12. Walnut-enriched diet reduces fasting non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in healthy Caucasian subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liya; Piotrowski, Katja; Rau, Tiina; Waldmann, Elisa; Broedl, Uli C; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Stark, Renee G; Nagel, Jutta M; Mantzoros, Christos S; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2014-03-01

    Walnut consumption is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed the effect of walnuts on lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, inflammation and endothelial function in healthy Caucasian men and postmenopausal women ≥50years old. Forty subjects (mean±SEM: age 60±1years, BMI 24.9±0.6kg/m(2); 30 females) were included in a controlled, cross-over study and randomized to receive first a walnut-enriched (43g/d) and then a Western-type (control) diet or vice-versa, with each lasting 8weeks and separated by a 2-week wash-out. At the beginning and end of each diet phase, measurements of fasting values, a mixed meal test and an assessment of postprandial endothelial function (determination of microcirculation by peripheral artery tonometry) were conducted. Area under the curve (AUC), incremental AUC (iAUC) and treatment×time interaction (shape of the curve) were evaluated for postprandial triglycerides, VLDL-triglycerides, chylomicron-triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol (walnut vs. control: -10±3 vs. -3±2mg/dL; p=0.025) and apolipoprotein-B (-5.0±1.3 vs. -0.2±1.1mg/dL; p=0.009) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and diet sequence. Total cholesterol showed a trend toward reduction (p=0.073). Fasting VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c did not change significantly. Similarly, fasting adipokines, C-reactive protein, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism and endothelial function were unaffected. Daily consumption of 43g of walnuts for 8weeks significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B, which may explain in part the epidemiological observation that regular walnut consumption decreases CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metaproteogenomic analysis of a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture reveals genomic organization of key enzymes in the m-xylene degradation pathway and metabolic activity of proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bozinovski, Dragana; Taubert, Martin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; von Bergen, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Seifert, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the functional and phylogenetic relationships within an m-xylene degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment culture, which had been maintained for several years in the laboratory with m-xylene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Previous studies indicated that a phylotype affiliated to the Desulfobacteraceae was the main m-xylene assimilating organism. In the present study, genes and gene products were identified by a metaproteogenomic approach using LC-MS/MS analysis of the microbial community, and 2426 peptides were identified from 576 proteins. In the metagenome of the community, gene clusters encoding enzymes involved in fumarate addition to a methyl moiety of m-xylene (nms, bss), as well as gene clusters coding for enzymes involved in modified beta-oxidation to (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA (bns), were identified in two separate contigs. Additionally, gene clusters containing homologues to bam genes encoding benzoyl-CoA reductase (Bcr) class II, catalyzing the dearomatization of (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA, were identified. Time-resolved protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) experiments using (13)C-labeled m-xylene showed that the respective gene products were highly (13)C-labeled. The present data suggested the identification of gene products that were similar to those involved in methylnaphthalene degradation even though the consortium was not capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene, methylnaphthalene or toluene as substrates. Thus, a novel branch of enzymes was found that was probably specific for anaerobic m-xylene degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment reduces age-dependent impairment in discrimination and reversal learning in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W; Head, Elizabeth; Zicker, Steven C; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace; Murphey, Heather; Muggenberg, Bruce A; Siwak, Christina T; Tapp, P Dwight; Lowry, Stephen R; Cotman, Carl W

    2004-05-01

    The effects of long-term treatment with both antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment were studied as part of a longitudinal investigation of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. Baseline performance on a battery of cognitive tests was used to assign 48 aged dogs (9-12 years) into four cognitively equivalent groups, of 12 animals per group: Group CC (control food-control environment), group CE (control food-enriched environment); Group AC (antioxidant fortified food-control environment); Group AE (fortified food-enriched environment). We also tested a group of young dogs fed the control food and a second group fed the fortified food. Both groups of young dogs received a program of behavioral enrichment. To evaluate the effects of the interventions on cognition after 1 year, the dogs were tested on a size discrimination learning task and subsequently on a size discrimination reversal learning task. Both tasks showed age-sensitivity, with old dogs performing more poorly than young dogs. Both tasks were also improved by both the fortified food and the behavioral enrichment. However, in both instances the treatment effects largely reflected improved performance in the combined treatment group. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antioxidants in attenuating age-dependent cognitive decline is dependent on behavioral and environmental experience.

  16. Project ENRICH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaley, Elizabeth; And Others

    Project ENRICH was conceived in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, to: (1) identify preschool children with learning disabilities, and (2) to develop a program geared to the remediation of the learning disabilities within a school year, while allowing the child to be enrolled in a regular class situation for the following school year. Through…

  17. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  18. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  19. Designing job enrichment projects.

    PubMed

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects.

  20. Immunoglobulin M-enriched intravenous polyclonal immunoglobulins reduce bacteremia following Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in an acute respiratory distress syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, R A; van Kaam, A H L C; Haitsma, J J; Verbrugge, S J C; Delreu, F; Lachmann, B

    2004-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation is known to induce bacterial translocation from the lung into the systemic circulation. This study determined the effect of immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched polyclonal immunoglobulins on bacteremia due to ventilation-induced translocation in an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rat model with Klebsiella-induced pneumonia. After whole lung lavage, Sprague-Dawley rats intravenously received either a high dose or a low dose of an immunoglobulin preparation, or an albumin solution as control, followed by an intratracheal injection of a Klebsiella pneumoniae solution. Blood colony-forming units (CFUs) in the treatment groups were significantly lower during the 3-hour ventilation period compared to the control group. The authors conclude that IgM-enriched polyclonal immunoglobulins lead to a reduction of bacteria in blood of surfactant-deficient, ventilated rats infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David; Chandler, David; Cook, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Chandler, David; Cook, David Howard; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K; Valentine, Jennifer R

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  3. Preparation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) isotopic spike solutions from 50Cr and 53Cr enriched oxides without the use of oxidizing and/or reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Zuliani, Tea; Martinčič, Anže; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2012-09-15

    The use of enriched stable isotopes as tracers in speciation procedures by ion-exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS enables to follow the oxidation-reduction processes of Cr. The most commonly available Cr stable isotopes are (50)Cr and (53)Cr enriched oxides or metallic Cr. For application of Cr enriched stable isotopes, adequate preparation of isotopic spike solutions is necessary. To ensure that Cr species present in the sample investigated are not compromised, no excess of the reducing neither oxidizing agents should remain in the isotopic spike solutions. Cr(VI) isotopic solutions are mostly prepared by dissolving of Cr oxide in HClO(4), followed by the addition of ammonia and H(2)O(2) to quantitatively oxidize Cr, while the excess of H(2)O(2) is removed by boiling or UV irradiation. If traces of H(2)O(2) still remains, such isotopic spike solution may cause artefacts in Cr speciation in the sample investigated. In the present work, new procedure based on alkaline melting of (50)Cr enriched oxide for preparation of pure (50)Cr(VI) spike solution was developed. Cr(III) was quantitatively oxidized to Cr(VI) with air oxygen without use of other oxidizing agents. Moreover, the microwave assisted digestion procedure of (53)Cr enriched oxide was applied for preparation of (53)Cr(III) spike solution without use of reducing agents. The purity of (50)Cr(VI) and (53)Cr(III) isotopic spike solutions was verified by the speciation analysis applying hyphenation of anion-exchange FPLC to ICP-MS. Speciation analysis demonstrated suitability of the proposed procedures for preparation of Cr isotopic spike solutions. In addition, the artefacts in Cr speciation, which may be initiated by traces of oxidizing and/or reducing agents present in Cr spike solutions, were demonstrated. The outcomes of our investigation highlighted the importance of the adequate preparation of spike solutions of Cr isotopes that may be used as reliable tracers in the investigations of the oxidation

  4. The use of a solid adsorber resin for enrichment of bacteria with toxic substrates and to identify metabolites: degradation of naphthalene, O-, and m-xylene by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morasch, B; Annweiler, E; Warthmann, R J; Meckenstock, R U

    2001-03-01

    Anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched from contaminated aquifer samples with naphthalene, o-, and m-xylene as sole carbon and energy source in the presence of Amberlite-XAD7, a solid adsorber resin. XAD7 served as a substrate reservoir maintaining a constantly low substrate concentration in the culture medium. In equilibration experiments with XAD7, the aromatic hydrocarbons needed up to 5 days to achieve equilibrium between the water and the XAD7 phase. The equilibrium concentration was directly correlated with the amount of added substrate and XAD7. In the enrichments presented here, XAD7 and aromatic hydrocarbons were adjusted to maintain substrate concentrations of 100 microM m-, or o-xylene, or 50 microM naphthalene. After five subsequent transfers, the three cultures were able to grow with higher substrate concentrations in the absence of XAD7 although they grew best with lower hydrocarbon concentrations. Two new xylene-degrading cultures were obtained that could not utilise toluene as carbon source. O-xylene was degraded anaerobically by a culture, which could also oxidise m-xylene but not p-xylene. Eighty-three percent of the electrons from o-xylene oxidation were recovered in the produced sulfide, indicating a complete oxidation to CO2. Another sulfate-reducing enrichment culture oxidised m-xylene completely to CO2 but not o-, or p-xylene. A naphthalene-degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment culture oxidised naphthalene completely to CO2. Metabolites of naphthalene degradation were recovered from the XAD7 phase and subjected to GC/MS analysis. Besides the metabolites 2-naphthoic acid and decahydro-2-naphthoic acid which were identified by the mass spectrum and coelution with chemically synthesised reference compounds, the reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and octahydro-2-naphthoic acid were tentatively identified by their mass spectra. Cultivation of bacterial cultures in the presence of XAD7 and subsequent

  5. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.

  6. A blueberry-enriched diet improves renal function and reduces oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome animals: potential mechanism of TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anand R; Elks, Carrie M; Vila, Jorge; Del Piero, Fabio; Paulsen, Daniel B; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of health factors that indicate a higher risk for cardio-renal diseases. Recent evidence indicates that antioxidants from berries are alternative to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that inflammation-induced renal damage is triggered by the activation of TLR4, and subsequent modulation of redox-sensitive molecules and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Five-week old lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR) were fed a blueberry-enriched diet or an isocaloric control diet for 15 weeks. A glucose tolerance test and acute renal clearance experiments were performed. Gene and protein expression levels for TLR4, cytokines and phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK were measured. Kidney redox status and urinary albumin levels were quantified. Renal pathology was evaluated histologically. Control OZR exhibited lower glucose tolerance; exacerbated renal function parameters; increased oxidative stress. Gene and protein expression levels of TLR4 were higher and this was accompanied by increased renal pathology with extensive albuminuria and deterioration in antioxidant levels in OZR. In addition, OZR had increased phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK. Blueberry-fed OZR exhibited significant improvements in all these parameters compared to OZR. TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway is a key to the renal structural injury and dysfunction in MetS and blueberry (BB) protect against this damage by inhibiting TLR4. This is the first study to put forth a potential mechanism of TLR4-induced kidney damage in a model of MetS and to elucidate a downstream mechanism by which blueberry exert their reno-protective effects.

  7. Carbon dioxide enrichment does not reduce leaf longevity or alter accumulation of carbon reserves in the woodland spring ephemeral Erythronium americanum.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Sylvain; Lapointe, Line

    2008-11-01

    Woodland spring ephemerals exhibit a relatively short epigeous growth period prior to canopy closure. However, it has been suggested that leaf senescence is induced by a reduction in the carbohydrate sink demand, rather than by changes in light availability. To ascertain whether a potentially higher net carbon (C) assimilation rate could shorten leaf lifespan due to an accelerated rate of storage, Erythronium americanum plants were grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (1100 ppm) CO2 concentrations. During this growth-chamber experiment, plant biomass, bulb starch concentration and cell size, leaf phenology, gas exchange rates and nutrient concentrations were monitored. Plants grown at 1100 ppm CO2 had greater net C assimilation rates than those grown at 400 ppm CO2. However, plant size, final bulb mass, bulb filling rate and timing of leaf senescence did not differ. Erythronium americanum fixed more C under elevated than under ambient CO2 conditions, but produced plants of similar size. The similar bulb growth rates under both CO2 concentrations suggest that the bulb filling rate is dependant on bulb cell elongation rate, rather than on C availability. Elevated CO2 stimulated leaf and bulb respiratory rates; this might reduce feed-back inhibition of photosynthesis and avoid inducing premature leaf senescence.

  8. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile confirms compliance to a novel saturated fat-reduced, monounsaturated fat-enriched dairy product intervention in adults at moderate cardiovascular risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Markey, Oonagh; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Kliem, Kirsty E; Koulman, Albert; Fagan, Colette C; Summerhill, Keith; Wang, Laura Y; Grandison, Alistair S; Humphries, David J; Todd, Susan; Jackson, Kim G; Givens, David I; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-05-23

    Dairy products are a major contributor to dietary SFA. Partial replacement of milk SFA with unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) is possible through oleic-acid rich supplementation of the dairy cow diet. To assess adherence to the intervention of SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched dairy product consumption in the RESET (REplacement of SaturatEd fat in dairy on Total cholesterol) study using 4-d weighed dietary records, in addition to plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) status. In a randomised, controlled, crossover design, free-living UK participants identified as moderate risk for CVD (n = 54) were required to replace habitually consumed dairy foods (milk, cheese and butter), with study products with a FA profile typical of retail products (control) or SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched profile (modified), for two 12-week periods, separated by an 8-week washout period. A flexible food-exchange model was used to implement each isoenergetic high-fat, high-dairy diet (38% of total energy intake (%TE) total fat): control (dietary target: 19%TE SFA; 11%TE MUFA) and modified (16%TE SFA; 14%TE MUFA). Following the modified diet, there was a smaller increase in SFA (17.2%TE vs. 19.1%TE; p < 0.001) and greater increase in MUFA intake (15.4%TE vs. 11.8%TE; p < 0.0001) when compared with the control. PL-FA analysis revealed lower total SFAs (p = 0.006), higher total cis-MUFAs and trans-MUFAs (both p < 0.0001) following the modified diet. The food-exchange model was successfully used to achieve RESET dietary targets by partial replacement of SFAs with MUFAs in dairy products, a finding reflected in the PL-FA profile and indicative of objective dietary compliance. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02089035 , date 05-01-2014.

  9. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune suppressive cells

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Reville, Patrick K.; Mace, Thomas A.; Young, Gregory S.; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may impact prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 prostate cancer patients with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to 2 slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on Day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced Th1 (p=0.028) and MDSC-associated cytokines (p=0.035). Th2 and Th17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8+ or CD4+ T cells, but showed increased CD56+ NK cells (p=0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) were significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (p=0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33+HLADRnegCD14+) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (p=0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. PMID:26276751

  10. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  11. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline.

  12. AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

  13. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  14. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  15. Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Moretti, Diego; Van den Briel, Natalie; Omusundi, Agnes M; Mwangi, Alice M; Kok, Frans J; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children. In a 16-wk intervention trial, children (n = 279; 12-59 mo) were randomly assigned to: unrefined maize porridge (control; 4.1 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 5:1); unrefined maize (30%) and amaranth grain (70%) porridge (amaranth group; 23 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 3:1); or unrefined maize porridge with MNP (MNP group; 6.6 mg iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 2.6:1; 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA). Primary outcomes were anemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control. At baseline, 38% were anemic and 30% iron deficient. Consumption of MNP reduced the prevalence of anemia [-46% (95% CI: -67, -12)], iron deficiency [-70% (95% CI: -89, -16)], and IDA [-75% (95% CI: -92, -20)]. The soluble transferrin receptor [-10% (95% CI: -16, -4)] concentration was lower, whereas the hemoglobin (Hb) [2.7 g/L (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1)] and plasma ferritin [40% (95% CI: 10, 95)] concentrations increased in the MNP group. There was no significant change in Hb or iron status in the amaranth group. Consumption of maize porridge fortified with low-dose, highly bioavailable iron MNP can reduce the prevalence of IDA in preschool children. In contrast, fortification with amaranth grain did not improve iron status despite a large increase in iron intake, likely due to high ratio of phytic acid:iron in the meal.

