Science.gov

Sample records for research 1986-1999 progress

  1. Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Douglas

    2000-04-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  2. First-year mortality rates for selected birth defects, Hawaii, 1986-1999.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2003-06-15

    Birth defects have been the leading cause of infant death in the United States for over the last decade. However, there is little population-based data on the first-year mortality rates for many specific birth defects and the factors that may affect these mortality rates. This investigation examined the first-year mortality rates for 54 selected birth defects of various organ systems in Hawaii during 1986-1999 using data from a population-based birth defects registry and evaluated the impact of the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and other structural birth defects and the year of delivery on the mortality rates. Mortality rates varied widely by defect, being highest for anencephaly (100%), trisomy 13 (82%), and trisomy 18 (74%), while no first-year deaths were reported for glaucoma, bladder exstrophy, and persistent cloaca. The majority (36 of 54 or 67%) of the birth defects had a mortality rate of less than 25%. Among the 51 structural birth defects, 38 (75%) had higher first-year mortality rate for cases with chromosomal abnormalities and 42 (82%) had higher first-year mortality rates for cases with other major structural birth defects. The mortality rate among 1986-1992 deliveries was higher than the mortality rate among 1993-1999 deliveries for 37 (69%) of the 54 birth defects. This study indicates that first-year mortality rates vary widely by type of birth defect, although the mortality rate for the majority of birth defects is relatively low. The presence of a chromosomal abnormality or other structural birth defect increases the mortality rate, and mortality rates for the majority of birth defects have declined in Hawaii during the study period.

  3. Impact of excluding cases with known chromosomal abnormalities on the prevalence of structural birth defects, Hawaii, 1986-1999.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2004-08-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are more common in the presence of structural birth defects. However, much of the literature have only provided chromosomal abnormality rates for one or a few structural birth defects at a time. This study calculated the chromosomal abnormality rates for a number of structural birth defects using data from the Hawaii Birth Defects Program (HBDP) for deliveries during 1986-1999 and evaluated the impact of exclusion of cases with chromosomal abnormalities when calculating birth prevalence. The chromosomal abnormality rates were highest for endocardial cushion defect (40%) and omphalocele (27%), while no chromosomal abnormalities were reported for pyloric stenosis, persistent cloaca, and deficiency of lower limbs. The majority of chromosomal abnormality rates fell within a certain range, with 32 (63%) of the birth defect categories having chromosomal abnormality rates of 5-15%. The chromosomal abnormality rates also tended to be higher for multiple than for isolated cases. For three of the structural birth defects (ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, endocardial cushion defect), the birth prevalence of the defect, when cases with a chromosomal abnormality were excluded, was significantly lower than the birth prevalence that included those cases. Chromosomal abnormality rates varied by type of structural birth defect and presence of other major structural birth defects. For at least several structural birth defects, exclusion of cases with chromosomal abnormalities significantly underestimated the birth prevalence. This underestimation may be important, depending on the purpose of the analysis.

  4. [Research progresses on nutrigenomics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Wang, Wen-Jun; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Xu, Ming-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    Nutrition science is an age-old subject, and offers important theoretic instructions for human health protection and disease prevention. With the development of molecular biology, it will be a key technique in the 21 century. Combination of molecular biology and nutrition, bio-nutrition is formed. While the combination of genome and nutrition, nutrigenomics is developed. Nutrigenomics covers a wide range of areas, which studies the interactive effects between nutrients and genes expression, and predicts the expressive response to the nutrients. Genomics technology can help us to identify some dis-ease-related genes, thereby people establish individual diet and make their heath attained the best status through adjusting diet. This paper focuses on the main research technology of nutrigenomics and its application.

  5. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  6. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  7. Recent progress in henipavirus research.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Kim; Mungall, Bruce A

    2007-09-01

    Following the discovery of two new paramyxoviruses in the 1990s, much effort has been placed on rapidly finding the reservoir hosts, characterising the genomes, identifying the viral receptors and formulating potential vaccines and therapeutic options for these viruses, Hendra and Nipah viruses caused zoonotic disease on a scale not seen before with other paramyxoviruses. Nipah virus particularly caused high morbidity and mortality in humans and high morbidity in pig populations in the first outbreak in Malaysia. Both viruses continue to pose a threat with sporadic outbreaks continuing into the 21st century. Experimental and surveillance studies identified that pteropus bats are the reservoir hosts. Research continues in an attempt to understand events that precipitated spillover of these viruses. Discovered on the cusp of the molecular technology revolution, much progress has been made in understanding these new viruses. This review endeavours to capture the depth and breadth of these recent advances.

  8. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  9. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  10. Research progress in advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Shen, Jiayu

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor with high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. How melanoma develops and how to treat it will continue to be a hot topic. This review briefly summarizes the mechanism of melanoma development and the latest progress in its treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research Traditions, Diversity, and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Margret; Floden, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment is provided of two papers responding to an article by P. Atkinson, S. Delamont, and M. Hammersley (1988) critiquing papers by E. Jacob (1987, 1988) on qualitative research traditions. Definitions of "tradition" and "research tradition," and the necessity to include British research in Jacob's meta-analysis are…

  12. Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

  13. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  14. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  15. Socioeconomic research in agroforestry: progress, prospects, priorities

    Treesearch

    D. Evan Mercer; R.P. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen years after the birth of the journal Agroforestry Systems, biophysical studies continue to dominate agroforestry research while other important areas have not received the attention they deserve. This paper reviews the progress in one of these under-researched areas, socioeconomics. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of published socioeconomic research...

  16. Progress On Solar Absorber Selective Paint Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1984-11-01

    A considerable amount of effort has been expended by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial interests to develop solar absorber selective paints; the goal is to develop an inexpensive, durable selective coating that has moderately good optical properties. This report is intended to focus on those research programs monitored by Los Alamos, the research efforts in progress at Los Alamos, durability evaluations, and the progress that has been made toward commercialization.

  17. Progress in knowledge representation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of research being carried out in the field of knowledge representation. Dynamic simulation and modelling of planning systems with real-time sensor inputs; development of domain-independent knowledge representation tools which can be used in the development of application-specific expert and planning systems; and development of a space-borne very high speed integrated circuit processor are among the projects discussed.

  18. Progress report and research proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Research carried out includes: interpretation of mean-free-paths of projectile fragments from relativistic heavy-ion collisions; inelastic excitation and spin-flip in heavy ion reactions; inelastic scattering and the optical potential for /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si; elastic scattering of protons by /sup 6/Li; scattering of light ions by /sup 6/Li; specific distortion effects in /sup 3/H + ..cap alpha.. and /sup 3/He + ..cap alpha.. systems; specific distortion effects in the d + ..cap alpha.. system and charge form factor of /sup 6/Li; detailed investigation of exchange effects in /sup 3/He + ..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha.. + /sup 16/O scattering; study of the n + /sup 6/Li system with flexible cluster wave function; core-exchange effects in like-ion scattering; reaction cross-section for collision of nuclei at high energy; study of /sup 46/ /sup 48/Ca(..cap alpha..,p) reactions; the proximity potential for heavy-ion reactions on deformed nuclei; quasi-bound state resonances for a particle in a two-dimensional well; time evolution kernels, uniform asymptotic expansions; and a generator coordinate theory of normalization kernels of cluster systems, application of Gel'fand polynomials to permutation and SU/sub 4/ symmetries of cluster wave functions. (GHT)

  19. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  20. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  1. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  2. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 2: prognostic factor research.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Hayden, Jill A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Moons, Karel G M; Abrams, Keith; Kyzas, Panayiotis A; Malats, Núria; Briggs, Andrew; Schroter, Sara; Altman, Douglas G; Hemingway, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic factor research aims to identify factors associated with subsequent clinical outcome in people with a particular disease or health condition. In this article, the second in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss the role of prognostic factors in current clinical practice, randomised trials, and developing new interventions, and explain why and how prognostic factor research should be improved.

  3. Progress in research on Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Hershey, Tamara; McNaught, Kevin St. P.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS. PMID:25436182

  4. Research progress on the Kelly game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang

    2010-08-01

    The growth-optimal portfolio optimization strategy has been investigated in many ways since firstly pioneered by Kelly. This paper firstly introduces the research progress of this so-called Kelly game. Based on the original Kelly game the optimality is shortly proofed. Especially generalized research is introduced such as the relation between M-V approach and the Kelly approach, the question of diversification, the influence of transaction fees and limited information, etc. Then the application of Kelly strategy is discussed with some conclusions.

  5. [Research progress on environmental carrying capacity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Li, Fayun

    2005-04-01

    To study the theories and quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. In this paper, the definition of environmental carrying capacity was introduced from the aspects of "capacity", "threshold" and "capability", with the main characteristics of objective and subjective, regional and temporal, and dynamic and adjustable, and its research progress was reviewed. On the basis of these, the quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity, including exponential assessment, carrying rate assessment, system dynamics, and multi-objective optimization, were analyzed, and the research perspectives of environmental carrying capacity were discussed.

  6. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance.

  7. [Research progress in pathogenicity of Ureaplasma urealyticum].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Song, Tiejun; Xie, Xinyou

    2013-07-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) is closely related to human diseases including non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), infertility, premature membranes and neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Researches on the pathogenicity of UU have become a hot topic in recent years, and suggest that many potential pathogenicity genes or putative pathogenicity islands are involved in its virulence. Moreover, the biovar and serum types of UU, the infection concentration and the state of the host immune system are also important to determine whether UU can cause human disease or not. In this article the recent progress of researches in the pathogenicity of UU is reviewed.

  8. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    PubMed

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  9. [Research progress on ecological footprint analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongdong; Gao, Wangsheng; Chen, Yuanquan

    2006-10-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) model, as an indicator of sustainability, has received broad attention and wide use. With the development and refinement of the research work on EF theory and methodology, it appeared various methods which can be applied at different scales. Ecological footprint analysis has been combined with material flow analysis, life cycle assessment or input-output analysis, and especially, the newest progress in EF methods called allocating EF to final consumption categories with input-output analysis helps to develop a "standardized" EF. In this paper, the underlying causes of these methods were interpreted theoretically, and the research methods were classified into progress analysis and input-output analysis (IOA). In addition, the compound and component-based methods as well as IOA were introduced, with their respective features, application, and development progress discussed. A prospect on the development of EF in term of the tendency and application of EF methods in China and abroad was given, i. e. , the common framework should be built at the national and regional scales by using compound analysis, IOA and component-based analysis are expected to develop their application

  10. [Research progress in Laggera medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Xin; Wu, Di-Yao; Li, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Yi-Hang; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Nan; Yu, Rong-Min; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Qun-Xiong; Sun, Han-Dong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Zhao, Yu

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the worldwide research progresses of the genus Laggera both on phytochemical and pharmacological work in the past few decades. The main secondary metabolites of this genus are proved to be sesquitepenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Phamacological investigations revealed that the certain extracts of some Laggera species possess significant bioactivities on anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-viral infection. This review afforded the comprehensive description of the active components as to provide useful references to elucidate their historical clinical application on upper respiratory infection, influenza, parotitis, and recurrent herpes viral infection.

  11. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  12. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts industrial energy conservation research and development activities. Research and development efforts supported by OIT are directed at finding cost effective ways for U.S. industry to reduce energy consumption. OIT's mission is to (1) find, develop, and promote new technologies that improve energy efficiency and fuel flexibility, and (2) conduct research and development activities to develop methods to reduce waste generation, increase recycling, and improve the use of waste as process feedstocks in the industrial sector. To insure maximum program effectiveness, OIT works closely with U.S. industry to identify research and development needs. In addition, OIT-supported projects are typically funded on a cost shared or cooperative basis with the private sector. To encourage industrial implementation of energy conserving technologies, research and development efforts are supplemented with a variety of technology transfer activities and information exchanges. This report contains summaries for currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies. The report was prepared from the DOE Research-in-Progress database maintained by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

  13. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  14. [Photoprotective mechanisms of leaf anthocyanins: research progress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Zai; Hu, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Anthocyanin is widely distributed in plant organs such as root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit, being a kind of secondary metabolites generated in plant morphogenesis or for stress response. Leaf anthocyanin has special chemical structure and spectral properties, playing important roles in plant photoprotection, and becomes a hotspot in plant photosynthetic physiological ecology. This paper summarized the recent research progress in the effects of leaf anthocyanin on plant photosynthesis, including the distribution of leaf anthocyanin, its spectral properties, and its relationships with photosynthetic pigments, with the focus on the potential mechanisms of anthocyanins photoprotection, including light absorption, antioxidation, and osmotic regulation. The further research directions on the effects of leaf anthocyanin on photoprotection were proposed.

  15. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  16. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  17. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-08-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  18. Progress in natural laminar flow research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    For decades, since the earliest attempts to obtain natural laminar flow (NLF) on airplanes, three classical objections to its practicality have been held in the aeronautical community. These objectives concerned first, the capability to manufacture practical airframe surfaces smooth enough for NLF; second, the apparent inherent instability and sensitivity of NLF; and third, the accumulation of contamination such as insect debris in flight. This paper explains recent progress in our understanding of the achieveability and maintainability of NLF on modern airframe surfaces. This discussion explains why previous attempts to use NLF failed and what has changed regarding the three classical objections to NLF practicality. Future NASA research plans are described concerning exploring the limits of NLF usefulness, production tolerances, operational considerations, transition behavior and measurement methods, and NLF design applications.

  19. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  20. Progress in plant research in space.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, F R; Hess, E L; Halstead, T W

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  1. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  2. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ˜ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ˜ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  3. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-15

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  4. [Research progress [correction of progresses] of cell culture apparatus].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying-jun; Yuan, Xiu-gan; Rui, Jai-bai; Yu, Jian-ru

    2002-10-01

    Cell culture apparatus (CCA) is necessary to space medicine research and space life-science research. With development of technology, CCA has been fully developed. Nowadays, CCA has been used in scientific research and production widely. In addition, space cell culture apparatus has become an indispensable tool in correlative space research. In this paper, a variety of apparatus used on ground and in space are summarized.

  5. Research progress in liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Guan, Zheng; Ye, Jun-Song; Yin, Yan-Feng; Stoltz, Jean-François; de Isla, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases (ESLD). However, it is hampered by shortage of liver donor. Liver tissue engineering, aiming at fabricating new livers in vitro, provides a potential resolution for donor shortage. Three elements need to be considered in liver tissue engineering: seeding cell resources, scaffolds and bioreactors. Studies have shown potential cell sources as hepatocytes, hepatic cell line, mesenchymal stem cells and others. They need scaffolds with perfect biocompatiblity, suitable micro-structure and appropriate degradation rate, which are essential charateristics for cell attachment, proliferation and secretion in forming extracellular matrix. The most promising scaffolds in research include decellularized whole liver, collagens and biocompatible plastic. The development and function of cells in scaffold need a microenvironment which can provide them with oxygen, nutrition, growth factors, et al. Bioreactor is expected to fulfill these requirements by mimicking the living condition in vivo. Although there is great progress in these three domains, a large gap stays still between their researches and applications. Herein, we summarized the recent development in these three major fields which are indispensable in liver tissue engineering.

  6. Experimental Research Progress of the VASIMR Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J. P.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center is performing research on a Variable Specific Impulse MagnetoPlasma Rocket (VASIMR). The VASIMR is a high power, radio frequency (RF) driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of very high exhaust velocities, > 100 km/s. In addition, its unique architecture allows in- flight mission-optimization of thrust and specific impulse to enhance performance and reduce trip time. A NASA-led research team involving industry, academia and government facilities is pursuing the development of this concept in the United States. The ASPL's experimental research focuses on three major areas: helicon plasma production, ion cyclotron resonant acceleration (ICRA) and plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle. The VASIMR experiment (VX-10) performs experimental research that demonstrates the thruster concept at a total RF power on the order of 10 kW. A flexible four- magnet system, with a 1.3 Tesla maximum magnetic field strength, is computer controlled to study axial magnetic field profile shape effects. Power generated at 10 - 50 MHz with about 5 kW is used to perform helicon plasma source development. A 3 MHz RF transmitter capable of 100 kW is available for ICRA experiments. The primary diagnostics are: gas mass flow controllers, RF input power, Langmuir probes, Mach probe, retarding potential analyzers (RPA), microwave interferometer, neutral pressure measurements and plasma light emission. In addition, many thermocouples are attached inside the vacuum chamber to measure heat loads around the plasma discharge. Helicon research so far has been done with hydrogen, deuterium, helium, nitrogen, argon, xenon and mixtures of these gases. Optimization studies have been performed with the magnetic field axial profile shape, gas flow rate, gas tube geometry and RF frequency. The highest performing discharges are found with a high magnetic field choke downstream of the helicon antenna. Upwards of a 40% gas utilization is

  7. Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases. PMID:28321390

  8. Research progress in China's Lop Nur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Lv, Ping; Qian, Guangqiang; Xia, Xuncheng; Zhao, Yuanje; Mu, Guijin

    2012-02-01

    China's Lop Nur is one of the world's largest playas, and is located in the driest part of Central Asia. Scientific explorations by Chinese and foreign researchers have been continuously conducted there since the mid- to late 1800 s, and much progress has been made, but many issues remain hotly debated. Particularly intense debate focuses on the formation, environmental evolution, drying date of the Lop Nur lake, and cause of the helical salt crusts recently revealed by remote-sensing images. In this paper, we review the status of this research to provide insights that can inform studies in other arid zones that resemble the Lop Nur. The Lop Nur depression is a secondary unit of the Tarim Block, controlled by faults and fractures formed by the Himalayan orogeny, but various competing explanations have been proposed for how these geological structures gave rise to the depression. The depression's formation date also remains unclear. Several boreholes have been created to reconstruct the environmental evolution at different time scales since the Quaternary, and deposition rates of lake sediments, especially since the Late Pleistocene, have averaged less than 1 mm annually. The drying date of the Lop Nur lake is also debated. The helical salt crust structures appear to have formed as the lake shrank, but how and when they formed is unclear. Huge potash reserves have been found, and large-scale potash fertilizer production has begun, but the origin of these deposits is debated. Understanding the factors causing environmental evolution in this region is a central issue that will help us to clarify these and other debated issues.

  9. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  10. [Progress in epigenetic research on Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Yang, Nannan; Wei, Yang; Xu, Qian; Tang, Beisha

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, which features mainly with memory impairment as the initial symptom of progressive loss of cognitive function. Its main pathological changes include senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The pathogenesis of AD is still unclear, though it may be connected with aging, genetic factors and environmental factors. Among these, aging and environmental factors can be modified by epigenetics. In this paper, advances in the study of epigenetic mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of AD are reviewed.

  11. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  12. [Research progress of traditional mineral Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Chun; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Hai-Yan; Dong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mineral Chinese medicine is a characteristic part of Chinese medicine, in the development of traditional Chinese medicine has its unique role. With the development of science and technology and the increase of the medical level, traditional mineral medicine research is gradually thorough and wide-ranging. In recent years, traditional mineral Chinese medicine research mainly includes the physical properties of mineral medicine, structure, chemical composition, pharmacology and treatment mechanism research. The above several aspects of research in the mineral medicine has important practical and theoretical significance. The above several aspects of research status and the problems existing in the research were briefly summarized and reviewed in this paper, and its development were discussed, to provide reference for further studies in the future.

  13. [Research progress of BDNF and depression].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng; Xu, Chang

    2011-06-01

    BDNF is widespread existed in CNS and PNS, because of its function in nerve regeneration and restoration, more and more researches focused on the effect of BDNF on neural plasticity in the development of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressant. This article review the basic results and the research trends on BDNF and depression at present, more researches about the interactions of BDNF and proBDNF, BDNF and other transmitters and their receptors should be expected.

  14. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research"""

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  15. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  16. Research Council Looks at Progress, Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1979-01-01

    The year-old volunteer council on Undergraduate Research has published a directory of facilities available in chemistry departments of 93 private colleges. The council is weighing other projects, such as, a quarterly newsletter, a national conference on undergraduate research, and the expansion of the council to include physics and biology.

  17. Forestry research evaluation: current progress, future directions.

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Pamela J. Jakes

    1985-01-01

    Research evaluation is a relatively recent endeavor in forestry economics. This workshop represents most of the current and recently completed studies available in this subfield of forestry and evaluation. Also included are discussions of scientists and policymakers concerning the uses of forestry research evaluations, evaluation problems encountered, solutions...

  18. Whooping crane recovery: Progress through research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Smith, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cooperative efforts of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada, and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center have established a captive flock of whooping cranes, and at least two additional wild populations. Efforts have focused on research, habitat protection, law enforcement, and conservation education programs.

  19. Research Progress of Moyamoya Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jianmin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxi; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    During the onset of Moyamoya disease (MMD), progressive occlusion occurs at the end of the intracranial internal carotid artery, and compensatory net-like abnormal vessels develop in the skull base, generating the corresponding clinical symptoms. MMD can affect both children and adults, but MMD in pediatric patients exhibits distinct clinical features, and the treatment prognoses are different from adult patients. Children are the group at highest risk for MMD. In children, the disease mainly manifests as ischemia, while bleeding is the primary symptom in adults. The pathogenesis of MMD in children is still unknown, and some factors are distinct from those in adults. MMD in children could result in progressive, irreversible nerve functional impairment, and an earlier the onset corresponds to a worse prognosis. Therefore, active treatment at an early stage is highly recommended. The treatment methods for MMD in children mainly include indirect and direct surgeries. Indirect surgeries mainly include multiple burr-hole surgery (MBHS), encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS), and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS); direct surgeries mainly include intra- and extracranial vascular reconstructions that primarily consist of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Indirect surgery, as a treatment for MMD in children, has shown a certain level of efficacy. However, a standard treatment approach should combine both indirect and direct procedures. Compared to MMD in adults, the treatment and prognosis of MMD in children has higher clinical significance. If the treatment is adequate, a satisfactory outcome is often achieved. PMID:26180513

  20. Research Progress of Moyamoya Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jianmin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxi; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    During the onset of Moyamoya disease (MMD), progressive occlusion occurs at the end of the intracranial internal carotid artery, and compensatory net-like abnormal vessels develop in the skull base, generating the corresponding clinical symptoms. MMD can affect both children and adults, but MMD in pediatric patients exhibits distinct clinical features, and the treatment prognoses are different from adult patients. Children are the group at highest risk for MMD. In children, the disease mainly manifests as ischemia, while bleeding is the primary symptom in adults. The pathogenesis of MMD in children is still unknown, and some factors are distinct from those in adults. MMD in children could result in progressive, irreversible nerve functional impairment, and an earlier the onset corresponds to a worse prognosis. Therefore, active treatment at an early stage is highly recommended. The treatment methods for MMD in children mainly include indirect and direct surgeries. Indirect surgeries mainly include multiple burr-hole surgery (MBHS), encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS), and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS); direct surgeries mainly include intra- and extracranial vascular reconstructions that primarily consist of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Indirect surgery, as a treatment for MMD in children, has shown a certain level of efficacy. However, a standard treatment approach should combine both indirect and direct procedures. Compared to MMD in adults, the treatment and prognosis of MMD in children has higher clinical significance. If the treatment is adequate, a satisfactory outcome is often achieved.

  1. Research Progress and Accomplishments on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. The first research payloads arrived at ISS more than two years ago, and continuous science has been ongoing for more than one and a half years. During this time, the research capabilities have been tremendously increased, even as assembly of the overall platform continues. Despite significant challenges along the way, ISS continues to successfully support a large number of investigations in a variety of research disciplines. The results of some of the early investigations are reaching the publication stage. The near future looms with new challenges, but experience to date and dedicated efforts give reason to be optimistic that the challenges will be overcome and that new and greater successes will be added to past ones.

  2. [Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-ping

    2011-08-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry, this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently, the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith's Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the fractionation of isotopes C and O in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.

  3. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  4. Measuring Math Growth: Implications for Progress Monitoring. Research Brief 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Irvin, P. Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Achievement growth in math is often framed in the context of monitoring student progress within a Response to Intervention (RTI) approach to teaching and learning. In this research brief we report on a study that examined initial status and within-year growth for fourth grade students who received short progress-monitoring assessments in math…

  5. Summary of research in progress at ICASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1992 through March 31, 1993.

  6. X-48B Flight Research Progress Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the X-48B Flight research program. Major program accomplishments, a detailed description of the X-48B vehicle, along with flight tests, and wind tunnel tests are also described.

  7. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  9. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities in 1987, this is the thirteenth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, progress reports, and information on…

  10. The Concordat to Support Research Integrity: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contracts

    2016-01-01

    Published in July 2012, "The Concordat to Support Research Integrity" set out five broad commitments to be made by institutions in receipt of public research funding, to help assure the government and the public that UK research meets the highest ethical, legal and professional standards. This progress report explores the impact and…

  11. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities in 1988, this is the fourteenth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, and progress reports. The report contains…

  12. Progress in lactic acid bacterial phage research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advanced significantly over the past number of decades and these developments have been driven by the parallel advances in technologies such as genomics, bioinformatics, protein expression systems and structural biology, combined with the ever increasing commercial relevance of this group of microorganisms. Some of the more significant and impressive outputs have been in the domain of bacteriophage-host interactions which provides a prime example of the cutting-edge model systems represented by LAB research. Here, we present a retrospective overview of the key advances in LAB phage research including phage-host interactions and co-evolution. We describe how in many instances this knowledge can be pivotal in creating real improvements in the application of LAB cultures in commercial practice. PMID:25185514

  13. [Research progress on urban green space].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Hong-Yuan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

    2007-07-01

    Nature, diversity, and openness are what we demand from urban green space in the 21st century. Based on the summary of urban green space connotation, types and significance, this paper reviewed the research hotspots of urban green space, i.e., conservation and planning of urban-rural fringe, restoration and preservation of natural areas and indigenous vegetation, ecological restoration and planning of green way, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure and services, and management policy. The difference between foreign and domestic urban green space researches and practices were summarized, and some preferential urban green space research aspects in the future were proposed. It was suggested that in China, urban green space strategy should be integrated into urban planning and land use planning.

  14. Recent progress in snow and ice research

    SciTech Connect

    Richter-menge, J.A.; Colbeck, S.C.; Jezek, K.C. )

    1991-01-01

    A review of snow and ice research in 1987-1990 is presented, focusing on the effects of layers in seasonal snow covers, ice mechanics on fresh water and sea ice, and remote sensig of polar ice sheets. These topics provide useful examples of general needs in snow and ice research applicable to most areas, such as better representation in models of detailed processes, controlled laboratory experiments to quantify processes, and field studies to provide the appropriate context for interpretation of processes from remote sensing.

  15. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  16. Progress in rotor broadband noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of research on various rotor broadband noise sources is reviewed. Theoretical modeling techniques which appear to have the most promise in the development of successful noise prediction capabilities are emphasized. The types of noise considered include: turbulence ingestion noise, blade self-noise due to turbulence passing the trailing edge, blade self-noise due to separated flow, and blade self-noise due to vortex shedding. Comparisons with experimental results are given, and present theoretical and experimental limitations are delineated to help identify areas of needed research.

  17. Research 1970/1971: Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta. Science Information Research Center.

    The report presents a summary of science information research activities of the School of Information and Computer Science, Georgia Institute of Technology. Included are project reports on interrelated studies in science information, information processing and systems design, automata and systems theories, and semiotics and linguistics. Also…

  18. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  19. DISEASES OF CORALS: RESEARCH PROGRESS, REEF PROSPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals have been the subject of intensive research during the past few decades to improve understanding of their role in supporting diverse tropical and subtropical marine communities and to examine factors responsible for their decline and loss of community biodive...

  20. DISEASES OF CORALS: RESEARCH PROGRESS, REEF PROSPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals have been the subject of intensive research during the past few decades to improve understanding of their role in supporting diverse tropical and subtropical marine communities and to examine factors responsible for their decline and loss of community biodive...

  1. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  2. Progress in research on chlorate candle technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, J.

    1970-01-01

    Research and development program improves sodium chlorate candle formulation, production method, and igniter design. Cobalt is used as the fuel, dry processing methods are used to lower the water content, and a device based on pyrotechnic heater concepts is used as the igniter.

  3. Progress in indium phosphide solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Progress, dating from the start of the Lewis program, is reviewed emphasizing processing techniques which have achieved the highest efficiencies in a given year. To date, the most significant achievement has been attainment of AM0 total area efficiencies approaching 19 percent. Although closed tube diffusion is not considered to be an optimum process, reasonably efficient 2cm x 2cm and 1cm x 2cm InP cells have been produced in quantity by this method with a satellite to be launched in 1990 using these cells. Proton irradiation of these relatively large area cells indicates radiation resistance comparable to that previously reported for smaller InP cells. A similar result is found for the initial proton irradiations of ITO/InP cells processed by D. C. sputtering. With respect to computer modelling, a comparison of n/p homojunction InP and GaAs cells of identical geometries and dopant concentrations has confirmed the superior radiation resistance of InP cells under 1 MeV electron irradiations.

  4. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1993-10-31

    The most significant development this year has been the successful elucidation of the low-energy systematics of the very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm isotopes. This includes an extensive set of Nilsson bandheads in {sup 133}Nd. Some serious errors in earlier decay scheme work were found. The results require some significant reassessments of mean-field calculations in this region. Part of our program continues to focus on shape coexistence and electric monopole (E0) transitions in nuclei. Following the discovery of coexisting ``gamma`` bands connected by E0 transitions in {sup 184}Pt, a similar behavior in {sup 186}Pt was established from {sup 186}Au decay data. This includes a pure E0 transition between states with J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}, just as was seen in {sup 184}Pt. Progress has been made in elucidating the low-energy systematics of the neutron-deficient Ir isotopes. A search for the population of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb in the decay of {sup 194}Bi was unsuccessful. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been initiated.

  5. Progress of research on water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    Research is described on several aspects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of 532 nm laser light in H2, D2, and CH4. The goals of this work are to develop a more thorough understanding of nonlinear processes involving the Raman effect and four-wave mixing, and to find the best way to generate radiation at several wavelengths simultaneously, for lidar applications. Issues addressed are conversion efficiency, optimization of operating conditions (gas pressure, confocal parameter, etc.) and the distribution of output pulse energy over three Stokes components, the first anti-Stokes component, and the zeroth order (pump) wavelength. The described research and results constitute another step in the development of SRS applications for NASA's atmospheric lidar program.

  6. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  7. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  8. Bone Conduction Communication: Research Progress and Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-16

    stimulation. Two of the main questions are the efficacy of ultrasound speech perception and health limitations associated with ultrasound stimulation. 3...understanding the nature of bone conduction hearing and speech perception , bone conduction psychophysics, and bone conduction technology. A number of bone...Conduction Hearing 2 1.3 Bone Conduction Sound Perception Research 3 1.4 Purpose of this Report 4 2. Bone Conduction Physiology 5 2.1 Auditory

  9. Progress of research on water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, U. N.

    1989-01-01

    Research is summarized on applications of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of laser light into near infrared wavelengths suitable for atmospheric monitoring. Issues addressed are conversion efficiency, spectral purity, optimization of operating conditions, and amplification techniques. A Raman cell was developed and built for the laboratory program, and is now available to NASA-Langley, either as a design or as a completed cell for laboratory or flight applications. The Raman cell has been approved for flight in NASA's DC-8 aircraft. The self-seeding SRS technique developed here is suggested as an essential improvement for tunable near-IR DIAL applications at wavelengths of order 1 micrometer or greater.

  10. Progress on low altitude cloud icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeck, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    The icing environment at altitudes below 10,000 feet were studied. The following questions are asked, are: (1) existing aircraft certification criteria applicable; (2) too stringent on icing for helos; (3) based on accurate data; (4) appropriate for low (10,000 ft) altitudes? The research plan is outlined: review historical icing data, obtain new measurements, collect modern icing data from other groups, and recommend LWC, OAT, and MVD criteria for helicopters. Estimated accuracies and known sources of error are included. It is concluded that the net effect of possible sources of error of both signs is uncertain.

  11. Progress on low altitude cloud icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeck, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    The icing environment at altitudes below 10,000 feet were studied. The following questions are asked, are: (1) existing aircraft certification criteria applicable; (2) too stringent on icing for helos; (3) based on accurate data; (4) appropriate for low (10,000 ft) altitudes? The research plan is outlined: review historical icing data, obtain new measurements, collect modern icing data from other groups, and recommend LWC, OAT, and MVD criteria for helicopters. Estimated accuracies and known sources of error are included. It is concluded that the net effect of possible sources of error of both signs is uncertain.

  12. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 3: prognostic model research.

    PubMed

    Steyerberg, Ewout W; Moons, Karel G M; van der Windt, Danielle A; Hayden, Jill A; Perel, Pablo; Schroter, Sara; Riley, Richard D; Hemingway, Harry; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic models are abundant in the medical literature yet their use in practice seems limited. In this article, the third in the PROGRESS series, the authors review how such models are developed and validated, and then address how prognostic models are assessed for their impact on practice and patient outcomes, illustrating these ideas with examples.

  13. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  14. Progress of astrometric research in Nikolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Maigurova, Nadia; Martynov, Maxim; Pinigin, Gennadiy

    2012-08-01

    A catalog of astrometric positions and proper motions of 140237 stars in fields of ecliptical zone and high proper motion stars was derived from CCD - observations made at AMC telescope (Nikolaev) in 2008 - 2009. The UCAC2 catalog was used as a reference one for astrometric reductions. The standard error for a single position is 20 - 65 mas in right ascension and 30 - 70 mas in declination. Cross - identification of the obtained data with modern astrometric catalogs such as TYCHO2, 2MASS, CMC14, PPMX, XPM, USNO - A2.0 and XPM - 1.0 was made for investigation systematical errors and calculation of the proper motions [1]. The final catalog contains star positions, proper motions as well as photometric data (B, V, r ´, J, H, K) taken from other catalogs. For analysis of perturbed motion of selected asteroids, there was made astrometric reduction for three thousands of positions of 68 selected asteroids observed at the Russian - Turkish telescope RTT150 in 2008 - 2011 [2]. The research is conducted within the International Joint Project between IMCCE (France), NAO (Ukraine), KFU (Russia), and TUG (Turkey). The reduction was made with the UCAC2 and UCAC3 catalogs. The standard error of a single position is 0.15 arcsec in right ascension and 0.13 arcsec in declination. Also, the first results of astrometric reduction are presented for the observations of selected asteroids made at the AZT8 (Evpatoriya ) and Mobitel (Nikolaev) telescopes. The obtained positions are expected to be used for derivation masses of asteroids by dynamical method. This work is supported by State Agency on Science, Innovation and Information of Ukraine, Russian Foundation for Basic Research. 1. Jin, W., Pinigin, G., Tang, Zh., Shulga, A. (2011). The collaboration between ShAO and NAO: Celebration of the 1 90th anniversary of NAO. Proc. Int. Conf. “Astronomical Research: from near - Earth Space to the Galaxy”, Nikolaev (pp. 92 - 104). 2 . Ivantsov, A., Gumerov, R., Khamitov, I., Aslan, Z

  15. Recent Progress in High Entropy Alloy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, B. E.; Fu, Z.; Zheng, B.; Chen, W.; Lin, Y.; Chen, F.; Zhang, L.; Ivanisenko, J.; Zhou, Y.; Hahn, H.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-07-01

    Since their discovery in 2004, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated significant interest from the scientific community. Based on a multi-principal element design approach, HEAs are engineered to possess a unique random solid solution (RSS) crystalline structure, in which each of the constituent elements has an equal probability of occupying a given lattice site. Published literature reports that certain HEAs exhibit exceptional chemical, physical, mechanical and functional properties that are attributed to the presence of a RSS phase. Not surprisingly, research on HEAs has begun to expand at an accelerated rate. The scientific and engineering topics being studied include: experimentally measuring various properties in HEA systems, understanding the effect of the RSS on these properties, and developing methods for predicting the formation of RSS phases. Accordingly, the goal of this brief review is to introduce the field of HEAs, discuss their core concepts, highlight exceptional properties, and discuss current design aspects.

  16. Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Recent Progress in High Entropy Alloy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, B. E.; Fu, Z.; Zheng, B.; Chen, W.; Lin, Y.; Chen, F.; Zhang, L.; Ivanisenko, J.; Zhou, Y.; Hahn, H.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-10-01

    Since their discovery in 2004, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated significant interest from the scientific community. Based on a multi-principal element design approach, HEAs are engineered to possess a unique random solid solution (RSS) crystalline structure, in which each of the constituent elements has an equal probability of occupying a given lattice site. Published literature reports that certain HEAs exhibit exceptional chemical, physical, mechanical and functional properties that are attributed to the presence of a RSS phase. Not surprisingly, research on HEAs has begun to expand at an accelerated rate. The scientific and engineering topics being studied include: experimentally measuring various properties in HEA systems, understanding the effect of the RSS on these properties, and developing methods for predicting the formation of RSS phases. Accordingly, the goal of this brief review is to introduce the field of HEAs, discuss their core concepts, highlight exceptional properties, and discuss current design aspects.

  18. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation.

  19. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  20. Progress of research of high-T(sub c) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    The research of high T(sub c) superconductors has made big progress in these last few years. New materials were found and the systematic investigations of these materials must contribute to understanding the mechanism of high T(sub c) superconductivity. The critical currents in thin films, bulks and tapes increased drastically, and the origin of flux pinning will be clarified in the near future. These progressions gives a view of a bright future of high T(sub c) superconductivity in both the basic and application research areas. Recent activities in research of high T(sub c) superconductivity and superconductors in Japan are overviewed.

  1. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  2. Research in Progress 1 July 1990 - 30 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    AD-A255 942 RESEARCH IN PROGRESS ELECTE SEP23 19 2 1991 U.S.ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY , BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING...in physics, chemistry , biological sciences. niathemati s. engineering sciences. metallurgy and materials science, geosciences. electronic,,, and the...160 D isciplinary .................................... 18 E M iscellaneous ................................. 16 1 Chemistry Geosciences A. Inorganic

  3. [Research Progress of Application of Microfluidics Techniques in Cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanfeng; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Xinli

    2015-06-01

    Microfluidics technology may be an effective method to solve some problems in cryopreservation. This review presents the research progress of microfluidics technology in the field of cell membrane transport properties, cryoprotectant addition and washout and the vitrification for cryopreservation of biological materials. Existing problems of microfluidics technology in the application of cryopreservation are summarized and future research directions are indicated as well.

  4. [Progress of research on preparation and application of praziquantel].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Zhi; Ma, Zheng; Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Ning, An

    2013-04-01

    Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, but it has the low bioavailability and single dosage form. This paper reviews the properties of praziquantel in vivo and in vitro, the pathogenic characteristics of schistosomiasis, and the progress of research on the formation of praziquantel, so as to enhance the efficiency of praziquantel against schistosomiasis and provide consults for relevant drug researches.

  5. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  6. Partnerships for progress in active living: from research to action

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...

  7. Center for Research for Mothers and Children. 1988 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    The 1988 Progress Report covers research activities of the five branches of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. An introductory section briefly describes the Center, notes staff activities and Center sponsored conferences and workshops, and identifies highlights of…

  8. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  9. [Research progress of treatment strategies for retinitis pigmentosa].

    PubMed

    Qian, T W; Xu, X

    2017-02-11

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary retinal disorders characterized by photoreceptor cell death, associated with night blindness, vision loss, progressive peripheral visual field loss and abnormalities in the electroretinogram. A number of gene defects have so far been associated with RP, which cause a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor function, followed by cone photoreceptor dysfunction and eventually complete blindness. The rate of blindness related to RP is high. At present there is no effective therapeutic strategy for RP. In recent years, with the progress of molecular biology technique, many new therapeutic approaches have become promising. This article summarizes the pathogenesis of RP and gives a brief overview of related research progress of RP therapeutic strategies. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 148-153).

  10. Geothermal research at the Puna facility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.

    1985-12-12

    Research progress is reported. A conceptual model of the reservoir was developed comprising two production zones of different characteristics: the upper zone producing liquid while the lower zone produces vapor. Preliminary studies were carried out at the HGP-A facility on the flocculation behavior of silica under various conditions. (ACR)

  11. Faculty Members as Classroom Researchers: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia; Angelo, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Classroom Research Project, designed to help community college faculty members from the San Francisco Bay area to develop and test classroom assessment techniques. Discusses project activities, such as workshops and a summer institute, and progress toward the integration of the assessment of student learning into everyday teaching.…

  12. Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, W.E. . Biology Div.); Moldave, K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contain the proceedings on progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology. Topics covered include: polynucleotide-protein cross-links induced by ultraviolet light and their use for structural investigation of nucleoproteins; left-handed Z-DNA and genetic recombination, and structure and function of signal recognition particle RNA.

  13. [The progress in proteomics researches of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics, an important discipline in genomic era, is the integrated study of protein properties on a large scale. Application of proteomics researches in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is one of the most common and complex neurodegeneration disorders, we can not only elucidate the essential issues of disease in protein level, but give a whole view in the pathological mechanisms identification, diagnosis and therapeutic targets discovery as well. The three aspects about the progresses in proteomics researches of AD were reviewed in this article.

  14. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  15. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  16. Progress of research of high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Research in the area of of high T(sub c) superconductors has made great progress in the last few years. New materials were found and the systematic investigation of these materials has contributed to understanding the mechanism of high T(sub c) superconductivity. The critical currents in thin films, bulks, and tapes increased drastically, and the origin of flux pinning will be clarified in the near future. The future of high T(sub c) superconductivity, in both the basic and applied research areas, is very optimistic. Recent activities in research of high T(sub c) superconductivity and superconductors in Japan are overviewed.

  17. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect.

  18. [Research progress of transgenic Drosophila model of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yan; Ji, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. Drosophila has been regard as one of the ideal models for Alzheimer because of its unique advantage on genetic manipulation. AD transgenic drosophila models not only help to elucidate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but also provide potential screening models for drugs to treat the disease. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress using AD transgenic drosophila.

  19. [Research progress of tracheal prosthesis in reconstructing trachea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Shi, Hongcan; Chen, Huimin

    2007-05-01

    To review the recent research progress of base and clinical application of tracheal replacement. Literature concerning tracheal prosthesis and the current achievements were extensively and comprehensively reviewed. Most tracheal lesions can be resected and achieve primary reconstruction, but the resectable length was limited. Tracheal replacement was an efficient and feasible way to substitute the defects resulting from extended resection. New techniques such as tissue engineering, tracheal transplantation, new tracheal prosthesis of biomaterials break fresh ground for the more rapid development of tracheal surgery.

  20. Research progress of III-V laser bonding to Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Ren; Yan, Hou; Yanan, Liang

    2016-12-01

    The vigorous development of silicon photonics makes a silicon-based light source essential for optoelectronics' integration. Bonding of III-V/Si hybrid laser has developed rapidly in the last ten years. In the tireless efforts of researchers, we are privileged to see these bonding methods, such as direct bonding, medium adhesive bonding and low temperature eutectic bonding. They have been developed and applied to the research and fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers. Some research groups have made remarkable progress. Tanabe Katsuaki of Tokyo University successfully implemented a silicon-based InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser with direct bonding method in 2012. They have bonded the InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser to the silicon substrate and the silicon ridge waveguide, respectively. The threshold current of the device is as low as 200 A/cm2. Stevan Stanković and Sui Shaoshuai successfully produced a variety of hybrid III-V/Si laser with the method of BCB bonding, respectively. BCB has high light transmittance and it can provide high bonding strength. Researchers of Tokyo University and Peking University have realized III-V/Si hybrid lasers with metal bonding method. We describe the progress in the fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers with bonding methods by various research groups in recent years. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented. We also introduce the progress of the growth of III-V epitaxial layer on silicon substrate, which is also a promising method to realize silicon-based light source. I hope that readers can have a general understanding of this field from this article and we can attract more researchers to focus on the study in this field.

  1. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  2. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    PubMed

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  3. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  4. [Research progress of cover crop in Chinese orchard].

    PubMed

    Whang, Yan-ting; Ji, Xiao-hao; Wu, Yu-sen; Mao, Zhi-quan; Jiang, Yuan-mao; Peng, Fu-tian; Whang, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Xue-sen

    2015-06-01

    Grass growing in orchard is implemented in most fruit cultivation advanced countries, but only China carries out grass weeding. To effectively resolve the puzzle on harmful or beneficial effect on fruit production imparted by grass growing, and promote grass growing management in orchard in China, more and more domestic research was reported in recent years. Combined the results of our research and domestic related research, we reviewed the latest research progress about the effect of growing grass on soil, microclimate, fruit tree diseases and insect pests, tree growth and fruit quali- ty, etc. in this paper. We pointed out that grass growing in orchard must consider the local conditions, economic efficiency, the critical period, and the supporting technique.

  5. Engineering research progress report, October 1983-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.; Cherniak, J.C.; Hymer, J.D.; Kamelgarn, M.B.

    1984-08-01

    Our intent in this progress report is to provide a summary of the activities pursued by members of the Mechanical Engineering (ME) Department's Engineering Research Program. The Program's mission is to do research for specific applications in mechanical-engineering fields that are of immediate or potential interest to the Laboratory. The FY84 Program comprises nine projects in four thrust areas in the ME Department. The thrust areas are: Surface Measurements and Characterization; Fabrication Technology; Materials Characterization and Behavior; and Computer-Aided Engineering. In the past, our research was supported almost exclusively by weapons programs; recently, however, we significantly increased our involvement in other Laboratory programs as well. In response to this change, we have established new procedures and guidelines for the submission, review, and selection of research proposals.

  6. Overview of research in progress at the Center of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    The Center of Excellence (COE) was created nine years ago to facilitate active collaboration between the scientists at Ames Research Center and the Stanford Psychology Department. Significant interchange of ideas and personnel continues between Stanford and participating groups at NASA-Ames; the COE serves its function well. This progress report is organized into sections divided by project. Each section contains a list of investigators, a background statement, progress report, and a proposal for work during the coming year. The projects are: Algorithms for development and calibration of visual systems, Visually optimized image compression, Evaluation of advanced piloting displays, Spectral representations of color, Perception of motion in man and machine, Automation and decision making, and Motion information used for navigation and control.

  7. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer.

  8. [Research progress of cell sheet technology in oral tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Daqing; Mo, Jinlong; Li, Binzhong

    2014-09-01

    Cell sheet technology (CST) demonstrates the innovation and advantage by overcoming some immanent shortcomings of traditional tissue engineering. To review the research progress of CST in oral tissue engineering. The related home and abroad literature about CST and its application in stomatology was extensively reviewed and analyzed. Compared to the traditional tissue engineering technology, CST has the features of high seeding density, abundant matrix, good biological compatibility, and perfect operability, which can improve the survival rate of cell transplantation and promote functional reconstruction. It is reported that CST has been successfully used in the following fields, repair and reconstruction of periodontium, soft tissues of oral mucosa, and bones in maxillofacial region. With the development of CST and combined with the traditional tissue engineering technologies, it will promote the tissue engineering further progress in stomatology.

  9. Research progress of extreme climate and its vegetation response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The IPCC’s fifth assessment report indicates that climate warming is unquestionable, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events may increase, and extreme weather events can destroy the growth conditions of vegetation that is otherwise in a stable condition. Therefore, it is essential to research the formation of extreme weather events and its ecological response, both in terms scientific development and the needs of societal development. This paper mainly examines these issues from the following aspects: (1) the definition of extreme climate events and the methods of studying the associated response of vegetation; (2) the research progress on extreme climate events and their vegetation response; and (3) the future direction of research on extreme climate and its vegetation response.

  10. [Research progress on methane oxidation in landfill cover soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-long; Hao, Yong-jun; Wu, Wei-xiang; Chen, Ying-xu

    2007-01-01

    Methane is the second largest contributor after carbon dioxide to global warming, while landfill is considered as one of the major sources of methane emission, accounting for 1.5%-15% of the global methane sources. Methanotrophic microorganisms play an important role in regulating global methane content, and landfill cover soil is proved to have high capacity of methane oxidation. The study of methanotrophic microorganisms in landfill cover soil and their mechanisms in methane oxidation becomes one of the hot research fields in environmental science and applied microbiology. This review summarized the recent progress on the research of methanotrophic microorganisms, mechanisms and dynamics of microbial methane oxidation, co-metabolism of methane and trace landfill gases, and environmental factors affecting methane oxidation in landfill cover soil. Some perspectives for further research on methanotrophic microorganisms in landfill cover soil were discussed.

  11. Research Priorities from Animal Behaviour for Maximising Conservation Progress.

    PubMed

    Greggor, Alison L; Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Angeloni, Lisa; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Blackwell, Bradley F; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Crooks, Kevin; de Silva, Shermin; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Goldenberg, Shifra Z; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan; Price, Catherine J; Saltz, David; Schell, Christopher J; Suarez, Andrew V; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Winchell, Clark S; Sutherland, William J

    2016-12-01

    Poor communication between academic researchers and wildlife managers limits conservation progress and innovation. As a result, input from overlapping fields, such as animal behaviour, is underused in conservation management despite its demonstrated utility as a conservation tool and countless papers advocating its use. Communication and collaboration across these two disciplines are unlikely to improve without clearly identified management needs and demonstrable impacts of behavioural-based conservation management. To facilitate this process, a team of wildlife managers and animal behaviour researchers conducted a research prioritisation exercise, identifying 50 key questions that have great potential to resolve critical conservation and management problems. The resulting agenda highlights the diversity and extent of advances that both fields could achieve through collaboration.

  12. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [The recent research progress of chemistry of marine natural products].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-wen; Li, Li-geng; Wang, Yu-fang; Huo, Chang-hong; Zhang, Man-li

    2010-10-01

    Ocean is a unique and excellent resource that provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products. Marine natural products have demonstrated significant and extremely potent biological activities and have captured the attention of natural products chemists in the past few decades. It is increasingly recognized that a wealth of fascinating natural products and novel chemical entities will play a dominant role in the discovery of useful leads for the development of pharmaceutical agents and provide useful probes to lead to breakthroughs in a variety of life-science fields. This article focused on the research progress of chemistry of marine natural products in recent five years.

  14. FY2012 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    FY 2012 annual report of the energy storage research and development effort within the VT Office. An important step for the electrification of the nation’s light duty transportation sector is the development of more cost-effective, long lasting, and abuse-tolerant PEV batteries. In fiscal year 2012, battery R&D work continued to focus on the development of high-energy batteries for PEVs and very high power devices for hybrid vehicles. This document provides a summary and progress update of the VTP battery R&D projects that were supported in 2012.

  15. [Research progress in water eco-functional regionalization].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-mei; Zeng, Wen-lu; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2009-12-01

    Water eco-functional regionalization is a new zoning approach based on the study of regional differences in water ecosystem, aimed to reveal the spatial differentiation characteristics and distribution patterns of water environment at different regional and zonal scales. This paper discussed the methodologies, objectives, and limitations of water function zoning, water environmental function zoning, geoecology zoning, ecoregion classification, and water eco-functional regionalization, summarized the research progress in the water eco-functional regionalization, and compared the regionalization system at home and abroad. The disadvantages of our water eco-functional regionalization system were pointed out, and its development trend was prospected.

  16. Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-20

    With the increase need to seamlessly integrate the renewable energy with the current grid which itself is evolving into a more intelligent, efficient, and capable electrical power system, it is envisioned that the energy storage system will play a more prominent role in bridging the gap between the current technology and a clean sustainable future in grid reliability and utilization. Redox flow battery technology is leading the way in this perspective in providing a well balanced approach for current challenges. Recent progress in the research and development of redox flow battery technology is reviewed here with a focus on new chemistries and systems.

  17. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  18. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  19. Laboratory directed research and development: FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1998-05-01

    This is the FY 1997 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic and molecular physics and plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  20. [Progress of researches on drug-loaded nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Sheng, Yan; Shan, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-02-01

    The progress of researches on drug-loaded nanoparticles was summarized in this review. The major emphasis was laid on the selection of wall polymers, technology of preparation, surface modification, investigation of release in vitro and biocompatibility evaluation. Additionally, we envisioned a perspective regarding the development in this field. With the development of synthesis of biodegradable polymer, with the appearance of novel equipment, and with the deep-going studies on modification of nanoparticles surface method, on fabrication of nanoparticles art as well as on evaluation of drug release and reaction between drug and organ, further researches in this field will open up the way to applications of drug-loaded nanoparticles in larger field.

  1. Recent Research Progress in China on Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunqun; Li, Fangfang; Zhang, Zongze; Yang, Xin; Ahmad, Awais A.; Li, Xiangrui; Du, Aifang; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasites of ruminants with worldwide distribution that can bring huge economic losses to the breeding industry of cattle, sheep, and goats. In recent 20 years, studies on H. contortus in China mainly focused on the epidemiology, population genetics, anthelmintic resistance, structural and functional studies of important genes regulating the development of this parasite, interaction between parasite molecules and host cells and vaccine development against haemonchosis, and achieved good progress. However, there is no systematic review about the studies by Chinese researchers on H. contortus in China. The purpose of this review is to bring together the findings from the studies on H. contortus in China in order to obtain the knowledge gained from the recent studies in China and provide foundation for identifying future research directions to establish novel diagnostic methods, discover new drug targets and vaccine candidates for use in preventing and controlling H. contortus in China. PMID:28883809

  2. Research And Development Contributions to Aviation Progress (RADCAP): Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Positive contributions of military aeronautical research and development programs to civil aviation are reviewed and some possible future contributions of those military programs are assessed. A summary is presented of detailed results concerned with: (1) review of the progress that has been made in aviation since 1925 and the significant technological advances that have been made; (2) an examination of current and planned military aeronautical research and technology programs and an assessment of their relevancy to the aeronautical R and D needs of civil aviation; (3) the relationship of the development base generated by military programs to the needs of civil airliner design, development, and production; (4) information on aeronautical R and D funding; and (5) the findings and observations of the RADCAP study.

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1998 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Vigil; Kyle Wheeler

    1999-04-01

    This is the FY 1998 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principle investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  4. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  5. Research Progress in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András; Terry, Sharon F.; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Heritable ectopic mineralization disorders represent a phenotypically diverse group of conditions characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in soft connective tissues. The prototype of such conditions is pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and related conditions with overlapping clinical features include generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC). Molecular genetic investigations have revealed mutations in the genes physiologically involved in generation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphate (Pi), and the findings suggest a unifying pathomechanism relating to reduced PPi/Pi ratio. This hypothesis is based on the notion that PPi serves as a powerful inhibitor of mineralization while Pi is a pro-mineralization factor, and an appropriate PPi/Pi ratio is critical for prevention of ectopic mineralization under homeostatic conditions. PXE International, the premiere patient support organization, advocating on behalf of patients and families with PXE, sponsors regular research meetings evaluating the progress in this and related ectopic mineralization disorders. The latest meetings were held in September 2014 in Bethesda, MD and in September 2015 in Budapest, Hungary. This report summarizes the latest progress in research on PXE and related ectopic mineralization disorders, based on presentations and discussions in these meetings, with pharmacologic implications for currently intractable disorders. PMID:26902123

  6. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Gelderblom, Mathias; Horsburgh, Karen; Iadecola, Costantino; Mcleod, Damian D.; Michalski, Dominik; Murphy, Tim H.; Orbe, Josune; Otte, Willem M.; Petzold, Gabor C.; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Reiser, Georg; Reymann, Klaus G.; Rueger, Maria A.; Saur, Dorothee; Savitz, Sean I.; Schilling, Stephan; Spratt, Neil J.; Turner, Renée J.; Vemuganti, Raghu; Vivien, Denis; Yepes, Manuel; Zille, Marietta; Boltze, Johannes; Bauer, Adam Q.; Giffard, Rona G.; Gounis, Matthew J.; Gröger, Victoria; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Howells, David D.; Kempski, Oliver; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lambertsen, Kate L.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Leonard, Anna; Liesz, Arthur; Macrae, I Mhairi; Mays, Robert W.; Mcleod, Damian D.; Neumann, Jens; Nudo, Randolph J.; Offner, Halina; Rossner, Steffen; Selim, Magdy; Sohrabji, Farida; Yin, Kejie; Walter, Jochen; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient’s outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms. This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations. PMID:28059802

  7. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D; Gelderblom, Mathias; Horsburgh, Karen; Iadecola, Costantino; Mcleod, Damian D; Michalski, Dominik; Murphy, Tim H; Orbe, Josune; Otte, Willem M; Petzold, Gabor C; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Reiser, Georg; Reymann, Klaus G; Rueger, Maria A; Saur, Dorothee; Savitz, Sean I; Schilling, Stephan; Spratt, Neil J; Turner, Renée J; Vemuganti, Raghu; Vivien, Denis; Yepes, Manuel; Zille, Marietta; Boltze, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations.

  8. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  9. [Research progress of methods for brain vigilance improvement].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianfeng; Liu, Yating; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Mingshi

    2013-06-01

    Vigilance is defined as the ability to maintain attention or alertness over prolonged periods of time. Since Mid-20th century, following the increasing man-machine communication, high level of vigilance has been demanded in many areas including driving safety, medical care and therapy, aerospace and military affairs, etc. Therefore, finding quick methods to improve the level of vigilance has become a key issue in medical study. Based on physical regulation, chemical regulation and physiological regulation, the research progress has been summarized in this paper. We, furthermore, also try to predict the future trend in this academic area and develop some tentative ideas about seeking more effective and convenient ways to improve the level of brain vigilance.

  10. Recent research progress with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yan; Ye, Lidan; Xu, Jun; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphate monoesters and diacylglycerol. It has many applications in the enzymatic degumming of plant oils. PLC Bc , a bacterial PLC from Bacillus cereus, is an optimal choice for this activity in terms of its wide substrate spectrum, high activity, and approved safety. Unfortunately, its large-scale production and reliable high-throughput screening of PLC Bc remain challenging. Herein, we summarize the research progress regarding PLC Bc with emphasis on the screening methods, expression systems, catalytic mechanisms and inhibitor of PLC Bc . This review hopefully will inspire new achievements in related areas, to promote the sustainable development of PLC Bc and its application.

  11. Endometriosis research using capture microdissection techniques: Progress and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luyang; Gu, Chenglei; Huang, Ke; Han, Weidong; Fu, Meng; Meng, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease with high prevalence, while its etiology and pathophysiology have remained to be fully elucidated. Previous evidence suggested that this disorder may be in part or completely of somatic origin. However, traditional endometrial samples may not be ideal for investigation, as target cells, including epithelial and stromal cells, in endometriotic lesions are too sparse to be analyzed. Recently, capture microdissection techniques have been used to overcome these limitations and eliminate tissue heterogeneity in endometriosis research. Therefore, the present review summarized the alterations in epithelial and stromal cells in endometriosis tissues isolated through capture microdissection, outlined recent progress and provided directions for future investigation of the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:27882213

  12. Progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/p homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators.

  13. [Progress on the research of apomixis related genes in plant].

    PubMed

    Hu, Long-Xing

    2008-02-01

    Apomixis is a special asexual reproduction that plants can form embryo and produce progenies via seeds without sperm-egg fusion. Since apomitic embryo is a complete genetic clone of maternal parent without the participation of sperm, it is an ideal pathway to fix and utilize hybrid vigor and has unpredictable potential value in crop breeding, thus be called "the asexual revolution". According to the formation of the apomitic embryos, apomixis could be divided into three major types: diplospory, apospory and adventive embryony. This review is focused on the recent research progresses of related genes in the development of embryo, endosperm, and miosis, and several genes may involved in the regulation of apomitic development.

  14. [Research progress of preparation and components of platelet rich plasma].