  16. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM (0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.84 kg), leg LTM (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42 kg), and muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group also experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) and a 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) after 4 mo. There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure. A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ achieved through lean red meat is safe and effective for enhancing the effects of PRT on LTM and muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  17. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace

  18. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Anxiety by Differentially Activating Serotonergic and Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Ergic System in Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga): An Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protective role of an enriched condition (EC) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. However, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of PTSD. In this study, we show that field mice (Mus booduga) housed under EC exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with mice housed under standard conditions (SC) during exposure to their natural predator (field rat Rattus rattus). Furthermore, we observed that EC mice displayed less anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark-box after exposure to the predator (7 hrs/7 days). In EC mice, predator exposure elevated the level of serotonin (5-Hydroxytrypamine, [5-HT]) in the amygdala as part of the coping response. Subsequently, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptor were up-regulated significantly, but the same did not occur in the 5-HT2C receptor, which is associated with the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and a transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Our results show that predator exposure induced the activation of CaMKII/CREB, which is accompanied with increased levels of histone acetylation (H3, H4) and decreased histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2). Subsequently, in the amygdala, the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor were up-regulated, whereas the Y2 receptor was down-regulated. Therefore, EC facilitated a coping response against a fear associated cue in a PTSD animal model and reduced anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and NPY-ergic systems.

  19. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Anxiety by Differentially Activating Serotonergic and Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Ergic System in Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga): An Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protective role of an enriched condition (EC) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. However, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of PTSD. In this study, we show that field mice (Mus booduga) housed under EC exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with mice housed under standard conditions (SC) during exposure to their natural predator (field rat Rattus rattus). Furthermore, we observed that EC mice displayed less anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark-box after exposure to the predator (7 hrs/7 days). In EC mice, predator exposure elevated the level of serotonin (5-Hydroxytrypamine, [5-HT]) in the amygdala as part of the coping response. Subsequently, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptor were up-regulated significantly, but the same did not occur in the 5-HT2C receptor, which is associated with the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and a transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Our results show that predator exposure induced the activation of CaMKII/CREB, which is accompanied with increased levels of histone acetylation (H3, H4) and decreased histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2). Subsequently, in the amygdala, the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor were up-regulated, whereas the Y2 receptor was down-regulated. Therefore, EC facilitated a coping response against a fear associated cue in a PTSD animal model and reduced anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and NPY-ergic systems. PMID:26016844

  20. Enrichment through Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Claire S.

    The CREST (Creative Resources Enriching Student Talents) Project, an enrichment approach for elementary gifted, talented, and creative students, is described. The project is explained to incorporate an interdisciplinary approach to instruction in art and science using resources within the community. Chapter 1 outlines the project philosophy,…

  1. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; ...

    2015-09-03

    Low-enrichment (U-235 < 20%) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing was comprised of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates that were tested inmore » INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. Adjacent to the AA6061 cladding were Mg-rich precipitates, which was in close proximity to the region where Xe is observed to be enriched. In samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface were possible indications of porosity/debonding, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.« less

  2. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-03

    Low-enrichment (U-235 < 20%) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing was comprised of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates that were tested in INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. Adjacent to the AA6061 cladding were Mg-rich precipitates, which was in close proximity to the region where Xe is observed to be enriched. In samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface were possible indications of porosity/debonding, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.

  3. Enteral application of an immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation for reducing endotoxin translocation and acute phase response in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery--a randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bölke, Edwin; Orth, Klaus; Jehle, Peter M; Schwarz, Andreas; Steinbach, Gerold; Schleich, Stefan; Ulmer, Christof; Storck, Martin; Hannekum, Andreas

    2002-11-30

    To evaluate the influence of enteral application of an immunoglobulin enriched bovine milk preparation on endotoxin plasma levels, endotoxin neutralizing capacity of plasma (ENC) and the acute phase response (IL-6, CRP) during and after cardiac surgery, in a pilot study. 60 patients who underwent coronary bypass operations, were evenly enrolled in a placebo-controlled randomized study. The patients were treated by enteral application of either 42 g of a bovine colostrum milk preparation per day or placebo, for 2 days preoperatively. Endotoxin and ENC were sequentially determined intra- and postoperatively by a chromogenic modification of the limulus amebocyte lysate test. Interleukin-6, CRP, transferrin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, apo-A, apo-B, IgG, IgA, IgM were determined by ELISA and nephelometrically. The clinical course was followed up by daily evaluation of the Apache-II-score. Demographic data were comparable in both groups. No differences of the Apache-II-score (verum group: 6.5 +/- 1.9 vs. controls: 6.8 +/- 1.8 on admission) were observed. Endotoxin and ENC levels were elevated at the end of the operation and seemed to have a trigger function for the acute phase response. However, there was no reduction (calculated as the area under the curve) in patients receiving the colostrum milk preparation throughout the observation period. Plasma levels of endotoxin binding proteins did not differ. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increased to maximal median values of 655 pg/ml in the verum and 786 pg/ml in the control group, respectively 2 and 6 h after surgery. In the colostrum group, there was a tendency to reduced IL-6 levels throughout the observation period. CRP-levels of all patients peaked 48 h after the operation but were lower (p = 0.034) in the verum group. This study revealed that endotoxemia occurs early in an elective non-intestinal surgical intervention, and is followed by a subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction. The prophylactic

  4. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  5. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, R.

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  6. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  7. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Low-enrichment (235U < 20 pct) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing consisted of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates were fabricated using a friction bonding process, tested in INL's advanced test reactor (ATR), and then subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. In the samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface, possible indications of porosity/debonding were found, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.

  8. The historical record of metal enrichment in two Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Smith, R.G. ); Calder, F.D.; Schropp, S.J. ); Windom H.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Historical profiles of metal accumulation have been generated for the lower St. Johns River and Hillsborough Bay, Florida, in cores representing approximately 50 yr of sediment and metal accumulation. These profiles demonstrate that Cd, Pb, and Zn are enriched in these Florida estuarine sediments. Pb enrichment has decreased since the mid 1970s because of reduced use of leaded gasoline. In the St. Johns River, most metals exhibit a trend of increasing enrichment with time. Cd enrichment significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975 as a result of reduced discharges into the river and control of aquatic vegetation. In Hillsborough Bay, enrichment factors for most metals are relatively high and show little change downcore. Cr, Cu, and Ni border on enrichment and Pb, Cd, and Zn are enriched. The results of this study are consistent with other studies of surficial-sediment metal concentration in other Florida estuaries. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  10. Isotopic enrichment of Zn particles by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Pozzi, Marcelo N.; Guidali, Gonzalo; Fernández, Mauricio; Zubillaga, Erica; Rinaldi, Carlos A.

    2017-07-01

    The use of Zn in nuclear reactors reduces the amount of 60Co generated as a consequence of the natural activation of Co. On the other hand, isotopically enriched Zn can be used as a tracer in biological systems. At the present, the enrichment of Zn is obtained using gaseous compounds of the metal by centrifugal force. In this paper, we present a method based on laser ablation of metallic targets of Zn with a Nd-YAG nanosecond laser to produce isotopically enriched Zn particles. Also, the effect of the wavelength irradiation laser on the enrichment factor was studied and a procedure is proposed to collect the different enrichment fractions yield.

  11. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  12. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  13. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  14. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  15. Backward Mathematics for Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Alvin M.; Shuler, Nancy L.

    1982-01-01

    The use of backward mathematics is promoted as an enrichment strategy which gives pupils the opportunity to generate creative responses that explore many possibilities. It is felt that teachers will find the instructional method a worthwhile innovation, and a technique useful in any curricular area. (MP)

  16. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  17. ENRICHMENT--CLASSROOM CHALLENGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBBONY, HAZEL L.

    THIS MANUAL CONTAINS SUGGESTIONS FOR ENRICHMENT IN LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, ARITHMETIC, FOREIGN LANGUAGES, ART, AND MUSIC AT THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL AND IN ENGLISH, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, MODERN LANGUAGES AND LATIN, ART, AND MUSIC AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL. ADDITIONAL SECTIONS INCLUDE INFORMATION ON THE USE OF COMMUNITY…

  18. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  19. GOMA: functional enrichment analysis tool based on GO modules

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang; Wu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the function of gene sets is a critical step in interpreting the results of high-throughput experiments in systems biology. A variety of enrichment analysis tools have been developed in recent years, but most output a long list of significantly enriched terms that are often redundant, making it difficult to extract the most meaningful functions. In this paper, we present GOMA, a novel enrichment analysis method based on the new concept of enriched functional Gene Ontology (GO) modules. With this method, we systematically revealed functional GO modules, i.e., groups of functionally similar GO terms, via an optimization model and then ranked them by enrichment scores. Our new method simplifies enrichment analysis results by reducing redundancy, thereby preventing inconsistent enrichment results among functionally similar terms and providing more biologically meaningful results. PMID:23237213

  20. Uranium reduction and resistance to reoxidation under iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Nayak, Dipti; Du, Xin; Criddle, Craig S

    2009-10-01

    Oxidation and mobilization of microbially-generated U(IV) is of great concern for in situ uranium bioremediation. This study investigated the reoxidation of uranium by oxygen and nitrate in a sulfate-reducing enrichment and an iron-reducing enrichment derived from sediment and groundwater from the Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Both enrichments were capable of reducing U(VI) rapidly. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the two enrichments revealed that Desulfovibrio spp. are dominant in the sulfate-reducing enrichment, and Clostridium spp. are dominant in the iron-reducing enrichment. In both the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, oxygen reoxidized the previously reduced uranium but to a lesser extent in the iron-reducing enrichment. Moreover, in the iron-reducing enrichment, the reoxidized U(VI) was eventually re-reduced to its previous level. In both, the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, uranium reoxidation did not occur in the presence of nitrate. The results indicate that the Clostridium-dominated iron-reducing communities created conditions that were more favorable for uranium stability with respect to reoxidation despite the fact that fewer electron equivalents were added to these systems. The likely reason is that more of the added electrons are present in a form that can reduce oxygen to water and U(VI) back to U(IV).

  1. Motif enrichment tool.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/.

  2. Enriching Nanoparticles via Acoustofluidics.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhangming; Li, Peng; Wu, Mengxi; Bachman, Hunter; Mesyngier, Nicolas; Guo, Xiasheng; Liu, Sheng; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-24

    Focusing and enriching submicrometer and nanometer scale objects is of great importance for many applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present an acoustofluidic chip that can generate single vortex acoustic streaming inside a glass capillary through using low-power acoustic waves (only 5 V is required). The single vortex acoustic streaming that is generated, in conjunction with the acoustic radiation force, is able to enrich submicrometer- and nanometer-sized particles in a small volume. Numerical simulations were used to elucidate the mechanism of the single vortex formation and were verified experimentally, demonstrating the focusing of silica and polystyrene particles ranging in diameter from 80 to 500 nm. Moreover, the acoustofluidic chip was used to conduct an immunoassay in which nanoparticles that captured fluorescently labeled biomarkers were concentrated to enhance the emitted signal. With its advantages in simplicity, functionality, and power consumption, the acoustofluidic chip we present here is promising for many point-of-care applications.

  3. Chromatin enrichment for proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kustatscher, Georg; Wills, Karen L. H.; Furlan, Cristina; Rappsilber, Juri

    2015-01-01

    During interphase, chromatin hosts fundamental cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. To analyze chromatin on a proteomic scale, we have developed chromatin enrichment for proteomics (ChEP), which is a simple biochemical procedure that enriches interphase chromatin in all its complexity. It enables researchers to take a ‘snapshot’ of chromatin and to isolate and identify even transiently bound factors. In ChEP, cells are fixed with formaldehyde; subsequently, DNA together with all cross-linked proteins is isolated by centrifugation under denaturing conditions. This approach enables the analysis of global chromatin composition and its changes, which is in contrast with existing chromatin enrichment procedures, which either focus on specific chromatin loci (e.g., affinity purification) or are limited in specificity, such as the analysis of the chromatin pellet (i.e., analysis of all insoluble nuclear material). ChEP takes half a day to complete and requires no specialized laboratory skills or equipment. ChEP enables the characterization of chromatin response to drug treatment or physiological processes. Beyond proteomics, ChEP may preclear chromatin for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. PMID:25101823

  4. Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Challenging All Children to Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes how the components of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model were used to dramatically reduce the achievement gap in a school with a high at-risk student population. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation replaced an existing remedial paradigm and a strength-based methodology was embraced by the school…

  5. Tissue enrichment analysis for C. elegans genomics.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Albores, David; N Lee, Raymond Y; Chan, Juancarlos; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-13

    Over the last ten years, there has been explosive development in methods for measuring gene expression. These methods can identify thousands of genes altered between conditions, but understanding these datasets and forming hypotheses based on them remains challenging. One way to analyze these datasets is to associate ontologies (hierarchical, descriptive vocabularies with controlled relations between terms) with genes and to look for enrichment of specific terms. Although Gene Ontology (GO) is available for Caenorhabditis elegans, it does not include anatomical information. We have developed a tool for identifying enrichment of C. elegans tissues among gene sets and generated a website GUI where users can access this tool. Since a common drawback to ontology enrichment analyses is its verbosity, we developed a very simple filtering algorithm to reduce the ontology size by an order of magnitude. We adjusted these filters and validated our tool using a set of 30 gold standards from Expression Cluster data in WormBase. We show our tool can even discriminate between embryonic and larval tissues and can even identify tissues down to the single-cell level. We used our tool to identify multiple neuronal tissues that are down-regulated due to pathogen infection in C. elegans. Our Tissue Enrichment Analysis (TEA) can be found within WormBase, and can be downloaded using Python's standard pip installer. It tests a slimmed-down C. elegans tissue ontology for enrichment of specific terms and provides users with a text and graphic representation of the results.

  6. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D.; Robinson, Sharon M.

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities. This program should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  7. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers. Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture.

  8. Stability Study of the RERTR Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan; Dennis Keiser; Brandon Miller; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    The irradiation stability of the interaction phases at the interface of fuel and Al alloy matrix as well as the stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice is believed to be very important to the U-Mo fuel performance. In this paper the recent result from TEM characterization of Kr ion irradiated U-10Mo-5Zr alloy will be discussed. The focus will be on the phase stability of Mo2-Zr, a dominated second phase developed at the interface of U-10Mo and the Zr barrier in a monolithic fuel plate from fuel fabrication. The Kr ion irradiations were conducted at a temperature of 200 degrees C to an ion fluence of 2.0E+16 ions/cm2. To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated dispersion U-7Mo fuel and monolithic U-10Mo fuel, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel (3.53E+21 fission/cm3) was used for a TEM in-situ heating experiment. The preliminary result showed extraordinary thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of the TEM observation from these two experiments on the fuel microstructural evolution under irradiation will be discussed.

  9. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% {sup 235}U) or medium enriched uranium (35% {sup 235}U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology.

  10. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  12. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-12-15

    Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1) upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500-1000 nM), accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  13. City model enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  14. Work Enrichment for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes

    1983-01-01

    Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…

  15. After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Reagan D.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support

  16. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  17. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P < 0.01), lower GFR (P = 0.04), and lower sCr concentrations (P < 0.01). However, SDMA concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in older cats. This study shows that in cats, serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age.

  18. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  19. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Thermal Sensitivity in an Operant Orofacial Pain Assay

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Heather L.; Neubert, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental enrichment reduces reactivity to stressor and could also modulate pain perception. In this study we sought to compare the effects of enriched and standard housing on temperature perception. In an operant assay, rats housed in an enriched environment exhibited significantly lower sensitivities to thermal stimuli and displayed less exploratory behavior in a rearing chamber. These findings indicate that environmental enrichment can significantly affect temperature perception, likely through stress-related mechanisms. PMID:17976833

  20. Bacteriophages may bias outcome of bacterial enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-08-01

    Enrichment cultures are widely used for the isolation of bacteria in clinical, biotechnological, and environmental studies. However, competition, relative growth rates, or inhibitory effects may alter the outcome of enrichment cultures, causing the phenomenon known as enrichment bias. Bacteriophages are a major component in many microbial systems, and it abounds in natural settings. This abundance means that bacteriophages are likely to be present in many laboratory enrichment cultures. Our hypothesis was that bacteriophages present in the sample might bias the enriched subpopulation, since it can infect and lyse the target bacteria during the enrichment step once the bacteria reach a given density. Here we show that the presence of bacteriophages in Salmonella and Shigella enrichment cultures produced a significant reduction (more than 1 log unit) in the number of these bacteria compared with samples in which bacteriophages had been reduced by filtration through 0.45-microm non-protein-binding membranes. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Salmonella biotypes isolated after the enrichment culture change if bacteriophages are present, thus distorting the results of the analysis.