    PubMed

    Fu, Weili; Li, Qi; Li, Jian

    2014-12-01

    To review the research progress of the preparation and components of the platelet rich plasma (PRP). The recent literature concerning the biological mechanism, preparation, and components of PRP was analyzed and summarized. The biological function of PRP depends on a series of intricate cascade of cellular and molecular events. PRP contains different concentrations of platelets, which would release a large number of the activated molecules, and also contains a small amount of white blood cells and red blood cells. The preparation of PRP is based on platelet concentration. Different preparation techniques would lead to different platelet concentrations, recovery ratios, and components. There is no uniform standard for the preparation of PRP. Different preparation methods and technical parameters of PRP will get different components and different concentrations of PRP, which also provide a reference for clinicians to select the most appropriate PRP for individual patient.

  15. Noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: Research progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Du, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention in cancer research field. They are involved in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The dysregulation of ncRNAs has been reported in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has deepened our understanding of ncRNAs, and several emerging ncRNAs have been identified, such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks include mRNAs, microRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circRNAs, which play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of GC. This review summarizes the recent hotspots of ncRNAs involved in GC pathobiology and their potential applications in GC. Finally, we briefly discuss the advances in the ceRNA network in GC. PMID:27547004

  16. Progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/P homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators.

  17. [Research progress on musk secretion mechanism of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Feng, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Gui-Jun; Zeng, De-Jun; Zhang, Cheng-Lu; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), a rare wild medicinal animal, is listed under the category of the state key protected wildlife list of China. Musk, secreted by the musk glands, is with high economic and medicinal value and used as precious traditional medicine in China. In order to meet the needs of musk in Chinese traditional medicine, forest musk deer farming was conducted in 1950s, but the research progress on musk secretion mechanism was slow. Therefore, by reviewing the histological and anatomical structure of forest musk deer musk gland, the relationship between sex hormones and the musk secretion process, and the molecular mechanism of the musk secretion, the existing problems in investigating the musk secretion mechanism were analyzed and the development trends in this field were also discussed, in order to provide a reference for further studies on the musk secretion mechanism and improve musk production of forest musk deer.

  18. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow.

  19. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review.

  20. SCN8A encephalopathy: Research progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Meisler, Miriam H; Helman, Guy; Hammer, Michael F; Fureman, Brandy E; Gaillard, William D; Goldin, Alan L; Hirose, Shinichi; Ishii, Atsushi; Kroner, Barbara L; Lossin, Christoph; Mefford, Heather C; Parent, Jack M; Patel, Manoj; Schreiber, John; Stewart, Randall; Whittemore, Vicky; Wilcox, Karen; Wagnon, Jacy L; Pearl, Phillip L; Vanderver, Adeline; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2016-07-01

    On April 21, 2015, the first SCN8A Encephalopathy Research Group convened in Washington, DC, to assess current research into clinical and pathogenic features of the disorder and prepare an agenda for future research collaborations. The group comprised clinical and basic scientists and representatives of patient advocacy groups. SCN8A encephalopathy is a rare disorder caused by de novo missense mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN8A, which encodes the neuronal sodium channel Nav 1.6. Since the initial description in 2012, approximately 140 affected individuals have been reported in publications or by SCN8A family groups. As a result, an understanding of the severe impact of SCN8A mutations is beginning to emerge. Defining a genetic epilepsy syndrome goes beyond identification of molecular etiology. Topics discussed at this meeting included (1) comparison between mutations of SCN8A and the SCN1A mutations in Dravet syndrome, (2) biophysical properties of the Nav 1.6 channel, (3) electrophysiologic effects of patient mutations on channel properties, (4) cell and animal models of SCN8A encephalopathy, (5) drug screening strategies, (6) the phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy, and (7) efforts to develop a bioregistry. A panel discussion of gaps in bioregistry, biobanking, and clinical outcomes data was followed by a planning session for improved integration of clinical and basic science research. Although SCN8A encephalopathy was identified only recently, there has been rapid progress in functional analysis and phenotypic classification. The focus is now shifting from identification of the underlying molecular cause to the development of strategies for drug screening and prioritized patient care. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. SCN8A encephalopathy: Research progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, Miriam H.; Helman, Guy; Hammer, Michael F.; Fureman, Brandy E.; Gaillard, William D.; Goldin, Alan L.; Hirose, Shinichi; Ishii, Atsushi; Kroner, Barbara L.; Lossin, Christoph; Mefford, Heather C.; Parent, Jack M.; Patel, Manoj; Schreiber, John; Stewart, Randall; Whittemore, Vicky; Wilcox, Karen; Wagnon, Jacy L; Pearl, Phillip L.; Vanderver, Adeline; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2017-01-01

    On April 21, 2015, the first SCN8A Encephalopathy Research Group convened in Washington, DC, to assess current research into clinical and pathogenic features of the disorder and prepare an agenda for future research collaborations. The group comprised clinical and basic scientists and representatives of patient advocacy groups. SCN8A encephalopathy is a rare disorder caused by de novo missense mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN8A, which encodes the neuronal sodium channel Nav1.6. Since the initial description in 2012, approximately 140 affected individuals have been reported in publications or by SCN8A family groups. As a result, an understanding of the severe impact of SCN8A mutations is beginning to emerge. Defining a genetic epilepsy syndrome goes beyond identification of molecular etiology. Topics discussed at this meeting included (1) comparison between mutations of SCN8A and the SCN1A mutations in Dravet syndrome, (2) biophysical properties of the Nav1.6 channel, (3) electrophysiologic effects of patient mutations on channel properties, (4) cell and animal models of SCN8A encephalopathy, (5) drug screening strategies, (6) the phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy, and (7) efforts to develop a bioregistry. A panel discussion of gaps in bioregistry, biobanking, and clinical outcomes data was followed by a planning session for improved integration of clinical and basic science research. Although SCN8A encephalopathy was identified only recently, there has been rapid progress in functional analysis and phenotypic classification. The focus is now shifting from identification of the underlying molecular cause to the development of strategies for drug screening and prioritized patient care. PMID:27270488

  2. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  3. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Dong, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  4. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  5. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  6. [Research progress on plant diversity conservation in sand dune areas].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-min; Ma, Jun-ling

    2008-01-01

    The landscape in sand dune areas is characterized by the alternate distribution of sand dune and interdune lowland, and the unique floras in these areas are some endemic or rare plant species. In recent years, the decrease in plant species richness and the disappearance of some endemic or rare plant species in these areas have been received special attention, which were listed in the Program of International Biodiversity Conservation, and studied in many countries and districts. In this paper, the research progress in these fields was summarized from the aspects of significance of plant diversity conservation, formation mechanisms of plant diversity, ways of plant diversity conservation, roles of plant diversity research in the development of ecological theories, and important issues in operating plant diversity conservation project. To conserve plant diversity in sand dune areas, attentions should be paid to the differences in conservation goals (to maintain high species richness or to conserve endemic or rare species) among different regions, and the balances between the stabilization of active sand and the conservation of endemic or rare species, and the maintenance of high species richness and the conservation of endemic or rare species. It needed also to consider the sand dune and the interdune lowland as a unified landscape unit to explore the impacts of disturbances and habitat fragment on plant diversity.

  7. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  8. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively.

  9. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yan-fang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Yu; Tang, Jiao; Tang, Wei-zhi; Jin, Yi; Li, Fang; Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 10-15% of all lung cancers. No significant improvement has been made for patients with SCLC in the past several decades. The main progresses were the thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) that improved the patient survival rate. For patients with limited disease and good performance status (PS), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by PCI should be considered. For extensive disease, the combination of etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment and consolidative thoracic radiotherapy is beneficial for patients who have a significant respond to initial chemotherapy. However, the prognosis still remains poor. Recently, efforts have been focused on molecular targets and immunotherapy. But numerous molecular targets methods have failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with SCLC. It is anticipated that further development of research will depend on the on-going trials for molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy which are promising and may improve the outcomes for SCLC in the next decade. PMID:28123595

  10. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  11. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  12. Research progress of large optics in the TMT MOBIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shijie; Xu, Longbo; Zhou, You; Zhang, Weili; Lu, Qi; Gao, Wenlan; Wang, Jianguo; Wei, Zhaoyang; Xu, Xueke; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda

    2016-10-01

    The multi-object broadband imaging echellette (MOBIE) is the seeing-limited, visible-wavelength imaging multi-object spectrograph (MOS) planned for first-light use on the thirty meter telescope (TMT). The current MOBIE optical design provides two color channels, spanning the 310nm-550nm and 550nm-1000nm passbands. The involved large optics includes an atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) prism (1.4m in diameter), a collimator (1.7mx1.0m), a dichroic(680 mm x500 mm x 30 mm), a red folding mirror and two corrector lenses(570mm in diameter) for different channels. In the past two years, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has been included in the preliminary study of folding mirror sub-system in MOBIE, especially the study on the large optics manufacture techniques. The research progress of these large optics will be reviewed in this paper. The influence of optical quality of the large optics on the MOBIE is analyzed in order to define the specifications of the large optics. The manufacture methods are designed for different large optics. In order to testify the effectiveness of the manufacture methods, some samples have been processed and the final performance including wavefront error and spectral properties are tested. Finally, the future work including remaining problems and possible solutions are introduced.

  13. [Research progress of stress fracture of lumbar pedicle].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Yin, Qudong; Gu, Sanjun; Sun, Zhenzhong; Rui, Yongjun; Shou, Kuishui

    2013-02-01

    To review the research progress of stress fracture of the lumbar pedicle. The literature about the stress fracture of the lumbar pedicle was reviewed extensively and summarized. There are two types of stress fracture: fatigue and structure insufficient. Stress fracture of lumbar pedicle occurred mainly in the crowd with repetitive and large activities of spine, contralateral spondylolysis, or previous surgery of lumbar vertebra. The main stresses causing stress fracture of the lumbar pedicle are shear stress and twisting stress, followed by sudden hyperflexion or hyperextension of the spine. Stress fracture of lumbar pedicle was easily missed by conventional X-ray examination, usually XCT, MRI, or bone scan was needed to confirm the diagnosis. It is divided into 4 types or 4 periods according to MRI findings: stress reaction, incomplete fracture, complete fracture, and pseudarthrosis. For patients with incomplete, complete, and juvenile stress fractures of the lumbar pedicle without nerve root irritation, the majority of claims preferred conservative treatment and the healing rate of fracture was high; for patients with bilateral pseudarthrosis and with nerve root irritation as well as patients who failed to the conservative treatment, surgical management was advocated and the operation result is good. Stress fracture of the lumbar pedicle as one of the causes of low back pain is extremely rare, and is easily missed clinically. Surgery or conservative management should be selected based on type of fracture and specific condition of the patient, the treatment results are satisfactory.

  14. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  15. [Research progress on the function of epithelial tight junction].

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Guang-Yan; Wu, Li-Ling

    2016-08-25

    Tight junctions (TJs) are widely expressed in the most apical portion of both epithelial and endothelial cell-cell interactions, serving as a structural and functional basis for material transport through the paracellular pathway. TJs are multi-protein complex composed of transmembrane and cytoplasmic proteins. TJs constitute pores allowing materials with specific size and electrical charge to pass through the paracellular pathway, which is so called "barrier" function. Besides, TJs also separate the lumen and interstitial space of epithelium and endothelium by the function of "fence". Recently, there is increasing body of evidence regarding the crucial role of TJs, together with the possible signaling pathways, in many epithelial cells, such as salivary, airway, intestinal and renal epithelial cells. The present review focuses on the latest research progresses on TJs, including TJ's composing, structure, and function measurement, as well as the mechanisms for modulating TJ's functions in some important epithelial cell types. We hope that the review may provide new insight into the therapeutic strategy of epithelium-related disease by targeting TJs.

  16. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization.

  17. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being

  18. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  19. Collisional processes of interest in the MFE plasma research. Progress report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R E

    1980-01-31

    Research on this contract can be divided into two general topics: (1) D/sup -/ formation collision processes, and (2) the determination of scattering cross sections used to diagnose plasma properties. Research progress during the last four months is presented.

  20. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  1. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  2. Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that while there are a variety of frames or perspectives that guide research into learning science, a pre-paradigmatic field need not be a "free-for-all". Lakatos suggested that academic research fields were characterised by research programmes (RP), which offered heuristic guidance to researchers, and which…

  3. Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that while there are a variety of frames or perspectives that guide research into learning science, a pre-paradigmatic field need not be a "free-for-all". Lakatos suggested that academic research fields were characterised by research programmes (RP), which offered heuristic guidance to researchers, and which…

  4. Natural products chemistry research 2010's progress in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the progresses made by Chinese scientists in the field of natural products chemistry in 2010. Selected compounds with unique structural features and/or promising bioactivities were described herein on the basis of structural types. Copyright © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Year of Unprecedented Progress in Down Syndrome Basic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Roger H.; Garner, Craig C.

    2007-01-01

    The years 2006 and 2007 saw the publication of three new and different approaches to prevention or amelioration of Down syndrome effects on the brain and cognition. We describe the animal model systems that were critical to this progress, review these independent breakthrough studies, and discuss the implications for therapeutic approaches…

  6. Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E C.G.; Ne'eman, Y

    1983-08-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)

  7. Research on Automatic Classification, Indexing and Extracting. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, F.T.; And Others

    In order to contribute to the success of several studies for automatic classification, indexing and extracting currently in progress, as well as to further the theoretical and practical understanding of textual item distributions, the development of a frequency program capable of supplying these types of information was undertaken. The program…

  8. A Year of Unprecedented Progress in Down Syndrome Basic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Roger H.; Garner, Craig C.

    2007-01-01

    The years 2006 and 2007 saw the publication of three new and different approaches to prevention or amelioration of Down syndrome effects on the brain and cognition. We describe the animal model systems that were critical to this progress, review these independent breakthrough studies, and discuss the implications for therapeutic approaches…

  9. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    Summarizing research activities in 1989, this is the fifteenth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report contains the following 21 articles: "Perceptual Learning of Nonnative Speech…

  10. Research Progress and Results from the 2009 Sunflower Genetics Trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic research of the sunflower research unit, USDA-ARS, in Fargo, ND, was discussed in a presentation to a group of producers, industry representatives, and scientists. The need for sunflower genetic research is ever increasing with more insect and disease problems nationwide. Preliminary data on...

  11. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities in 1986, this is the twelfth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report contains the following 23 articles: "Comprehension of Digitally Encoded Natural Speech…

  12. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1989. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    burgdor- feri; Rickettsia of Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia t phi. Progress: To date 18 feral domestic cats were examined. Three cats were four’J with...were submitted to the Bureau of Laboratories, Texas Department of Health, Austin, TX. Blood specimens were examined for the presence of Borrelia ...high titer for Lyme spirochete 1:128; 1:128; and 1:256. From fleas exa- mined none were found to be infective with Borrelia burgdo-rferi or

  13. FY2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-01-31

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  14. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  15. Recent Progress on Nutraceutical Research in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, nutraceuticals have received increasing attention as the agents for cancer prevention and supplement with conventional therapy. Prostate Cancer (PCa) is most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in US. Growing evidences from epidemiological studies, in vitro experimental studies, animal studies, and clinical trials have shown that nutraceuticals could be very useful for the prevention and treatment of PCa. Several nutraceuticals including isoflavone, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3’-diindolylmethane, lycopene, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and curcumin are known to down-regulate the signal transductions in AR, Akt, NF-κB, and other signal transduction pathways which are vital for the development of PCa and the progression of PCa from androgen-sensitive to castrate-resistant PCa. Therefore, nutraceutical treatment in combination with conventional therapeutics could achieve better treatment outcome in prostate cancer therapy. Interestingly, some nutraceuticals could regulate the function of cancer stem cell (CSC) related miRNAs and associated molecules, leading to the inhibition of prostatic CSCs which are responsible for drug-resistance, tumor progression, and recurrence of PCa. Hence, nutraceuticals may serve as powerful agents for the prevention of PCa progression and they could also be useful in combination with chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy. Such strategy could become a promising newer approach for the treatment of metastatic PCa with better treatment outcome by improving overall survival. PMID:24375392

  16. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  17. Accelerating regulatory progress in multi-institutional research.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Andrea R; Lauf, Sherry Lee; Pieper, Lisa E; Rowe, Jared; Vargas, Ileana M; Goff, Melissa A; Daley, Matthew F; Tuzzio, Leah; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Multi-institutional collaborations are necessary in order to create large and robust data sets that are needed to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. Before scientific work can begin, a complex maze of administrative and regulatory requirements must be efficiently navigated to avoid project delays. Staff from research, regulatory, and administrative teams involved in three HMO Research Network (HMORN) multi-institutional collaborations developed and employed novel approaches: to secure and maintain Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals; to enable data sharing, and to expedite subawards for two data-only minimal risk studies. These novel approaches accelerated required processes and approvals while maintaining regulatory, human subjects, and institutional protections. Outcomes from the processes described here are compared with processes outlined in the research and regulatory literature and with processes that have been used in previous multisite research collaborations. Research, regulatory, and administrative staff are essential contributors to the success of multi-institutional collaborations. Their flexibility, creativity, and effective communication skills can lead to the development of efficient approaches to achieving the necessary oversight for these complex projects. Elements of these specific strategies can be adapted and used by other research networks. Other efforts in these areas should be evaluated and shared. The processes that help develop a "learning research system" play an important and complementary role in sustaining multi-institutional research collaborations.

  18. [Research progress on mechanisms of modern medicine in cancer metastasis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Qu, Jing-Lian; Gong, Jie-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the most dangerous stage of tumorigenesis and evolution, the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Clinically, more than 60% of cancer patients have found metastasis at the time of examination. Modern medicine has made significant progress on the mechanisms of cancer metastasis in recent years, from the simple "anatomy and machinery" theory forward to the "seed and soil" theory, then to the "microenvironmental" theory and the "cancer stem cell" theory. The emerging "cancer stem cell" theory successfully explains phenomenon such as tumor genetic heterogeneity, anoikis resistance, tumor dormancy, providing more new targets and ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer metastasis.

  19. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1989. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Hemoquant Assays for Hemoglobin Quantification. (C) C-37-88 A Comparison of Cine and DSA Quantiative Coronary Angiography. 100 (0) C-47-88 Percutaneous...HemoQuant’" assay. 99 Detail Summary Sheet Date: 17 Oct 89 ..Proj No: C-37-88 Status: O n.... Title: A Comparison of Cine and DSA Quantitative Coronary... cine angiogram. Progress: Study terminated due to release from active duty of principal investi- 119 Detail Summary Sheet Date:2 Aug 9_Pro- No: s-17

  20. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  1. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  2. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  3. A Progress Report on Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Maxwell; Shaw, Donald L.

    Although empirical research on the agenda-setting function of mass communication dates only from the 1968 presidential election, historically there has been long-standing concern over the control of communication because of its assumed influence. Early communication research shared this concern and assumption, focusing on the ability of the media…

  4. Practice and Progression in Second Language Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…

  5. Laboratory directed research and development. FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1996-03-01

    This document presents an overview of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Programs at Los Alamos. The nine technical disciplines in which research is described include materials, engineering and base technologies, plasma, fluids, and particle beams, chemistry, mathematics and computational science, atmic and molecular physics, geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics, and biosciences. Brief descriptions are provided in the above programs.

  6. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed.

  7. Practice and Progression in Second Language Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…

  8. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  9. The spinal cord research foundation: two decades of progress.

    PubMed

    Kelley, M S

    2001-04-01

    Over the course of the past 24 years, the Paralyzed Veterans of America's Spinal Cord Research Foundation (SCRF) has provided support for more than 400 research grants in a wide range of areas, from improved wheelchair design to axon pathfinding in Drosophila. The Founders of SCRF, as well as its current trustees, believe that it is imperative to target a broad range of research areas to maximize the quality of life for people, both veterans and nonveterans, with paralysis. This approach has involved the support of basic science and clinical research directed towards repair of the spinal cord, as well as research into improved treatments for complications of spinal cord dysfunction and other projects, including engineering grants and conferences, that may enhance the quality of life for people with paralysis within the immediate future.

  10. Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Roe, Lesa B; Uri, John J

    2003-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  15. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  16. [Research progress on plate mixed culture of lignocellulolytic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Ning; Zhao, Ming-Jie; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Jia-Chao; Yu, Yong; Hu, Chun-Xiao

    2012-06-01

    Mixed culture of microorganisms has been widely used for the research of lignocellulose transformation and degradation, but the results of the mixed culture are largely affected by the interactions of different lignocellulolytic microorganisms. At present, the researches on these interactions are mainly based on plate mixed culture assay. For this assay, two types of plate were used, namely, basic medium plate and improved medium plate. The basic medium plate is mainly used for the study of colony morphology, mycelia color, exocellular volatile organic compounds, and exocellular enzyme activity, whereas the improved medium plate is used for comparative study, with the carbon sources replaced by natural lignocelloses. This paper summarized the present research status and advancement about the plate mixed culture of lignocellulolytic microorganisms, and put forward a prospect about the focuses of future research in this field.

  17. [Progress of orthodontics in the clinical and basic research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-He

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, clinical diagnostic and treatment techniques of orthodontics have been developed rapidly. The orthopedic mechanism of malocclusion has been the hot spot of basic research of orthodontics.

  18. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 129.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    0002 Big. A00DRESS (City. Stste aid ZIP Cod", 10. SOURCE OP PUNDING NO&. P.O. Box 12211 PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC...3.1 Focused Ion Beam Program ................................................... 21 ’*- 3.2 Fabrication of Graded Channel FETs in GaAs and Si...Information Processing . ................................... 203 • 25.1 Advanced Television Research Program

  19. Research progress in structure-activity relationship of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jianmei

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive peptides are specific protein fragments that have positive impact on health. They are important sources of new biomedicine, energy and high-performance materials. The beneficial effects of bioactive peptides are due to their antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. The structure-activity relationship of bioactive peptides plays a significant role in the development of innovative and unconventional synthetic polymeric counterparts. It provides the basis of the stereospecific synthesis, transformation, and development of bioactive peptide products. This review covers the progress of studies in the structure-activity relationship of some bioactive peptides including antioxidant peptides, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides, and anticarcinogenic peptides in the past decade.

  20. Research progress on the mollusc immunity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2013-01-01

    The economical and phylogenic importance of mollusc has led an increasing number of investigations giving emphasis to immune defense mechanism. This review discusses the advances in immunological study of mollusc in China, with special reference to dominant aquaculture species over the past decades. As an invertebrate group, molluscs lack adaptive immunity and consequently they have evolved sophisticated strategies of innate immunity for defense against pathogens. This review aims to present the various immunologically significant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), lectins, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), scavenger receptors (SRs) employed by mollucans. This work also highlights immune proteolytic cascade, TLR signaling pathway and an extensive repertoire of immune effectors including antimicrobial peptide, lysozyme, antioxidant enzyme and heat shock protein. Further, the review presents the preliminary progress made on the catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system in scallop and its immunomodulation function to throw light into neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in lower invertebrates.

  1. [Research progress of mammalian synthetic biology in biomedical field].

    PubMed

    Yang, Linfeng; Yin, Jianli; Wang, Meiyan; Ye, Haifeng

    2017-03-25

    Although still in its infant stage, synthetic biology has achieved remarkable development and progress during the past decade. Synthetic biology applies engineering principles to design and construct gene circuits uploaded into living cells or organisms to perform novel or improved functions, and it has been widely used in many fields. In this review, we describe the recent advances of mammalian synthetic biology for the treatment of diseases. We introduce common tools and design principles of synthetic gene circuits, and then we demonstrate open-loop gene circuits induced by different trigger molecules used in disease diagnosis and close-loop gene circuits used for biomedical applications. Finally, we discuss the perspectives and potential challenges of synthetic biology for clinical applications.

  2. [Research progress on the management of no packing after septoplasty].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Zhang, Longcheng; Li, Jieen

    2016-01-01

    Packing the nose after septoplasty is common practice. The use of postoperative packing has been proposed to reduce the dead space between the subperichondrial flaps and minimize postoperative complications such as hemorrhage, septal hematoma, and formation of synechiae. Additionally, postoperative packing is thought to stabilize the remaining cartilaginous septum and minimize persistence or recurrence of septal deviation. Despite these theoretic advantages, evidence to support the use of postoperative packing is lacking. Additionally, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure. The use of nasal packing actually cause these complications such as postop- erative pain, mucosal injury, bleeding, worsening of breathing due to sleep disorders, and postoperative infections. Routine use of anterior nasal packing after septoplasty should be challenged for not presenting proven benefit. As alternatives to traditional packing, septal suturing, septal stapler and fibrin glue have been used recently. The purpose of this article is to summarize the progress of traditional packing to no packing after septoplasty.

  3. RESEARCH PROGRESS AND HARDWARE SYSTEMS AT DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,P.I; THE DIII-D TEAM

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 During the last two years significant progress has been made in the scientific understanding of DIII-D plasmas. Much of this progress has been enabled by the addition of new hardware systems. The electron cyclotron (EC) system has been upgraded from 3 MW to 6 MW, by adding three 1 MW gyrotrons with diamond windows and three steerable launchers (PPPL). The new gyrotrons have been tested to 1.0 MW for 5 s. The system has been used to control the 3/2 and 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes and to locally heat the plasma and thereby indirectly control the current density. Electron cyclotron current drive ECCD has been used to directly affect the current density. A Li-beam diagnostic has been brought on-line for measuring the edge current density using Zeeman splitting. A set of 12 coils (1-coils), consisting of six picture frame coils each above and below the midplane, with a capability of 7 kA for 10 s has been installed inside the DIII-D vessel. These coils, along with the existing six C-coils, are used to apply non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma for both exciting and controlling plasma instabilities. The DIII-D digital plasma control system is now used to not just control the shape and location of the plasma but also the electron temperature, density, the NTMs, RWMs, plasma beta and disruption mitigation. Plasma disruption experiments are extended to mitigation of real time detected disruptions on DIII-D.

  4. Supporting Progressive Change: The James R. Squire Office of Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    2004-01-01

    The NCTE has established a center of policy research to honor the legacy of James R. Squire in order to support progressive reform in English language arts education. James R. Squire's life and work are discussed in detail.

  5. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  6. Light-water-reactor safety research program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, W.E.; Kyger, J.A.

    1980-08-01

    This progress report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during January, February, and March 1980 on water-reactor-safety problems. The research and development area covered is Transient Fuel Response and Fission-Product Release.

  7. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, July 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes progress made for the period July 1984 through September 1985. Sections describe research in health studies, dosimetry and biophysical transport, biological and radiation physics, chemical physics, and risk analysis. (ACR)

  8. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 8, January 1982-December 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities from January 1982 to December 1982, this is the eighth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis and synthesis conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, progress reports, and information…

  9. Rehabilitation Research and Training Center. Progress Report Number Nine, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ.-Stout, Menomonie. Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Inst.

    This progress report summarizes research, training, cooperative, regional advisory council, and special project activities conducted by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center of the Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute from February 1980 through January 1981. Eleven research projects (four involving rehabilitation resources…

  10. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 9, January 1983-December 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities from January 1983 to December 1983, this is the ninth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis and synthesis conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, and progress reports. The report…

  11. Research in Progress--Update April 1990. Occasional Paper InTER/14/90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boots, Maureen, Comp.

    This document contains abstracts of 29 research projects in progress in Great Britain divided into six sections: (1) the current phase of Information Technology in Education Research (InTER) programs on groupwork with computers, tools for exploratory learning, conceptual change in science, and bubble dialogue as an ethnographic research tool; (2)…

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  13. Research in progress: FY 1992. Summaries of projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program of OHER has two main missions: (1) to develop the knowledge base necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and development and (2) to utilize the Department`s unique scientific and technological capabilities to solve major scientific problems in medicine, biology, and the environment. These missions reflect a commitment to develop the beneficial uses of advanced energy technologies while at the same time assuring that any potentially adverse health and environmental impacts of the Nation`s energy policies are fully identified and understood. The BER Program includes research in atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial processes, including the linkage between the use in greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and regional and global climate change; in molecular and subcellular mechanisms underlying human somatic and genetic processes and their responses to energy-related environmental toxicants; in nuclear medicine, structural biology, the human genome, measurement sciences and instrumentation, and other areas that require the unique capabilities of the Department`s laboratory system. The principal areas of research are Health Research and Environmental Research.

  14. Theory, Modeling and Simulation: Research progress report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.C.; Dixon, D.A.; Dunning, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). In April 1994, construction began on the new EMSL, a collaborative research facility devoted to advancing the understanding of environmental molecular science. Research in the Theory, Modeling, and Simulation (TM and S) program will play a critical role in understanding molecular processes important in restoring DOE`s research, development, and production sites, including understanding the migration and reactions of contaminants in soils and ground water, developing processes for isolation and processing of pollutants, developing improved materials for waste storage, understanding the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of contaminants, and understanding the interaction of hazardous chemicals with living organisms. The research objectives of the TM and S program are fivefold: to apply available electronic structure and dynamics techniques to study fundamental molecular processes involved in the chemistry of natural and contaminated systems; to extend current electronic structure and dynamics techniques to treat molecular systems of future importance and to develop new techniques for addressing problems that are computationally intractable at present; to apply available molecular modeling techniques to simulate molecular processes occurring in the multi-species, multi-phase systems characteristic of natural and polluted environments; to extend current molecular modeling techniques to treat ever more complex molecular systems and to improve the reliability and accuracy of such simulations; and to develop technologies for advanced parallel architectural computer systems. Research highlights of 82 projects are given.

  15. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  16. Recent Progress on Sonic Boom Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sonic boom research conducted at NASA through the Supersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is oriented toward understanding the potential impact of sonic boom noise on communities from new low-boom supersonic aircraft designs. Encompassing research in atmospheric propagation, structural response, and human response, NASA research contributes to knowledge in key areas needed to support development of a new noise-based standard for supersonic aircraft certification. Partnerships with several industry, government, and academic institutions have enabled the recent execution of several acoustic field studies on sonic booms. An overview of recent activities funded by NASA includes: focus boom model development and experimental validation, field experiments of structural transmission of sonic booms into large buildings, and low boom community response testing.

  17. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  18. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-08

    A DOE grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is being used by the U-M Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and grad student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy-related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  19. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 129. Report for January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.; Kleppner, D.

    1987-01-01

    This is report No. 129 in a series of progress reports issued by the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT. The report covers the period January 1 through December 31, 1986 and contains a statement of research objectives, summary of research efforts and lists of funding sources and project staff for each research group within RLE. There are indexes of funding sources and research project staff, and extensive bibliography, and a listing of RLE personnel at the back of the book.

  20. [Research progress on emotion recognition based on physiological signals].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Emotion recognition will be prosperious in multifarious applications, like distance education, healthcare, and human-computer interactions, etc. Emotions can be recognized from the behavior signals such as speech, facial expressions, gestures or the physiological signals such as electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram. Contrast to other methods, the physiological signals based emotion recognition can achieve more objective and effective results because it is almost impossible to be disguised. This paper introduces recent advancements in emotion research using physiological signals, specified to its emotion model, elicitation stimuli, feature extraction and classification methods. Finally the paper also discusses some research challenges and future developments.

  1. Aeolian Research: Reflections on progress after five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Lee, Jeffrey A.

    2015-03-01

    Aeolian Research was launched in 2009 by the co-Editors in Chief, Ted Zobeck and Jeff Lee and since then more than 200 papers have been published under their guidance. The journal's first Thompson Scientific Impact Factor (IF), in 2011, was 2.179 and the IF has increased to 2.841 in 2013, which is comparable to its well-established peer journals. These achievements have been accomplished with the exceptional support of the associate editors and the broader research community in reviewing more than 400 papers. Of the papers received, more than half are published.

  2. Laboratory-directed research and development: FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the FY 1996 goals and accomplishments of Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, and provides an index to the projects` principal investigators. Projects are grouped by their LDRD component: Individual Projects, Competency Development, and Program Development. Within each component, they are further divided into nine technical disciplines: (1) materials science, (2) engineering and base technologies, (3) plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (4) chemistry, (5) mathematics and computational sciences, (6) atomic and molecular physics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) biosciences.

  3. [Ten most progression of cataract research in China].

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Ten researches that may represent the most advanced cataract related studies in China were reviewed, which were recommended and voted by specialists from Chinese Cataract and Intraocular Lens Society. These researches focused on the following fields: the clinical study of the refractive cataract surgery, the clinical study on the premium intraocular lens, location and function study of the disease-associated genes of congenital cataract, the mechanism and prevention of age-related cataract, the mechanism and prevention of oxidative damage of crystalline lens and so on. These studies represented the level of crystalline lens related disease field in China.

  4. [Progress in researches of molecular mechanism of schistosome cercariae infection].

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofeng; Ju, Chuan; Hu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Schistosome cercariae must penetrate skin as an initial step to successfully infect the final host. Proteolytic enzymes secreted from the acetabular glands of cercariae contribute significantly to the invasion process. Nowadays, the researches of molecular mechanism of schistosome infection mainly focus on the cercarial secretions including serine protease and cysteine protease. Previous researches already showed that Schistosoma mansoni penetrates the skin mainly depend on cercarial elastease secreted by cercariae while Schistosoma japonicum penetrates the skin chiefly by cathepsin B2. The illustration of molecular mechanism of schistosome cecariae infection will accelerate the identification of novel vaccines and drug targets.

  5. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  6. Sustaining Academic Progress through Objective Evaluation of Research in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owuamanam, Donatus O.; Owuamanam, Theresa O.

    2008-01-01

    There has been serious disagreement regarding how best to objectively evaluate the research competence of university teachers to determine their suitability for promotion from one level to another. Different approaches are adopted by Nigerian Universities to ensure comparability of output of different people being considered for advancement. Doubt…

  7. Recycling research progress at the Forest Products Laboratory.

    Treesearch

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes accomplishments of USDA Forest Service researchers in the area of recycling. Specifically, it describes work in economic assessment, paper recycling, recycled housing and industrial applications of recycled materials, other recycling applications, and technology transfer. The literature list includes the references cited in the text and...

  8. Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)

  9. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  10. Black Faculty at Research Universities: Has Significant Progress Occurred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Jonathon L.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the representation, career advancement, and workplace perceptions of Black faculty at research universities in the United States over time, in comparison to White faculty were examined. Based on the analysis of data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) surveys, we found that although the overall…

  11. Soil & Tillage Research: Publication history and assessment of progress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The journal, Soil and Tillage Research, is concerned with the changes in physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of the soil environment brought about by soil tillage and field traffic, their effects on both below- and above-ground environmental quality, crop establishment, root d...

  12. Center for Research for Mothers and Children: 1983 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Described in this report are the extramural activities for fiscal year 1983 of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children (CRMC). The CRMC is designed to advance knowledge about fetal development, pregnancy, and birth; to identify the prerequisites of optimal growth and development through infancy, childhood, and adolescence; and to…

  13. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization.

  14. Children's Logical and Mathematical Cognition: Progress in Cognitive Development Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Charles J., Ed.

    The goal of books in this series is to present work that is on the growing tip of research in cognitive development. The theme of this volume is children's logical and mathematical cognition, a field in which Piaget's influence has been extensive. In the first of the six chapters, Acredolo presents a new theory of the cognitive bases for…

  15. Overview of Compact Toroidal Hybrid research program progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, David; Ennis, David; Hanson, James; Hartwell, Gregory; Herfindal, Jeffrey; Knowlton, Stephen; Ma, Xingxing; Pandya, Mihir; Roberds, Nicholas; Ross, Kevin; Traverso, Peter

    2016-10-01

    disruptive behavior on the level of applied 3D magnetic shaping; (2) test and advance the V3FIT reconstruction code and NIMROD modeling of CTH; and (3) study the implementation of an island divertor. Progress towards these goals and other developments are summarized. The disruptive density limit exceeds the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased, but a threshold for avoidance is not observed. Low- q disruptions, with 1.1 < q (a) <2.0, cease to occur if the vacuum transform is raised above 0.07. Application of vacuum transform can reduce and eliminate the vertical drift of elongated discharges that would otherwise be vertically unstable. Reconstructions using external magnetics give accurate estimates for quantities near the plasma boundary, and internal diagnostics have been implemented to extend the range of accuracy into the plasma core. Sawtooth behavior has been reproducibly modified with external transform and NIMROD is used to model these observations and reproduces experimental trends. An island divertor design has begun with connection length studies to model energy deposition on divertor plates located in an edge 1/3 island as well as the study of a non-resonant divertor configuration. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  16. Recent progress in injectable bone repair materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Zhang, Xiuli; Kang, Lingzhi; Xu, Fei; Wang, Zhaoling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive injectable self-setting materials are useful for bone repairs and for bone tissue regeneration in situ. Due to the potential advantages of these materials, such as causing minimal tissue injury, nearly no influence on blood supply, easy operation and negligible postoperative pain, they have shown great promises and successes in clinical applications. It has been proposed that an ideal injectable bone repair material should have features similar to that of natural bones, in terms of both the microstructure and the composition, so that it not only provides adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation but also offers a satisfactory biological environment for new bone to grow at the implantation site. This article reviews the properties and applications of injectable bone repair materials, including those that are based on natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate/polymer composites and calcium sulfate, to orthopedics and bone tissue repairs, as well as the progress made in biomimetic fabrication of injectable bone repair materials.

  17. [Research Progress on DKK1 Gene in Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Ji-Shi; Zhu, Hong-Qian

    2015-08-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the methylation of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) gene promoter is related with the occurrence and development of many neoplastic diseases. By means of binding with corresponding receptors, DKK1 blocks the transduction pathway of Wnt/β-catenin/TCF and inhibits the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells, inducing apoptosis. Leukemia is a hyperplastic disease of hematopoietic stem cell malignant clone. Its pathogenesis has been confirmed to be closely related with the aberrant activation of Wnt signaling pathway. This pathway is associated with the self-renewal and proliferation of the hematopoietic stem cells, which can regulate growth, differentiation, migration of the cells, angiogenesis and embryonic development. Its expression is regulated by some suppressor genes like Dickkopf 1 (DKK1). Leukemia often accompanied by methylation modification of the DKK1 gene, so as to leads to silencing itself and activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, which cause the occurrence of leukemia. Some therapeutic methods on leukemia aiming at DKK1 gene have been reported, among which DKK1 gene was demethylated. The intensive study on the expression and function of DKK1 should be important for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. This article reviews the current progress in this field.

  18. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  19. Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine Radix isatidis (banlangen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Radix isatidis (R. isatidis) (Banlangen) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous for its broad antiviral activity. Its clinical medical history spans several thousands of years in China. Many scientists and scholars have conducted systematic research on this herb from its pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, especially in China. Through our research and literature reports, we inferred that the antiviral activity of R. isatidis mostly depended on the water-soluble part, including amino acids, IRPS, nucleosides, and sulfur-containing alkaloids. By playing a role in directly killing pathogenic viruses or regulating the immune system to enhance anti-virus ability, R. isatidis's biological activities mostly depend on the synergistic effect of its multiple components. This article aims to expand understanding of R. isatidis in the following aspects including medicinal resources, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications, and separation and analytical technologies.

  20. [Research progress on visual observations of hematopoietic stem cell homing].

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Yao; Chen, Tong

    2014-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important mean for clinical treatment to many of hematological diseases, malignant diseases, hereditary diseases and autoimmune diseases. Whether the implanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can home to bone marrow (BM) smoothly and reconstitute the hematopoiesis is the key to successful HSCT. With the cognition of HSC homing mechanism, the visual observation of HSC homing to BM is attracting more and more attention and helps to clarify the micro-dialogue between HSC and BM microenvironment. In recent years, with the development of imaging technology, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and two-photon microscope are able to make 3D reconstruction and real-time observation of the tissue or cells. Researches on HSC homing process visibly become reality. In this article the methods of visual research and their application in HSC homing observation are reviewed.

  1. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde.

  2. Progress on the pharmacological research of puerarin: a review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Yong; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary pharmacological research has demonstrated that puerarin, the most important phytoestrogen extracted from Pueraria lobata(Willd.) Ohwi, has protecting functions on the cardiovascular system, nervous system, osteoporosis, liver injury, and inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Most of these research studies focused on inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulating various bioactivators and signal pathways. Among these, superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB are of great importance. The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed and Elsevier SDOL published from 1959 to 2013, and the search term used was "puerarin". Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.

    PubMed

    Clement, Sarah; Bollinger, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.

  4. Research progress in muscle-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science, Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Clinical Trials registry database (ClinicalTrials.gov). DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for MDSCs from 2002 to 2011 using the Web of Science, NIH, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (1) Web of Science: (a) peer-reviewed articles on MDSCs that were published and indexed in the Web of Science. (b) Type of articles: original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material and news items. (c) Year of publication: 2002–2011. (d) Citation databases: Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E), 1899–present; Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S), 1991–present; Book Citation Index-Science (BKCI-S), 2005–present. (2) NIH: (a) Projects on MDSCs supported by the NIH. (b) Fiscal year: 1988–present. (3) ClinicalTrials.gov: All clinical trials relating to MDSCs were searched in this database. Exclusion criteria: (1) Web of Science: (a) Articles that required manual searching or telephone access. (b) We excluded documents that were not published in the public domain. (c) We excluded a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. (d) We excluded articles from the following databases: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), 1898–present; Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), 1975–present; Conference Proceedings Citation Index – Social Science & Humanities (CPCI-SSH), 1991–present; Book Citation Index – Social Sciences & Humanities (BKCI-SSH), 2005–present; Current Chemical Reactions (CCR-EXPANDED), 1985–present; Index Chemicus (IC), 1993–present. (2) NIH: (a) We excluded publications related to MDSCs that were supported by the NIH. (b) We limited the keyword search to studies

  5. [Research progress of scaffold materials in skeletal muscle tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiyi; Liao, Hua

    2010-11-01

    To review the current researches of scaffold materials for skeletal muscle tissue engineering, to predict the development trend of scaffold materials in skeletal muscle tissue engineering in future. The related literature on skeletal muscle tissue engineering, involving categories and properties of scaffold materials, preparative technique and biocompatibility, was summarized and analyzed. Various scaffold materials were used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering, including inorganic biomaterials, biodegradable polymers, natural biomaterial, and biomedical composites. According to different needs of the research, various scaffolds were prepared due to different biomaterials, preparative techniques, and surface modifications. The development trend and perspective of skeletal muscle tissue engineering are the use of composite materials, and the preparation of composite scaffolds and surface modification according to the specific functions of scaffolds.

  6. [Research progress on wetland ecosystem service and its valuation].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiao-Yan; Ding, Zhen-Hua

    2007-03-01

    With the recognition on the significance of wetland, wetland ecosystem service was come under more and more attention, and its valuation could give the policymakers a scientific support in punishing wetland destroyers and compensating its losers. This paper introduced the definitions of wetland ecosystem service, its function and value, summarized their valuation approaches, including market value approach, production function method, opportunity cost approach, shadow project approach, productivity variety approach, human capital approach, travel cost approach, hedonic value approach, contingent value approach and ecological value approach, and discussed the factors affecting the valuation results of these approaches as well as the existing problems in related researches. The further research directions in these fields were also prospected.

  7. [Research progress on application of gold magnetic nanocomposite in biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yang; Zhao, Lingyun; Tang, Jingtian; Yao, Cuiping

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the current research activities which focused on the bio-application of gold magnetic nanocomposite particles. By combining the magnetic characteristics of the iron oxide core with the unique features of nano-gold particles such as targeting by surface modification and optical properties, such composite nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in cancer hyperthermia, CT and MRI imaging, bio-separation, bio sensors, gene diagnosis, drug targeting and many other biomedical fields.

  8. ReSEARCH: A Requirements Search Engine: Progress Report 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    documents to formally specify the meaning and domain of their requirements. Our goal in the research presented here is to address these concerns by...is to address these concerns by designing a search engine that searches over the “meanings" of requirements documents. In this paper, we present the...but in human languages polysemy is pervasive. The word tank, for example, has multiple meanings (or, senses)—it may refer to weaponry or to a water tank

  9. [The research progress of succinic acid fermentation strains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2007-07-01

    The potential of succinic acid as an important chemical intermediates had been realized and fermentation is one of the best ways to make it possible in economical aspect. Fermentation organism is the key part of the fermentation method. The updated research developments of fermentation organisms and the fermentation characteristics and problems of them were reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Finally,the development future of fermenation organism was forecasted.

  10. [Carbonyl compounds emission and uptake by plant: Research progress].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Cai, Jing; Yan, Liu-Shui; Li, Ling-Na; Tao, Min

    2013-02-01

    This paper reviewed the researches on the carbonyl compounds emission and uptake by plants, and discussed the compensation point of the bidirectional exchange of carbonyl compounds between plants and atmosphere. The uptake by leaf stomata and stratum corneum is the principal way for the purification of air aldehydes by plants. After entering into plant leaves, most parts of carbonyl compounds can be metabolized into organic acid, glucide, amino acid, and carbon dioxide, etc. , by the endoenzymes in leaves. The exchange direction of the carbonyl compounds between plants and atmosphere can be preliminarily predicted by the compensation point and the concentrations of ambient carbonyl compounds. This paper summarized the analytical methods such as DNPH/HPLC/UV and PFPH/GC/MS used for the determination of carbonyl compounds emitted from plants or in plant leaves. The main research interests in the future were pointed out, e. g. , to improve and optimize the analytical methods for the determination of carbonyl compounds emitted from plants and the researches on systems (e. g. , plant-soil system), to enlarge the detection species of carbonyl compounds emitted from plants, to screen the plant species which can effectively metabolize the pollutants, and to popularize the phytoremediation techniques for atmospheric

  11. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  12. Folates in Plants: Research Advances and Progress in Crop Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore, strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today's knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  13. Folates in Plants: Research Advances and Progress in Crop Biofortification.

    PubMed

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore, strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today's knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  14. Folates in plants: research advances and progress in crop biofortification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today’s knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  15. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  16. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina

    2016-01-01

    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  17. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  18. [Research progress of mechanism of functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Yan, Kaiwei; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Jie; Lan, Ying; Xu, Jing; Wei, Chenchen; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-09-01

    Literature about functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture in recent 5 years is retrieved in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and PubMed. The research achievements are arranged and summed up to explore the mechanism of acupuncture for functional dyspepsia. It is found that acupuncture can regulate the secretion of braingut petide, and cause the coordination response of limbic system-brain. Also, it adjusts serum molecule metabolin and the gene expression of the transduction pathway of adjustment signal for rats. It is believed that functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture is through multiple ways, and adjusting the function of braingut axis is one of the important mechanisms.

  19. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap, component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and an n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n+p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  20. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n + p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  1. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap, component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and an n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n+p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  2. [Research progress of selective mGluR1 antagonists].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-lei; Sun, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ye; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2011-10-01

    As an important member of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) plays an important role in the signal transduction of central nervous system. Selective mGluR1 antagonists can block the signaling pathway activated by mGluR1 and exert a series of physiological actions including analgesia, antianxiety, antidepression, etc. Currently, the discovery and modification of selective mGluR1 antagonists have become a hot research focus. This paper reviews the structural catalogs of selective mGluR1 antagonists and their structure-activity relationships in the last decade.

  3. Research progress in live attenuated Brucella vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, which is a globally occurring zoonotic disease that is characterized by abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever, arthritis, endocarditis, and meningitis in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines against brucellosis for human use, and only a few licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in animals. However, the available animal vaccines may cause abortion and are associated with lower protection rates in animals and higher virulence in humans. Much research has been performed recently to develop novel Brucella vaccines for the prevention and control of animal brucellosis. This article discusses the approaches and strategies for novel live attenuated vaccine development.

  4. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. HBT-EP Active Mode Control Research: Progress and Plans*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.; Klein, A. J.; Liu, Y.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Stillits, N.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A. H.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Paul, S. F.; James, R.

    2006-10-01

    HBT-EP MHD mode control research is studying advanced digital feedback control algorithms, ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, and the effects of edge neutral damping as a dissipation mechanism on RWM rotational stabilization. HBT-EP incorporates a segmented adjustable conducting wall, internal modular feedback control coils driven by a high-speed (10 microsecond delay) MIMO digital control system for resistive wall modes (RWM) and a biased electrode for edge rotation control. Primary research thrusts are to: (1) study required feedback gain as a function of control coil modularity and toroidal angle coverage testing possible breakdown in `rigid mode' kink model; (2) test advanced feedback control techniques of adaptive filtering and state estimation, (3) study physics of RWM rotation stabilization by controlled variation of critical parameters (rotation, dissipation, and growth rate). Recent results including measurement of the radial eigenmode structure of the external kink and its dependence on plasma dissipation, enhancements of the VALEN modeling code, development of reduced state space models, and initial kink rigidity studies will be discussed. *Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  6. The research progress of genomic selection in livestock.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-wei; Wang, Rui-jun; Wang, Zhi-ying; Li, Xue-wu; Wang, Zhen-yu; Yanjun, Zhang; Rui, Su; Zhihong, Liu; Jinquan, Li

    2017-05-20

    With the development of gene chip and breeding technology, genomic selection in plants and animals has become research hotspots in recent years. Genomic selection has been extensively applied to all kinds of economic livestock, due to its high accuracy, short generation intervals and low breeding costs. In this review, we summarize genotyping technology and the methods for genomic breeding value estimation, the latter including the least square method, RR-BLUP, GBLUP, ssGBLUP, BayesA and BayesB. We also cover basic principles of genomic selection and compare their genetic marker ranges, genomic selection accuracy and operational speed. In addition, we list common indicators, methods and influencing factors that are related to genomic selection accuracy. Lastly, we discuss latest applications and the current problems of genomic selection at home and abroad. Importantly, we envision future status of genomic selection research, including multi-trait and multi-population genomic selection, as well as impact of whole genome sequencing and dominant effects on genomic selection. This review will provide some venues for other breeders to further understand genome selection.

  7. Research progress on reconstruction of meniscus in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Pengsong; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yiwei; Song, Kedong; Li, Tianqing

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus damages are most common in sports injuries and aged knees. One third of meniscus lesions are known as white-white zone or nonvascular zones, which are composed of chondrocyte and extracellular matrix composition only. Due to low vascularization the ability of regeneration in such zones is inherently limited, leading to impossible self-regeneration post damage. Meniscus tissue engineering is known for emerging techniques for treating meniscus damage, but there are questions that need to be answered, including an optimal and suitable cell source, the usability of growth factor, the selectivity of optimal biomaterial scaffolds as well as the technology for improving partial reconstruction of meniscus tears. This review focuses on current research on the in vitro reconstruction of the meniscus using tissue engineering methods with the expectation to develop a series of tissue engineering meniscus products for the benefit of sports injuries. With rapid growth of clinical demand, the key breakthrough of meniscus tissue engineering research foundation is enlarged to a great extent. This review discusses aspects of meniscus tissue engineering, which is relative to the clinical treatment of meniscus injuries for further support and establishment of fundamental and clinical studies.

  8. [Newest research progress in hypoxia genetic adaptation to high altitude].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Futao; Sun, Xuechuan

    2010-06-01

    The genetic adaptation of Plateau residents to hypoxia of low-pressure has been the hot spot for study. In terms of physiology, the adaptation involves the regulation responses of blood vessels, the changes in blood cells, antioxidant capacity and energy metabolism, as well as the hypoxia-induced changes in nuclear transcription. Physiological adaptation is heritable, so people who have already adapted themselves to high altitude are bound to be different, in regard to gene level, from the crowd who have not yet adapted themselves to high altitude environment. For this reason, researchers have studied a great deal of gene related-enzymes, the receptors, polypeptide, as well as transcription factors in body, and they found a number of the DNA polymorphism sites in the people who have adapted themsevles to high altitude being different from those in the people who do not get acclimatized. In this paper is reviewed the newest advance in research of these gene polymorphisms. The data could serve as references for further study of hypoxia genetic adaptation to high altitude.

  9. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  10. Progress with MGI and CHI Research on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R.; Lay, W.-S.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Ebrahimi, F.; Jardin, S. C.; Taylor, G.

    2016-10-01

    NSTX-U experiments on Massive Gas Injection (MGI) will offer new insight to the MGI database by studying gas assimilation efficiencies for MGI gas injection from different poloidal locations. In support of this research, two ITER-type MGI valves have been successfully commissioned on NSTX-U. Results from the planned experiment `Comparison of Private Flux Region with Conventional Mid-plane MGI on NSTX-U', will be reported. In support of planned Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) research on NSTX-U, a new high-resolution grid has been generated for TSC simulations of CHI. This improves the resolution of the CHI injector region, and better models the closely-spaced divertor coils on NSTX-U. These new simulations support previous analysis that suggests a solenoid-free plasma current initiation capability of more than 400kA on NSTX-U. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contracts: DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08, and DE-SC0006757.

  11. Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meziani, Z.E.

    1994-10-01

    This is the final report on the research carried at Stanford University under contract DE-FG03-88ER40439. All the work accomplished under this grant is reported in the publications listed as part of the Principal Investigator bibliography at the end of this report. In the last few years our research was directed at some of the forefront questions in nuclear physics. We investigated the nuclear medium effects on the intrinsic properties of bound nucleons, specifically the ectromagnetic form factors. For these studies we performed a number of specialized electron scattering experiments with specific sensitivity to nuclear medium effects. At the next level of structure, elementary constituents of matter are quarks and gluons. Defining the energy regime where the quark-gluon description of nuclear systems becomes more relevant than the nucleon-meson description is of great importance in thoroughly understanding the nuclear structure. To explore this transition region, we studied the scaling region in the disintegration of the deuteron, the simplest nuclear system with high energy photons. Finally we focused on the investigation of the nucleon internal spin structure along with the test of the Bjoerken sum rule a fundamental sum rule of QCD.

  12. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  13. [Progress in researches on stem cell therapy for erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan-bin; Gou, Xin

    2009-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) commonly results from endothelial dysfunction and erectile nerve damage. Recent researches have focused on the preclinical studies of stem cell-based therapies targeted at repairing penile endothelium and protecting erectile nerves. Early studies showed that stem cell- or gene-modified stem cell-based therapies may have enduring efficacy and eventually lead to a cure for ED. Such stem cells as embryonic, mesenchymal, muscle-derived and adipose-derived ones and endothelial progenitor cells all have differentiation potentials and obvious advantages in protecting and repairing both nervi erigentes and corpus cavernosum vascular endothelial cells. Stem cell-based therapies promise to be an effective approach to human erectile dysfunction.

  14. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  15. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  16. Cylindrospermopsin: A Decade of Progress on Bioaccumulation Research

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is rapidly being recognised as one of the most globally important of the freshwater algal toxins. The ever-expanding distribution of CYN producers into temperate zones is heightening concern that this toxin will represent serious human, as well as environmental, health risks across many countries. Since 1999, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability for CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms. This paper synthesizes the most current information on CYN accumulation, including notes on the global distribution of CYN producers, and a précis of CYN’s ecological and human effects. Studies on the bioaccumulation of CYN are systematically reviewed, together with an analysis of patterns of accumulation. A discussion on the factors influencing bioaccumulation rates and potential is also provided, along with notes on detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Finally, key gaps in the existing research are identified for future study. PMID:20411114

  17. [Research progress in molecular mechanism of animal seasonal reproduction].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Wei; Chu, Ming-Xing

    2011-07-01

    Animal seasonal reproduction involves complicated neuroendocrine processes of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is dominantly regulated by photoperiod, a crucial environmental cue. Melatonin, as internal photoperiod signal, regulates seasonal reproduction of animals. In recent years, it has been found that Kiss1/GPR54 system, which may influence GnRH secretion evidently, is regulated by both melatonin and feedback action of gonadal steroid hormones. Consequently, Kiss1/GPR54 system may play a key role in seasonal reproduction. Additionally, there exists another potential retrograde control pathway of seasonal breeding, which involves TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system. TSH-DIO2/ DIO3 system affects synthesis and secretion of GnRH and is regulated by melatonin, as well as Kiss1/GPR54 system. In this article, melatonin signal, especially the research advances of Kissl/GPR54 system and TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system were reviewed.

  18. [The research progress of metals correlated to Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Geng, Gelite; Luo, Huan-Min

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegenerative diseases, the most common cause of dementia. Although AD has been studied more than, 100 years and the Aβ and tau theory are most widely accepted among the theories achieved, yet it is not really clear what the mechanism related to AD works up to now. However, it is certain that AD is a kind of diseases resulting from multi-causes. Except for causes correlated with heredity, aging and life habits, environmental role is worth taking into consideration as well. Some metals, such as copper, aluminum, zinc and iron et al, can also have close relationship with AD. Now, we make an overview on the correlative researches in the field.

  19. Progress and challenges in implementing the research on ESKAPE pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rice, Louis B

    2010-11-01

    The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are responsible for a substantial percentage of nosocomial infections in the modern hospital and represent the vast majority of isolates whose resistance to antimicrobial agents presents serious therapeutic dilemmas for physicians. Over the years, improved molecular biology techniques have led to detailed information about individual resistance mechanisms in all these pathogens. However, there remains a lack of compelling data on the interplay between resistance mechanisms and between the bacteria themselves. In addition, data on the impact of clinical interventions to decrease the prevalence of resistance are also lacking. The difficulty in identifying novel antimicrobial agents with reliable activity against these pathogens argues for an augmentation of research in the basic and population science of resistance, as well as careful studies to identify optimal strategies for infection control and antimicrobial use.

  20. Academic and industry research progress in germanium nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Pillarisetty, Ravi

    2011-11-16

    Silicon has enabled the rise of the semiconductor electronics industry, but it was not the first material used in such devices. During the 1950s, just after the birth of the transistor, solid-state devices were almost exclusively manufactured from germanium. Today, one of the key ways to improve transistor performance is to increase charge-carrier mobility within the device channel. Motivated by this, the solid-state device research community is returning to investigating the high-mobility material germanium. Germanium-based transistors have the potential to operate at high speeds with low power requirements and might therefore be used in non-silicon-based semiconductor technology in the future. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Research in nuclear chemistry. Progress report. [Bio Rex-70

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    1980-01-01

    The research is concerned primarily with complexes in aqueous solution of actinide elements. Actinides in the trivalent oxidation state have been studied more than species in other valence states. Similar systems have also been investigated for the trivalent lanthanides. Since 15 lanthanides can be studied using a wider variety of techniques than feasible with the actinides (e.g., NMR), comparison of these closely related families of elements using the greater amount and variety of lanthanide data provides better understanding of actinide behavior. The studies have included measurements of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation for both inorganic and organic ligands, of the kinetics of complexation, of the spectroscopic properties of complex species using f reverse arrow f electronic transitions, of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the complexed ligands and of binding to natural polyelectrolytes such as humic acid.

  2. [Progress in researches on synthetic antimicrobial macromolecular polymers].

    PubMed

    Wei, Gang; Yang, Lihua; Chu, Liangyin

    2010-08-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides provide a new way to address the urgent growing problem of bacterial resistance. However, the limited natural resources and the high cost of extraction and purification of natural antimicrobial peptides can not meet the requirements of clinical application. In order to solve this problem, researchers have utilized two basic common structural features (amphiphilic and cationic) for designing and preparing synthetic antimicrobial macromolecular polymers. During the last decade, several kinds of amphiphilic polymers, including arylamide oligomers, phenylene ethynylenes, polymethacrylates, polynorbornenes as well as nylon-3 polymers have been synthesized. In this paper, the structures, antibacterial activities and selectivities of these polymers are reviewed, and the effects of molecular size, polarity and ratio of hydrophobic groups, positive charge density on antibacterial activity and selectivity are also summarized.