  1. Bacteriophages May Bias Outcome of Bacterial Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R.; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Enrichment cultures are widely used for the isolation of bacteria in clinical, biotechnological, and environmental studies. However, competition, relative growth rates, or inhibitory effects may alter the outcome of enrichment cultures, causing the phenomenon known as enrichment bias. Bacteriophages are a major component in many microbial systems, and it abounds in natural settings. This abundance means that bacteriophages are likely to be present in many laboratory enrichment cultures. Our hypothesis was that bacteriophages present in the sample might bias the enriched subpopulation, since it can infect and lyse the target bacteria during the enrichment step once the bacteria reach a given density. Here we show that the presence of bacteriophages in Salmonella and Shigella enrichment cultures produced a significant reduction (more than 1 log unit) in the number of these bacteria compared with samples in which bacteriophages had been reduced by filtration through 0.45-μm non-protein-binding membranes. Furthermore, our data indicate that the Salmonella biotypes isolated after the enrichment culture change if bacteriophages are present, thus distorting the results of the analysis. PMID:16085813

  2. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  3. Marriage Enrichment: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Marriage enrichment programs seem to have particular appeal to couples who hope to improve their relationship in their middle years. These programs usually take the form of a weekend retreat, and are limited to and usually led by married couples. Marriage enrichment programs should not be confused with encounter groups which flourished in the 1950s and 1960s. Some encounter groups deliberately used confrontation to bring anger or fear to the surface; enrichment programs emphasize the positive elements of the marriage relationship and avoid cathartic releases, which are more appropriate in a counselling or therapy framework. Encounter groups sometimes had negative effects on sensitive or fragile participants, while enrichment programs generally have a limited but positive effect on couples. Imagesp1156-ap1156-b PMID:21278999

  4. Marriage enrichment: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Bader, E

    1984-05-01

    Marriage enrichment programs seem to have particular appeal to couples who hope to improve their relationship in their middle years. These programs usually take the form of a weekend retreat, and are limited to and usually led by married couples. Marriage enrichment programs should not be confused with encounter groups which flourished in the 1950s and 1960s. Some encounter groups deliberately used confrontation to bring anger or fear to the surface; enrichment programs emphasize the positive elements of the marriage relationship and avoid cathartic releases, which are more appropriate in a counselling or therapy framework. Encounter groups sometimes had negative effects on sensitive or fragile participants, while enrichment programs generally have a limited but positive effect on couples.

  5. Self-Enrichment Through Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Gerald J.; Boy, Angelo V.

    1979-01-01

    Following a brief discussion of the "occupational diseases" of teaching are some questions which teachers can ask themselves to help define for themselves how they might use the teaching process to enrich themselves as people. (KC)

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs: A review.

    PubMed

    Mkwanazi, Mbusiseni Vusumuzi; Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Chimonyo, Michael

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this paper is to critically analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning the use of environmental enrichment and its effect on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs housed in intensive production systems. The objective is also to provide clarity as to what constitute successful enrichment and recommend on when and how enrichment should be used. Environmental enrichment is usually understood as an attempt to improve animal welfare and to lesser extent, performance. Common enrichment objects used are straw bedding, suspended rope and wood shavings, toys, rubber tubing, coloured plastic keys, table tennis balls, chains and strings. These substrates need to be chewable, deformable, destructible and ingestible. For enrichment to be successful four goals are the prerequisite. Firstly, enrichment should increase the number and range of normal behaviours (2) prevent the phenomenon of anomalous behaviours or reduce their frequency (3) increase positive use of the environment such as space and (4) increase the ability of the animals to deal with behavioural and physiological challenges. The performance, behaviour and physiology of pigs in enriched environments is similar or in some cases slightly better when compared with barren environments. In studies where there was no improvement, it should be born in mind that enriching the environment may not always be practical and yield positive results due to factors such as type of enrichment substrates, duration of provision and type of enrichment used. The review also identifies possible areas which still need further research, especially in understanding the role of enrichment, novelty, breed differences and other enrichment alternatives.

  7. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Ellis, Ronald James; Gehin, Jess C; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  8. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S; Carrera, Martin E; Colling, Craig W

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  11. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  12. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  13. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  14. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  15. Fuento: functional enrichment for bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Weichselbaum, David; Zagrovic, Bojan; Polyansky, Anton A

    2017-08-15

    The currently available functional enrichment software focuses mostly on gene expression analysis, whereby server- and graphical-user-interface-based tools with specific scope dominate the field. Here we present an efficient, user-friendly, multifunctional command-line-based functional enrichment tool (fu-en-to), tailored for the bioinformatics researcher. Source code and binaries freely available for download at github.com/DavidWeichselbaum/fuento, implemented in C ++ and supported on Linux and OS X. newant@gmail.com or bojan.zagrovic@univie.ac.at.

  16. A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; Rowe, Nathan C; Garner, James R

    2012-01-01

    An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended

  17. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  18. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  19. Enrichment Tours in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jean

    1980-01-01

    Enrichment tours designed to heighten interest and enhance the breadth and depth of learning a lifetime sport are encouraged. A tour of the Florida Keys and Bahama Islands for sailing and diving taken by students from Mankato State University is described. (JMF)

  20. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  1. Environmental enrichment as a potential intervention for heroin seeking.

    PubMed

    Galaj, E; Manuszak, M; Ranaldi, R

    2016-06-01

    Heroin-related cues can trigger craving and relapse in addicts or heroin seeking in rats. In the present study we investigated whether environmental enrichment (EE) implemented after heroin exposure can reduce cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and expression of heroin conditioned place preference. In Experiment 1, male Long Evans rats that already acquired a heroin self-administration habit, were housed in enriched or non-enriched environments, underwent extinction training and later were tested for cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In Experiment 2, rats were conditioned with heroin in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, exposed to 30days of enrichment or no enrichment and were later tested for heroin CPP. The results showed that exposure to EE significantly reduced responding during the reinstatement test (Experiment 1) and prevented the expression of heroin CPP (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that EE can be an effective behavioral approach to diminish the effects of conditioned cues on heroin seeking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  3. Job enrichment in job design.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  4. Spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE).

    PubMed

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Moore, Jason H

    2015-03-03

    Gene set testing is typically performed in a supervised context to quantify the association between groups of genes and a clinical phenotype. In many cases, however, a gene set-based interpretation of genomic data is desired in the absence of a phenotype variable. Although methods exist for unsupervised gene set testing, they predominantly compute enrichment relative to clusters of the genomic variables with performance strongly dependent on the clustering algorithm and number of clusters. We propose a novel method, spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE), for unsupervised competitive testing of the association between gene sets and empirical data sources. SGSE first computes the statistical association between gene sets and principal components (PCs) using our principal component gene set enrichment (PCGSE) method. The overall statistical association between each gene set and the spectral structure of the data is then computed by combining the PC-level p-values using the weighted Z-method with weights set to the PC variance scaled by Tracy-Widom test p-values. Using simulated data, we show that the SGSE algorithm can accurately recover spectral features from noisy data. To illustrate the utility of our method on real data, we demonstrate the superior performance of the SGSE method relative to standard cluster-based techniques for testing the association between MSigDB gene sets and the variance structure of microarray gene expression data. Unsupervised gene set testing can provide important information about the biological signal held in high-dimensional genomic data sets. Because it uses the association between gene sets and samples PCs to generate a measure of unsupervised enrichment, the SGSE method is independent of cluster or network creation algorithms and, most importantly, is able to utilize the statistical significance of PC eigenvalues to ignore elements of the data most likely to represent noise.

  5. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  6. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  7. Enrichment of methylated DNA by methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Sonnet, Miriam; Baer, Constance; Rehli, Michael; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Normal DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification required for proper development. Aberrant DNA methylation, in contrast, is frequently observed in many different malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas. Global DNA methylation profiling addresses the methylated sequences (methylome) of patient genomes to identify disease-specific methylation patterns. Workload in methylome analyses can be considerably reduced by methylome enrichment using proteins or antibodies with high affinity to methylated DNA. Methyl-CpG Immunoprecipitation (MCIp) employs an immobilized recombinant human methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2, MBD2, which binds methylated CpGs in double-stranded DNA. Elution with increasing salt concentrations allows the fractionated enrichment of different degrees of methylation.

  8. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented.

  9. Mobile Learning to Enrich Vocabulary in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The study enlightens the impact of Mobile learning in enriching the vocabulary in English at standard VIII. Objectives of the study: 1. To find out the problems in enriching vocabulary in English at standard VIII. 2. To find out the impact of Mobile learning in enriching vocabulary in English. Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in…

  10. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  11. Closing the Achievement Gap with Curriculum Enrichment and Differentiation: One School's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret; Sweeny, Sheelah M.

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes a unique approach to reducing the achievement gap that strategically blended differentiated curriculum with schoolwide enrichment teaching and learning. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation were translated into practice in an elementary school that had previously embraced a remedial paradigm. This…

  12. Enriched Storable Oxidizers for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.; Herdy, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The name "enriched storable oxidizers" (ESOs) has been coined for a family of optimized mixtures of between two and four oxidizer fluids. For most applications, the constituents of these mixtures would be nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); in some applications, the mixtures might include inhibited red fuming nitric acid [IRFN (which consists of red fuming nitric acid to which some hydrogen fluoride is added to reduce its corrosive effect]. The optimum proportions of these constituents would be different for different applications. ESOs were originally proposed for use in spacecraft and launch-rocket propulsion systems: ESOs could be especially useful in advanced spacecraft propulsion systems that could operate in multiple modes. ESOs might also be useful in special terrestrial applications that could include ramjet and scramjet aircraft engines.

  13. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-10-03

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk.

  14. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tubay, Jerrold M.; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P.; Casareto, Beatriz E.; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

  15. Soil cadmium enrichment: Allocation and plant physiological manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Mohd; Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Aqil; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in soil is enriched through several leaky management agricultural practices and natural resources. Cd enriched soil is inevitable cause of nutritional stress besides Cd induced toxicity symptoms and physiological malfunctions. Redox signals shift toward oxidative stress which accelerates cellular damage and elicits defense mechanism at the cost of growth. Plants get enriched with this toxic, abundant and undesirable element through ‘mineral uptake system’ non-specifically. Different components and pathways have been marked cooperating in cellular sequestration and systemic localization of Cd, escaped from avoidance and efflux. Cd induced metabolic alteration led to electron leakage as ROS, reduced photosynthesis and carbon fixation. Compromised primary metabolism negatively feedbacks the plant growth, result into loss of potential crop yield. PMID:23961213

  16. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Howard; Bongers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and some microarthropods, are entry-level indicators of enrichment. However, the quantification of abundance and biomass of this diverse group, as an indicator of resource status, requires a plethora of extraction and assessment techniques. Soluble organic compounds are absorbed by bacteria and fungi, while fungi also degrade more recalcitrant sources. These organisms are potential indicators of the nature of incoming substrate, but current methods of biomass determination do not reliably indicate their community composition. Guilds of nematodes that feed on bacteria (e.g., Rhabditidae, Panagrolaimidae) and fungi (e.g., Aphelenchidae, Aphelenchoididae) are responsive to changes in abundance of their food. Through direct herbivory, plant-feeding nematodes (e.g., many species of Tylenchina) also contribute to food web resources. Thus, analysis of the nematode community of a single sample provides indication of carbon flow through an important herbivore channel and through channels mediated by bacteria and fungi. Some nematode guilds are more responsive than others to resource enrichment. Generally, those bacterivores with short lifecycles and high reproductive potential (e.g., Rhabditidae) most closely mirror the bloom of bacteria or respond most rapidly to active plant growth. The feeding habits of some groups remain unclear. For example, nematodes of the Tylenchidae may constitute 30% or more of the individuals in a soil sample; further study is necessary to determine which resource channels they portray and the appropriate level of taxonomic resolution for this group. A graphic representation of the relative biomass of bacterivorous, fungivorous, and herbivorous nematodes

  17. Selenium enrichment of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  18. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Sheba R; Morgan, Daniel L; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Gregory S; King-Herbert, Angela P

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters as enrichment devices would have an impact on end points commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress, thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters; however, these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species-typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured end points in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices.

  19. A short and valid measure of work-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Crawford, Wayne S; Carlson, Dawn S; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    The stream of research concerning work-family enrichment has generated a significant body of research because it plays an important role in occupational health (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012). work-family enrichment has been defined as "the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role" (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006, p. 73). Within work-family enrichment, there are two directions: work to family and family to work. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006) developed an 18-item scale to measure this construct. Although the scale has been shown to be both reliable and valid, it also requires work-family researchers to include a proportionally large number of items to capture this construct in a study. The goal of the current study was to isolate a subset of the items in this measure that produces results similar to the full version thereby providing a more streamlined scale for researchers. Using a five-sample study that follows the scale reduction procedures offered by Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, and Smith (2002), we provide evidence that scales containing only three items for each direction of enrichment produce results equivalent to the full scale with respect to reliability and discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity. Reducing the original scale by two thirds, without losing explanatory power, allows scholars to measure enrichment in the work and family domains more efficiently, which should help minimize survey time, lower refusal rates, and generate less missing data.

  20. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Sheba R.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Kissling, Grace E.; Travlos, Gregory S.; King-Herbert, Angela P.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters, as enrichment devices would have an impact on endpoints commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring, and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters, however these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured endpoints in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices. PMID:26873679

  1. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a

  2. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  3. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  4. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  5. DOE enrichment plant hums ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    The Department of Energy's $10-billion gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant, after three years of construction, is rising on schedule near Piketon, Ohio. A detailed conceptual design, smart management, liberal design fees, hungry contractors and cooperative unions are combining to get the job done. One reason for completing the task is that this will be a far more efficient process - 135 MW will be required to operate the centrifuge plant vs more than 2100 MW to produce the same amount of fuel at the mile-square diffusion plant near Portsmouth, Ohio. (DP)

  6. The effect of feeding enrichment upon reported working ability and behavior of kenneled working dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Samantha A; Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2008-11-01

    It is widely recommended that kenneled dogs are provided with environmental enrichment such as toys or feeding devices. However, the adoption of enrichment for military working dogs is impeded by a widespread belief that it reduces their motivation to work. Handlers of 22 working German Shepherd dogs were asked to rate their dogs on 11 attributes pertaining to working ability, related behavioral traits, and health. Eight of the dogs were then provided with daily feeding enrichment for 4 months, while the remainder were given equivalent human attention. The same 11 traits were scored again following the enrichment period: 10 changed little over the period while handlers' reports of their dogs' Ability to learn from being rewarded increased significantly. Changes for all attributes were virtually identical in enriched and control dogs. We conclude that if correctly managed, feeding enrichment can be introduced to kenneled working dogs without any reported detrimental effects upon working ability, health, or behavior.

  7. Effective bioleaching of chromium in tannery sludge with an enriched sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Kida, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing community was enriched from activated sludge generated in tannery wastewater treatment plants. Bioleaching of tannery sludge containing 0.9-1.2% chromium was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the enriched community, the effect of chromium binding forms on bioleaching efficiency, and the dominant microbes contributing to chromium bioleaching. Sludge samples inoculated with the enriched community presented 79.9-96.8% of chromium leaching efficiencies, much higher than those without the enriched community. High bioleaching efficiencies of over 95% were achieved for chromium in reducible fraction, while 60.9-97.9% were observed for chromium in oxidizable and residual fractions. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, the predominant bacteria in the enriched community, played an important role in bioleaching, whereas some indigenous heterotrophic species in sludge might have had a supporting role. The results indicated that A. thiooxidans-dominant enriched microbial community had high chromium bioleaching efficiency, and chromium binding forms affected the bioleaching performance.

  8. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  9. Pathway Enrichment Analysis with Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Wei, Jinmao; Ruan, Jianhua

    2017-09-28

    Detecting associations between an input gene set and annotated gene sets (e.g., pathways) is an important problem in modern molecular biology. In this paper, we propose two algorithms, termed NetPEA and NetPEA', for conducting network-based pathway enrichment analysis. Our algorithms consider not only shared genes but also gene-gene interactions. Both algorithms utilize a protein-protein interaction network and a random walk with a restart procedure to identify hidden relationships between an input gene set and pathways, but both use different randomization strategies to evaluate statistical significance and as a result emphasize different pathway properties. Compared to an over representation-based method, our algorithms can identify more statistically significant pathways. Compared to an existing network-based algorithm, EnrichNet, our algorithms have a higher sensitivity in revealing the true causal pathways while at the same time achieving a higher specificity. A literature review of selected results indicates that some of the novel pathways reported by our algorithms are biologically relevant and important. While the evaluations are performed only with KEGG pathways, we believe the algorithms can be valuable for general functional discovery from high-throughput experiments.

  10. Uranium enrichment deferral charges and the customer payment period

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-21

    A Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Inspector General report entitled Dollar Impact of Financial Management Decisions in the Uranium Enrichment Program includes two recommendations which, if implemented, would change the interest rate DOE uses to compute its charges to customers deferring delivery of uranium enrichment services and reduce the 30-day interest-free period customers are allowed for making payment on DOE-provided enrichment serivces. GAO believes that an interest rate based on the current market yield on Treasury borrowings with maturities comparable to the period of deferrals (current-market-yield rate) better reflects the cost of Treasury borrowings and is therefore more appropriate than either the rate DOE currently uses or the rate recommended by DOE's Inspector General. DOE agrees and plans to use the current-market-yield rate in any deferral under future contracts. GAO also believes reducing the customer payment period has merit from a cash management standpoint. However, the effect of such an action on DOE's competitive position among foreign suppliers of enrichment services needs to be considered before any such reduction is made.

  11. Improving oxygenation at high altitude: acclimatization and O2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2003-01-01

    When lowlanders go to high altitude, the resulting oxygen deprivation impairs mental and physical performance, quality of sleep, and general well-being. This paper compares the effects of ventilatory acclimatization and oxygen enrichment of room air on the improvement of oxygenation as judged by the increase in the alveolar P(O2) and the reduction in equivalent altitude. The results show that, on the average, complete ventilatory acclimatization at an altitude of 5000 m increases the alveolar P(O2) by nearly 8 torr, which corresponds to a reduction in equivalent altitude of about 1000 m, although there is considerable individual variability. By comparison, oxygen enrichment to 27% at 5000 m can easily reduce the equivalent altitude to 3200 m, which is generally well tolerated. Because full ventilatory acclimatization at altitudes up to about 3600 m reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3000 m, oxygen enrichment is not justified for well-acclimatized persons. At an altitude of 4200 m, where several telescopes are located on the summit of Mauna Kea, full acclimatization reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3400 m, but the pattern of commuting probably would not allow this. Therefore, at this altitude, oxygen enrichment would be beneficial but is not essential. At higher altitudes such as 5050 m, where other telescopes are located or planned, the gain in oxygenation from acclimatization is insufficient to produce an adequate mental or physical performance for most work, and oxygen enrichment is highly desirable. Full ventilatory acclimatization requires at least a week of continuous exposure, although much of the improvement is seen in the first 2 days.

  12. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  13. Effects of the antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole on groundwater bacterial enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, J.C.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Repert, D.A.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Smith, R.L.; Roane, T.M.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of "trace" (environmentally relevant) concentrations of the antimicrobial agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on the growth, nitrate reduction activity, and bacterial composition of an enrichment culture prepared with groundwater from a pristine zone of a sandy drinking-water aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, were assessed by laboratory incubations. When the enrichments were grown under heterotrophic denitrifying conditions and exposed to SMX, noticeable differences from the control (no SMX) were observed. Exposure to SMX in concentrations as low as 0.005 ??M delayed the initiation of cell growth by up to 1 day and decreased nitrate reduction potential (total amount of nitrate reduced after 19 days) by 47% (p = 0.02). Exposure to 1 ??M SMX, a concentration below those prescribed for clinical applications but higher than concentrations typically detected in aqueous environments, resulted in additional inhibitions: reduced growth rates (p = 5 ?? 10-6), lower nitrate reduction rate potentials (p = 0.01), and decreased overall representation of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The reduced abundance of Pseudomonas sequences in the libraries was replaced by sequences representing the genus Variovorax. Results of these growth and nitrate reduction experiments collectively suggest that subtherapeutic concentrations of SMX altered the composition of the enriched nitrate-reducing microcosms and inhibited nitrate reduction capabilities. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Effects of the antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole on groundwater bacterial enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Jennifer C.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Repert, Deborah A.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Smith, Richard L.; Roane, Timberly M.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of “trace” (environmentally relevant) concentrations of the antimicrobial agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on the growth, nitrate reduction activity, and bacterial composition of an enrichment culture prepared with groundwater from a pristine zone of a sandy drinking-water aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, were assessed by laboratory incubations. When the enrichments were grown under heterotrophic denitrifying conditions and exposed to SMX, noticeable differences from the control (no SMX) were observed. Exposure to SMX in concentrations as low as 0.005 μM delayed the initiation of cell growth by up to 1 day and decreased nitrate reduction potential (total amount of nitrate reduced after 19 days) by 47% (p = 0.02). Exposure to 1 μM SMX, a concentration below those prescribed for clinical applications but higher than concentrations typically detected in aqueous environments, resulted in additional inhibitions: reduced growth rates (p = 5 × 10−6), lower nitrate reduction rate potentials (p = 0.01), and decreased overall representation of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The reduced abundance of Pseudomonas sequences in the libraries was replaced by sequences representing the genus Variovorax. Results of these growth and nitrate reduction experiments collectively suggest that subtherapeutic concentrations of SMX altered the composition of the enriched nitrate-reducing microcosms and inhibited nitrate reduction capabilities.

  15. Nutrient Enrichment Coupled with Sedimentation Favors Sea Anemones over Corals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  16. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  17. Paternal environmental enrichment transgenerationally alters affective behavioral and neuroendocrine phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Short, Annabel K; Bredy, Timothy W; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females. The F2 generation was generated using F1 male offspring. Male and female F1 and F2 offspring were tested for anxiety using the elevated-plus maze and large open field at 8 weeks of age. Depression-related behavior was assessed using the forced-swim test. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was determined by quantification of serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels at baseline and after forced-swim stress. Paternal environmental enrichment was associated with increased body weights of male F1 and F2 offspring. There was no significant effect on F1 offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. There were no changes in anxiety-related behaviors in the F2 offspring, however these mice displayed a reduced latency to immobility in the forced-swim test. Furthermore, F2 females had significantly higher serum corticosterone levels post-stress, but not ACTH. These results show that paternal environmental enrichment exerts a sex-specific transgenerational impact on the behavioral and physiological response to stress. Our findings have implications for the modelling of psychiatric disorders in rodents.

  18. Effects of Irradiation on the Microstructure of U-7Mo Dispersion Fuel with Al-2Si Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Adam B. Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; Jian Gan; Brandon D. Miller; Daniel M. Wachs; Glenn A. Moore; Curtis R. Clark; Mitchell K. Meyer; M. Ross Finlay

    2012-06-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor program is developing low-enriched uranium U-Mo dispersion fuels for application in research and test reactors around the world. As part of this development, fuel plates have been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and then characterized using optical metallography (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the as-irradiated microstructure. To demonstrate the irradiation performance of U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with 2 wt% Si added to the matrix, fuel plates were tested to medium burnups at intermediate fission rates as part of the RERTR-6 experiment. Further testing was performed to higher fission rates as part of the RERTR-7A experiment, and very aggressive testing (high temperature, high fission density, high fission rate) was performed in the RERTR-9A, RERTR-9B and AFIP-1 experiments. As-irradiated microstructures were compared to those observed after fabrication to determine the effects of irradiation on the microstructure. Based on comparison of the microstructural characterization results for each irradiated sample, some general conclusions can be drawn about how the microstructure evolves during irradiation: there is growth of the fuel/matrix interaction layer (FMI), which was present in the samples to some degree after fabrication, during irradiation; Si diffuses from the FMI layer to deeper depths in the U-7Mo particles as the irradiation conditions are made more aggressive; lowering of the Si content in the FMI layer results in an increase in the size of the fission gas bubbles; as the FMI layer grows during irradiation more Si diffuses from the matrix to the FMI layer/matrix interface, and interlinking of fission gas bubbles in the fuel plate microstructure that may indicate breakaway swelling is not observed.

  19. Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2013-07-01

    Simple models of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe predict that massive galaxies are surrounded by a hot, quasi-hydrostatic circumgalactic corona of slowly cooling gas, predominantly accreted from the intergalactic medium (IGM). This prediction is borne out by the recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Crain et al., which reproduce observed scaling relations between the X-ray and optical properties of nearby disc galaxies. Such coronae are metal poor, but observations of the X-ray emitting circumgalactic medium (CGM) of local galaxies typically indicate enrichment to near-solar iron abundance, potentially signalling a shortcoming in current models of galaxy formation. We show here that, while the hot CGM of galaxies formed in the simulations is typically metal poor in a mass-weighted sense, its X-ray luminosity-weighted metallicity is often close to solar. This bias arises because the soft X-ray emissivity of a typical ˜0.1 keV corona is dominated by collisionally excited metal ions that are synthesized in stars and recycled into the hot CGM. We find that these metals are ejected primarily by stars that form in situ to the main progenitor of the galaxy, rather than in satellites or external galaxies. The enrichment of the hot CGM therefore proceeds in an `inside-out' fashion throughout the assembly of the galaxy: metals are transported from the central galaxy by supernova-driven winds and convection over several Gyr, establishing a strong negative radial metallicity gradient. Whilst metal ions synthesized by stars are necessary to produce the X-ray emissivity that enables the hot CGM of isolated galaxies to be detected with current instrumentation, the electrons that collisionally excite them are equally important. Since our simulations indicate that the electron density of hot coronae is dominated by the metal-poor gas accreted from the IGM, we infer that the hot CGM observed via X-ray emission is the outcome of both hierarchical

  20. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish.

    PubMed

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2013-09-22

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival.

  1. Energy transfer and isotopic enrichment in vibrationally pumped diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    DeLeon, R.L.; Rich, J.W.; Bergman, R.C.; Homicz, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    The preliminary results from two experiments on vibration-vibration pumped CO are reported. The first experiment is a demonstration of isotopic enrichment by vibration-vibration pumping. An approx.300/sup 0/K translational temperature flowing mixture of CO, Ar and He is excited by a CO laser and the resulting non-equilibrium vibrational distribution is probed by laser induced fluorescence. In CO plus Ar mixtures, /sup 13/CO enrichments of a factor of three times the natural /sup 13/CO abundance are observed for high, v = 30, vibrational states. In CO plus Ar and He mixtures the /sup 13/CO enrichment is reduced to approximately its natural abundance. Calculations indicate that larger He mole fractions could result in relative enrichment of the /sup 12/CO isotope. The second experiment is a time and state resolved kinetics study of vibration-vibration pumped CO. A pulsed CO laser is used to produce a highly excited vibrational distribution. The vibrationally resolved overtone emission from the ground electronic state is monitored as a function of time for states v = 2 to 40. Electronic emission from the A-X band is also observed. In order to derive the kinetic rates for the various vibrational exchange processes, the data are compared with a kinetic model including all of the energy exchange terms. Preliminary calculations show reasonable agreement with the observed ground electronic state emission. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  3. Shenandoah elementary science enrichment program

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.

    1994-12-31

    Shenandoah Elementary School is a rural educational facility located in the farmlands of Indiana. The Elementary Science Enrichment Program was established to create a learning atmosphere that encourages scientific thinking and problem-solving. Its inception was founded on the belief that the concepts and process skills inherent in the teaching of science are critical to the early intellectual development of elementary students. The program was established through speaking engagements at the local and state level which resulted in the necessary support to insure its continuation. All students in grades K-5 meet for weekly science activities in our elementary lab to investigate many exciting curricular areas including planaria regeneration, star life cycles, and acid rain telecommunications. This allows for in-depth exploration of the science process skills which culminate in a variety of products including student portfolios, hands-on assessments, simulations and global data communications. These activities are extended through family science and the modeling of science instructional techniques for classroom educators.

  4. The paradox of enrichment in metaecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Canard, Elsa; Guichard, Frédéric; Hauzy, Céline; Gravel, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    The paradox of enrichment has been studied almost exclusively within communities or metacommunities, without explicit nutrient dynamics. Yet local recycling of materials from enriched ecosystems may affect the stability of connected ecosystems. Here we study the effect of nutrient, detritus, producer, and consumer spatial flows-combined with changes in regional enrichment-on the stability of a metaecosystem model. We considered both spatially homogeneous and heterogeneous enrichment. We found that nutrient and detritus spatial flows are destabilizing, whereas producer or consumer spatial flows are either neutral or stabilizing. We noticed that detritus spatial flows have only a weak impact on stability. Our study reveals that heterogeneity no longer stabilizes well-connected systems when accounting for explicit representation of nutrient dynamics. We also found that intermediate consumer diffusion could lead to multiple equilibria in strongly enriched metaecosystems. Stability can emerge from a top-down control allowing the storage of materials into inorganic form, a mechanism never documented before. In conclusion, local enrichment can be stabilized if spatial flows are strong enough to efficiently redistribute the local excess of enrichment to unfertile ecosystems. However, high regional enrichment can be dampened only by intermediate consumer diffusion rates.

  5. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  7. After-School Enrichment: Extending Learning Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Carla

    2011-01-01

    After-school programs can help show students how academics are relevant to their personal interests, and serve as training grounds for future teachers. This article features LA's BEST After School Enrichment Program whose mission is to provide a safe and supervised after school education, enrichment, and recreation program for children ages 5 to…

  8. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  9. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  10. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  11. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility.... Craig M. White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment... Bonneville County, Idaho, on February 10, 2011, the NRC staff issued a notice of the availability of...

  12. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession, use...

  13. Environmental Enrichment Improves Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Imran; Kumar, Vipendra; Vatsa, Naman; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Shekhar, Shashi; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2017-09-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder largely caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited UBE3A. UBE3A-maternal deficient mice (AS mice) exhibit many typical features of AS including cognitive and motor deficits but the underlying mechanism of these behavioral abnormalities is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rearing of AS mice in the enriched environment for prolonged period significantly improved their cognitive and motor dysfunction. Enriched environment also restored elevated serum corticosterone level and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in these mice. Biochemical analysis further revealed restoration of altered levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glucocorticoid receptor, and phoshphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα in the hippocampus of AS mice maintained in the enriched environment. Enriched environment also significantly increased the number of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneuron in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala of AS mice. These results indicate potential beneficial effect of enriched environment in the reversal of AS phenotype.

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Leland M. Montierth

    2010-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

  15. Stable isotope inventory requirements and enrichment capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, W.A.; Tracy, J.G.

    1985-12-01

    The electromagnetic isotope enrichment program established in 1945 has since then continued to provide enriched stable, actinide, and selected radioactive isotopes. These unique materials used in research and medicine and for industrial applications are made available throughout the world by direct sales and/or on a loan basis. In recent years, the primary effort of the program has been directed toward providing enriched stable isotopes necessary to replenish the sales inventory. This document presents a summary of the stable isotope sales requirements and the capabilities of the electromagnetic isotope separators for providing the quantity and quality of enriched products to meet those needs. Special enrichment and actinide separations or Research Materials Collection (loan program) needs are not addressed.

  16. Biochar Addition Increases the Rates of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Methanogenesis in Ferrihydrite Enrichments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guo-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Marshall, Christopher W.; Li, Hu; Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Yan, Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2–2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane. Powdered biochar amendments increased iron reduction compared to granulated biochar amendment in both the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. However, no significant difference was observed in methane production between the powdered biochar and granulated biochar amendments in the two ferrihydrite enrichments. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both DIRB and methanogens were enriched after biochar amendments in the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. Taxa belonging to the Geobacteraceae and methanogenic genus affiliated to Methanosarcina were detected with significantly higher relative abundances in powdered biochar amendments than those in granulated biochar amendments in both the ferrihydrite enrichments. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated green rust [Fe2(CO3) (OH)] and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2 8(H2O)] formed in the ex situ ferrihydrite and in situ ferrihydrite enrichments without biochar addition, respectively. After granulated biochar amendment, the mineral phase changed from the green rust to vivianite in the ex situ ferrihydrite enrichment, while crystalline vivianite and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) were detected simultaneously in the in situ ferrihydrite enrichment. No crystalline iron compound was found in the powdered biochar amendments in both ferrihydrite enrichments. Overall, our study illustrated that the addition of

  17. Biochar Addition Increases the Rates of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Methanogenesis in Ferrihydrite Enrichments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Marshall, Christopher W; Li, Hu; Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Yan, Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2-2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane. Powdered biochar amendments increased iron reduction compared to granulated biochar amendment in both the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. However, no significant difference was observed in methane production between the powdered biochar and granulated biochar amendments in the two ferrihydrite enrichments. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both DIRB and methanogens were enriched after biochar amendments in the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. Taxa belonging to the Geobacteraceae and methanogenic genus affiliated to Methanosarcina were detected with significantly higher relative abundances in powdered biochar amendments than those in granulated biochar amendments in both the ferrihydrite enrichments. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated green rust [Fe2(CO3) (OH)] and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2 8(H2O)] formed in the ex situ ferrihydrite and in situ ferrihydrite enrichments without biochar addition, respectively. After granulated biochar amendment, the mineral phase changed from the green rust to vivianite in the ex situ ferrihydrite enrichment, while crystalline vivianite and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) were detected simultaneously in the in situ ferrihydrite enrichment. No crystalline iron compound was found in the powdered biochar amendments in both ferrihydrite enrichments. Overall, our study illustrated that the addition of

  18. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  19. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    PubMed

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  20. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  2. Can nutrient enrichment influence the invasion of Phragmites australis?