  3. Nitrilases in nitrile biocatalysis: recent progress and forthcoming research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, nitrilases have drawn considerable attention because of their application in nitrile degradation as prominent biocatalysts. Nitrilases are derived from bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts, and plants. In-depth investigations on their natural sources function mechanisms, enzyme structure, screening pathways, and biocatalytic properties have been conducted. Moreover, the immobilization, purification, gene cloning and modifications of nitrilase have been dwelt upon. Some nitrilases are used commercially as biofactories for carboxylic acids production, waste treatment, and surface modification. This critical review summarizes the current status of nitrilase research, and discusses a number of challenges and significant attempts in its further development. Nitrilase is a significant and promising biocatalyst for catalytic applications. PMID:23106943

  4. The progress and challenges in metabolic research in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ren, Hao; Gao, Guangang; Zhou, Linkang; Malik, Muhammad Arshad; Li, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Metabolism refers to a chain of chemical reactions converting food/fuel into energy to conduct cellular processes, including the synthesis of the building blocks of the body, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic chain reactions are catalyzed by various enzymes that are orchestrated in specific pathways. Metabolic pathways are important for organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The coordinated regulation of metabolic pathways is important for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. The key steps and crucial enzymes in these pathways have been well investigated. However, the crucial regulatory factors and feedback (or feedforward) mechanisms of nutrients and intermediate metabolites of these biochemical processes remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, the roles of these enzymes and regulatory factors in controlling metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions are largely unknown. In particular, metabolic dysregulation is closely linked to the development of many diseases, including obesity, fatty liver, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, metabolism, an old area of biochemistry, has attracted much attention in the last decade. With substantially increased government funding, the involvement of talented researchers, an improved infrastructure and scientific environment over the last ten years, the basic research in the field of metabolism in China has dramatically advanced. Here, we have summarized the major discoveries of scientists in China in the last decade in the area of metabolism. Due to the vast amount of information, we focused this review on specific aspects of metabolism, particularly metabolic regulation and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(11):847-853, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra- rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts/configurations were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and lower noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of 'propfan' performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data and higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system. Contemporary designs have demonstrated high net efficiency, approximately 86%, at 0.78 Mach, and low noise, greater than 15 EPNdB cumulative margin to Chapter 4 when analyzed on a NASA derived aircraft/mission. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller/open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The remaining technical challenges to a production engine include

  6. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra-rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts configurations that were not well publicized at the time, were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and acceptable noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of propfan performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data with higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system with favorable results. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The current projections for the technology are presented.

  7. 50 years of medicinal plant research - every progress in methodology is a progress in science.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, J David

    2003-06-01

    Many scientific methods of analysis have been developed for the investigation of the constituents and biological activities of medicinal plants during the 50 years since the inaugural meeting of the Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung (GA). The chromatographic (e. g., TLC, GLC, HPLC), spectroscopic (e. g., UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS), and biological (e. g., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antiprotozoal, CNS) techniques utilized for medicinal plant research are briefly reviewed. The contribution that advances in scientific methodology have made to our understanding of the actions of some herbal medicines (e. g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, are briefly summarized. Plants have provided many medicinal drugs in the past and remain as a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. Despite all of the powerful analytical techniques available, the majority of plant species has not been investigated chemically or biologically in any great detail and even well known medicinal plants require further clinical study.

  8. [Research progress on molecular ecology of Sciurus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Tian, Xin-min; Chen, Huan; Guo, Hui-yan; Jin, Jian-li; Zhang, Xiao-jun

    2015-03-01

    Today, the main threats for Sciurus vulgaris are illegal hunting, deforestation, and subsequent population fragmentation, combined with interspecific competition from S. carolinensis in some regions of Europe, which has led to a sharp reduction in the number of population. S. vulgaris has been listed as Near Threatened IUCN Red List and included in key protected wild animals in Jilin Province, China. The molecular ecology of S. vulgaris is developing rapidly with the rapid development of molecular biology methods. In particular, the research of mtDNA fragments and the application squirrel study microsatellite loci has further promoted the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris. In this study, the molecular phylogeny, the genetic diversity and the molecular phylogeography involving the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were reviewed. Four areas for the future development in molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were proposed: 1) to further explore the molecular phylogeny relationship between S. vulgaris and S. lis; 2) the comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of S. vulgaris for continuous populations, isolated populations and metapopulation; 3) the analysis of molecular phylogeography of S. vulgaris based on other markers of nuclear; 4) to explore whether there existed the quaternary glacial refuge in Asia.

  9. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    PubMed

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  10. Progress in BNL High-Temperature Hydrogen Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Curtiss, J.; Economos, C.; Jahelka, J.; Sato, K.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the BNL High-Temperature Hydrogen Combustion Research Program are discussed. The experimental facilities are described and two sets of preliminary experiments are presented. Chemical reaction time experiments have been performed to determine the length of time reactive mixtures of interest can be kept at temperature before reaction in the absence of ignition sources consumes the reactants. Preliminary observations are presented for temperatures in the range 588K--700K. Detonation experiments are described in which detonation cell width is measured as a measure of mixture sensitivity to detonation. Preliminary experiments are described which are being carried out to establish data reproducibility with previous measurements in the literature and to test out and refine experimental methods. Intensive studies of hydrogen combustion phenomena were carried out during the 1980s. Much of this effort was driven by issues related to nuclear reactor safety. The high-speed'' combustion phenomena of flame acceleration, deflagration-to-detonation transition, direct initiation of detonation, detonation propagation, limits of detonation in tubes and channels, transmission of detonations from confined to unconfined geometry and other related phenomena were studied using a variety of gaseous fuel-oxidant systems, including hydrogen-steam-air systems of interest in reactor safety studies. Several reviews are available which document this work [Lee, 1989; Berman, 1986].

  11. Progress in BNL High-Temperature Hydrogen Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Curtiss, J.; Economos, C.; Jahelka, J.; Sato, K.

    1992-12-31

    The objectives of the BNL High-Temperature Hydrogen Combustion Research Program are discussed. The experimental facilities are described and two sets of preliminary experiments are presented. Chemical reaction time experiments have been performed to determine the length of time reactive mixtures of interest can be kept at temperature before reaction in the absence of ignition sources consumes the reactants. Preliminary observations are presented for temperatures in the range 588K--700K. Detonation experiments are described in which detonation cell width is measured as a measure of mixture sensitivity to detonation. Preliminary experiments are described which are being carried out to establish data reproducibility with previous measurements in the literature and to test out and refine experimental methods. Intensive studies of hydrogen combustion phenomena were carried out during the 1980s. Much of this effort was driven by issues related to nuclear reactor safety. The ``high-speed`` combustion phenomena of flame acceleration, deflagration-to-detonation transition, direct initiation of detonation, detonation propagation, limits of detonation in tubes and channels, transmission of detonations from confined to unconfined geometry and other related phenomena were studied using a variety of gaseous fuel-oxidant systems, including hydrogen-steam-air systems of interest in reactor safety studies. Several reviews are available which document this work [Lee, 1989; Berman, 1986].

  12. Research progress on the proliferation and differentiation of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, A.; Tan, B.

    Space environments such as microgravity magnetic field radiation and heavy metal ions affects the development and functions of human and mammalian cells To study these influences and the corresponding metabolisms is in favour of knowing about the development and differentiation process of organism cells In recent years researches on the differentiation of stem cells induced in vitro provide a new pathway for the repair of tissue lesion and therapy of human diseases Stem cells are potential in capable of differentiating into different functional cells But there has no reliable methods to induce the stem cells differentiating forward specific cells and to gain enough cells for transplantation which limited their application on clinical therapy It has been indicated that microgravity influenced embryonic development hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and so on Hematopoietic stem cell migration and its differentiation were affected by microgravity The specific differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells was inhibited under microgravity The expression of proteins regulating cell cycle period also changed Mesenchymal stem cells provide a source of cells for the repair of musculoskeletal tissue in ground experiment While under microgravity the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells were influenced along with the differentiated cells function changed Furthermore in the differentiation process of stem cells under microgravity the mechanism of signal transport was also affected and the specific differentiation

  13. Highlights of recent progress in plant lipid research.

    PubMed

    Lessire, R; Cahoon, E; Chapman, K; Dyer, J; Eastmond, P; Heinz, E

    2009-06-01

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of energy for the production of raw materials. This is the context in which the 18th International Symposium on Plant lipids (ISPL) was held in Bordeaux from 20th to 25th July 2008 at "La Cité Mondiale". The 18th ISPL gathered 270 researchers from 33 countries. Sixty nine oral communications and 136 posters were presented during the 12 sessions of the Symposium. The sessions have covered all the different aspects of the Plant Lipid field including: Surface lipids: suberin, cutin and waxes, Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, Plant lipids as renewable sources of energy, Seed oils and bioengineering of metabolic pathways, Lipid catabolism, Models for lipid studies: lower plants, micro-organisms and others, Modifications of proteins by lipids, Sphingolipids, sterols and isoprenoids, Lipid signaling and plant stress responses, Lipid trafficking and membrane dynamics, New methods and technologies: functional lipidomics, fluxome, modelling. During the ISPL 2008 Bordeaux, important and new information was reported in the different fields. A selection of these results is presented here.

  14. Research progress in the genetics of hyperuricaemia and gout.

    PubMed

    Min, Zheng; Junwu, Ma

    2016-04-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia, which is affected by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Early researches show that a few of rare monogenic mutations, such as PRPS1 and HPRT1 mutations, lead to abnormal purine anabolism and then cause hyperuricaemia and gout. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of susceptibility loci and/or candidate genes associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 cause hereditary hypouricaemia, while their overexpression may increase the reabsorption of uric acid. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in ABCG2, SLC17A1, and SLC17A3 cause urate underexcretion of renal and intestinal. These variations leading to blood uric acid excretion disorder (excess reabsorption and underexcretion) are the main genetic factors affecting hyperuicemia and gout. Moreover, to some degree, inhibins-activins growth factor system, transcription factors, cytoskeleton and gene-environment interaction can also affect the level of blood uric acid. In addition, two risk genes, RFX3 and KCNQ1, which might impair immune response and lead to functional deficiency of beta cell were recently discovered to influence hyperuiceamia and gout in Han Chinese. This paper systematically reviews genetic studies on hyperuricaemia and gout to improve our understanding of pathogenesis of hyperuricaemia and gout.

  15. (Mis)Understanding Human Beings: Theory, Value, and Progress in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in what can be called an "experimentist" approach to education research. The claim is that if researchers would focus on experiments and "evidence-based" policies and practices, irreversible progress in education can be achieved. This experimentist approach cannot provide the understanding of knowledge and human beings…

  16. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 4, January 1977-September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities from January 1977 to September 1978, this is the fourth annual report of research on speech processing conducted in the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, progress reports, and information on instrumentation developments and software support. The…

  17. Le discours oral en elaboration: Directions de recherche (Oral Discourse in Process: Research in Progress).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Francis M.

    Research is in progress on oral interactive discourse, that is, discourse produced by several participants working in collaboration. The intent of the research is to investigate how the discourse is organized at several different levels of structure (acts, sequences of acts, interactive structure, propositional content, and formal realizations).…

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  19. A decade of conservation effects assessment research by USDA-ARS: Progress overview and future outlook

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten years ago, the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) began a series of watershed assessment studies as part of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). In this overview, we review a decade of research progress in 14 watersheds dominated by rain-fed croplands, to introduce a special...

  20. Research on Spoken Language Processing. Progress Report No. 21 (1996-1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    This 21st annual progress report summarizes research activities on speech perception and spoken language processing carried out in the Speech Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Indiana University in Bloomington. As with previous reports, the goal is to summarize accomplishments during 1996 and 1997 and make them readily available. Some…

  1. Health and Safety Research Division. Progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Research progress for the period October 1, 1979 through March 31, 1981 is reported. Research conducted by the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis, Health Studies Section, Technology Assessments Section, Biological and Radiation Physics Section, and Chemical Physics Section is summarized. (ACR)

  2. Water Reactor Safety Research Division quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evaluation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  3. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  4. (Mis)Understanding Human Beings: Theory, Value, and Progress in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in what can be called an "experimentist" approach to education research. The claim is that if researchers would focus on experiments and "evidence-based" policies and practices, irreversible progress in education can be achieved. This experimentist approach cannot provide the understanding of knowledge and human beings…

  5. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  6. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  7. Trauma research in Qatar: a literature review and discussion of progress after establishment of a trauma research centre.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, A; Asim, M; Zarour, A; Abdelrahman, H; Peralta, R; Parchani, A; Al-Thani, H

    2016-02-01

    A structured research programme is one of the main pillars of a trauma care system. Despite the high rate of injury-related mortalities, especially road traffic accidents, in Qatar, little consideration has been given to research in trauma. This review aimed to analyse research publications on the subject of trauma published from Qatar and to discuss the progress of clinical research in Qatar and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries with special emphasis on trauma research. A literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines located 757 English-language articles within the fields of internal medicine, surgery and trauma originating from Qatar between the years 1993 and 2013. A steep increase in the number of trauma publications since 2010 could be linked to the setting up of a trauma research centre in Qatar in 2011. We believe that establishing a research unit has made a major impact on research productivity, which ultimately benefits health care.

  8. Progress in rare diseases research 2010-2016: an IRDiRC perspective.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Hugh Js; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Lasko, Paul; Lau, Lilian Pl; Jonker, Anneliene H; Cutillo, Christine M; Rath, Ana; Boycott, Kym M; Baynam, Gareth; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kaufmann, Petra; Cam, Yann Le; Hivert, Virginie; Austin, Christopher P

    2017-08-10

    In 2011, the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) was formed to unite public and private sector funders of research, patient advocacy groups, and scientific researchers to advance rare diseases research worldwide. Six years after its official launch, IRDiRC is now reflecting on its progress and achievements toward its ambitious goals for the rare diseases research collective - to develop 200 new therapies and the means to diagnose most rare genetic diseases by the year 2020. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2017-03-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  10. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  11. Mathematics and statistics research department. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, W.E.; Kane, V.E.; Scott, D.S.; Shepherd, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the twenty-fourth in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department of the Computer Sciences Division, Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND). Part A records research progress in biometrics research, materials science applications, model evaluation, moving boundary problems, multivariate analysis, numerical linear algebra, risk analysis, and complementary areas. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the UCC-ND complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biology and health sciences, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety research, materials sciences, safeguards, surveys, and uranium resource evaluation. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  12. US Army Research Office research in progress, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The US Army Research Office, under the US Army Materiel Command (AMC), is responsible for coordinating and supporting research in the physical and engineering sciences, in materials science, geosciences, biology, and mathematics. This report describes research directly supported by the Army Research Projects Agency, and several AMC and other Army commands. A separate section is devoted to the research program at the US Army Research, Development and Standardization Group - United Kingdom. The present volume includes the research program in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, mathematics, engineering sciences, metallurgy and materials science, geosciences, electronics, and the European Research Program. It covers the 12-month period from 1 July 1991 through 30 June 1992.

  13. The value of neuroscience strategies to accelerate progress in psychological treatment research.

    PubMed

    Moras, Karla

    2006-11-01

    Major findings from the past 55 years of psychological treatment research indicate that 3 questions are now pivotal to continued practice-relevant progress: What is the nature of the problem(s) to be treated? What are the causal change mechanisms of efficacious psychological treatments? Can more efficient and broadly effective psychological treatments be developed? Contemporary cognitive, affective, and behavioural neurosciences offer particularly promising resources for psychological treatment research that can help accelerate progress regarding these questions. This article explains why the questions are pivotal and presents neuroscience findings to illustrate how progress can be made on each one and for diverse problems and disorders such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, drug addiction, and regulation of negative affect.

  14. Mathematics and Statistics Research Department progress report, period ending June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, M.V.; Funderlic, R.E.; Gosslee, D.G.; Lever, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    This report is the twenty-fifth in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department of the Computer Sciences Division, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND). Part A records research progress in analysis of large data sets, biometrics research, computational statistics, materials science applications, moving boundary problems, numerical linear algebra, and risk analysis. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the UCC-ND complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biology, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety, materials science, safeguards, surveys, and the waste storage program. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  15. Mathematics and statistics research progress report, period ending June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, J. J.; Denson, M. V.; Heath, M. T.; Lever, W. E.; Wilson, D. G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is the twenty-sixth in the series of progress reports of Mathematics and Statistics Research of the Computer Sciences organization, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division. Part A records research progress in analysis of large data sets, applied analysis, biometrics research, computational statistics, materials science applications, numerical linear algebra, and risk analysis. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the Oak Ridge Department of Energy complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biological sciences, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety, and safeguards. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  16. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  17. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  18. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  19. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  20. [Progress of diabetes research in traditional Chinese medicine in recent years].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-qing

    2007-07-01

    Progress of diabetes researches in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mainly the work on herb extracts or ingredients at cellular or molecular levels in recent years, was reviewed. The Chinese herbs investigated mostly are qi-invigorating drugs and heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. It shows that TCM therapy bears positive effect on diabetes mellitus.

  1. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  2. National Assessment of Educational Progress Grade 12 Preparedness Research College Course Content Analysis Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board is an independent, bipartisan organization that sets policy for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The Governing Board established the NAEP Program of 12th Grade Preparedness Research to assess what NAEP can report on the academic preparedness of 12th grade students entering college and…

  3. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berven, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    This is a progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology, Biological and Radiation Physics, Chemical Physics, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis, Risk Analysis, Center for Risk Management, Associate Laboratories for Excellence in Radiation Technology (ALERT), and Contributions to National and Lead Laboratory Programs and Assignments--Environmental Restoration.

  4. Researchers' Bibliography for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, J. H., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography enables researchers who are using Raven's Progressive Matrices or the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales to become familiar with other work that used these tests. The bibliography derives from Raven's own collection of sources, updated to the end of 1971. The major division of material is by tests rather than subject areas;…

  5. Efficacy of Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training: A Quantitative Review of Behavioral Medicine Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Charles R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted quantitative review of research in which abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training (APRT) was used as intervention for psychophysiological and stress-related disorders. Calculated strength of association between APRT and outcome measures for 29 experiments published after 1980. APRT was most strongly associated with improvement…

  6. Autism Research and Services for Young Children: History, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by…

  7. Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia for cancer treatment: Research progress and clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jia-Yi; Ouyang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dan-Ye; Li, Li; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Research progress and frontiers of magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) are presented, along with clinical trials in Germany, the US, Japan, and China. Special attention is focused on MMH mediated by magnetic nanoparticles, and multifunctional magnetic devices for cancer multimodality treatment are also introduced.

  8. Autism Research and Services for Young Children: History, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by…

  9. The Family Development Research Program: A Program for Prenatal, Infant and Early Childhood Enrichment. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald

    This progress report on the Family Development Research Program for 108 low-income families, conducted at Syracuse University Children's Center, provides information on a longitudinal comparison instituted when the program children reached 36 months of age. The families of the children were matched to control families on a number of variables.…

  10. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, April 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    Research progress for the reporting period is briefly summarized for the following sections: (1) health studies, (2) technology assessments, (3) biological and radiation physics, (4) chemical physics, (5) Office of Risk Analysis, and (6) health and environmental risk and analysis. (ACR)

  11. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  12. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  13. [Progression of treatment and researches in dry age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaiyan; Tang, Shibo

    2015-03-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness and visual disability among old patients in Europe and North America. AMD has been divided into two broad clinical categories depending on whether there is a presence of abnormal neovascularization: neovascular (exudative or wet) AMD and dry (or geographic atrophic) AMD. VEGF has been understood as a pathogenesis of wet AMD which allows us to get breakthroughs in treatment. While the progression of dry AMD treatment is very slow because the lack of pathogenesis, no acute loss of vision, and without appropriate standards for treatment. This review tries to introduce about the recent researches and progressions for dry AMD treatment.

  14. UCLA accelerator research and development. Progress report, [November 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-09-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  15. [Research progress in seegrass seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-Dong; Sun, Yan; Niu, Shu-Na; Zhang, Xiu-Mei

    2011-11-01

    Seagrass bed is the main primary producer in coastal areas, having highly ecological and economical values, and being one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems. This paper reviewed the research progress in the seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth of seagrass and related affecting factors, summarized the seed dormancy modes and durations and their affecting factors, and discussed the effects of water salinity, temperature, transparency, hormone, dissolved oxygen, and population structure on the seed germination and the seedling survival and growth. Some issues in related researches and several research directions in the future were prospected.

  16. CMC Research at NASA Glenn in 2017: Recent Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aeronautics research mission, Glenn Research Center has developed advanced constituents for 2700F CMC turbine engine applications. In this presentation, fiber and matrix development and characterization for SiCSiC composites will be reviewed and resulting improvements in CMC durability and mechanical properties will be summarized. Progress toward the development and validation of models predicting the effects of the engine environment on durability of CMC and Environmental Barrier Coatings will be summarized and plans for research and collaborations in 2017 will be summarized.

  17. Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Task A. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.

  18. Progress of applied superconductivity research at Materials Research Laboratories, ITRI (Taiwan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R. S.; Wang, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    A status report based on the applied high temperature superconductivity (HTS) research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is given. The aim is to develop fabrication technologies for the high-TC materials appropriate to the industrial application requirements. To date, the majorities of works have been undertaken in the areas of new materials, wires/tapes with long length, prototypes of magnets, large-area thin films, SQUID's and microwave applications.

  19. Overview of AA and Research Progress: What Have We Learned and Where Are We Headed?

    PubMed

    Norris, David A

    2015-11-01

    During its 25th anniversary year, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation undertook a project to completely re-evaluate their research program and to help focus and direct future directions of alopecia areata research to better meet the goals of people with alopecia areata (AA) and the scientists working to discover mechanisms of disease and better treatments for AA. This project was embodied in four research summits in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2012, as part of the Foundation's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program to accelerate progress toward a viable alopecia areata treatment. The first summit was an evaluation of the progress of AA research in a global sense, with an emphasis on how to use the research programs to bring better treatments to patients. The second summit focused on immunology and how to better understand the autoimmune nature of AA. The third summit focused on developing a clinical research network that could most effectively bring new treatments to patients. The fourth summit consolidated the considerable evidence of the mechanisms of AA, and how these mechanisms could be targeted by modern therapies, many of which were being used effectively in other autoimmune diseases. These four summits laid the foundation for the fifth summit in the series: From Targets to Treatments: Bridging Autoimmune Research to Advance Understanding of Alopecia Areata.

  20. The fundamental and medical impacts of recent progress in research on hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, V; Petit, C

    1998-01-01

    What would define real progress in the field of deafness research in fundamental and medical terms? In fundamental terms, progress would be measured by an improvement in our knowledge of the development and physiology of the ear. In medical terms, progress would lead to the division of the broad category of hearing defects into distinct clinical entities or subclasses, the collection of epidemiological data, the creation of molecular diagnostic tests, the improvement of genetic counselling services and the development of new therapeutics. In this review, we will introduce some general considerations on hereditary hearing loss and on the structure and function of the ear, present the rapidly emerging data on the molecular basis of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of hearing loss and comment on relevant recent progress in this field of research. Generally speaking, the isolation of genes underlying hereditary hearing loss has, as yet, had little impact on our understanding of the biology of the ear, whereas it has made major contributions to the medical field, in particular due to the recognition of two genes, Cx26 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA , as frequently underlying cases of non-syndromic hearing impairment.

  1. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continues to maintain an outstanding program of basic and applied research displaying a high level of creativity and achievement as documented by awards, publications, professional service, and successful completion of variety of projects. Our focus is on human health and the scientific basis for measurement and assessment of health-related impacts of energy technologies. It is our custom to publish a division progress report every 18 months that summarizes our programmatic progress and other measures of achievement over the reporting period. Since it is not feasible to summarize in detail all of our work over the period covered by this report (October 1, 1988, to March 30, 1990), we intend this document to point the way to the expensive open literature that documents our findings. During the reporting period the Division continued to maintain strong programs in its traditional areas of R D, but also achieved noteworthy progress in other areas. Much of the Division's work on site characterization, development of new field instruments, compilation of data bases, and methodology development fits into this initiative. Other new work in tunneling microscopy in support of DOE's Human Genome Program and the comprehensive R D work related to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy have attained new and exciting results. These examples of our progress and numerous other activities are highlighted in this report.

  2. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Progress report No. 3, February 1, 1981-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R E

    1981-03-31

    Research on our contract can be divided into two general topics: (1) H/sup -/formation collision processes, and (2) the determination of scattering cross sections used to diagnose plasma properties. Research progress during the last two months is presented.

  3. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK).

    PubMed

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-02-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies.

  4. Aeroelasticity at the NASA Langley Research Center Recent progress, new challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent progress in aeroelasticity, particularly at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed to look at the questions answered and questions raised, and to attempt to define appropriate research emphasis needed in the near future and beyond. The paper is focused primarily on the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Program because Langley is the lead NASA center for aerospace structures research, and essentially is the only one working in depth in the area of aeroelasticity. Historical trends in aeroelasticity are reviewed broadly in terms of technology and staffing particularly at the LaRC. Then, selected studies of the Loads and Aeroelasticity Division at LaRC and others over the past three years are presented with attention paid to unresolved questions. Finally, based on the results of these studies and on perceptions of design trends and aircraft operational requirements, future research needs in aeroelasticity are discussed.

  5. Identifying Indicators of Progress in Thermal Spray Research Using Bibliometrics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-T.; Khor, K. A.; Yu, L.-G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the research publications on thermal spray in the period of 1985-2015 using the data from Web of Science, Scopus and SciVal®. Bibliometrics analysis was employed to elucidate the country and institution distribution in various thermal spray research areas and to characterize the trends of topic change and technology progress. Results show that China, USA, Japan, Germany, India and France were the top countries in thermal spray research, and Xi'an Jiaotong University, Universite de Technologie Belfort-Montbeliard, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, ETH Zurich, National Research Council of Canada, University of Limoges were among the top institutions that had high scholarly research output during 2005-2015. The terms of the titles, keywords and abstracts of the publications were analyzed by the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model and visually mapped using the VOSviewer software to reveal the progress of thermal spray technology. It is found that thermal barrier coating was consistently the main research area in thermal spray, and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray and cold spray developed rapidly in the last 10 years.

  6. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.; Hassam, A.; Liu, C.S.; Ott, E.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, members of the Maryland Plasma Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory program, and, in many cases, these theoretical developments helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of micro-turbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  7. [Research progress of quantitative DNA analysis in oral carcinoma and precancerous lesions].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Shi, Lin-Jun; Zhou, Zeng-Tong

    2015-02-01

    Normal individual cells had 23 pairs of chromosome and stable DNA content. DNA content was varied during malignant transformation, which was specific feature of tumor. Quantitative DNA analysis can reflect cellular physiological or pathological condition by nuclear DNA content, which had significant role in early diagnosis, predication of prognosis and treatment selection. This article summarized the research progress of quantitative DNA analysis in oral carcinoma and precancerous lesions in recent years.

  8. Applied nuclear science research and development progress report, June 1, 1985-November 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D.

    1986-04-01

    This six month progress report reviews activities in nuclear reaction research. Specific content includes theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections for neutron, proton, and deuteron reactions for a number of isotopes; the processing and testing of nuclear cross section data; studies of neutron activation, fission products and actinides; and short notes on applications. Data are included in graphic and tabular form and include experimental, evaluated, and theoretical calculations and spectra. 136 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs. (DWL)

  9. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  10. [Progress in research of association between myopia and sunlight exposure in children].

    PubMed

    Zhai, L L; Wu, X Y; Xu, S J; Tao, F B

    2016-11-10

    Myopia has become a major health problem on global scale due to its increasing high prevalence in the past few decades and gradual younger onset age. Accumulated epidemiological surveys have shown that decreased time of exposure to sunlight would be an inducement for the development of myopia. Increasing time spent outdoors and exposure to sunlight might be the most cost-effective and effective measure for children to prevent myopia. This paper summarizes the progress in research of the association between sunlight exposure and myopia in children and its mechanisms to provide new clues for the research on myopia prevention and control.

  11. Research progress in metallogenic chronology of Mississippi valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiguo

    2017-05-01

    MVT Pb-Zn deposits are one of world’s important Pb-Zn deposits. Their lead and zinc account for approximately 20% of global lead and zinc resources. After constant explorations, researchers have made substantial progress in geological features, geochemical characteristics, ore-forming material sources, and transport and deposition mechanisms for ore-forming fluids, chronology restriction, and geochemical kinetic background for ore genesis of MVT Pb-Zn deposits over the past decades. This paper discusses problems with chronological research by summing up previous outcomes.

  12. The latest progress in sugarcane molecular genetics research at the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2005, two sugar molecular genetics tools were developed in the USDA-ARS, Southeast Area, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, LA. One is the high throughput fluorescence- and capillary electrophoregrams (CE)-based SSR genotyping tool and the other is single pollen collection and SSR genotyping...

  13. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  14. Declassification Productivity Research Center: Progress report number 9, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the progress achieved by the Declassification Productivity Research Center (DPRC) during the third quarter of its third year of operations. The DPRC was established at The George Washington University (GWU) as an independent world-class research capability and computer facility to support the DOE Declassification Productivity Initiative (DPI). The original intent of DOE was to provide seed funding for the DPRC, which might be supplemented by other interested agencies as opportunities for research were identified and projects funded. The goal of DPI is to increase the flow of unrestricted government information to the public. To this end, the work at GWU involves both basic and applied research in the areas of (1) system-level declassification process analysis and modeling, (2) development of computer systems to automate declassification processes, including text analysis and interpretation, (3) coordination/integration of new technology into the processes, and (4) development and promulgation of inter-operability and document transfer standards.

  15. A Retrospective on the Vision for Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action.

    PubMed

    Eder, Milton Mickey; Holzer, Jessica; Calhoun, Karen; Strong, Larkin L

    2017-01-01

    The organizers founded Progress in Community Health Partnerships with a commitment to improving our understanding of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and its use in community-academic/institutional health partnerships. Following Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations, they reasoned that expanded adoption would occur through academic and community partner recognition of CBPR's relative advantage over previous approaches; its compatibility with the values, past experience and needs of potential adopters; its ease of understanding and use; its capacity for experimentation and refinement; and its production of observable results. We now assess the journal's progress toward realizing the vision, as well as issues and problems the organizers identified. We map the journal's content over its first decade onto the initial vision by examining the record of submissions and publications across the eight types of articles and the journal's record of rejections and publications. In remembering that Rogers's study of innovations requires both technical and social change, we discuss the difference between understanding how to do something and actually putting an innovation into action that becomes standard practice at both individual and systemic levels. We observe that the large number of Original Research and Works-in-Progress/Lessons Learned manuscripts, submitted and published, reflect traditional expectations for faculty research productivity. We suggest that sustainability, which rated of lower importance within the initial vision, has gained in importance among community and academic partners; however, it will gain added attention only with changed university expectations of researchers. We further suggest that the study of partnerships involved in researching and improving public health should be expanded beyond the current focus on CBPR.