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-06-22

    Plant invasion and nutrient enrichment because of anthropogenic landscape modifications seriously threaten native plant community diversity in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. It is poorly understood, however, whether these two disturbances interact with the functional identity of recipient native plants to drive community change. We performed combined studies in the fields and greenhouse to examine whether nutrient enrichment may trigger the invasion of Phragmites australis in wetlands through competitive advantage over native Melaleuca ericifolia. Chemical characterizations of rhizosphere water were distinguished in two different nutrient enriched wetlands associated with and without Phragmites over the seasons. Significant changes in rhizosphere water were observed in invaded area compared to uninvaded area at both sites. High nitrogen (NO3(-)), phosphorous (PO4(3-)), dissolved organic carbon, phenolics contents, with low pH were found in invaded areas compared to uninvaded areas. Total biomass of Phragmites was positively regressed with rhizosphere water nitrogen (NO3(-)) and phosphorous (PO4(3-)) content. Nutrient addition significantly enhanced the growth and competitive ability of Phragmites over Melaleuca. In contrast, Melaleuca was significantly less competitive than Phragmites. There was a significantly positive correlation between the growth of Phragmites grown alone and its competitive ability. The findings in greenhouse studies coupled with characteristics of Phragmites and its' rhizosphere chemistry in the nutrient enriched fields suggest that nutrient enrichment may enhance Phragmites invasion through correspondingly increasing growth and maintaining inherent competitive advantages of Phragmites. Nutrient management could limit the vigorous growth of Phragmites in wetlands and thereby reduce invasion through competitive advantages over natives, which might have important management implications for wetland managers. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  3. [Quickly enrichment of carbon in wastewater by activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Fang; Wen, Xiang-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Pilot tests were carried out to investigate the absorption characteristics of the carbon source in urban wastewater by activated sludge and to analyze the carbon release from the carbon absorbed activated sludge in the settling process. The results indicated that carbon in wastewater could be quickly enriched by activated sludge. The absorption process of indissolvable organic matter could be finished as shortly as less than 10 min, while the absorption process of the dissolved organic matter was relatively slow and should consume up about 30 min. Moreover, carbon release was observed in the settling process of enriched sludge. In the period of 30-100 min, the release amount of total COD (TCOD) was 11.44 mg x g(-1), while in the period of 60-150 min, the release amount of dissolved COD (SCOD) was 6.24 mg x g(-1). Furthermore, based on the results of the bench-scale tests, a pilot-scale plant was built to investigate the absorption of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus by activated sludge and the settleability of enriched sludge. The results indicated that under continuously operation mode, 60% of COD, 75% of TP and 10% of TN in the wastewater could be removed by the absorption of activated sludge, and the enriched sludge with SVI of 34.2 mL x g(-1) presented good settleability. Carbon enrichment by activated sludge could not only reclaim the carbon source in wastewater, but also reduce the loading of organic matter and give low C/N for the following nitrification unit and improving the nitrification efficiency.

  4. Accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kylie E L; Murphy, Kevin G; Harrison, Eleanor K; Kerton, Angela J; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake, body weight, behavior and fecal and plasma stress hormones in male Wistar rats. Singly housed 5-7-week-old male rats were given either no environmental enrichment, chew sticks, a plastic tube of 67 mm internal diameter, or both chew sticks and a tube. No differences in body weight or food intake were seen over a 7-day period. Importantly, the refeeding response following a 24-h fast was unaffected by environmental enrichment. Rearing, a behavior often associated with stress, was significantly reduced in all enriched groups compared to controls. There was a significant increase in fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in animals housed with both forms of enrichment compared to controls at the termination of the study, suggesting enrichment reduces hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in singly housed rats. In summary, environmental enrichment does not influence body weight and food intake in singly housed male Wistar rats and may therefore be used to refine the living conditions of animals used in the study of energy homeostasis without compromising experimental outcome.

  5. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial holeboard discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Grimberg-Henrici, Charlotte G E; Vermaak, Paul; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm (growing) pigs in a spatial holeboard task. Ten pairs of littermates matched for weight were used. From each litter, one piglet was randomly assigned to a barren environment; the other was assigned to an enriched environment from 4 weeks of age. The enriched environment was double the size of the barren environment, had a floor covered with straw, a rooting area filled with peat, and one of the four different enrichment toys which were exchanged daily. Starting at 11 weeks of age, all pigs were tested in a spatial holeboard discrimination task in which 4 out of 16 holes were baited. Furthermore, basal salivary cortisol levels of all pigs were determined after the end of all testing. All pigs were able to acquire the pattern of baited holes (acquisition phase, 40 trials) and the diagonally mirrored pattern (reversal phase, 20 trials). During the acquisition phase, the reference memory performance of the enriched-housed pigs was better than that of their barren-housed littermates, i.e. they reduced visits to the unbaited set of holes. During the reversal phase, enriched-housed pigs had a better general working memory performance than the barren-housed pigs as indicated by reduced revisits to holes already visited during a trial, irrespective of whether they were of the baited or the unbaited set. The enriched-housed pigs also searched for the hidden bait faster during both phases. The environments did not affect basal salivary cortisol levels. In conclusion, environmental enrichment slightly improved the cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial learning task. We hypothesise that the long period of habituation to and testing in the holeboard acted as enrichment that partially reduced the effects of barren housing.

  6. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants.

  7. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  8. Nocturnal oxygen enrichment in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, M; Jernajczyk, U

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a modest oxygen enrichment, rather than 100% oxygen supplementation as used in previous trials, could result in improvement in ventilatory and cardiac symptoms, in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), without jeopardizing the chemostimulant ventilatory drive. This hypothesis was tested in five male patients with OSA in a single-blinded trial consisting of one night spent sleeping in control room air (control night), followed by one night spent sleeping while exposed to air with a 9% enriched oxygen content (oxygen-enriched night). Oxygen enrichment resulted in a significant shift in the oxygen saturation profile towards values of > or = 95% and to decrease desaturation dips throughout the night. The apnoea index decreased from the control night to the oxygen-enriched night from 52.7 +/- 10.4 to 38.9 +/- 9.3; the decrease being greatest for the longest apnoeas (> or = 30 s). Additionally, the cardiovascular status improved. No signs of depressed chemostimulant drive in the oxygen-enriched night were detected. We conclude that nocturnal oxygen enrichment merits consideration for therapeutic trial in the prevention of long apnoeic and desaturation episodes.

  9. DOE enrichment plants-safeguards means business

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is a full service enrichment plant. Its long enriching cascade can process uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) feeds at almost any {sup 235}U level and can produce UF{sub 6} over the complete spectrum from depleted to very highly enriched uranium. The DOE uranium enrichment program is a government-owned enterprise operating as a business. The operating concerns of the DOE uranium enrichment plants and their safeguards programs have evolved together over the past three decades, and that evolution will likely continue. As the risk associated with possession, processing, and shipment of strategic nuclear material increased, the protection and control of it increased; as the value of the product grew with time, better ways were found to measure and conserve it. In each of these areas, safeguards objectives and the business requirements of the plant are complementary, and the progress made in one area has been reflected by progress in the other. The plant's material control and accountability program has become crucial to such business requirements as quantifying the enriched uranium (separative work units) produced in each monthly period and convincing financial auditors that the multibillion dollar enriched uranium assets located at the Portsmouth plant are properly stated.

  10. Nociceptor-enriched genes required for normal thermal nociception

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E.; Wang, Yu; Skene, J.H. Pate; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (ie. boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals. PMID:27346357

  11. Nociceptor-Enriched Genes Required for Normal Thermal Nociception.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E; Wang, Yu; Skene, J H Pate; Tracey, W Daniel

    2016-07-12

    Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (i.e., boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb, and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals.

  12. Separate enrichment analysis of pathways for up- and downregulated genes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guini; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Hongdong; Shen, Xiaopei; Guo, Zheng

    2014-03-06

    Two strategies are often adopted for enrichment analysis of pathways: the analysis of all differentially expressed (DE) genes together or the analysis of up- and downregulated genes separately. However, few studies have examined the rationales of these enrichment analysis strategies. Using both microarray and RNA-seq data, we show that gene pairs with functional links in pathways tended to have positively correlated expression levels, which could result in an imbalance between the up- and downregulated genes in particular pathways. We then show that the imbalance could greatly reduce the statistical power for finding disease-associated pathways through the analysis of all-DE genes. Further, using gene expression profiles from five types of tumours, we illustrate that the separate analysis of up- and downregulated genes could identify more pathways that are really pertinent to phenotypic difference. In conclusion, analysing up- and downregulated genes separately is more powerful than analysing all of the DE genes together.

  13. Phytoremediation of shallow organically enriched marine sediments using benthic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Goto, Ikue; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Minagawa, Kazuaki; Ariyoshi, Eiji; Matsuda, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether replantation of benthic microalgae (BMA) can remediate shallow organically enriched sediment. Nitzschia sp., the dominant species in the tested area (Hiroshima Bay, Japan), was isolated and mass cultured, then replanted in the same area. Changes in the condition of the sediment were monitored for five months. During the study period, we observed an increase in redox potential (ORP) and a decrease in acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in the experimental area, indicating that the sediment condition changed from reduced to oxic. Organic matter in the sediment, represented by chemical oxygen demand (COD), ignition loss (IL) and organic nitrogen (ON) decreased significantly, while inorganic nutrients (ammonia and phosphate) increased in the interstitial water. These changes imply that oxygen produced by the replanted BMA may have enhanced aerobic bacterial activity, accelerating the decomposition of organic matter. Thus, replantation of BMA shows potential as a novel and promising "phytoremediation" method for organically enriched sediment.

  14. Isotopically enriched germanium detectors for astrophysical gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A study is presented of the instrumental background in astrophysical gamma-ray spectrometers using isotopically enriched germanium detectors. Calculations show that the beta-decay background, which is the largest component between approximately 0.1 and 1.0 MeV in balloonborne and satellite spectrometers, is dominated by the activation of Ge-74. This component can be reduced by an order of magnitude using detectors enriched to more than 80 percent in (Ge-70). The predicted reduction in the total background for current balloonborne instruments is more than a factor of 1.7 between 0.2 and 1.0 MeV. For future satellite instruments, the reduction in this energy range is by more than a factor of 5.

  15. Curcumin bioavailability from enriched bread: the effect of microencapsulated ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Barone Lumaga, Roberta; Ferracane, Rosalia; Radetsky, Irena; Mennella, Ilario; Schettino, Rita; Koder, Saul; Shimoni, Eyal; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-04-04

    Human bioavailability of curcumin from breads enriched with 1 g/portion of free curcumin (FCB), encapsulated curcumin (ECB), or encapsulated curcumin plus other polyphenols (ECBB) was evaluated. Parental and metabolized curcuminoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/MS/MS in blood, urine, and feces collected over 24 h. The concentrations of serum curcuminoids were always below 4 nmol/L and those of glucuronides 10-fold less. Encapsulation delayed and increased curcuminoid absorption as compared to the free ingredient. Serum and urinary concentrations of ferulic and vanillic acid were between 2- and 1000-fold higher than those of curcuminoids, with ECBB eliciting the highest amounts. Fecal curcuminoids were 6-fold more abundant after ECB than FCB, while phenolic acids after ECBB quadruplicated those after ECB. Curcuminoid encapsulation increased their bioavailability from enriched bread, probably preventing their biotransformation, with combined compounds slightly reducing this effect. Phenolic acids are the major metabolites of curcuminoids and may contribute to their biological properties.

  16. Development of an electrolysis system for tritium enrichment in superficial water samples.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, G; Magnoni, M; Bertino, S; Losana, M C

    2009-12-01

    Tritium present in the environment gradually decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has reached extremely low activity concentrations. The purpose of the present work is the implementation of a tritium enrichment system in water samples using electrolytic techniques and pure nickel and iron electrodes. In the present work a mean tritium enrichment factor of 13.0 +/- 3.2 was obtained. This result should allow to reach a minimum detectable activity of tritium in water samples of about 1 tritium unit (TU) or less. The present enrichment system necessitates further adjustments and improvements, such as a cooling system in order to reduce the tritium losses due to evaporation.

  17. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOEpatents

    Dubrin, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  18. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  19. Gradient elution isotachophoresis for enrichment and separation of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jonathan G; Ross, David

    2007-09-01

    A novel format for performing capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) is described -- gradient elution ITP (GEITP). GEITP merges the recently described electrophoretic separation technique of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with an ITP enrichment step. GEMBE utilizes a combination of continuous sample injection with a pressure-controlled counterflow; as the counterflow is reduced, analytes are sequentially eluted onto the separation column and detected as boundary interfaces. By incorporating leading electrolytes into the counterflow and terminating electrolytes into the sample matrix, an ionic interface can be formed near the capillary inlet. The discontinuous buffer system forms highly enriched analyte zones outside of the capillary, which are then eluted onto the separation capillary as the counterflow is reduced. Separation of fluorescent analytes was achieved either through discrete electrolyte spacers added to the sample or by using ampholyte mixtures to form a continuum of spacers. As the ITP process occurs off-column, extremely short length separations can be achieved, as demonstrated by a separation in 30 microm. The effects of various parameters on the GEITP enrichment process are investigated, including initial counterflow rates, electric field, leading electrolyte concentration, and counterflow acceleration, which is an adjustable parameter allowing for highly flexible separations. Typical enhancements in limits of detection and sensitivity were greater than 10,000-fold and were achieved in less than 2 min, yielding low-picomolar detection limits using arc lamp illumination and low-cost CCD detection. An optimized system afforded greater than 100,000-fold improvement in detection of carboxyfluorescein in 8 min. Specific examples of enrichment and separation demonstrated include the following: small dye molecules, DNA, amino acid mixtures, and protein mixtures.

  20. The Effects of Art History-Enriched Art Therapy on Anxiety, Time on Task, and Art Product Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of art history enrichment of art therapy task on anxiety, time on task, and art product quality among 13 chronic adult psychiatric day hospital patients. Results indicated art history enrichment task reduced anxiety and increased time on task. Art organization level tended toward significant increase compared with control…

  1. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  2. Safety aspects of gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge is a commercially proven, viable technology. Gas centrifuge enrichment plant operations pose hazards that are also found in other industries as well as unique hazards as a result of processing and handling uranium hexafluoride and the handling of enriched uranium. Hazards also found in other industries included those posed by the use of high-speed rotating equipment and equipment handling by use of heavy-duty cranes. Hazards from high-speed rotating equipment are associated with the operation of the gas centrifuges themselves and with the operation of the uranium hexafluoride compressors in the tail withdrawal system. These and related hazards are discussed. It is included that commercial gas centrifuge enrichment plants have been designed to operate safely.

  3. Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1976-01-01

    A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

  4. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  5. Job Enrichment: How to Avoid the Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregoe, Benjamin B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    While many job enrichment programs fail, a program called Analytical Trouble Shooting has been successful in training people to increase their problem-solving capabilities and to communicate readily with persons in other areas and on different levels. (AG)

  6. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  7. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  8. Selective enrichment and sensitive detection of candidate disease biomarker using a novel surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capangpangan, R. Y.; dela Rosa, M. A. C.; Chang, C. H.; Wang, W. C.; Peng, J.; Shih, S. J.; Chiang, M. H.; Tzou, D. L.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, Y. J.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, novel surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for enrichment performance towards the sensitive detection of disease biomarkers. Surfactants with phosphate ester groups (RD35A and RD66) were used as a coating to reduce aggregation and to enhance the nanoparticle dispersion. Importantly, sensitive enrichment of the target proteins using the antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Ab@MNP) was obtained, with a five-fold increase in recovery compared to uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. Similarly, phosphopeptide enrichment using the NTA@MNP in standard samples showed that the nanoparticles could selectively enrich phosphorylated peptides.

  9. Extremely high electron mobility in isotopically-enriched 28Si two-dimensional electron gases grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiun-Yun; Huang, Chiao-Ti; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Sturm, James C.

    2013-10-01

    Both depletion-mode and enhancement-mode two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in isotopically enriched 28Si with extremely high mobility (522 000 cm2/V s) are presented. The samples were grown by chemical vapor deposition using enriched silane. The fraction of the spin-carrying isotope 29Si was reduced to the level of 800 ppm by 28Si enrichment, with the electron spin dephasing time expected to be as long as 2 μs. Remote impurity charges from ionized dopants and the Si/Al2O3 interface were suggested to be the dominant source for electron scattering in the enriched 28Si 2DEGs.

  10. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. PMID:27589945

  11. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  12. Toward a predictive theory for environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2009-11-01

    There have been many applications of and successes with environmental enrichment for captive animals. The theoretical spine upon which much enrichment work hangs largely describes why enrichment should work. Yet, there remains no clear understanding of how enrichment should be applied to achieve the most beneficial results. This lack of understanding may stem in part from the assumptions that underlie the application of enrichment by practitioners. These assumptions are derived from an understanding that giving animals choice and control in their environment stimulates their motivation to perform behaviors that may indicate a heightened state of well-being. Learning theory provides a means to question the manner in which these constructs are routinely applied, and converting learning theory's findings to optimality predictions suggests a particularly vexing paradox-that motivation to perform appears to be maintained best when acquiring a payoff for expressing the behavior is uncertain. This effect occurs even when the actual value of the payoff is the same for all schedules of certainty of payoff acquisition. The paradox can be resolved by invoking rewards of an alternative type, such as cognitive rewards, or through an understanding of how the average payoff changes with changes in the probability of reward. This model, with measures of the average change of the payoff, suggests testable scenarios by which practitioners can measure the quality of environmental uncertainty in enrichment programs.

  13. Microfluidic droplet enrichment for targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Huang, Yong; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Sciambi, Adam; Ptáček, Louis J.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted sequence enrichment enables better identification of genetic variation by providing increased sequencing coverage for genomic regions of interest. Here, we report the development of a new target enrichment technology that is highly differentiated from other approaches currently in use. Our method, MESA (Microfluidic droplet Enrichment for Sequence Analysis), isolates genomic DNA fragments in microfluidic droplets and performs TaqMan PCR reactions to identify droplets containing a desired target sequence. The TaqMan positive droplets are subsequently recovered via dielectrophoretic sorting, and the TaqMan amplicons are removed enzymatically prior to sequencing. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by generating an average 31.6-fold sequence enrichment across 250 kb of targeted genomic DNA from five unique genomic loci. Significantly, this enrichment enabled a more comprehensive identification of genetic polymorphisms within the targeted loci. MESA requires low amounts of input DNA, minimal prior locus sequence information and enriches the target region without PCR bias or artifacts. These features make it well suited for the study of genetic variation in a number of research and diagnostic applications. PMID:25873629

  14. ChIP-Enrich: gene set enrichment testing for ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ryan P.; Lee, Chee; Imbriano, Paul M.; Patil, Snehal; Weymouth, Terry E.; Smith, R. Alex; Scott, Laura J.; Sartor, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Gene set enrichment testing can enhance the biological interpretation of ChIP-seq data. Here, we develop a method, ChIP-Enrich, for this analysis which empirically adjusts for gene locus length (the length of the gene body and its surrounding non-coding sequence). Adjustment for gene locus length is necessary because it is often positively associated with the presence of one or more peaks and because many biologically defined gene sets have an excess of genes with longer or shorter gene locus lengths. Unlike alternative methods, ChIP-Enrich can account for the wide range of gene locus length-to-peak presence relationships (observed in ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets). We show that ChIP-Enrich has a well-calibrated type I error rate using permuted ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets; in contrast, two commonly used gene set enrichment methods, Fisher's exact test and the binomial test implemented in Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT), can have highly inflated type I error rates and biases in ranking. We identify DNA-binding proteins, including CTCF, JunD and glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), that show different enrichment patterns for peaks closer to versus further from transcription start sites. We also identify known and potential new biological functions of GRα. ChIP-Enrich is available as a web interface (http://chip-enrich.med.umich.edu) and Bioconductor package. PMID:24878920

  15. Isotopic backmixing in a large-scale enrichment column in a chemical enrichment method

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.; Nishigaki, Y.; Onitsuka, H. )

    1990-03-01

    The Asahi chemical enrichment pilot plant with four large-scale 1-mm-diam enrichment columns has been operated using the super process since June 1987. Uranium with 3.3% enrichment was recovered in April 1988, and higher efficiencies have been observed in the pilot plant than in the bench-scale plant, which has 0.1-mm-diam enrichment columns. A possible reason is that the isotopic backmixing in the pilot plant is much smaller than in the bench-scale plant. Quantitative and statistical studies imply that both the extracolumn volume ratio and wall effect contribute to the smaller backmixing.

  16. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

    2012-10-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats.

  17. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  18. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  19. Loss of environmental enrichment increases vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Chauvet, Claudia; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-06-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction.

  20. Loss of Environmental Enrichment Increases Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction. PMID:22334125

  1. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  2. Evaluation of rapid screening techniques for detection of Salmonella spp. from produce samples after pre-enrichment according to FDA BAM and a short secondary enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, K J; Jinneman, K C; Orlandi, P A; Weagant, S D; Zapata, R; Fedio, W M

    2015-07-01

    Conventional detection of Salmonella from foods involves enrichment and isolation on selective media which can significantly lengthen time to result. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an accelerated plating procedure and the use of rapid screening devices for Salmonella detection. Fresh produce was inoculated with Salmonella at ~2·5, ~7·5 and ~25 CFU sample(-1) . After 24 h pre-enrichment, subcultures were made into TT and RV broths and further incubated at 42°C for an additional 7 and 24 h. Enrichments were streaked for isolation of Salmonella as well as tested by rapid screening methods. The 7-h accelerated plating procedure worked well from 4/6 to 6/6 in all produce samples inoculated at the lowest level. Both the RapidChek and Neogen Reveal tests worked as well as the VIDAS-SLM after 24 h secondary enrichment, but failed to detect the pathogen after 7 h selective enrichment in romaine lettuce and tomatoes, while fractional detection was observed in cilantro and jalapenos. Both devices detected Salmonella on cantaloupe at the lowest level of inoculation. An abbreviated selective enrichment procedure worked well to accelerate the isolation of colonies of Salmonella from contaminated samples providing isolates for further characterization 1 day earlier than standard analysis. In the event of a foodborne disease outbreak, rapid identification and characterization of the pathogen is essential to prevent the spread of disease and reduce the number of illnesses. This study reports the utility of an abbreviated secondary enrichment for the isolation of Salmonella in artificially contaminated fresh produce at very low levels. In addition, incorporation of rapid, easy-to-use lateral flow devices to screen enrichments can provide a low cost (equipment and highly trained personnel), high return (rapid identification of contaminated food) investment in the timely pathogen screening of fresh produce. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Environmental enrichment protects the retina from early diabetic damage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats.

  4. Resource-dependent antagonistic coevolution leads to a new paradox of enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2016-05-01

    The classical, ecological, paradox of enrichment describes a phenomenon that resource enrichment destabilizes predator-prey systems by exacerbating population oscillations. Here we suggest a new, evolutionary, paradox of enrichment. Resource enrichment can lead to more asymmetrical predator-prey coevolution (i.e., extremely high levels of prey defenses against predators) that decreases predator abundances and increases predator extinction risk. A major reason for this is that high resource availability can reduce fitness costs associated with prey defenses. In our experiments with a bacterium and its lytic phage, nutrient-balanced resource enrichment led to patterns in population demography and coevolutionary dynamics consistent with this coevolution-based paradox of enrichment; in particular, phage population extinction events were observed under nutrient-rich, not nutrient-poor, conditions. Consistent with ecological studies, carbon-biased resource enrichment (with carbon availability disproportionately increased relative to other nutrients) did not destabilize dynamics, and the asymmetry of coevolution was not altered in this context. Our work highlights the importance of integrating ecological and evolutionary thinking for studies of the consequences of nutrient pollution and other types of environmental changes.

  5. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Growth and Development of Impatiens hawkeri

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li; Huang, Zhi-Zhe; Zhu, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO2 enrichment) μmol·mol−1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO2 enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:22536147

  6. Experimental Study of Coal and Gas Outbursts Related to Gas-Enriched Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qingyi; Cheng, Yuanping; Guo, Pinkun; Jiang, Jingyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    A coal and gas outburst can lead to a catastrophic failure in a coal mine. These outbursts usually occur where the distribution of coal seam gas is abnormal, commonly in tectonic belts. To study the effects of the abnormal distribution of this gas on outbursts, an experimental apparatus to collect data on simulated coal seam outbursts was constructed. Experiments on specimens containing discrete gas-enriched areas were run to induce artificial gas outbursts and further study of these outbursts using data from the experiment was conducted. The results suggest that more gas and outburst energy are contained in gas-enriched areas and this permits these areas to cause an outburst easily, even though the gas pressure in them is lower. During mining, the disappearance of the sealing effect of a coal pillar establishes the occurrence conditions for an outburst. When the enriched gas and outburst energy in the gas-enriched area is released suddenly, a reverse unloading wave and a high gas pressure gradient are formed, which have tension effects on the coal. Under these effects, the fragmentation degree of the coal intensifies and the intensity of the outburst increases. Because a high gas pressure gradient is maintained near the exposed surface and the enriched energy release reduces the coal strength, the existence of a gas-enriched area in coal leads to a faster outburst and the average thickness of the spall is smaller than where is no gas-enriched area.

  7. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li; Huang, Zhi-Zhe; Zhu, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO(2) enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO(2)-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO(2) enrichment) μmol · mol(-1), respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO(2) enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO(2) enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO(2) enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO(2) enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  8. Effect of Bungee-carcass enrichment on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two species of zoo-housed Felids.

    PubMed

    Ruskell, Amber D; Meiers, Susan T; Jenkins, Sean E; Santymire, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment can improve animal physiological and psychological well-being. This study sought to promote more natural felid behavior and prevent development or incidence of stereotypies through the use of a feeding enrichment. Our objectives are to use fecal glucocorticoid metabolites values and behavioral observations to quantify the effectiveness of the enrichment device for two species of large cats, Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris; n = 2) and cougar (Felis concolor; n = 2). The feeding enrichment, a white-tailed deer carcass flank securely attached to an AussieDog Products(©) Felid 120-cm bungee, was implemented twice for each individual separated by 1 month. Fecal samples were obtained from each felid and analyzed for pre- and post-enrichment fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) concentrations using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay. An ethogram with 12 mutual exclusive behavioral categories was utilized to record behavioral responses to the enrichment. Results demonstrate that: 1) there were no differences (P > 0.05) in FGMs for either species between pre- and post-enrichment; 2) pacing decreased (P = 0.025) and walking increased (P = 0.017) after exposure to enrichment in both cougars; and 3) tigers reduced (P = 0.025) 'other' behavioral category after the first enrichment exposure and laid down more (P = 0.025) after the second enrichment exposure. The neutral hormonal impact on the animals coupled with the behavioral changes indicates that this enrichment is successful at altering the animals' behavior without adding physiological stress to their environments. These findings, combined with the low cost and versatility of the enrichment, promote the use of this enrichment to enhance large felid enclosures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Crye, Jason Michael; Hall, Howard L; McConchie, Seth M; Mihalczo, John T; Pena, Kirsten E

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

  10. REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2006-07-01

    BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the

  11. Ejection of Supernova-Enriched Gas From Dwarf Disk Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Murray, S D; Lin, D C

    2004-06-15

    We examine the efficiency with which supernova-enriched gas may be ejected from dwarf disk galaxies, using a methodology previously employed to study the self-enrichment efficiency of dwarf spheroidal systems. Unlike previous studies that focused on highly concentrated starbursts, in the current work we consider discrete supernova events spread throughout various fractions of the disk. We model disk systems having gas masses of 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} with supernova rates of 30, 300, and 3000 Myr{sup -1}. The supernova events are confined to the midplane of the disk, but distributed over radii of 0, 30, and 80% of the disk radius, consistent with expectations for Type II supernovae. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that the enriched material from supernovae is largely lost when the supernovae are concentrated near the nucleus, as expected for a starburst event. In contrast, we find the loss of enriched material to be much less efficient (as low as 21%) when the supernovae occur over even a relatively small fraction of the disk. The difference is due to the ability of the system to relax following supernova events that occur over more extended regions. Larger physical separations also reduce the likelihood of supernovae going off within low-density ''chimneys'' swept out by previous supernovae. We also find that, for the most distributed systems, significant metal loss is more likely to be accompanied by significant mass loss. A comparison with theoretical predications indicates that, when undergoing self-regulated star formation, galaxies in the mass range considered shall efficiently retain the products of Type II supernovae.

  12. Histological differences in the adrenal glands and cortisol levels of suckling dairy goat kids in enriched and non-enriched environments.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Trigueros, A P; Candanosa-Aranda, I E; Ducoing-Watty, A E; Gutiérrez-Molotla, J; Galindo, F; Sisto-Burt, A M

    2017-05-06

    Intensive production systems can negatively affect the welfare of goats. Environmental enrichment techniques can be used to reduce stress. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of environmental enrichment on the histological characteristics of adrenal glands, cortisol levels and weekly weight gain of suckling Alpine French male kids under confinement. A randomised design was used to test the effect of the treatment. The animals (n=20) were randomly assigned to two treatments (enriched and non-enriched) with two replicates each. Enrichment elements included elevated sacks of henequen, trunks, tires and coconuts. The cortisol levels were measured weekly. Male kids were euthanized when their weight reached 10kg, and immediately after euthanasia, samples of the adrenal glands were collected. The adrenal glands were weighed and measured, and histological sections were taken and fixed. Four hundred cells were measured from each animal, with two blind measurements taken from each sample. There were no significant differences between experimental groups (P>0.05) in the weigh, size, the area of cells from the glomerulosa and fasciculata areas of the adrenal glands, the cortisol levels and weekly weight gain. However, there were histological differences between the glomerular and fascicular zones of the left and right adrenal glands of the different groups (P<0.05). These findings suggest that adrenal glands of animals in non-enriched environment, contained histological changes, suggestive of increased activity. We suggest testing adrenal histology as an indicator of stress and recommend the use of environmental enrichment as a means to reduce stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation Effect on Microstructural Stability of RERTR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. D. Miller; T. R. Allen; D. M. Wachs

    2008-03-01

    Three depleted uranium alloys are successfully cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using proton irradiation. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3 and a mixture of UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiation with 2.6 MeV protons at 200ºC to the doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 dpa are carried out.

  14. Characterization and Testing of Monolithic RERTR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser; J. F. Jue; D. E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIPed samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the U-Mo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process.

  15. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, John E; Laughter, Mark D; March-Leuba, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  16. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  17. Enrichment analysis applied to disease prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Enrichment analysis is well established in the field of transcriptomics, where it is used to identify relevant biological features that characterize a set of genes obtained in an experiment. This article proposes the application of enrichment analysis as a first step in a disease prognosis methodology, in particular of diseases with a strong genetic component. With this analysis the objective is to identify clinical and biological features that characterize groups of patients with a common disease, and that can be used to distinguish between groups of patients associated with disease-related events. Data mining methodologies can then be used to exploit those features, and assist medical doctors in the evaluation of the patients in respect to their predisposition for a specific event. In this work the disease hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is used as a case-study, as a first test to assess the feasibility of the application of an enrichment analysis to disease prognosis. To perform this assessment, two groups of patients have been considered: patients that have suffered a sudden cardiac death episode and patients that have not. The results presented were obtained with genetic data and the Gene Ontology, in two enrichment analyses: an enrichment profiling aiming at characterizing a group of patients (e.g. that suffered a disease-related event) based on their mutations; and a differential enrichment aiming at identifying differentiating features between a sub-group of patients and all the patients with the disease. These analyses correspond to an adaptation of the standard enrichment analysis, since multiple sets of genes are being considered, one for each patient. The preliminary results are promising, as the sets of terms obtained reflect the current knowledge about the gene functions commonly altered in HCM patients, thus allowing their characterization. Nevertheless, some factors need to be taken into consideration before the full potential of the enrichment

  18. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in corresponding baseline or "austere" conditions and during a period of noncontingent reinforcement. The results generally revealed: (1) little change in adaptive and maladaptive child and adult-directed behavior across conditions, (2) an overall higher incidence of adaptive object-directed behavior and reduced self-directed maladaptive behavior in each treatment condition from that observed in corresponding control conditions, and (3) the use of an "enriched" environment and differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior resulted in maladaptive self-directed behavior being reduced and adaptive object-directed behavior being icreased beyond that observed in the "enriched" environment alone. These behavioral gains were largely maintained during a follow-up condition by continuing the "enriched" environment and transferring the responsibility for differential reinforcement to direct-care staff. PMID:7430007

  19. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  20. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  2. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  3. GLANET: genomic loci annotation and enrichment tool.