  16. NASA's Human Research Program at The Glenn Research Center: Progress and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha; Griffin, DeVon; Myers, Jerry; Perusek, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program is aimed at correcting problems in critical areas that place NASA human spaceflight missions at risk due to shortfalls in astronaut health, safety and performance. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) and partners from Ohio are significant contributors to this effort. This presentation describes several areas of GRC emphasis, the first being NASA s path to creating exercise hardware requirements and protocols that mitigate the effects of long duration spaceflight. Computational simulations will be a second area that is discussed. This includes deterministic models that simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, as well as probabilistic models that bound and quantify the probability that adverse medical incidents will happen during an exploration mission. Medical technology development for exploration will be the final area to be discussed.

  17. High Pressure Low NOx Emissions Research: Recent Progress at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi-Ming, Lee; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Wey, Changlie

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration with U.S. aircraft engine companies, NASA Glenn Research Center has contributed to the advancement of low emissions combustion systems. For the High Speed Research Program (HSR), a 90% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (relative to the then-current state of the art) has been demonstrated in sector rig testing at General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). For the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST), a 50% reduction in NOx emissions relative to the 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards has been at demonstrated in sector rigs at both GEAE and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). During the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), a 70% reduction in NOx emissions, relative to the 1996 ICAO standards, was achieved in sector rig testing at Glenn in the world class Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR) and at contractor facilities. Low NOx combustor development continues under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To achieve these reductions, experimental and analytical research has been conducted to advance the understanding of emissions formation in combustion processes. Lean direct injection (LDI) concept development uses advanced laser-based non-intrusive diagnostics and analytical work to complement the emissions measurements and to provide guidance for concept improvement. This paper describes emissions results from flametube tests of a 9- injection-point LDI fuel/air mixer tested at inlet pressures up to 5500 kPa. Sample results from CFD and laser diagnostics are also discussed.

  18. progressive problemshifts between different research programs in science education: A lakatosian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Given the importance of epistemology and philosophy of science, the Lakatos (1970) methodology is particularly suited to evaluate competing research programs in science education. This article has two objectives: (a) to evaluate critically the interpretations of Gilbert and Swift (1985) and Rowell and Dawson (1989), and (b) to postulate a progressive problemshift between Piaget's epistemic subject and Pascual-Leone's metasubject. Regarding the Gilbert and Swift interpretation, it is concluded that the alternative conceptions movement at its present stage of development cannot explain the previous success of its rival (Piagetian school) nor supersede it by a further display of heuristic power as required by Lakatos. If we accept the Rowell and Dawson thesis it would amount to the postulation of Piagetian and integrated (Piagetian and schema) theories as rival research programs. It appears that the Rowell and Dawson approach would enrich Piagetian theory with descriptive content rather than explanatory constructs, and thus would not lead to a progressive problemshift. It is concluded that Pascual-Leone's theory extends Piaget's negative heuristic by introducing antecedent variables, and at the same time enriches the positive heuristic by introducing metasubjective task analysis, which leads to a progressive problemshift.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlman, R. C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

    1980-04-01

    Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

  20. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  1. Landbird migration in the American West: Recent progress and future research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, J.D.; Skagen, S.K.; Kus, B.E.; van Riper, Charles; Paxton, K.L.; Kelly, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of avian behaviors during the nonbreeding period still lags behind that of the breeding season, but the last decade has witnessed a proliferation in research that has yielded significant progress in understanding migration patterns of North American birds. And, although historically the great majority of migration research has been conducted in the eastern half of the continent, there has been much recent progress on aspects of avian migration in the West. In particular, expanded use of techniques such as radar, plasma metabolites, mist-netting, count surveys, stable isotopes, genetic data, and animal tracking, coupled with an increase in multi-investigator collaborations, have all contributed to this growth of knowledge. There is increasing recognition that migration is likely the most limiting time of year for migratory birds, increasing the importance of continuing to decipher patterns of stopover ecology, identifying critical stopover habitats, and documenting migration routes in the diverse and changing landscapes of the American West. Here, we review and briefly synthesize the latest findings and advances in avian migration and consider research needs to guide future research on migration in the West. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental reporting and accounting in Australia: progress, prospects and research priorities.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Mount, Richard; Gibbons, Philip; Vardon, Michael; Canadell, Pep

    2014-03-01

    Despite strong demand for information to support the sustainable use of Australia's natural resources and conserve environmental values and despite considerable effort and investment, nation-wide environmental data collection and analysis remains a substantially unmet challenge. We review progress in producing national environmental reports and accounts, identify challenges and opportunities, and analyse the potential role of research in addressing these. Australia's low and concentrated population density and the short history since European settlement contribute to the lack of environmental data. There are additional factors: highly diverse data requirements and standards, disagreement on information priorities, poorly measurable management objectives, lack of coordination, over-reliance on researchers and businesses for data collection, lack of business engagement, and short-term, project-based activities. New opportunities have arisen to overcome some of these challenges: enhanced monitoring networks, standardisation, data management and modelling, greater commitment to share and integrate data, community monitoring, increasing acceptance of environmental and sustainability indicators, and progress in environmental accounting practices. Successes in generating climate, water and greenhouse gas information appear to be attributable to an unambiguous data requirement, considerable investment, and legislative instruments that enhance data sharing and create a clearly defined role for operational agencies. Based on the analysis presented, we suggest six priorities for research: (1) common definitions and standards for information that address management objectives, (2) ecological measures that are scalable from local to national level, (3) promotion of long-term data collection and reporting by researchers, (4) efficient satellite and sensor network technologies and data analysis methods, (5) environmental modelling approaches that can reconcile multiple data

  3. Evaluation of Active Living Research progress and lessons in building a new field.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Marjorie A; Barker, Dianne C; Samples-Smart, Faith; Morley, Christina

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation was undertaken of the initial 6 years of the Active Living Research (ALR) program. Conducted in 2006 and analyzed in 2007, the evaluation was designed to assess productivity and progress on all three program goals and to inform consideration of program re-authorization. The evaluation was a retrospective, in-depth, descriptive study utilizing multiple methods, both qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data were derived mainly from 88 interviews with key informants. Quantitative data were derived primarily from a web-based survey of grantee investigators. Examples of key indicators of ALR's progress in addressing its goals were (1) in building a knowledge base: 40% of grantee investigators reported producing at least one scientific publication based on their ALR study, averaging two papers per principal investigator who had published; (2) in growing a transdisciplinary field: investigators funded in the first five rounds of grants reported representing more than 20 disciplines; and (3) in contributing to policy change: ten examples were reported of contribution to specific policy changes. In addition, more than one-third (37%) of principal investigators had leveraged additional funds, averaging $275,000 per ALR grant, suggesting that ALR also had made progress in growing financial resources for the field. Overall, ALR made strides during 6 years in addressing its mission to develop a transdisciplinary field of research on environmental and policy factors that promote physical activity. The evaluation provided insight into useful approaches and strategies for building a nascent research field and suggested how to enhance the contribution of research to policy.

  4. Advancing Stage 2 Research on Measures for Monitoring Kindergarten Reading Progress.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Nathan H; Soohoo, Michelle M; Wiley, Colby P; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Estrella, Ivonne; Allee-Smith, Paula J; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2017-01-01

    Although several measures exist for frequently monitoring early reading progress, little research has specifically investigated their technical properties when administered on a frequent basis with kindergarten students. In this study, kindergarten students ( N = 137) of whom the majority was receiving supplemental intervention for reading skills were monitored using Letter Sound Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Word Reading Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, Highly Decodable Passages, and Spelling on a biweekly basis between February and May. Acceptable reliability was observed for all measures. Analyses of slope validity using latent growth models, latent change score models, and slope differences according to level of year-end achievement indicated that the relation of slope to overall reading skills varied across the measures. A suggested approach to kindergarten students' reading progress is offered that includes Letter Sound Fluency and a measure of word-reading skills to provide a comprehensive picture of student growth toward important year-end reading outcomes.

  5. CDC's research portfolio in older adult fall prevention: a review of progress, 1985-2005, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Sleet, David A; Moffett, Daphne B; Stevens, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adults age 65 and older. Population models predict steep increases in the 65 and older population bands in the next 10-15 years and in turn, public health is bracing for increased fall rates and the strain they place on health care systems and society. To assess progress in fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a research portfolio review to examine the quality, relevance, outcomes and successes of the CDC fall prevention program and its impact on public health. A peer review panel was charged with reviewing 20 years of funded research and conducting a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for extramural and intramural research activities. Information was collected from grantees (via a survey instrument), staff were interviewed, and progress reports and products were reviewed and analyzed. CDC has invested over $24,900,000 in fall-related research and programs over 20 years. The portfolio has had positive impacts on research, policies and programs, increasing the public health injury prevention workforce, and delivering effective fall prevention programs. Public health agencies, practitioners, and policy makers recognize that while there are some evidence-based older adult fall prevention interventions available, many remain unused or are infeasible to implement. Specific recommendations across the public health model, include: additional research in gathering robust epidemiologic data on trends and patterns of fall-related injuries at all levels; researching risk factors by setting or sub-population; developing and testing innovative interventions; and engaging in translation and dissemination research on best practices to increase uptake and adoption of fall prevention strategies. CDC has responded to a number of suggestions from the portfolio review including: funding translation research of a proven Tai Chi fall intervention; beginning to

  6. Anticipation - the underlying science of sport. Report on research in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Professional sport practitioners intuitively acknowledge anticipation. Sports researchers sometimes discuss it. Still, there is little data-based evidence to characterize the role anticipation plays in human performance. Even less documented is the distinction between reaction and anticipation. This text presents the real-time quantification environment developed as an AnticipationScope™. Based on a very large data harvest from this experimental set-up, hypotheses regarding the role of anticipation in sport are advanced. The conclusion is that while preparation and reaction play an important role in sports performance, in the final analysis anticipation distinguishes the professional from other sport practitioners. Work in progress is presented with the aim of engaging the community of researchers in the design of alternative methods for quantifying anticipation and for processing the data. Generalization from sport to human performance is one of the intended outcomes of this research.

  7. [Modern research progress regarding effect mechanism of acupuncture on post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongting; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Jiaming; Yan, Xingke

    2015-10-01

    From the TCM theoretical basis and the evidences of acupoint selection and acupuncture and moxibustion methods regarding acupuncture for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a theoretical discussion is made in this article, also a review regarding the key mechanism of experiment researches on acupuncture for PTSD is made from aspects of neurobiology and brain functional imaging, etc., which could further clarify the effect mechanism of acupuncture on PTSD. It is found that PTSD is a kind of stress syndrome accompanied with a variety of abnormal mental symptom , and acupuncture has superior effect on PTSD. Based on these, the research progress and deficiency on current mechanism study of PTSD are reviewed, hoping to offer ideas for upcoming research and to serve the clinical practice better.

  8. Research progress of low-dimensional perovskites: synthesis, properties and optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xinzhe; Pengchen, Zhu; Gu, Shuai; Jia, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The lead halide-based perovskites, for instance, CH3NH3PbX3 and CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), have received a lot of attention. Compared with bulk materials, low-dimensional perovskites have demonstrated a range of unique optical, electrical and mechanical properties, which enable wide applications in solar cells, lasers and other optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we provide a summary of the research progress of the low-dimensional perovskites in recent years, from synthesis methods, basic properties to their optoelectronic applications. Project jointly supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11321063, 11574143), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20150056, BK20151079), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  9. Task A: Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida; Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1993-11-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.

  10. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaifu; Tan, Hongbo; Xu, Yongqing

    2015-12-01

    To summarize the current researches and progress on experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Domestic and internation literature concerning experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head was reviewed and analyzed. The methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head can be mainly concluded as traumatic methods (including surgical, physical, and chemical insult), and non-traumatic methods (including steroid, lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with horse serum, etc). Each method has both merits and demerits, yet no ideal methods have been developed. There are many methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but proper model should be selected based on the aim of research. The establishment of ideal experimental animal models needs further research in future.

  11. New Researches and Application Progress of Commonly Used Optical Molecular Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Optical molecular imaging, a new medical imaging technique, is developed based on genomics, proteomics and modern optical imaging technique, characterized by non-invasiveness, non-radiativity, high cost-effectiveness, high resolution, high sensitivity and simple operation in comparison with conventional imaging modalities. Currently, it has become one of the most widely used molecular imaging techniques and has been applied in gene expression regulation and activity detection, biological development and cytological detection, drug research and development, pathogenesis research, pharmaceutical effect evaluation and therapeutic effect evaluation, and so forth, This paper will review the latest researches and application progresses of commonly used optical molecular imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging. PMID:24696850

  12. [Recent progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Jiang, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In the process of modern drug research, the new methods and technologies which can detect drug molecules' chemical composition, structure and interaction with biomolecules are always the key scientific problems people care about. Spectra (including IR, UV and NMR) are the most common analytical methods, of which NMR can obtain detailed parameter about the nucleus of organic molecules through researching the laws of nuclear transition in the impact of surrounding chemical environment. The parameter contains rich information about the chemical composition, structure and interaction with other molecules of organic molecules. In many complex environments, such as liquid, solid or gas state, even biological in situ environment, NMR can provide molecules' chemical composition, atomic-resolution three-dimensional structure, information of interaction with each other and dynamic process, especially the information about drug interacting with biomacromolecules. In recent years, the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum in drug research and development are more and more widespread. This paper reviewed its recent progress in structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in drug research and development. In the first part, we gave a brief introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance technology and its applications in drug research. In the second part, we explained the basic principles briefly and summarized progress in methods and techniques for drug research. In the third part, we discussed applications of nuclear magnetic resonance ir structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in detail. The conclusions were stated in the last part.

  13. Recent research progress on preparation and application of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiyan; Long, Zhu; Xiao, Huining; Dong, Cuihua

    2016-11-03

    N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) is a quaternized chitosan derivative with excellent solubility in aqueous solutions. It has been extensively studied as an absorption enhancer, antibacterial agent and gene vector due to its ability to form complexes with anionic gels or macromoleculars. However, the research which describes the process of TMC preparation and its new applications has not been fully reviewed. In this paper, recent progress regarding different TMC preparation methods and its characterization and application in different fields is presented. Key findings are compared and summarized and some topics for further study are suggested.

  14. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  15. TGF-β Signaling in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Progress in Basic and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily proteins have many important biological functions, including regulation of tissue differentiation, cell proliferation, and migration in both normal and cancer cells. Many studies have reported that TGF-β signaling is associated with disease progression and therapeutic resistance in several cancers. Similarly, TGF-β-induced protein (TGFBI)—a downstream component of the TGF-β signaling pathway—has been shown to promote and/or inhibit cancer. Here, we review the state of basic and clinical research on the roles of TGF-β and TGFBI in gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:28106769

  16. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  17. [Research progress on multiple myeloma immunophenotyping and minimal residual disease detected by flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Qing; Zhai, Yong-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and remained incurable. Flow cytometry has been widely used in the detection of immunophenotype and minimal residual disease, diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of MM. Normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells can be distinguished according to different cell surface antigen expression. The clinical significane of many immune markes has been elucidated. However, the clinical significance of some phenotype remains controversial, the detection scheme and gating strategy are not unified. This review discusses the recent research progress on detection of MM immunophenotype and minimal residual disease by flow cytovetry.

  18. [Progress in research on pathogenic genes and gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Cao, Cong; Sun, Jiji; Gao, Tao; Liang, Xiaoyang; Nie, Zhipeng; Ji, Yanchun; Jiang, Pingping; Guan, Minxin

    2017-02-10

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), including retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Cone-Rod degenerations, inherited macular dystrophy, Leber's congenital amaurosis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy are the most common and severe types of hereditary ocular diseases. So far more than 200 pathogenic genes have been identified. With the growing knowledge of the genetics and mechanisms of IRDs, a number of gene therapeutic strategies have been developed in the laboratory or even entered clinical trials. Here the progress of IRD research on the pathogenic genes and therapeutic strategies, particularly gene therapy, are reviewed.

  19. Research Progress on Signaling Pathway-Associated Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiajia; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Wei; Ma, Youchu

    2017-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms of oxidative stress in endothelial cells is vital to the discovery of novel drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the progress within the field of the role of oxidative responses in the physiology and growth of endothelial cells and emphasizes the effects of several main signal pathways involved in the oxidative stress of endothelial cells. Herein, we aim to provide scientific direction that can serve as a basis for researchers specializing in the signaling pathway of oxidative stress. PMID:28503253

  20. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance.

  1. FY 2014 Annual Progress Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  2. A review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) research progress in China based on CNKI database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    This article using the retroactive content analysis method summarizes the research progress of air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 1983 to 2016, and is based on the 72 search results about "Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" in CNKI database. This article directly points out the study achievements and improvements about air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 aspects, the reviews of the studies of PAHs in a special stage, the studies on PAHs determination and analysis method, the studies on PAHs concentration in different places and the studies on the relationship between PAHs concentration in air and human health, respectively.

  3. [Research progress on medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2009-03-01

    The paper summarizes the research progress on the medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species in recent years. Besides the 45 species in 7 genus within Meloidae insects which contain cantharidin, there are also more 9 species in 7 close origin genus containing cantharidin which include Zanna, Fulgora and Lycorma within Fulgoridae of Homoptera, Oxocopis, Heliocis Xanthochroa and Oedemera within Oedemeridae of Coleoptera. New medicinal resources of cantharidin are redundant, there are biological relationships in the biosynthesis of cantharidin, the emerge of cantharidin is related to ecology and there is more attention on the new methods of utilizing Mylabris resources such as living body extraction.

  4. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  5. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  6. The Progress of Research Project for Magnetized Target Fusion in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xian-Jun

    2015-11-01

    The fusion of magnetized plasma called Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a hot research area recently. It may significantly reduce the cost and size. Great progress has been achieved in past decades around the world. Five years ago, China initiated the MTF project and has gotten some progress as follows: 1. Verifying the feasibility of ignition of MTF by means of first principle and MHD simulation; 2. Generating the magnetic field over 1400 Tesla, which can be suppress the heat conduction from charged particles, deposit the energy of alpha particle to promote the ignition process, and produce the stable magnetized plasma for the target of ignition; 3. The imploding facility of FP-1 can put several Mega Joule energy to the solid liner of about ten gram in the range of microsecond risen time, while the simulating tool has been developed for design and analysis of the process; 4. The target of FRC can be generated by ``YG 1 facility'' while some simulating tools have be developed. Next five years, the above theoretical work and the experiments of MTF may be integrated to step up as the National project, which may make my term play an important lead role and be supposed to achieve farther progress in China. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11175028.

  7. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 71, quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  9. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review quarter ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. A list of available publications is also included.

  10. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully.

  11. [Progress in research of strabismus and amblyopia in China in the new century].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kan-xing; Shi, Xue-feng

    2005-08-01

    In the last 5 years, we witnessed the progress in the basic and clinical research of strabismus and amblyopia in China, which should be attributed to the effective leadership of the Chinese Ophthalmological Society and the efforts of all members of the professional team. We are glad to see the work of our researchers and clinical scientists in the studies on the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of amblyopia, visual developmental plasticity and functional brain imaging of amblyopia, in the studies on the extraocular muscle's pulley and in the studies on the diagnoses and therapies of strabismus and amblyopia, and furthermore, in epidemiological studies of strabismus and amblyopia. We expect more fruits and creative findings in this field in China in the next decade.

  12. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF PERIPHERAL NERVE SURGERY ASSISTED BY Da Vinci ROBOTIC SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Song, Diyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Changjiang; Zhang, Shuming

    2016-02-01

    To summarize the research progress of peripheral nerve surgery assisted by Da Vinci robotic system. The recent domestic and international articles about peripheral nerve surgery assisted by Da Vinci robotic system were reviewed and summarized. Compared with conventional microsurgery, peripheral nerve surgery assisted by Da Vinci robotic system has distinctive advantages, such as elimination of physiological tremors and three-dimensional high-resolution vision. It is possible to perform robot assisted limb nerve surgery using either the traditional brachial plexus approach or the mini-invasive approach. The development of Da Vinci robotic system has revealed new perspectives in peripheral nerve surgery. But it has still been at the initial stage, more basic and clinical researches are still needed.

  13. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING POROUS SCAFFOLDS FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianqi; Yang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    To summarize the research progress of several three-dimensional (3-D)-printing scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. The recent domestic and international articles about 3-D printing scaffold materials were reviewed and summarized. Compared with conventional manufacturing methods, 3-D printing has distinctive advantages, such as enhancing the controllability of the structure and increasing the productivity. In addition to the traditional metal and ceramic scaffolds, 3-D printing scaffolds carrying seeding cells and tissue factors as well as scaffolds filling particular drugs for special need have been paid more and more attention. The development of 3-D printing porous scaffolds have revealed new perspectives in bone repairing. But it is still at the initial stage, more basic and clinical researches are still needed.

  14. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF STRATEGIES TO AUGMENT TENDON-TO-BONE HEALING].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenghao; Li, Qi; Tang, Xin; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    To summarize the application status and progress of the strategies to augment tendon-to-bone healing. The present researches focused on augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing were extensively reviewed. The present strategies to augment healing of tendon-to-bone by enhancing the location environment, and increasing the cell numbers and relative growth factor. The mainly strategies include using calcium phosphate materials, biocompatible scaffolds and glue, growth factors, cell matrix, platelet-rich plasma, and periosteum. Although periosteum have been used in clinical and got some possitive effects, the others still not be used in clinical and needs further studies. There are many strategies to enhance the ability of tendon-to-bone healing, which got some positive results, but results of studies were varied. Thus, further fundamental research and clinical studies are required to achieve the best effects.

  15. Progress report for the CCT-WG5 high temperature fixed point research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R.; Anhalt, K.; Bloembergen, P.; Sadli, M.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    An overview of the progress in High Temperature Fixed Point (HTFP) research conducted under the auspices of the CCT-WG5 research plan is reported. In brief highlights are: Provisional long term stability of HTFPs has been demonstrated. Optimum construction methods for HTFPs have been established and high quality HTFPs of Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C have been constructed for thermodynamic temperature assignment. The major sources of uncertainty in the assignment of thermodynamic temperature have been identified and quantified. The status of absolute radiometric temperature measurement has been quantified through the circulation of a set of HTFPs. The measurement campaign to assign low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures to a selected set of HTFPs will begin in mid-2012. It is envisaged that this will be complete by 2015 leading to HTFPs becoming routine reference standards for radiometry and high temperature metrology.

  16. Recent research progress in non-aqueous potassium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoxi; Xiong, Peixun; Zhao, Jin; Hu, Jimin; Liu, Zhitian; Xu, Yunhua

    2017-10-11

    Large-scale energy storage technologies are in high demand for effective utilization of intermittent electricity generations and efficient electric power transmission. The feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage is under debate due to the scarcity and uneven distribution of lithium resources in the Earth's crust. Therefore, there arises tremendous interest in pursuing alternative energy storage systems based on earth-abundant materials. Recently, non-aqueous potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) are emerging as a promising energy storage system due to the abundance of potassium and the encouraging battery performance. Here, the recent research progress in non-aqueous KIBs is summarized, including electrode materials, electrolytes, battery architectures and fundamental electrochemical processes. The challenges and future research opportunities are also briefly discussed.

  17. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  18. [Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future.

  19. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications.

  20. Recent research progress on unstart mechanism, detection and control of hypersonic inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Juntao; Li, Nan; Xu, Kejing; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren

    2017-02-01

    The present paper aims to provide a summary report on recent research progress about unstart mechanism, detection and control of hypersonic inlet to help the researchers working on hypersonic inlet to further their work. It covers unstart patterns with their mechanisms, monitoring methods for start/unstart classification and detection, characterization methods for unstart margin, and methods for unstart suppression and control. At first, the inner mechanisms of various unstart patterns have been surveyed and classified, which are respectively caused by contraction ratio (CR)/internal contraction ratio (ICR), backpressure, Mach number and heat release. Followed, monitoring methods (one is for start/unstart classification and the other is for unstart detection) have been introduced respectively. Thirdly, three types of techniques for margin characterization of unstart are listed, which are respectively based on backpressure, the location of shock train leading edge and pressure distribution. At last, unstart suppression and control have been discussed, which are based on flow control or feedback control.

  1. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Progress report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Potchen, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Effort since the last progress report (September 1979) has been directed toward assessing the potential short and long term benefits of continued development and application and medical research of emission computed tomograhy (ECT). This report contains a review of existing ECT technology, including functional descriptions of current and proposed image systems, for both sngle-photon ECT (SPECT) and positron ECT (PECT) approaches. Medical research and clinical topics to which ECT has been, or may be, applied are presented. One such area of investigation involves the effects of stroke. The application of ECT to laboratory research, and to clinical diagnosis and prognosis, of stroke may result in improved management of the disease. An illustration of the potential savings in the cost of management of stroke due to the effects of applied ECT research is included. The results represent a compilation of data collected from conversations with, and conference presentations by, ECT users, researchers and image system designers, and from a review of the literature.

  2. Research Progress toward the Practical Applications of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lochala, Joshua; Liu, Dianying; Wu, Bingbin; Robinson, Cynthia; Xiao, Jie

    2017-07-26

    The renaissance of Li-S battery technology is evidenced by the intensive R&D efforts in recent years. Although the theoretical capacity and energy of a Li-S battery is theoretically very high, the projected usable energy is expected to be no more than twice that of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, or 500 Wh/kg. The recent "sulfur fever" has certainly gathered new knowledge on sulfur chemistry and electrochemistry, electrolytes, lithium metal, and their interactions in this "new" system; however, a real advance toward a practical Li-S battery is still missing. One of the main reasons behind this is the sensitivity of Li-S batteries to the experimental testing parameters. Sophisticated nanostructures are usually employed, while the practicality of these nanomaterials for batteries is rarely discussed. The sulfur electrode, usually engineered in a thin-film configuration, further poses uncertainties in the knowledge transfer from the lab to industry. This review article briefly overviews the recent research progress on Li-S batteries, followed by a discussion of the Li-S battery system from the authors' own understandings collected from their past few years of research. The critical findings, the unresolved issues, and the scientific gap between lab research and industrial application are discussed. The future work in Li-S battery research is also explored to propel relevant research efforts toward industrial applications.

  3. [Research Progress on Gene Expression Abnormality of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells in Myelodysplastic Syndromes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of heterogeneous clonal disease involving one or more series of hematopoietic cells. Its pathogenesis is still unclear. No effective targeted drug is available to prevent this disease progression. MDS originates in hematopoietic stem cells. Recent researches found that the complex abnormal gene expression occurred in bone marrow CD34⁺ cells plays a key role in development of MDS. Some of these genes are closely related with the patient's prognosis and survival, such as DLK1, ribosomal transcripts gene, Toll-like receptors gene, EPA-1 and interferon-stimulated genes. Due to heterogeneity of this disease, abnormal gene expression profiles in bone marrow CD34⁺ cells are closely associated with particular FAB or cytogenetic subtypes. To elucidate the pathogenesis of MDS and investigate its therapeutic target, this article reviews progress of researches on abnormal gene expression profiles of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in low-risk, high-risk patients and MDS patients who carry common cytogenetic abnormalities.

  4. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Saiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed. PMID:25140308

  5. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis; Research and development progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The INEL Oversight Program (OP) began work in 1992 to establish a network of permanent air monitoring stations around the perimeter of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Sponsored as a Department of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the project was designed to provide the public with an independent assessment of air quality resulting from operations at the INEL. This progress report summarizes the results of air sampling during the first quarter of 1993. During 1992 and the first half of 1993, the OP obtained and operated air sampling equipment from EPA-Las Vegas and EG and G Idaho. These samplers were obtained on loan until the OP could develop specifications for and purchase instruments to be used in the permanent air monitoring network. These samplers were deployed at selected air sampling locations, while quality assurance plans and specifications for permanent samplers were developed. The results presented in this progress report should be considered as research data. During the initial phase of establishing the air monitoring network, several modifications were made to sampling instruments and, in some cases, sampling locations. Therefore, the OP did not complete a formal quality assurance plan during this development program.

  6. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis; Research and development progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The INEL Oversight Program (OP) began work in 1992 to establish a network of permanent air monitoring stations around the perimeter of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Sponsored as a Department of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the project was designed to provide the public with an independent assessment of air quality resulting from operations at the INEL. This progress report summarizes the results of air sampling during the second quarter of 1993. During 1992 and the first half of 1993, the OP obtained and operated air sampling equipment from EPA-Las Vegas and EG and G Idaho. These samplers were obtained on loan until the OP could develop specifications for and purchase instruments to be used in the permanent air monitoring network. These sampler were deployed at selected air sampling locations, while quality assurance plans and specifications for permanent samplers were developed. The results presented in this progress report should be considered as research data. During the initial phase of establishing the air monitoring network, several modifications were made to sampling instruments and, in some cases, sampling locations. Therefore, the OP Did not complete a formal quality assurance plan during this developmental program.