    PubMed

    Otlu, Burçak; Firtina, Can; Keles, Sündüz; Tastan, Oznur

    2017-09-15

    Genomic studies identify genomic loci representing genetic variations, transcription factor (TF) occupancy, or histone modification through next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Interpreting these loci requires evaluating them with known genomic and epigenomic annotations. We present GLANET as a comprehensive annotation and enrichment analysis tool which implements a sampling-based enrichment test that accounts for GC content and/or mappability biases, jointly or separately. GLANET annotates and performs enrichment analysis on these loci with a rich library. We introduce and perform novel data-driven computational experiments for assessing the power and Type-I error of its enrichment procedure which show that GLANET has attained high statistical power and well-controlled Type-I error rate. As a key feature, users can easily extend its library with new gene sets and genomic intervals. Other key features include assessment of impact of single nucleotide variants (SNPs) on TF binding sites and regulation based pathway enrichment analysis. GLANET can be run using its GUI or on command line. GLANET's source code is available at https://github.com/burcakotlu/GLANET . Tutorials are provided at https://glanet.readthedocs.org . burcak@ceng.metu.edu.tr or oznur.tastan@cs.bilkent.edu.tr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Characterization of microbial fuel cells enriched using Cr(VI)-containing sludge.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Yeon; Kim, Mia; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2011-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were successfully enriched using sludge contaminated with Cr(VI) and their characteristics were investigated. After enrichment, the charge of the final 10 peaks was 0.51 C +/- 1.16%, and the anodic electrode was found to be covered with a biofilm. The enriched MFCs removed 93% of 5 mg/l Cr(VI) and 61% of 25 mg/l Cr(VI). 16S rDNA DGGE profiles from the anodic electrode indicated that beta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acinetobacter sp. dominated. This study is the first to report that electrochemically active and Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria could be enriched in the anode compartment of MFCs using Cr(VI)-containing sludge and demonstrates the Cr(VI) removal capability of such MFCs.

  5. Enrichment through biomarkers in clinical trials of Alzheimer's drugs in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, M; Donohue, M; Paternicò, D; Scarpazza, C; Ostrowitzki, S; Blin, O; Irving, E; Frisoni, G B

    2010-08-01

    Clinical trials of disease modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) might benefit from enrichment with true AD cases. Four hundred five MCI patients (143 converters and 262 nonconverters to AD within 2 years) of the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were used. Markers for enrichment were hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance (MRI), temporoparietal hypometabolism on FDG PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (Abeta42, tau, and phospho-tau), and cortical amyloid deposition (11C-PIB positron emission tomography (PET)). Two separate enrichment strategies were tested to A) maximize the proportion of MCI converters screened in, and B) minimize the proportion of MCI converters screened out. Based on strategy A, when compared with no enrichment and ADAS-Cog as an outcome measure (sample size of 834), enrichment with 18F-FDG PET and hippocampal volume lowered samples size to 260 and 277 cases per arm, but at the cost of screening out 1,597 and 434 cases per arm. When compared with no enrichment and clinical dementia rating (CDR-SOB) as an outcome measure (sample size of 674), enrichment with hippocampal volume and Abeta42 lowered sample sizes to 191 and 291 cases per arm, with 639 and 157 screened out cases. Strategy B reduced the number of screened out cases (740 for [11C]-PIB PET, 101 hippocampal volume, 82 ADAS-COG and 330 for [18F]-FDG PET) but at the expense of decreased power and a relative increase size (740 for [11C]-PIB PET, 676 for hippocampal volume, 744 for ADAS-Cog, and 517 for [18F]-FDG PET). Enrichment comes at the price of an often relevant proportion of screened out cases, and in clinical trial settings, the balance between enrichment of screened in and loss of screened out patients should be critically discussed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  7. Results of the Irradiation of R6R018 in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Adam B Robinson; Daniel Wachs; Pavel Medvedev; Curtis Clark; Gray Chang; Misti Lillo; Jan-Fong Jue; Glenn Moore; Jared Wight

    2010-04-01

    For over 30 years the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has worked to provide the fuel technology and analytical support required to convert research and test reactors from nuclear fuels that utilize highly enriched uranium (HEU) to fuels based on low-enriched uranium (LEU) (defined as <20% U-235). This effort is driven by a desire to minimize international civilian commerce in weapons usable materials. The RERTR fuel development program has executed a wide array of fuel tests over the last decade that clearly established the viability of research reactor fuels based on uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys. Fuel testing has included a large number of dispersion type fuels capable of providing uranium densities up to approximately 8.5 g U/cc (~1.7 g U-235/cc at 20% enrichment). The dispersion fuel designs tested are very similar to existing research test reactor fuels in that the U-Mo particles simply replace the current fuel phase within the matrix. In 2003 it became evident that the first generation U-Mo-based dispersion fuel within an aluminum matrix exhibited significant fuel performance problems at high power and burn-up. These issues have been successfully addressed with a modest modification to the matrix material composition. Testing has shown that small additions of silicon (2–5 wt%) to the aluminum (Al) matrix stabilizes the fuel performance. The fuel plate R6R018 which was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as part of the RERTR-9B experiment was part of an investigation into the role of the silicon content in the matrix. This plate consisted of a U-7Mo fuel phase dispersed in an Al-3.5Si matrix clad in Al-6061. This report outlines the fabrication history, the as fabricated analysis performed prior to irradiation, the irradiation conditions, the post irradiation examination results, and an analysis of the plates behavior.

  8. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  9. Calcium enrichment in sea spray aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Hamacher-Barth, E.; Leck, C.; Werner, J.; Johnson, C. M.; Riipinen, I.; Nilsson, E. D.; Zieger, P.

    2016-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol particles are an integral part of the Earth's radiation budget. To date, the inorganic composition of nascent sea spray aerosol particles has widely been assumed to be equivalent to the inorganic composition of seawater. Here we challenge this assumption using a laboratory sea spray chamber containing both natural and artificial seawater, as well as with ambient aerosol samples collected over the central Arctic Ocean during summer. We observe significant enrichment of calcium in submicrometer (<1 μm in diameter) sea spray aerosol particles when particles are generated from both seawater sources in the laboratory as well as in the ambient aerosols samples. We also observe a tendency for increasing calcium enrichment with decreasing particle size. Our results suggest that calcium enrichment in sea spray aerosol particles may be environmentally significant with implications for our understanding of sea spray aerosol, its impact on Earth's climate, as well as the chemistry of the marine atmosphere.

  10. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances is originated from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relations. This means that the most metal poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant blanch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor stars, which are in good agreement with observations.

  11. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  12. Enrichment Map – a Cytoscape app to visualize and explore OMICs pathway enrichment results

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Merico, Daniele; Voisin, Veronique; Bader, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput OMICs experiments generate signals for millions of entities (i.e. genes, proteins, metabolites or any measurable biological entity) in the cell. In an effort to summarize and explore these signals, expression results are examined in the context of known pathways and processes, through enrichment analysis to generate a set of pathways and processes that is significantly enriched. Due to the high redundancy in annotation resources this often results in hundreds of sets. To facilitate the analysis of these results, we have developed the Enrichment Map app to visualize enrichments as a network. We have updated Enrichment Map to support Cytoscape 3, and have added additional features including new data formats and command line access. PMID:25075306

  13. Status of gadolinium enrichment technology at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C.; Comaskey, B.; Conway, J.; Eggert, J.; Glaser, J.; Ng, E.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1993-01-01

    A method based on,polarization selectivity and three step laser photoionization is presented for separation of the odd isotopes of gadolinium. Measurements of the spectroscopic parameters needed to quantify the excitation pathway are discussed. Model results are presented for the efficiency of photoionization. The vapor properties of electron beam vaporized gadolinium are presented which show dramatic cooling during the expansion of the hot dense vapor into a vacuum. This results in a significant increase in the efficiency of conversion of natural feed into enriched product in the AVLIS process. Production of enriched gadolinium for use in commercial power reactors appears to be economically viable using technology in use at LLNL.

  14. Surface enrichment in an isotopic polymer blend

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.A.L.; Kramer, E.J.; Rafailovich, M.H.; Sokolov, J.; Schwarz, S.A.

    1989-01-16

    Forward recoil spectrometry reveals that the surface of a blend of deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and protonated polystyrene (PS) is enriched with d-PS relative to the bulk; the surface excess of d-PS increases almost linearly with the bulk volume fraction phi of d-PS at 184 /sup 0/C. The results may be interpreted quantitatively with mean-field theory, and yield a form of the bare surface energy of the blend consistent with the surface enrichment being driven by a surface energy difference between d-PS and hydrogenated polystyrene (h-PS) of isotopic origin.

  15. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  16. Chronic stress and environmental enrichment as opposite factors affecting the immune response in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H

    2011-03-01

    Procedures in the commercial production of animals involve stressful situations which lessen the animal's welfare. This study on Japanese quail evaluated whether an environmental enrichment manipulation can affect avian immune responses and if combined with a chronic stressor exposure can help to counteract the negative effects of stress on the immune system. Potential gender effects were also considered. After hatch, half of the birds were housed in non-enriched boxes and half were housed in environmentally enriched boxes. From day 33 to 42 of age, all birds within half of the non-enriched and enriched boxes remained undisturbed while the other half were daily exposed to a 15 min restraint stressor (chronic stressor). The inflammatory response (lymphoproliferation after phytohemagglutinin-p), percentage of lymphocytes, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and primary antibody response against sheep red blood cells were assessed. The chronic stressor application and the enrichment procedure, respectively, either increased or reduced the four immunological parameters evaluated and always in opposite directions. Males consistently showed lower antibody titres than females and presented the highest H/L ratio in response to the stressor when reared in the non-enriched environment. The findings indicate that submitting these animals to an enriched environment can be effectively used to improve their immune response and to reduce the detrimental effects of a stressor exposure.

  17. Ecological impacts of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Körner, Christian

    2003-09-15

    Global change has many facets, of which land use and the change of atmospheric chemistry are unquestioned primary agents, which induce a suite of secondary effects, including climatic changes. The largest single contribution to the compositional change of the atmosphere, CO(2) enrichment, has (besides its influence on climate) immediate and direct effects on plants. Quantitatively, CO(2) is the plant 'food' number one, and the rate of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by leaves is not yet CO(2)-saturated. This abrupt change of the biosphere's diet does and will affect all aspects of life, including our food. However, the plant and ecosystem responses are more subtle than had been assumed from the results of responses of isolated, well-fertilized and well-watered plants in greenhouses during the early days of CO(2)-enrichment research. In this article, I discuss potential responses of complex natural grassland and diverse forests, and address three key themes: CO(2) and nutrients; CO(2) and water; CO(2) and plant-animal interactions. Examples from a suite of climatic regions emphasize that the most important ecosystem level responses to elevated CO(2) will be introduced by differential responses of species. Atmospheric CO(2) enrichment is a biodiversity issue. Classical physiological baseline responses of leaves to elevated CO(2) can be overrun by biodiversity effects to such an extent that some of the traditional predictions may even become reversed. For instance, biodiversity effects may cause humid tropical forests (those which avoid destruction) to become more dynamic and store less, rather than more, carbon as CO(2) enrichment continues. The abundance of certain life forms and species and their lifespans exert major controls over the half-life of carbon stored in forest biomass, and there is evidence that elevated CO(2) can affect these controls and most likely does so already. Also, long-term hydrological consequences of atmospheric CO(2) enrichment will be driven

  18. Experimental studies of magmatic differentiation of phosphor enriched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Pavel; Bezmen, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    At 800oC and under 200 MPa pressure of the H-O-C fluid system in the moderate reducing conditions (stability of magnetite) in the phosphor enriched Li-F granite melts contained closely connected with natural concentrations of F, P2O5 and H2O the superliquidus nano-cluster cryptic and contrasting layering of Qz-Fsp type is generated. The Sn and W in the experimental samples as well as in the phosphor enriched Li-F granite system of the Podlesi, Czech Republic are concentrated in the melts enriched by F and P2O5.The experiments were carried out in the internally heated gas high pressure vessel. The initial charges were homogeneous glasses obtained by melting of Podlesi Li-F granite system middle composition. The improved Shaw membrane technique is useful to control in experiments the hydrogen content of the fluid phase. The hydrogen fugacity was controlled by an argon-hydrogen mixture in the Re-reactor and was 0.12 MPa. At the interaction of phosphorus and fluorine with Podlesi Li-F granite melt in the presence of H-O-C system fluid in the absence of the thermal gradient and constancy of all other thermodynamic parameters, these develop cryptic layering, a gradual alteration of liquid composition along the sample height and appearance of layers ("lenses") enriched by silica. The origin of heterogeneities is connected to the formation of fluctuating more ordered structures-nano-clusters, which exchange particles and energy with matrix of melt. The depolymerization of melt affects the cluster formation. The degree of silicate melt depolymerization is stipulated by dissolution in the latter of volatiles, specially of hydrogen, phosphorus and fluorine: their presence increases water solubility and depolymerization. The behaviour of clusters cannot be predicted by "classical" chemical principles: various studies on such diverse properties as ionization potentials and nearest neighbour distance has shown that the values for clusters of an element is intermediate between

  19. Nocturnal oxygen enrichment of room air at 3800 meter altitude improves sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Barash, I A; Beatty, C; Powell, F L; Prisk, G K; West, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is known to be impaired at high altitude, and this may be a factor contributing to reduced work efficiency, general malaise, and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nocturnal room oxygen enrichment at 3800 m has been shown to reduce the time spent in periodic breathing and the number of apneas, to improve subjective quality of sleep, and to reduce the AMS score. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of oxygen enrichment to 24% at 3800 m (lowering the equivalent altitude to 2800 m) on sleep architecture. Full polysomnography and actigraphy were performed on 12 subjects who ascended in 1 day to 3800 m and slept in a specially constructed room that allowed oxygen enrichment or ambient air conditions in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. The results showed that subjects spent a significantly greater percentage of time in deep sleep (stages III and IV combined, or slow wave sleep) with oxygen enrichment versus ambient air (17.2 +/- 10.0% and 13.9 +/- 6.7%, respectively; p < 0.05 in paired analysis). No differences between treatments were seen with subjective assessments of sleep quality or with subject's assessment of the extent to which they suffered from AMS. This study provides further objective evidence of improved sleep as a result of oxygen enrichment at 3800 m and suggests that alleviating hypoxia may improve sleep quality.

  20. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), has applied to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a license to authorize it to construct and operate a uranium enrichment facility in... COMMISSION In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

  1. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted a license application that proposes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a laser-based...

  2. Post-irradiation-examination of irradiated fuel outside the hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; Adam B. Robinson; Thomas P. O'Holleran; R. Paul Lind; Marc Babcock; Laurence C. Brower; Julie Jacobs; Pamela K. Hoggan

    2007-09-01

    Because of their high radioactivity, irradiated fuels are commonly examined in a hot cell. However, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has recently investigated irradiated U-Mo-Al metallic fuel from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) project using a conventional unshielded scanning electron microscope outside a hot cell. This examination was possible because of a two-step sample-preparation approach in which a small volume of fuel was isolated in a hot cell and shielding was introduced during later stages of sample preparation. The resulting sample contained numerous sample-preparation artifacts but allowed analysis of microstructures from selected areas.

  3. Enriching and Assessing Young Children's Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel-Powell, Christy; Kargin, Tolga; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides primary teachers with assessment tools and curricular examples to expand writers' workshop by adding a multimodal storytelling unit on drama and filmmaking, allowing students to create engaging off-the-page stories through films and play performances that enrich writing. Too often, children's literacy abilities are assessed…

  4. On the Coming Demise of Job Enrichment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Job enrichment rapidly is becoming one of the most widely used behavioral science strategies for organizational change . And there is scattered but...in practice at least as often as it is succeeding--and that its future as a strategy for personal and organizational change may be bleak. This report

  5. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  6. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  7. Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ethna R.

    The Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE) program was designed to establish a model for teaching parents, teachers, and other care providers how to develop the oral language, thinking abilities and motor skills of young children (ages six months to three years). ECLE trainers instruct the parents or other care providers by first modeling…

  8. Enriching Science and Math through Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen; Scott, Margaret; Jordan, Pat; Dockers, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This case study reviewed the collaborative efforts of university engineers, teacher educators, and middle school teachers to advance sixth- and seventh-grade students' learning through a series of project-based engineering activities. This two-year project enriched regular school curricula by introducing real-world applications of science and…

  9. Environmental Enrichment in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Kristine; Novak, Melinda A

    2017-04-21

    More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies. In this review, we discuss the objectives of the environmental enhancement plan along with relevant outcome measures, as well as ongoing challenges, costs, and benefits. We then review various enrichment strategies and assess their efficacy in meeting goals and objectives. Finally, we look forward to consider what the future might hold for environmental enrichment of nonhuman primates used in research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Document Ranking Using an Enriched Thesaurus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study funded by the Commission of the European Community that applied document retrieval algorithms to the "Excerpta Medica" database using the EMTREE thesaurus. Nonhierarchical relations were added to enrich the thesaurus, and document ranking is discussed in terms of the conceptual distance between the documents and the…

  11. Using Synchronous Technology to Enrich Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Jaeger, David; Liu, Jinxia; Guo, Xiaoning; Xie, Nan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the potential applications of synchronous technology to enrich student learning, faculty members from an American regional state university and a Chinese regional university collaborated to find appropriate ways to integrate synchronous technology (e.g., Adobe Connect) into an educational technology program in the American university…

  12. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  13. Research Related to the Enrichment Triad Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.