  7. Language Research in Progress: Report No. 7, January 1969; A Cross-Referenced List of Documented Language Research Projects Current April 1968 - November 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alfred S.; Vis, Joan

    This document is the seventh report in the Language Research in Progress (LRIP) series, and lists a wide variety of language-related research projects current between April 1968 and November 1968. Research projects terminated in the six months prior to publication are included as well. Approximately 250 projects in the U.S. and abroad are…

  8. Recent progresses in atmospheric remote sensing research in China —Chinese national report on atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Chen, Hongbin

    2004-06-01

    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003 are summarily introduced. This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3) remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing, including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  9. The origins and progress of genomics research on Tef (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    Girma, Dejene; Assefa, Kebebew; Chanyalew, Solomon; Cannarozzi, Gina; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Tadele, Zerihun

    2014-06-01

    Tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, is the most important cereal in Ethiopia. Tef is cultivated by more than five million small-scale farmers annually and constitutes the staple food for more than half of the population of 80 million. The crop is preferred by both farmers and consumers due to its beneficial traits associated with its agronomy and utilization. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of tef in Ethiopia is a national treasure of potentially global importance. In order for this diversity to be effectively conserved and utilized, a better understanding at the genomic level is necessary. In the recent years, tef has become the subject of genomic research in Ethiopia and abroad. Genomic-assisted tef improvement holds tremendous potential for improving productivity, thereby benefiting the smallholder farmers who have cultivated and relied on the crop for thousands of years. It is hoped that such research endeavours will provide solutions to some of the age-old problems of tef's husbandry. In this review, we provide a brief description of the genesis and progress of tef genomic research to date, suggest ways to utilize the genomic tools developed so far, discuss the potential of genomics to enable sustainable conservation and use of tef genetic diversity and suggest opportunities for the future research.

  10. [Research progress of dual inhibitors targeting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and integrase].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Both reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) play crucial roles in the life cycle of HIV-1, which are also key targets in the area of anti-HIV drug research. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are involved in the most employed drugs used to treat AIDS patients and HIV-infected people, while one of the integrase inhibitors has already been approved by US FDA to appear on the market. Great achievement has been made in the research on both, separately. Recently, much more attention of medicinal chemistry researchers has been attracted to the strategies of multi-target drugs. Compounds with excellent potency against both HIV RT and IN, evidently defined as dual inhibitors targeting both enzymes, have been obtained through considerable significant exploration, which can be classified into two categories according to different strategies. Combinatorial chemistry approach together with high throughput screening methods and multi-target-based virtual screening strategy have been useful tools for identifying selective anti-HIV compounds for long times; Rational drug design based on pharmacophore combination has also led to remarkable results. In this paper, latest progress of both categories in the discovery and structural modification will be covered, with a view to contribute to the career of anti-HIV research.

  11. Research progress on optical wireless communication at Xi'an University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xizheng; Yang, Lihong

    2010-10-01

    Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) adopts laser beam as the carrier to deliver the message. It combines with the advantages of Microwave Communication and Fiber Optic Communication. The key technologies of OWC system includes source coding, channel coding, laser diode modulation, auto-alignment and channel. In this paper, the research progress on OWC in Xi'an University of Technology is introduced. The research on source coding involves in baseband modulation, frequency modulation, OFDM transmission and vertical layered space-time codes. The research on channel coding includes RS codes, Turbo codes, LDPC codes and so on. And the adaptive coding method is analyzed to meet the different channel characteristics. Propagation performance of laser is studied and bit error rate (BER) is measured under various weather conditions of rainy days, snowy days, foggy days, hazy days and so on. The experiment results show that applying channel coding methods can improve the system performance of OWC, especially under rainy, snowy, foggy weather conditions, the BER after decoding is up to 10-6. Based on many years of research, the technologies of MIMO, OFDM and space-time coding are proved to be the key technologies that need to solve in OWC.

  12. Research on environmental impacts of tourism in China: progress and prospect.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Linsheng; Deng, Jinyang; Song, Zengwen; Ding, Peiyi

    2011-11-01

    With the rapid development of tourism industry in China since 1980, the country has experienced an increasing use of its natural and cultural environment for tourism, resulting in tourism resources being adversely impacted in many tourism destinations. This paper described the research progress in tourism impacts on the environment in the context of China through a review of the growing literature in this field. Specifically, research on tourism impacts on the biophysical and socio-cultural environments, tourism carrying capacity, environmental quality assessment, and measures for the protection and management of tourism resources was reviewed. The review found that the majority of research was qualitative and descriptive in nature, and there was a lack of case studies and theoretical development. Future research should focus on the evaluation of environmental impacts, particularly those gradual cumulative impacts on the tourism environment; examination of the quantitative relationship between the impact and the level of tourism use for different activities; development of methods to estimate the carrying capacity; and understanding of positive impacts of tourism.

  13. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change.

  14. Research in high energy physics. Progress report, 1 July 1993--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.; Block, M.; Buchholz, D.

    1994-07-01

    Progress on Task A centered around data analysis. E835 is now approved. It will extend E760 studies, exploring new charmonium states and featuring an upgraded detector system plus operation at 4--6 times higher luminosity. Results are given on E760 analysis. Task B has 10 papers that have either appeared in print, or have been prepared for publication. They break down into four categories; experimental physics, theoretical physics, and computer computational techniques. They are described here along with an exciting new experimental proposal to use Da{Phi}ne, the {Phi} factory that is being constructed at Frascati National Laboratory. Progress for Task C which includes participating in the D0 project at TeV I, and the photoproduction experiment, E687, at TeV II is given. While Northwestern is not participating in the top quark physics group at D0, they have been involved in the data analysis and the discussions that led to the limits on the top quark mass. Task D comprises the shared services for the Northwestern DOE contract. This includes the maintenance and operation of all computers within the HEP group. The projects supported by Task D during the past year are given. Task E progress was to resolve the apparent conflict between EMC, SMC, and SLAC results on nucleon structure functions and Bjorken sum rules. Task F covered research in hadronic decay of the tau, thermal field theory, plasma effects in astrophysics, and heavy quarkonium. Task G covers E665, a general purpose muon scattering experiment which can detect both the scattered muon and most charged and neutral hadrons produced in the forward region. The Northwest group has collaborated very closely in the past year with the Harvard group on analyses of structure functions and vector meson production in the 1991 data sample.

  15. Processing and thermodynamics research. Volume II. Monthly progress report, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    A detailed list of materials was prepared, data and information that will be gathered for analysis in the study (Project BPT1) that relates feedstock to product slate. A meeting of the sponsors Steering Committee gave broad support to the research direction presented. Discussions were held with Professor Lloyd Lee at the University of Oklahoma on possible future cooperation of this work with his correlation and model studies. Mass spectrometry efforts (Project BPT2) centered on establishing the performance characteristics of the MS-50 as pertains to quantitative ultra-high dynamic resolution low voltage EI analysis with this system. A complete review of all chemical separations done to date on Wilmington and Mayan crudes revealed a few inconsistencies, and a few repeat experiments are in progress to resolve them (Project OPT2). Preparations are being made for thiophene separations from the 425/sup 0/ to 550/sup 0/C Cerro Negro neutrals (Project OPT2). A review of the progress on the chemistry of contaminated fuels project (Project OPT4) was held with DOD personnel. The acid fractions of the various distillates from contaminated diesel fuel have been shown to be corrosive in copper strip testing. Biological activity was also established as one source of corrosion problems. Stability test technique development focused on the type of filter materials that will withstand the accelerated aging conditions (65/sup 0/C) for several weeks. Thermodynamic studies on hetero-atom compounds continued with experimental work in progress on 2,5-dimethylpyridine, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, 2,3-benzofuran, and 3-methylpyrrolidine (Project BPT3A and BPT3B). Vapor liquid-equilibria measurements continue on hydrogen and a 450/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/F cut from the Wilsonville, AL coal liquefaction plant (Project OPT3).

  16. The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission /sup 99/Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U/sub 3/Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program.

  17. Recent progress in genetic and epigenetic research on type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-03-11

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  18. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  19. Recent progress in genetic and epigenetic research on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:26964836

  20. Panacea in progress: CRISPR and the future of its biological research introduction.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-08-01

    The elucidation of the CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) adaptive immune system endogenous to most microbial life has culminated in progress in a diversity of scientific disciplines. The concurrently promising and eccentric nature of its theoretically plausible applications has wrought enthusiasm in the research community globally, potentiating advancements in human and animal health, ecological stability, and economic wellbeing, that would hitherto be considered the unattainable fancies of a futurist. It may be supposed that the tomes of science fiction are the true books of prophecy. Here, we narrate the scientific dialogue regarding CRISPR/Cas biotechnologies, from the happenstantial initial observation of the locus to the litany of intriguing contemporary endeavors. We discuss the mechanistic underpinnings in detail, and the corpulent body of literature on CRISPR-based biotech is digested into a germane and informative review. CRISPR applications such as microbiome engineering in order to enhance the human immune system beyond the fortitude of the wild type, bacterial genome editing in industrial and medical aspects, conquering antibiotic resistance, the development of novel antimicrobial techniques, the harvesting of solventogenic microbes, the development of antifungal therapies, and investigation of the genetic properties of fungi, are here represented, and the authors posit unconventional, and at times gainfully tangential, thoughts and concepts in order to encourage a reflective disposition towards this sophisticated device of nature: a panacea in progress, such that the most impassive and technical writing still carries the ring of poetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Teachers' and Researchers' Beliefs of Learning and the use of Learning Progressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Francis Neely

    In the last decade, science education reform in the United States has emphasized the exploration of cognitive learning pathways, which are theories on how a person learns a particular science subject matter. These theories are based, in part, by Piagetian developmental theory. One such model, called Learning Progressions (LP), has become prominent within science education reform. Science education researchers design LPs which in turn are used by science educators to sequence their curricula. The new national science standards released in April 2013 (Next Generation Science Standards) are, in part, grounded in the LP model. Understanding how teachers apply and use LPs, therefore, is valuable because professional development programs are likely to use this model, given the federal attention LP have received in science education reform. I sought to identify the beliefs and discourse that both LP developers and intended LP implementers have around student learning, teaching, and learning progressions. However, studies measuring beliefs or perspectives of LP-focused projects are absent in published works. A qualitative research is therefore warranted to explore this rather uncharted research area. Research questions were examined through the use of an instrumental case study. A case study approach was selected over other methodologies, as the research problem is, in part, bound within a clearly identifiable case (a professional development experience centering on a single LP model). One of the broadest definitions of a case study is noted by Becker (1968), who stated that goals of case studies are "to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the groups under study" and to develop "general theoretical statements about regularities in social structure and process." (p.233). Based on Merriam (1985) the general consensus in the case study literature is that the assumptions underlying this method are common to naturalistic inquiry with research conducted primarily in the

  2. [Research progress of nutrition support for patients with lung cancer during chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiqiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Nowadays, both its morbidity and mortality rank first, patients with lung cancer are often goes with some affiliating symptoms such as malnutrition and weight loss. The side effects of cytotoxicity during chemotherapy may lead to further deteriorate of the nutritional status and worsen the anti-tumor therapy's efficacy and the patients' quality of life. With the development of palliative treatment and the higher request of patients for quality of life, nutritional support will be an important adjunctive treatment to maintain a good nutritional status and enhance the patients' immunity during chemotherapy. It will play an active role in improving tolerability of chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Here is a review about research progress of nutrition support treatment during chemotherapy for the patients with lung cancer.

  3. Natural history collections-based research: progress, promise, and best practices.

    PubMed

    McLean, Bryan S; Bell, Kayce C; Dunnum, Jonathan L; Abrahamson, Bethany; Colella, Jocelyn P; Deardorff, Eleanor R; Weber, Jessica A; Jones, Amanda K; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Cook, Joseph A

    2016-01-20

    Specimens and associated data in natural history collections (NHCs) foster substantial scientific progress. In this paper, we explore recent contributions of NHCs to the study of systematics and biogeography, genomics, morphology, stable isotope ecology, and parasites and pathogens of mammals. To begin to assess the magnitude and scope of these contributions, we analyzed publications in the Journal of Mammalogy over the last decade, as well as recent research supported by a single university mammal collection (Museum of Southwestern Biology, Division of Mammals). Using these datasets, we also identify weak links that may be hindering the development of crucial NHC infrastructure. Maintaining the vitality and growth of this foundation of mammalogy depends on broader engagement and support from across the scientific community and is both an ethical and scientific imperative given the rapidly changing environmental conditions on our planet.

  4. Progress in the Lewis Research Center Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) Modeling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciepluch, C. C.; Burley, R. R.; Groesbeck, D. E.; Marek, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The rehabilitation of the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is under study with the goal of providing a modern subsonic wind tunnel for conducting propulsion system/airframe integration, isolated propulsion system, propulsion acoustics and adverse weather tests. Because of the increased Mach number capability (from Mach 0.6 to 0.9 plus) and the incorporation of acoustic and adverse weather capabilities into an existing tunnel, the AWT rehabilitation represents a significant technical challenge. In order to reduce the risk associated with such an undertaking, and extensive AWT modeling program is being conducted to guide and verify the tunnel design. Significant findings and progress in this modeling program are the subject of this paper.

  5. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Ling-Shan

    2016-12-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 11674349).

  6. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF CONTROLLED RELEASING DELIVERY OF BIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR CARTILAGE REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialei; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    To summarize the recent progress of the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors for cartilage repair. The recently published literature at home and abroad on the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors for cartilage repair was reviewed and summarized. Various biological factors have been applied for repairing cartilage. For better cartilage repair effects, controlled releasing delivery of biological factors can be applied by means of combining biological factors with degradable biomaterials, or by micro- and nano-particles. Meanwhile, multiple biologic delivery and temporally controlled delivery are also inevitable choices. Although lots of unsolved problems exist, the controlled releasing delivery of biological factors has been a research focus for cartilage repair because of the controllability and delicacy.

  7. [Research Progress of Collagen-based Three-dimensional Porous Scaffolds Used in Skin Tissue Engineering].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiwei; Zhou, Aimei; Yang, Shulin

    2015-08-01

    Collagen is a kind of natural biomedical material and collagen based three-dimensional porous scaffolds have been widely used in skin tissue engineering. However, these scaffolds do not meet the requirements for artificial skin substitutes in terms of their poor mechanical properties, short supply, and rejection in the bodies. All of these factors limit their further application in skin tissue engineering. A variety of methods have been chosen to meliorate the situation, such as cross linking and blending other substance for improving mechanical properties. The highly biomimetic scaffolds either in structure or in function can be prepared through culturing cells and loading growth factors. To avoid the drawbacks of unsafety attributing to animals, investigators have fixed their eyes on the recombinant collagen. This paper reviews the the progress of research and application of collagen-based 3-dimensional porous scaffolds in skin tissue engineering.

  8. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  9. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  10. Research in theoretical high-energy physics: Progress report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Greensite, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Progress on problems in quantum gravity and QCD, made during the period 9/92--9/93, and proposed research for the coming year, are summarized. Over the last year the author has proposed a dynamic mechanism underlying the observed Lorentzian signature of spacetime, and also a new quantization scheme for gravity, based on a transfer matrix approach. This transfer matrix formulation is not only a possible solution for the well-known {open_quotes}problem of time{close_quotes} in quantum gravity, but also predicts that Newton`s constant is not really a constant -- it should be subject to quantum fluctuations. In addition, together with two European collaborators, the author has done some further work on the abelian projection model of quark confinement. This work in quantum gravity and QCD has been reported in various publications, and the author briefly describes each of these investigations.

  11. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry.

  12. Research efforts to control highly pathogenic arenaviruses: a summary of the progress and gaps.

    PubMed

    Kerber, R; Reindl, S; Romanowski, V; Gómez, R M; Ogbaini-Emovon, E; Günther, S; ter Meulen, J

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the past 10 years in unraveling the molecular biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses that are endemic in several West African countries (Lassa fever virus) and in some regions of South America (Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses). While this has resulted in proof-of-concept studies of novel vaccine candidates in non-human primates and in the discovery of several novel antiviral small molecule drug candidates, none of them has been tested in the clinic to date. The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa has demonstrated very clearly that there is an urgent need to develop the prophylactic and therapeutic armamentarium against viral hemorrhagic fever viruses as part of a global preparedness for future epidemics. As it pertains to this goal, the present article summarizes the current knowledge of highly pathogenic arenaviruses and identifies opportunities for translational research.

  13. Progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of minor actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    Recent progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of MA is summarized. Preparation of MA-bearing nitride pellets, such as (Np,Am)N, (Am,Pu)N and (Np,Pu,Am,Cm)N, was carried out. Irradiation behavior of U-free nitride fuel was investigated by the irradiation test of (Pu,Zr)N and PuN+TiN fuels, in which ZrN and TiN were added as a possible diluent material. Further, pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuel was developed by electrorefining in a molten chloride salt and subsequent re-nitridation of actinides in liquid Cd cathode electro-deposits. Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA has been demonstrated in a laboratory scale by the experimental study with MA and Pu. (authors)

  14. Recent progress in the long-term pharmacological research on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Chruściel, T L

    1975-07-01

    Rapid increase in our knowledge of acute biological effects of cannabis and its biologically active components is contrasted with the slow rate of progress achieved in the area of effects of long-term use of cannabis in man. Such studies belong to the difficult category of long-term clinical pharmacological studies, that are time-consuming, require large population samples, and considerable expertise of staff. Recently published epidemiological studies on effects of long-term cannabis use, although still not yet conclusive, supply increasing evidence of harmful effects of such use. Recently, the World Health Organization has sponsored several research projects of this nature in countries with easy access to long-term heavy cannabis users.

  15. Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks and in particular to understand the role of turbulence. So that they can continue to study the physics that is most relevant to the fusion program, TEXT completed a significant device upgrade this year. The new capabilities of the device and new and innovative diagnostics were exploited in all main program areas including: (1) configuration studies; (2) electron cyclotron heating physics; (3) improved confinement modes; (4) edge physics/impurity studies; (5) central turbulence and transport; and (6) transient transport. Details of the progress in each of the research areas are described.

  16. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  17. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ``Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,`` (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ``Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,`` (Co-P.I.`s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ``Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,`` (Co-P.I.`s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  18. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the Muon Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharo'A, Mohammad M.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Atac, Muzaffer; Autin, Bruno R.; Balbekov, Valeri I.; Barger, Vernon D.; Benary, Odette; Bennett, J. Roger; Berger, Michael S.; Berg, J. Scott; Berz, Martin; Black, Edgar L.; Blondel, Alain; Bogacz, S. Alex; Bonesini, M.; Bracker, Stephen B.; Bross, Alan D.; Bruno, Luca; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Caldwell, Allen C.; Campanelli, Mario; Cassel, Kevin W.; Catanesi, M. Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Chou, Weiren; Cline, David B.; Coney, Linda R.; Conrad, Janet M.; Corlett, John N.; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cummings, Mary Anne; Darve, Christine; Dejongh, Fritz; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drumm, Paul; Elvira, V. Daniel; Errede, Deborah; Fabich, Adrian; Fawley, William M.; Fernow, Richard C.; Ferrario, Massimo; Finley, David A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Fukui, Yasuo; Furman, Miguel A.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Galea, Raphael; Gallardo, Juan C.; Garoby, Roland; Garren, Alper A.; Geer, Stephen H.; Gilardoni, Simone; van Ginneken, Andreas J.; Ginzburg, Ilya F.; Godang, Romulus; Goodman, Maury; Gosz, Michael R.; Green, Michael A.; Gruber, Peter; Gunion, John F.; Gupta, Ramesh; Haines, John R.; Hanke, Klaus; Hanson, Gail G.; Han, Tao; Haney, Michael; Hartill, Don; Hartline, Robert E.; Haseroth, Helmut D.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Hoffman, Kara; Holtkamp, Norbert; Holzer, E. Barbara; Johnson, Colin; Johnson, Rolland P.; Johnstone, Carol; Jungmann, Klaus; Kahn, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Keil, Eberhard K.; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Kwang-Je; King, Bruce J.; Kirk, Harold G.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Ladran, Tony S.; Lau, Wing W.; Learned, John G.; Lebedev, Valeri; Lebrun, Paul; Lee, Kevin; Lettry, Jacques A.; Laveder, Marco; Li, Derun; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lu, Changguo; Makino, Kyoko; Malkin, Vladimir; Marfatia, D.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miller, John R.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mocioiu, I.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Moretti, Alfred; Mori, Yoshiharu; Neuffer, David V.; Ng, King-Yuen; Norem, James H.; Onel, Yasar; Oreglia, Mark; Ozaki, Satoshi; Padamsee, Hasan; Pakvasa, Sandip; Palmer, Robert B.; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Penn, Gregory; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Popovic, Milorad B.; Qian, Zubao; Radicioni, Emilio; Raja, Rajendran; Ravn, Helge L.; Reed, Claude B.; Reginato, Louis L.; Rehak, Pavel; Rimmer, Robert A.; Roberts, Thomas J.; Roser, Thomas; Rossmanith, Robert; Samulyak, Roman V.; Scanlan, Ronald M.; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schwandt, Peter; Sessler, Andrew M.; Shaevitz, Michael H.; Shrock, Robert; Sievers, Peter; Silvestrov, Gregory I.; Simos, Nick; Skrinsky, Alexander N.; Solomey, Nickolas; Spampinato, Philip T.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Stefanski, R.; Stoltz, Peter; Stumer, Iuliu; Summers, Donald J.; Teng, Lee C.; Thieberger, Peter A.; Tigner, Maury; Todosow, Michael; Tollestrup, Alvin V.; Torun, Yaǧmur; Trbojevic, Dejan; Usubov, Zafar U.; Vsevolozhskaya, Tatiana A.; Wah, Yau; Wang, Chun-Xi; Wang, Haipeng; Weggel, Robert J.; Whisnant, K.; Willen, Erich H.; Wilson, Edmund J.; Winn, David R.; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Wu, Vincent; Yokoi, Takeichiro; Yoon, Moohyun; York, Richard; Yu, Simon; Zeller, Al; Zhao, Yongxiang; Zisman, Michael S.

    2003-08-01

    We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs factories and compact high-energy lepton colliders. The status and time scale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons.

  19. Natural history collections-based research: progress, promise, and best practices

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Bryan S.; Bell, Kayce C.; Dunnum, Jonathan L.; Abrahamson, Bethany; Colella, Jocelyn P.; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Weber, Jessica A.; Jones, Amanda K.; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Cook, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens and associated data in natural history collections (NHCs) foster substantial scientific progress. In this paper, we explore recent contributions of NHCs to the study of systematics and biogeography, genomics, morphology, stable isotope ecology, and parasites and pathogens of mammals. To begin to assess the magnitude and scope of these contributions, we analyzed publications in the Journal of Mammalogy over the last decade, as well as recent research supported by a single university mammal collection (Museum of Southwestern Biology, Division of Mammals). Using these datasets, we also identify weak links that may be hindering the development of crucial NHC infrastructure. Maintaining the vitality and growth of this foundation of mammalogy depends on broader engagement and support from across the scientific community and is both an ethical and scientific imperative given the rapidly changing environmental conditions on our planet. PMID:26989266

  20. Research progress on the direct antiviral drugs for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianjun; Ju, Chuanxia

    2017-03-22

    Hepatitis C, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation, is a severe threat to human health. Pegylated interferon α (INF-α) and ribavirin based therapy was once the standard therapy for HCV infection. However, it is suboptimal in efficacy and poorly tolerated in some patients. In the last five years, four classes of direct antiviral drugs (NAAs) that target non-structural proteins (NS) of the virus including NS3/NS4A, NS5A, and NS5B have been developed and opened a new era in HCV treatment as they are more effective and tolerable than the INF-α and ribavirin combination regimen. Importantly, the newly introduced multiple NAAs combination therapy makes it possible to eradicate all genotypes of HCV. We review recent progress on the research and development of DAAs in the present article.

  1. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  2. [Research progress in water use efficiency of plants under global climate change].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-wei; Yu, Da-pao; Dai, Li-min; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wang-ming; Qi, Guang; Qi, Lin; Ye, Yu-jing

    2010-12-01

    Global climate change is one of the most concerned environmental problems in the world since the 1980s, giving significant effects on the plant productivity and the water transport and use patterns. These effects would be reflected in the water use efficiency (WUE) of individual plants, communities, and ecosystems, and ultimately, in the vegetation distribution pattern, species composition, and ecosystem structure. To study the WUE of plants would help to the understanding and forecasting of the responses of terrestrial vegetation to global climate change, and to the adoption of adaptive strategies. This paper introduced the concept of plant WUE and the corresponding measurement techniques at the scales of leaf, individual plant, community, and ecosystem, and reviewed the research progress in the effects of important climatic factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation pattern, nitrogen deposition, and their combination on the plant WUE, as well as the variation characteristics of plant WUE and the adaptive survival strategies of plants under different site conditions. Some problems related to plant WUE research were pointed out, and the future research directions in the context of global climate change were prospected.

  3. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research.

  4. Progress in burns research: a review of advances in burn pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jewo, P.I.; Fadeyibi, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Severe burns trigger a wide range of responses in the victim. Initial vascular changes are followed by hypermetabolic, inflammatory and immunologic changes. The prolonged hypermetabolic response is associated with an elevated resting rate of energy consumption, tissue wasting and altered substrate kinetics. There is increased blood glucose though insulin levels are above normal. The cortisol level is raised and, together with catecholamine, drives the metabolic response. The immune system is typically weakened. There is elevation in blood levels of a wide range of cytokines from activated cells. These agents drive a prolonged inflammatory response which can lead to tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Dynamic fluid resuscitation regimens have cut down mortality from shock in the early post-burn period. However, unbalanced activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can leave patients in an immuno-suppressed state that affects outcomes. So far, many treatments, such as propranolol, a cardio-protector, and anabolic agents, such as oxandrolone and growth hormone, have been tried with mixed results. This review focuses on research that elucidated burn pathophysiology. Some clinical areas in which treatment centred on correcting altered physiology were also included. We have highlighted both the challenges and significant findings. Finally, this paper draws attention to the gaps between progress in basic research and clinical application and suggests areas where further research and funding could be focused. PMID:27252608

  5. [Research progress of cell-scaffold complex in tendon tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Li, Min

    2013-04-01

    To review the research progress of cell-scaffold complex in the tendon tissue engineering. Recent literature concerning cell-scaffold complex in the tendon tissue engineering was reviewed, the research situation of the cell-scaffold complex was elaborated in the aspects of seed cells, scaffolds, cell culture, and application. In tendon tissue engineering, a cell-scaffold complex is built by appropriate seed cells and engineered scaffolds. Experiments showed that modified seed cells had better therapeutic effects. Further, scaffold functionality could be improved through surface modification, growth factor cure, mechanical stimulation, and contact guidance. Among these methods, mechanical stimulation revealed the most significant results in promoting cell proliferation and function. Through a variety of defect models, it is demonstrated that the use of cell-scaffold complex could achieve satisfactory results for tendon regeneration. The cell-scaffold complex for tendon tissue engineering is a popular research topic. Although it has not yet met the requirement of clinical use, it has broad application prospects.

  6. Research Progress on the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiang-Dong; Xiong, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Shang-Shen; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to June 2016, with the key words of “risk factors”, “outcomes”, “blood components”, “molecular mechanisms”, “cellular mechanisms”, and “human carotid atherosclerotic plaques”. Study Selection: The articles, regarding the latest developments related to the risk factors and outcomes, atherosclerotic plaque composition, blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention, were selected. Results: This review described the latest researches regarding the interactive effects of both traditional and novel risk factors for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, novel insights into human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusion: Carotid plaque biology and serologic biomarkers of vulnerability can be used to predict the risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, plaque composition, rather than lesion burden, seems to most predict rupture and subsequent thrombosis. PMID:28303857

  7. High sulfur coal research at the SIUC Coal Technology Laboratory. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The research effort addressed in this cooperative agreement includes the conduct of a high-sulfur coal research program and the establishment of a research facility, the Coal Technology Laboratory at the site of the former Carbondale Mining Technology Center. The associated research program is broadly based and directed toward high-sulfur coal, the goal being expand the technology to allow for the increased use of high-sulfur coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Progress continues to be made on the research in the four areas of coal science, coal preparation, coal conversion, and coal utilization. In the Coal Science area, the maceral separation laboratory is about 90% operational. In the area of coal preparation, a mechanical auger feeder device for introducing material into an experimental hydrocyclone along its axis was constructed and incorporated. A froth flotation pilot plant has been acquired and renovated. Coal conversion studies included experiments to examine the effects of chemical pretreatment on supercritical extraction and desulfurization of coal. It was found that with pretreatment a high-sulfur coal containing predominantly organic sulfur experienced a 57% reduction in sulfur on a concentration basis. Without pretreatment, the sulfur reduction was only 40%. In the work examining the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide formation from iron sulfides, it was found that hydrogen sulfide is formed from hydrogen and iron sulfides by a Langmuir-Hinselwood mechanism. Mixtures of H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ produce (H,D)H/sub 2/S with random distributions of H and D. Preliminary studies have been conducted in a 10 cm diameter laboratory scale AFBC unit preparatory to the tests to be conducted on waste fuels.

  8. Advanced biomass research program. Annual report for 1987. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    These results are from an interdisciplinary program researching plant growth and bioconversion processes for enhancing methane from biomass. Modern molecular and cellular biology approaches are being used to characterize the genes and to develop methods for accomplishing transformations to improve biomass quality by regulating plant chemicals. Quality is being emphasized since quantities of 25 Mg/ha can be sustained for five years and conditions for higher yields of some grasses were identified. Breeding has succeeded in the development of hexaploids that produce seeds, and vegetative propagation from tissue cultures for asexual species. Gel seeding of tissue culture derived plantlets inoculated with mycrohizal to improve survivability has shown promise. Biological methane potential assays have revealed the effects of harvesting frequency, storage and the proportion of plant parts on methane yields. Non-hydrolytical depolymerization of polypectate and hydrolytic degradation of cellulose occur more rapidly at near neutral pH's. A gene encoding for the xylan-degrading enzymes was isolated. These enzymes are repressed by glucose. Kinetic modeling of these reactions is progressing. Methods of describing the microbial community structure in digesters are being developed and used to monitor digester health and performance. Polyclonal antibodies for 9 methanogenic bacteria were developed, propionate and butyrate inhibited dissimilation of large organic polymers, the cellular location of key enzyme were revealed and cellulolytic bacteria were found to attack cells from inside the lumen. Controls of formate production and conversion to gas were identified and the genes for the hydrogenase enzymes in the conversions were cloned. System analysis allows the authors to assess the impact of research progress on cost factors. Sixty scientific papers reporting program results were published in 1987.