    This report highlights four research studies related to the Enrichment Triad Model, which encourages problem finding and problem solving in gifted students. The first study, "Academic Underachievement among the Gifted: Reversing School Failure" by Linda J. Emerick, identified six factors which influenced the reversal of the…

  14. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  15. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  16. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  17. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  18. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  19. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  20. Enrichment Education: Key to NCLEX Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolahan, Caryle G. Hussey; Wieczorek, Rita Reis

    1991-01-01

    A concomitant decrease in test scores and major change in the composition of the student body was dealt with by the College of Nursing at the State University of New York through the Nursing Education Success Plan. The plan addresses student preparation for the National Council Licensure Exam (NCLEX), curriculum revision, remediation/enrichment,…

  1. Glycoprotein enrichment through lectin affinity techniques.

    PubMed

    Mechref, Yehia; Madera, Milan; Novotny, Milos V

    2008-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTM) of proteins are among the key biological regulators of function, activity, localization, and interaction. The fact that no more than 30,000-50,000 proteins are encoded by the human genome underlines the importance of posttranslational modifications in modulating the activities and functions of proteins in health and disease. With approximately 50% of all proteins now considered to be glycosylated, its physiological importance in mammalian systems is imperative. Aberrant glycosylation has now been recognized as an attribute of many mammalian diseases, including hereditary disorders, immune deficiencies, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and cancer. As many potential disease biomarkers may be glycoproteins present in only minute quantities in tissue extracts and physiological fluids, glycoprotein isolation and enrichment may be critical in a search for such biomarkers. For decades, efforts have been focused on the development of glycoprotein enrichment from complex biological samples. Logically, the great majority of these enrichment methodologies rely on the use of immobilized lectins, which permit selective enrichment of the pools of glycoproteins for proteomic/glycomic studies. In this chapter, lectin affinity chromatography in different formats are described, including tubes; packed columns, and microfluidic channels.

  2. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  3. Parents as Partners in Art Education Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,…

  4. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  5. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  6. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  7. Computer Enrichment Handbook [and] Supplement A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bonnie Roe, Ed.; And Others

    This handbook contains computer-related, classroom-tested ideas that were contributed by business education teachers and administrators to fuse computer information into computer and noncomputer courses. An alphabetical listing of contributors identifies the category/categories in which their enrichment idea can be found. The contributions are…

  8. Books to Expand and Enrich Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1983-01-01

    Books are briefly described that parents can read and discuss with their children to enrich travel and cultural activities. Books on the nation's capital city, the Liberty Bell, the Statue of Liberty, architecture, zoos, dinosaurs, and other subjects are included. (PP)

  9. The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Diane; Raggi, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness (POWER's) unique and innovative curriculum recruits and sustains nontraditional students interested in preparing for employment or continued studies in an institution of higher education. The program specifically targets persons in mental health recovery. Students attend college during a regular…

  10. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the…

  11. Enriching Science and Math through Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen; Scott, Margaret; Jordan, Pat; Dockers, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This case study reviewed the collaborative efforts of university engineers, teacher educators, and middle school teachers to advance sixth- and seventh-grade students' learning through a series of project-based engineering activities. This two-year project enriched regular school curricula by introducing real-world applications of science and…

  12. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  13. American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnick, Sally

    Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be…

  14. US Department of Energy Uranium Enrichment Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-16

    KPMG Peat Marwick (KPMG), Certified Public Accountants, has completed its audit of the Department of Energy's Uranium Enrichment Activity (UEA) financial.statements as of September 30, 1991. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether (1) the financial statements were presented fairly in accordance with applicable accounting principles, (2) the auditee complied with all applicable laws and regulations that may have materially affected the financial statements, and (3) the internal accounting controls, taken as a whole, were adequate. The US Government, through the Department of Energy (DOE) and the management and operating contractor, operates the UEA to enrich uranium hexafluoride in the isotope U-235 for commercial power reactor operators, as further discussed in note 1 of the financial statements. The enrichment of uranium for Government program users, which had been a function of UEA, was transferred outside the UEA affective September 30, 1991, as described in note 3 of the financial statements. UEA is a part of DOE and does not exist as a separate legal entity. For financial reporting purposes, the entity is defined as those activities which provide enriching services to its customers. The financial statements are prepared by extracting and adjusting UEA related data from the financial records of DOE and its contractors.

  15. National 4-H School Enrichment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 4-H school enrichment programs (813 responses) found that they reach large numbers of diverse youth and develop credibility with community and schools. Long-term programs such as 4-H clubs have proven effective in helping youth develop life skills, but Extension must carefully consider the purpose and consequences of diverting…

  16. Isotopic enrichment in a plasma centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bosco, E.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Ludwig, G.O.; Bittencourt, J.A.

    1987-06-15

    High rotational velocity and centrifugal isotopic separation of carbon in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge are presented. Enrichments of up to 390% for /sup 13/C are measured at 6 cm radius with angular rotation frequencies in excess of 1.0 x 10/sup 5/ rad/s in an axial magnetic field of 0.12 T.

  17. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the…

  18. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  19. Ferret wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurel M

    2015-05-01

    The domestic ferret is a commonly kept companion animal. Knowledge of proper husbandry of companion ferrets and their common disease processes by veterinarians assists pet owners in providing the healthiest environment possible. Attentiveness to the environmental needs of pet ferrets results in physically and psychologically healthy animals and a positive, enriched relationship with owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  1. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  2. Debugging the Human Computer: Instrumental Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Jo

    The paper describes the implementation of a 3-year cognitive skills development curriculum, Instrucmental Enrichment (IE), at the North Carolina School for the Deaf in a question/answer format. The following questions are addressed: What are the goals? Who is it for? How is it taught? What is the IE classroom climate like? What is the theory? What…

  3. ChIP-Enrich: gene set enrichment testing for ChIP-seq data.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ryan P; Lee, Chee; Imbriano, Paul M; Patil, Snehal; Weymouth, Terry E; Smith, R Alex; Scott, Laura J; Sartor, Maureen A

    2014-07-01

    Gene set enrichment testing can enhance the biological interpretation of ChIP-seq data. Here, we develop a method, ChIP-Enrich, for this analysis which empirically adjusts for gene locus length (the length of the gene body and its surrounding non-coding sequence). Adjustment for gene locus length is necessary because it is often positively associated with the presence of one or more peaks and because many biologically defined gene sets have an excess of genes with longer or shorter gene locus lengths. Unlike alternative methods, ChIP-Enrich can account for the wide range of gene locus length-to-peak presence relationships (observed in ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets). We show that ChIP-Enrich has a well-calibrated type I error rate using permuted ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets; in contrast, two commonly used gene set enrichment methods, Fisher's exact test and the binomial test implemented in Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT), can have highly inflated type I error rates and biases in ranking. We identify DNA-binding proteins, including CTCF, JunD and glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), that show different enrichment patterns for peaks closer to versus further from transcription start sites. We also identify known and potential new biological functions of GRα. ChIP-Enrich is available as a web interface (http://chip-enrich.med.umich.edu) and Bioconductor package. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  5. Enrichment design with patient population augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yijie; Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials can be enriched on subpopulations that may be more responsive to treatments to improve the chance of trial success. In 2012 FDA issued a draft guidance to facilitate enrichment design, where it pointed out the uncertainty on the subpopulation classification and on the treatment effect outside of the identified subpopulation. We consider a novel design strategy where the identified subpopulation (biomarker-positive) is augmented by some biomarker-negative patients. Specifically, after sufficiently powering biomarker-positive subpopulation we propose to enroll biomarker-negative patients, enough to assess the overall treatment benefit. We derive a weighted statistic for this assessment, correcting for the disproportionality of biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subpopulations under enriched trial setting. Screening information is utilized for weight determination. This statistic is an unbiased estimate of the overall treatment effect as that in all-comer trials, and is the basis to power for the overall treatment effect. For analysis, testing will be first performed on biomarker-positive subpopulation; only if treatment benefit is established in this subpopulation will overall treatment effect be tested using the weighted statistic. This design approach differs from typical enrichment design or stratified all-comer design in that the former enrolls only biomarker-positive patients and the latter enrolls a regular all-comer population. It also differs from adaptive enrichment by maintaining the trial design and analysis priority on biomarker-positive subpopulation. Therefore the proposed approach not only warrants a high probability of trial success on biomarker-positive subpopulation, but also efficiently assesses the overall treatment effect in the presence of an uncertain treatment benefit among biomarker-negative patients.

  6. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yi; Wu, Si; Zhao, Rui; Zink, Erika M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Meng, Da; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2013-06-05

    Enrichment of bacterial phosphopeptides is an essential step prior to bottom-up mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome, which is fundamental to understanding the role of phosphoproteins in cell signaling and regulation of protein activity. We developed an automated IMAC system to enrich strong cation exchange-fractionated phosphopeptides from the soluble proteome of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown on minimal medium. Initial demonstration of the system resulted in identification of 75 phosphopeptides covering 52 phosphoproteins. Consistent with previous studies, many of these phosphoproteins are involved in the carbohydrate portion of central metabolism. The automated system utilizes a large capacity IMAC column that can effectively enrich phosphopeptides from a bacterial sample by increasing peptide loading and reducing the wash time. An additional benefit of the automated IMAC system is reduced labor and associated costs.

  7. Environmental Enrichment Duration Differentially Affects Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Leger, Marianne; Paizanis, Eleni; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Quiedeville, Anne; Bouet, Valentine; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Freret, Thomas; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Boulouard, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Environmental enrichment is a powerful way to stimulate brain and behavioral plasticity. However the required exposure duration to reach such changes has not been substantially analyzed. We aimed to assess the time-course of appearance of the beneficial effects of enriched environment. Thus, different behavioral tests and neurobiological parameters (such as neurogenesis, brain monoamines levels, and stress-related hormones) were concomitantly realized after different durations of enriched environment (24 h, 1, 3, or 5 weeks). While short enrichment exposure (24 h) was sufficient to improve object recognition memory performances, a 3-week exposure was required to improve aversive stimulus-based memory performances and to reduce anxiety-like behavior; effects that were not observed with longer duration. The onset of behavioral changes after a 3-week exposure might be supported by higher serotonin levels in the frontal cortex, but seems independent of neurogenesis phenomenon. Additionally, the benefit of 3-week exposure on memory was not observed 3 weeks after cessation of enrichment. Thus, the 3-week exposure appears as an optimal duration in order to induce the most significant behavioral effects and to assess the underlying mechanisms. Altogether, these results suggest that the duration of exposure is a keystone of the beneficial behavioral and neurobiological effects of environmental enrichment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Environmental enrichment enhances cellular plasticity in transgenic mice with Alzheimer-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Ambrée, Oliver; Tomm, Manuel; Habermann, Henrik; Sachser, Norbert; Paulus, Werner; Keyvani, Kathy

    2009-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by hippocampal neuronal loss and abnormal neurogenesis, both of which probably contributing to AD-related cognitive deficits. Mounting evidence indicates that cognitive and physical stimulation provided by environmental enrichment improves neurogenesis in healthy animals and counteracts beta-amyloid pathology in mouse models of AD. Here, we hypothesized that environmental enrichment has also an impact on hippocampal neurogenesis in mice with AD-like pathology. Therefore, TgCRND8 mice and wild type littermates were either housed under standard conditions or in an enriched environment for 4 months. Standard housed TgCRND8 mice revealed diminished hippocampal cell proliferation and reduced number of mature newborn neurons compared to wild type littermates under the same housing condition. However, environmental enrichment reversed this genotype effect. Here, we show that cognitive and physical stimulation is capable of increasing the number of newborn mature hippocampal neurons in transgenic mice to wild type levels. Moreover, the expression of various plasticity associated molecules was enhanced in transgenic mice due to enriched housing. This study identifies that environmental enrichment improves diminished cellular plasticity in AD brain, probably enhancing the brain capacity to better compensate for neurodegeneration.

  9. Effect of cobalt enrichment on growth and hydrocarbon accumulation of Botryococcus braunii with immobilized biofilm attached cultivation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-02-01

    The effects of cobalt enrichment on the growth and hydrocarbon accumulation were studied with biofilm attached cultivation. Under biofilm attached cultivation conditions, the microalga Botryococcus braunii survived high concentration of cobalt (50× normal level). The crude hydrocarbon content as well as the long C chain component (C31) increased under Co enrichment treatment indicating the activity of key enzyme that catalyze hydrocarbon synthesis might be enhanced by Co enrichment. The reduced carbohydrate and protein contents accompanied by increased hydrocarbon content for Co enrichment treatment indicating the Co was also an effective factor that controls the carbon flow of B. braunii. Under Co enrichment treatment, totally 1473.9 μmol of Co element was consumed to produce one gram of algal biomass, indicating this attached cultivation method is high efficient in heavy metal elements removal.

  10. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  11. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  12. Ecological studies of cadmium and nutrient enrichment in laboratory microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    Phase I was a 4 x 4 factorial experiment with static microcosoms designed to test the subsidy-stress hypothesis and focused on the interactive effects of cadmium and nutrient enrichment. Phase II was a 2 x 4 factorial experiment with flowthrough microcosms designed to test the biomass-increment hypothesis and focused on temporal aspects of system behavior in response to phosphorus enrichment and chronic versus acute cadmium perturbations. Phase I results supported the subsidy-stress hypothesis with respect to cadmium inputs. There was a significant interaction effect of cadmium and nutrients, with high nutrient levels reducing the stress effect of cadmium. Phase II results generally supported the biomass-increment hypothesis with the exception that the element most limiting in system inputs (phosphorus) showed little or no output response to cadmium perturbations. The general community level response to cadmium pertubations was a shift from a grazing to a detritus food chain. Conclusions relevant to toxicity screening in microcosms are: (1) of the variables measured, community metabolism, community composition by trophic groups, and output/input rations for NO/sub 3/-N, Mn and Fe, provided the most consistent indicators of system response to cadmium. (2) Nutrient enrichment and phosphorus limitation significantly influenced cadmium effects on most of the variables studied. (3) Pulsed cadmium inputs early in succession significantly affected system response to cadmium pulses later in succession. A hierarchical procedure for screening a suspected toxic substance is discussed, which includes: (1) static microcosms, (2) flowthrough microcosms, and (3) microcosm subsamples from specific natural ecosystems. Each step results in increased information about effects of a toxicant and each step more closely approximates natural ecosystems.

  13. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  14. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinjoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  15. Short-Term Feeding of Fibre-Enriched Biscuits: Protective Effect against Hepatotoxicity in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erukainure, Ochuko L.; Ebuehi, Osaretin A. T.; Adeboyejo, Folasade O.; Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O.; Obode, Okukwe C.; Olasehinde, Tosin; Elemo, Gloria N.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fibre-enriched biscuit on biomarkers associated with hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats were investigated. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. Treatment lasted for 14 days after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood serum was analyzed to determine hepatic function enzymes. The liver was also analyzed to determine hepatic lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. Induction of diabetes led to elevated levels of ALP, AST, and ALT. These were, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the fibre-enriched biscuit fed (treated) group. There was no significant difference in the serum bilirubin and total protein levels of the studied groups. Reduced albumin level was observed in the diabetic group; this was further lowered on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuits. Induction of diabetes led to increased hepatic level of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and HDL level. These were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuit. This study portrays the protective effect of fibre-enriched biscuit on increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in hepatic tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26713163

  16. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with uranium and plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed OXide (MOX) fuels. MOX isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide-range of applicability of the optimization technique. The features of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or

  17. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nadine W; Yoshimura, Emerson H; Mareze-Costa, Cecília E; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C; Pereira, Lucelia M; Brito, Márcia N; Brito, Nilton A; Zeoula, Lucia M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow's diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity.

  18. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Emerson H.; Mareze-Costa, Cecília E.; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C.; Pereira, Lucelia M.; Brito, Márcia N.; Brito, Nilton A.; Zeoula, Lucia M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow’s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity. PMID:28267800

  19. The self-enrichment of globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.; Lake, G.

    1989-04-01

    It is shown that protoglobular clusters of primordial gas can confine the supernovae needed to enrich themselves. The required protocluster cloud masses and structural parameters are the same as those currently observed for the clusters. Two causal scenarios for star formation are examined to calculate the initial enrichment of primordial clouds. In the 'Christmas tree' scheme, the maximum final (Fe/H) is about 0.1. Since the time scale for formation and evolution of massive stars at the center of a cluster is nearly an order of magnitude less than the collapse time of the cluster, every globular cluster may have to survive a supernova detonation. If this is the case, the minimum mass of a globular cluster is about 10 to the 4.6th solar mass. 24 refs.

  20. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

    2004-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.