  9. A Review on the Research Progress of Nano Organic Friction Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Bao, Jiusheng; Hu, Dongyang; Ge, Shirong; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tonggang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional organic friction materials are difficult to adapt to people's growing technical requirements for stability, safety, comfort and environmental protection in the braking process. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, the brake's organic friction materials meet new opportunities. This article aims to review the research progress of organic friction materials that have applied nanotechnology. The research progress of nano organic friction materials was reviewed from four aspects in this article. Firstly, this article outlined the development history of friction materials. Secondly, two preparation methods of the nano organic friction material were summarized as by nano modifying of matrix material and by adding nanoparticles into friction material. Thirdly, it was indicated that the nano organic friction material has generally better mechanical, physical properties and tribological performance than traditional organic friction materials. And the main factors that affect the friction and wear performance were analyzed. Finally, the main existing problems in this field were summarized. It was pointed out that the nano organic friction material may be an important developing trend of friction materials. It was also pointed out that the dispersion of nanoparticles must be a key process during preparation. What is more, the improvement mechanisms of performance by nano modifying were explained. And it was considered at the end that the functional friction material with magnetism or self-adsorption may be a leading developoing direction of nano organic friction materials in the future. The findings of this review confirm the excellent performance of nano organic friction materials. It is concluded that the development of a new functional friction material by using the special effect of nanoparticles will be an important developing trend. Few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited.

  10. Research progress in rehabilitation treatment of stroke patients: A bibliometric analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodong; Liu, Chengmei; Guo, Qingchuan; Bai, Yanjie; Ren, Yafeng; Ren, Binbin; Bai, Junmin; Chen, Lidian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke presents as a transient or chronic brain dysfunction and is associated with high morbidity and high mortality. The doctors and scientists would like to argue how to enhance the validity of the rehabilitation treatment and how to further improve the level of treatment on stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the current worldwide progress in research on stroke rehabilitation treatment based on Web of Science database and ClinicalTrial.gov in the past 10 years. Methods: We conducted a quantitative analysis of clinical trial articles regarding stroke rehabilitation published in English from 2003 to 2013 and indexed in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials registry and Web of Science databases. Data were downloaded on March 15, 2013. Results: (1) From 2003 to 2013, 2 654 clinical trials investigating stroke were indexed in ClinicalTrials.gov. There were only 58 clinical trials registered in 2003, and there was a marked increase from 2005. A total of 605 clinical trials on the rehabilitation of stroke were conducted in the past 10 years. (2) The analysis showed that most of the trials in the field were registered by North American institutions. With respect to the Asian countries, China and Taiwan area of China also published a reasonable proportion of the trials, but comparatively speaking, the number of trials is really rare. Most of the interventions were drugs, followed by the devices, and behavioral interventions were ranked third. (3) In the past 10 years, there were 4 052 studies on stroke indexed by Web of Science database. Conclusion: From perspective of research progress, we found that the number of clinical trials and papers on stroke rehabilitation has increased significantly in the past 10 years, between them a remarkable positive correlation exists. PMID:25206438

  11. A Progress Report on a Department of Psychiatry Faculty Practice Plan Designed to Reward Educational and Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Robert E.; Shahrokh, Narriman C.; Servis, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide a progress report on a faculty practice plan that assigns a monetary value to administrative duties, teaching, scholarship, community service, and research. Methods: Modifications to the original plan are described and quantifiable results in the areas of scholarship and research are summarized. Results: During a…

  12. Research progress of on-the-go soil parameter sensors based on NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xiaofei; Meng, Zhijun; Wu, Guangwei; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Both the ever-increasing prices of fertilizer and growing ecological concern over chemical run-off into sources of drinking water have brought the issues of precision agriculture and site-specific management to the forefront of present technological development within agriculture and ecology. Soil is an important and basic element in agriculture production. Acquisition of soil information plays an important role in precision agriculture. The soil parameters include soil total nitrogen, phosporus, potassium, soil organic matter, soil moisture, electrical conductivity and pH value and so on. Field rapid acquisition to all the kinds of soil physical and chemical parameters is one of the most important research directions. And soil parameter real-time monitoring is also the trend of future development in precision agriculture. While developments in precision agriculture and site-specific management procedures have made significant in-roads on these issues and many researchers have developed effective means to determine soil properties, routinely obtaining robust on-the-go measurements of soil properties which are reliable enough to drive effective fertilizer application remains a challenge. NIRS technology provides a new method to obtain soil parameter with low cost and rapid advantage. In this paper, research progresses of soil on-the-go spectral sensors at domestic and abroad was combed and analyzed. There is a need for the sensing system to perform at least six key indexes for any on-the-go soil spectral sensor to be successful. The six indexes are detection limit, specificity, robustness, accuracy, cost and easy-to-use. Both the research status and problems were discussed. Finally, combining the national conditions of china, development tendency of on-the-go soil spectral sensors was proposed. In the future, on-the-go soil spectral sensors with reliable enough, sensitive enough and continuous detection would become popular in precision agriculture.

  13. Research progress on mechanisms of male sterility in plants based on high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yongming, Liu; Ling, Zhang; Tao, Qiu; Zhuofan, Zhao; Moju, Cao

    2016-08-01

    Male sterility is defined as failing to produce functional pollen during stamen development in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant reproductive research and hybrid seed production in utilization of crop heterosis. High throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been used widely in the study of different fields of life science, as it readily detects all the mRNA and non-coding RNA in cells. Recently, RNA-seq has been reported to be applied in different species and kinds of pollen abortion types in plants, which has contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism and metabolic networks of male sterility at the transcription level. In this review, we summarize research progress on the mechanisms of male sterility in plants, focusing on RNA-seq analysis encompassing strategies of RNA library construction, differentially expressed genes and functional characteristics of noncoding RNAs involved in stamen abortion. Furthermore, we also discuss application of transcriptome sequencing technology to elucidate pollen abortion mechanisms and map fertility-related genes. We hope to provide references to the study of male sterility in plants.

  14. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet; Douglass, Joanna; Gomez, Francisco Ramos; Hieftje, Kimberly; Horowitz, Alice; Li, Yihong; Ng, Man Wai; Twetman, Svante; Tinanoff, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective means to prevent and manage ECC. Analyses of studies indicate that some approaches, such as chlorhexidine, iodine, and remineralizing agents, have not shown consistent findings in preventing ECC. However, evidence exists to yield recommendations in some areas. There are useful risk assessment indicators to identify preschool children at risk for caries. Fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride varnish currently are the most effective chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent ECC. Motivational interviewing, a form of patient-centered counseling, is effective for motivating oral health behaviors and shows promise for reducing caries. Additionally, evidence is emerging that shows the value of chronic disease management approaches and integrating ECC oral health care within medical care settings. Recommendations for future directions in ECC research and policy were also key outcomes of the conference.

  15. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  16. Research progress on a focal plane array ladar system using chirped amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stann, Barry L.; Abou-Auf, Ahmed; Aliberti, Keith; Dammann, John; Giza, Mark; Dang, Gerard; Ovrebo, Greg; Redman, Brian; Ruff, William; Simon, Deborah

    2003-08-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is researching a focal plane array (FPA) ladar architecture that is applicable for smart munitions, reconnaissance, face recognition, robotic navigation, etc.. Here we report on progress and test results attained over the past year related to the construction of a 32x32 pixel FPA ladar laboratory breadboard. The near-term objective of this effort is to evaluate and demonstrate an FPA ladar using chirped amplitude modulation; knowledge gained will then be used to build a field testable version with a larger array format. The ladar architecture achieves ranging based on a frequency modulation/continuous wave technique implemented by directly amplitude modulating a near-IR diode laser transmitter with a radio frequency (rf) subcarrier that is linearly frequency modulated (chirped amplitude modulation). The diode's output is collected and projected to form an illumination field in the downrange image area. The returned signal is focused onto an array of optoelectronic mixing, metal-semiconductor-metal detectors where it is detected and mixed with a delayed replica of the laser modulation signal that modulates the responsivity of each detector. The output of each detector is an intermediate frequency (IF) signal resulting from the mixing process whose frequency is proportional to the target range. This IF signal is continuously sampled over a period of the rf modulation. Following this, a signal processor calculates the discrete fast Fourier transform over the IF waveform in each pixel to establish the ranges and amplitudes of all scatterers.

  17. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  18. The research progress of farm animal genomics based on sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Su-yun; Zhou, Zheng-kui; Hou, Shui-sheng

    2017-04-20

    Various farm animal breeds have been domesticated and bred for thousands years, and they provide adequate animal-derived proteins to meet the human nutrition requirement. Although quantitative genetics was applied in animal breeding, which launched a technological revolution in the past century, a number of complex traits remain difficult to be selected based on pedigree derived breeding, due to complicated animal genetics and development mechanisms. Farm animal's genetic potential hasn't yet to be fully exploited. The concept and technology from the Human Genome Project have greatly promoted farm animal genomic researches. It is possible to fine map the causal variations at the whole genome level and then exploit their biological functions, thus providing the theoretical basis for molecular designed breeding. In this review, we summarize the genomics research progress of main farm animals during the past decade, including pigs, cattle, yaks, goats, sheep, chickens, ducks and geese. We focus on the reference genome sequencing and follow-up population-level genomic studies based on high throughput resequencing technologies, and meanwhile envision the future work of farm animal genomics.

  19. Research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yunsheng, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Population genomics, a new paradigm for population genetics, combine the concepts and techniques of genomics with the theoretical system of population genetics and improve our understanding of microevolution through identification of site-specific effect and genome-wide effects using genome-wide polymorphic sites genotypeing. With the appearance and improvement of the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, the numbers of plant species with complete genome sequences increased rapidly and large scale resequencing has also been carried out in recent years. Parallel sequencing has also been done in some plant species without complete genome sequences. These studies have greatly promoted the development of population genomics and deepened our understanding of the genetic diversity, level of linking disequilibium, selection effect, demographical history and molecular mechanism of complex traits of relevant plant population at a genomic level. In this review, I briely introduced the concept and research methods of population genomics and summarized the research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing. I also discussed the prospect as well as existing problems of plant population genomics in order to provide references for related studies.

  20. Research Progress in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Best Abstracts of ICHNO 2015.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Bourhis, Jean; Psyrri, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous group of tumors that develop via one of the two primary carcinogenic pathways: chemical carcinogenesis through exposure to tobacco and alcohol or virally induced tumorigenesis. HPV-negative (HPV-) and HPV-positive (HPV+) HNSCCs represent distinct disease entities, and the latter is associated with a substantially improved outcome. Differences in molecular pathogenesis account for these different outcomes; their staging classification and therapeutic regimens also are currently being re-evaluated, and re-evaluation would be significantly facilitated by robust biomarkers for patient stratification. Through the past years, with the advent of the omics era, a better understanding of the biology of HNSCC has been accompanied by the exploration of a large and rapidly expanding number of targeted agents, which might be incorporated into standard management in the future. In the era of personalized medicine, and with a view to improve the outcomes and quality of life of patients, current research efforts also are focused on the identification of specific biomarkers for treatment selection. Treatment of HNSCC is expected to change in the next decade if molecular biology continues to evolve. Herein, we highlight research progress in HNSCC presented at the fifth International Conference on Innovative Approaches in Head and Neck Oncology (ICHNO).

  1. Research Progress towards Understanding the Unique Interfaces between Concentrated Electrolytes and Electrodes for Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lochala, Joshua A.; Kwok, Alexander; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The electrolyte is an indispensable component in all electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with batteries being a prime example. While most research efforts have been pursued on the materials side, the progress for the electrolyte is slow due to the decomposition of salts and solvents at low potentials, not to mention their complicated interactions with the electrode materials. The general properties of bulk electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, viscosity, and stability all affect the cell performance. However, for a specific electrochemical cell in which the cathode, anode, and electrolyte are optimized, it is the interface between the solid electrode and the liquid electrolyte, generally referred to as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), that dictates the rate of ion flow in the system. The commonly used electrolyte is within the range of 1–1.2 m based on the prior optimization experience, leaving the high concentration region insufficiently recognized. Recently, electrolytes with increased concentration (>1.0 m) have received intensive attention due to quite a few interesting discoveries in cells containing concentrated electrolytes. The formation mechanism and the nature of the SEI layers derived from concentrated electrolytes could be fundamentally distinct from those of the traditional SEI and thus enable unusual functions that cannot be realized using regular electrolytes. In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress of high concentration electrolytes in different battery chemistries. The experimentally observed phenomena and their underlying fundamental mechanisms are discussed. New insights and perspectives are proposed to inspire more revolutionary solutions to address the interfacial challenges. PMID:28852621

  2. Research Progress towards Understanding the Unique Interfaces between Concentrated Electrolytes and Electrodes for Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Lochala, Joshua A; Kwok, Alexander; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The electrolyte is an indispensable component in all electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with batteries being a prime example. While most research efforts have been pursued on the materials side, the progress for the electrolyte is slow due to the decomposition of salts and solvents at low potentials, not to mention their complicated interactions with the electrode materials. The general properties of bulk electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, viscosity, and stability all affect the cell performance. However, for a specific electrochemical cell in which the cathode, anode, and electrolyte are optimized, it is the interface between the solid electrode and the liquid electrolyte, generally referred to as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), that dictates the rate of ion flow in the system. The commonly used electrolyte is within the range of 1-1.2 m based on the prior optimization experience, leaving the high concentration region insufficiently recognized. Recently, electrolytes with increased concentration (>1.0 m) have received intensive attention due to quite a few interesting discoveries in cells containing concentrated electrolytes. The formation mechanism and the nature of the SEI layers derived from concentrated electrolytes could be fundamentally distinct from those of the traditional SEI and thus enable unusual functions that cannot be realized using regular electrolytes. In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress of high concentration electrolytes in different battery chemistries. The experimentally observed phenomena and their underlying fundamental mechanisms are discussed. New insights and perspectives are proposed to inspire more revolutionary solutions to address the interfacial challenges.

  3. Recent progressions in stem cell research: breakthroughs achieved and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Tani, Jowy; Umbas, Rainy

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell studies have been conducted to study characteristics of stem cells, to develop better techniques for patient-specific stem cell lines generation, and to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells. Techniques that enable efficient generation of new stem cell lines would facilitate research and allow generation of patient-specific stem cell lines for transplantation therapy. Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), which involves injection of donor cell nucleus into enucleated ovum, is the standard technique for new embryonic stem (ES) cell lines generation; presently its efficiency is low. A newer technique, pluripotent stem cell induction, reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by introducing certain factors into somatic cells. While certain adult stem cell treatments have been investigated on human participants, most ES cell or iPS cell treatments were still experimented on animal models. Recently, therapeutic potential of stem cell for several disorders was demonstrated. Researchers demonstrated stem cell's potential for treating hematologic disorders by correcting sickle cell anemia in rat model with iPS cells. Its potential role in treating cardiovascular disorder was demonstrated as injection of damaged rat heart with human ES cells derived cardiomyocyte plus "prosurvival" cocktail improved heart function. It might also treat nervous system disorders; injected into brain, ES cells derived neurons replace some loss cells in stroke rats and iPS cells derived neurons improved Parkinsonian syndrome in rats. Progress was also seen in other aspects of regenerative medicine. To overcome controversies caused by embryo destruction for obtaining ES cells, single blastomer stem cell derivation, Cdx2-inactivation, and parthenogenesis were proposed. All ES cell, iPS cell, and adult stem cell research should be continued with support from all sides.

  4. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Progress in High-pT Physics at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bazilevsky, A.; Bland, L.; Vogelsang, W.

    2010-03-17

    This volume archives the presentations at the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop 'Progress in High-PT Physics at RHIC', held at BNL in March 2010. Much has been learned from high-p{sub T} physics after 10 years of RHIC operations for heavy-ion collisions, polarized proton collisions and d+Au collisions. The workshop focused on recent progress in these areas by both theory and experiment. The first morning saw review talks on the theory of RHIC high-p{sub T} physics by G. Sterman and J. Soffer, and on the experimental results by M. Tannenbaum. One of the most exciting recent results from the RHIC spin program is the first observation of W bosons and their associated single-spin asymmetry. The new preliminary data were reported on the first day of our workshop, along with a theoretical perspective. There also were detailed discussions on the global analysis of polarized parton distributions, including the knowledge on gluon polarization and the impact of the W-data. The main topic of the second workshop day were single-transverse spin asymmetries and their analysis in terms of transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. There is currently much interest in a future Drell-Yan program at RHIC, thanks to the exciting physics opportunities this would offer. This was addressed in some of the talks. There also were presentations on the latest results on transverse-spin physics from HERMES and BELLE. On the final day of the workshop, the focus shifted toward forward and small-x physics at RHIC, which has become a cornerstone of the whole RHIC program. Exciting new data were presented and discussed in terms of their possible implications for our understanding of strong color-field phenomena in QCD. In the afternoon, there were discussions of nuclear parton distributions and jet observables, among them fragmentation. The workshop was concluded with outlooks toward the near-term (LHC, JLab) and longer-term (EIC) future. The workshop has been a great success. We had

  5. Research progress on electronic phase separation in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lizhi; Li, Lei; Wu, Heng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite oxide manganites with a general formula of R1-x AxMnO3 (where R is a trivalent rare-earth element such as La, Pr, Sm, and A is a divalent alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, and Ba) have received much attention due to their unusual electron-transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. Recent advances in the science and technology have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices based on perovskite manganite oxides down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. At the nanoscale, low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures display novel physical properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Recently, there is strong experimental evidence to indicate that the low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures are electronically inhomogeneous, consisting of different spatial regions with different electronic orders, a phenomenon that is named as electronic phase separation (EPS). As the geometry sizes of the low-dimensional manganite nanostructures are reduced to the characteristic EPS length scale (typically several tens of nanometers in manganites), the EPS is expected to be strongly modulated, leading to quite dramatic changes in functionality and more emergent phenomena. Therefore, reduced dimensionality opens a door to the new functionalities in perovskite manganite oxides and offers a way to gain new insight into the nature of EPS. During the past few years, much progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures both from experimentalists and theorists, which have a profound impact on the oxide nanoelectronics. This nanoreview covers the research progresses of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanowires/nanotubes, and nanostructured films and/or patterns. The possible physical origins of the

  6. Research progress on electronic phase separation in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite oxide manganites with a general formula of R1-x AxMnO3 (where R is a trivalent rare-earth element such as La, Pr, Sm, and A is a divalent alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, and Ba) have received much attention due to their unusual electron-transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. Recent advances in the science and technology have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices based on perovskite manganite oxides down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. At the nanoscale, low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures display novel physical properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Recently, there is strong experimental evidence to indicate that the low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures are electronically inhomogeneous, consisting of different spatial regions with different electronic orders, a phenomenon that is named as electronic phase separation (EPS). As the geometry sizes of the low-dimensional manganite nanostructures are reduced to the characteristic EPS length scale (typically several tens of nanometers in manganites), the EPS is expected to be strongly modulated, leading to quite dramatic changes in functionality and more emergent phenomena. Therefore, reduced dimensionality opens a door to the new functionalities in perovskite manganite oxides and offers a way to gain new insight into the nature of EPS. During the past few years, much progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures both from experimentalists and theorists, which have a profound impact on the oxide nanoelectronics. This nanoreview covers the research progresses of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanowires/nanotubes, and nanostructured films and/or patterns. The possible physical origins of the

  7. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  8. [Progress of researches on mechanisms of acupuncture underlying improvement of depression in the past five years].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Liang, Jia; Jin, Shu-Ying; Han, Yan-Jing; Lu, Jun; Tu, Ya

    2013-06-01

    Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that has a negative effect on the patient's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and physical well-being. In the past five years, a significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of acupuncture therapy for improving depression. In the present paper, the authors summarize mechanisms of acupuncture for depression from 1) upregulating levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, gamma-aminobutyric acid, 5-HT, receptor binding, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, beta-endorphine, and mu-receptor expression, and down-regulating hippocampal glutamate content, etc.; 2) upregulating expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and mRNA and its receptor TrkB, and activating adenyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway; 3) increasing hippocampal growth-associated protein 43 level and suppressing hippocampal c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and cellular apoptosis; 4) upregulating expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (activating glia cells); 5) regulating activities of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamus-pituitary-sex gland axis; 6) down-regulating serum IL-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Moreover, the authors also put forward some suggestions about the further research on the mechanisms of acupuncture intervention for depression in the future.

  9. Research progress in pathogenic genes of hereditary non-syndromic mid-frequency deafness.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenjun; Liu, Fei; Ma, Duan

    2016-06-01

    Hearing impairment is considered as the most prevalent impairment worldwide. Almost 600 million people in the world suffer from mild or moderate hearing impairment, an estimated 10% of the human population. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Hereditary hearing loss is divided into syndromic hearing loss (associated with other anomalies) and non-syndromic hearing loss (not associated with other anomalies). Approximately 80% of genetic deafness is non-syndromic. On the basis of the frequency of hearing loss, hereditary non-syndromic hearing loss can be divided into high-, mid-, low-, and total-frequency hearing loss. An audiometric finding of mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, or a "bowl-shaped" audiogram, is uncommon. Up to now, merely 7 loci have been linked to mid-frequency hearing loss. Only four genetic midfrequency deafness genes, namely, DFNA10 (EYA4), DFNA8/12 (TECTA), DFNA13 (COL11A2), DFNA44 (CCDC50), have been reported to date. This review summarizes the research progress of the four genes to draw attention to mid-frequency deafness genes.

  10. Trace element and isotope deposition across the air-sea interface: progress and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. R.; Landing, W. M.; Bucciarelli, E.; Cheize, M.; Fietz, S.; Hayes, C. T.; Kadko, D.; Morton, P. L.; Rogan, N.; Sarthou, G.; Shelley, R. U.; Shi, Z.; Shiller, A.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The importance of the atmospheric deposition of biologically essential trace elements, especially iron, is widely recognized, as are the difficulties of accurately quantifying the rates of trace element wet and dry deposition and their fractional solubility. This paper summarizes some of the recent progress in this field, particularly that driven by the GEOTRACES, and other, international research programmes. The utility and limitations of models used to estimate atmospheric deposition flux, for example, from the surface ocean distribution of tracers such as dissolved aluminium, are discussed and a relatively new technique for quantifying atmospheric deposition using the short-lived radionuclide beryllium-7 is highlighted. It is proposed that this field will advance more rapidly by using a multi-tracer approach, and that aerosol deposition models should be ground-truthed against observed aerosol concentration data. It is also important to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and rates that control the fractional solubility of these tracers. Aerosol provenance and chemistry (humidity, acidity and organic ligand characteristics) play important roles in governing tracer solubility. Many of these factors are likely to be influenced by changes in atmospheric composition in the future. Intercalibration exercises for aerosol chemistry and fractional solubility are an essential component of the GEOTRACES programme. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  11. [Research progress in genetic abnormalities and etiological factors of congenital anorectal malformation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Ren, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) is one of the most common gastrointestinal congenital diseases, accounting for 1/4 in digestive tract malformation, and is one of the congenital malformations in routine surveillance by the World Health Organization. Because of the variety of risk factors and the complexity of the pathological changes, etiology of ARM is still not clear. It is mostly considered that ARM is resulted from hereditary factors and environmental factors in the development of embryogenesis. Through animal experiments, scholars have found that Hox, Shh, Fgf, Wnt, Cdx and TCF4, Eph and ephrin play crucial role during the development of digestive tract. When the genes/signaling pathway dysfunction occurs, ARM may happen. In addition, ARM is related to the external factors in pregnancy. Because of the complexity of related factors in the development of human embryogenesis, the research progress of human ARM is very slow. This paper reviews relevant literatures in genetic factors and environmental factors, in order to provide the theoretical basis for the treatment and prevention of ARM.

  12. Research progress of optical H2O sensor with a DFB diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guangping; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qingpu; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2014-06-01

    In the field of near infrared H2O sensing, the acquisition of the absorption signal usually is from a noisy background, thus it is important to adopt an effective signal demodulation method. This study introduced the research progress in the field of trace water vapor detection, covering different individual gas detection techniques. On the basis of the conventional double-beam differential absorption, the division method in voltage and the dual-peak method based on the differential value of two adjacent absorption lines have been studied. Voltage division has an excellent stability to temperature variation, mechanical extrusion, and fiber bend loss. The dual-peak method proved a linear relation with the water vapor concentration, and this method provided a way to measure the concentration at high pressure. Furthermore, the so called balanced ratiometer detection (BRD) was introduced. It has an outstanding self-adjusting capability, and it can also avoid an excess phase difference caused by the current-to-voltage converting circuit, thus this method has a high sensitivity. In addition, the second harmonic technique applied to gas detection was introduced, and for the high-frequency modulation via driving current, 1/ f was suppressed apparently; as a result, this technique realized a better sensitive detection by one to two orders of magnitude.

  13. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  14. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  15. Urban growth and water access in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress, challenges, and emerging research directions.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, S; Adams, E A; Neville, G; Wada, Y; de Sherbinin, A; Mullin Bernhardt, E; Adamo, S B

    2017-12-31

    For the next decade, the global water crisis remains the risk of highest concern, and ranks ahead of climate change, extreme weather events, food crises and social instability. Across the globe, nearly one in ten people is without access to an improved drinking water source. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are the most affected, having disproportionately more of the global population without access to clean water than other major regions. Population growth, changing lifestyles, increasing pollution and accelerating urbanization will continue to widen the gap between the demand for water and available supply especially in urban areas, and disproportionately affect informal settlements, where the majority of SSA's urban population resides. Distribution and allocation of water will be affected by climate-induced water stresses, poor institutions, ineffective governance, and weak political will to address scarcity and mediate uncertainties in future supply. While attempts have been made by many scientists to examine different dimensions of water scarcity and urban population dynamics, there are few comprehensive reviews, especially focused on the particular situation in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper contributes to interdisciplinary understanding of urban water supply by distilling and integrating relevant empirical knowledge on urban dynamics and water issues in SSA, focusing on progress made and associated challenges. It then points out future research directions including the need to understand how alternatives to centralized water policies may help deliver sustainable water supply to cities and informal settlements in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Progress in research April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The period 1 April 1993--31 March 1994 has seen a number of significant developments of the research program as will be noted by the large increase in individual projects reviewed in this annual report. Among the highlights of the K500 experimental program in Sections 1, 2, and 4 are the investigations of excitation energy deposition and of fission dynamics employing both GDR and particle emission probes, measurements of isospin equilibration, studies of (d, {sup 2}He) reactions with the proton spectrometer and of the {beta} decay of {sup 57}Cu with MARS, and the precise studies of ionic charge state distributions using x-ray measurements. Progress in theoretical studies of the nuclear spectral function and the decay of many body systems, on the properties of mesons in hot hadronic matter and on the determination of astrophysical S-factors from experimental studies of very peripheral reactions are presented in Section 3. The status of the LAMPF based MEGA experiment and of the CERN based NA66 experiment, both of which involve institute scientists, is also briefly presented in this report. The shift to a seven day a week operation coupled with installation of cryopanels and more careful temperature control of the cooling water system have resulted in significant improvements in the operational efficiency and beam capabilities. Operating statistics are presented in Section 5.

  17. Trace element and isotope deposition across the air–sea interface: progress and research needs

    PubMed Central

    Landing, W. M.; Bucciarelli, E.; Cheize, M.; Fietz, S.; Hayes, C. T.; Kadko, D.; Morton, P. L.; Rogan, N.; Sarthou, G.; Shelley, R. U.; Shi, Z.; Shiller, A.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the atmospheric deposition of biologically essential trace elements, especially iron, is widely recognized, as are the difficulties of accurately quantifying the rates of trace element wet and dry deposition and their fractional solubility. This paper summarizes some of the recent progress in this field, particularly that driven by the GEOTRACES, and other, international research programmes. The utility and limitations of models used to estimate atmospheric deposition flux, for example, from the surface ocean distribution of tracers such as dissolved aluminium, are discussed and a relatively new technique for quantifying atmospheric deposition using the short-lived radionuclide beryllium-7 is highlighted. It is proposed that this field will advance more rapidly by using a multi-tracer approach, and that aerosol deposition models should be ground-truthed against observed aerosol concentration data. It is also important to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and rates that control the fractional solubility of these tracers. Aerosol provenance and chemistry (humidity, acidity and organic ligand characteristics) play important roles in governing tracer solubility. Many of these factors are likely to be influenced by changes in atmospheric composition in the future. Intercalibration exercises for aerosol chemistry and fractional solubility are an essential component of the GEOTRACES programme. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’.

  18. Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report for period ending June 30, 1980. [Syracuse Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The High Energy Theory Group at Syracuse conducted basic research in several areas of current interest. A great deal of progress was made in the understanding of systems with unusual topological properties. A variational formulation of the equations that govern spinning particles in general relativity was accomplished. Perturbative as well as nonperturbative properties (incorporated in an effective Lagrangian) of quantum chromodynamics aspects were investigated. The question concerning gauge fixing in non-Abelian gauge theories was studied. Several new phenomenological aspects of unified electroweak interactions were explored with the object of finding experimental tests for models other than the currently accepted Salam-Weinberg theory. A unified electroweak model based on the group (SU(2) x U(1)) x U'(1) was investigated to account for the repeated fermionic generations and to incorporate CP violations and explain the CP violation as well as the Cabibbo-like angles in terms of the quark masses. A unified theory for all interactions (with the exception of gravitational interactions) based on the group SU(5) x SU(5) was proposed. Finally, axially symmetric multi-instanton solutions were shown to be generated from a set of conformal mappings. The work performed is described briefly; references are given.

  19. Jointly sponsored research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Deans, H.A.

    1994-05-01

    This is a progress report on work performed by Western Research Institute for the U.S. DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center in the period October- December 1993. Tasks addressed include: development and demonstration of a practical electric downhole steam generator for thermal recovery of heavy oil and tar; wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems; coal gasification, power generation, and product market study; the impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay liners; investigation of coprocessing of heavy oil, automobile shredder residue, and coal; injection into coal seams for simultaneous CO{sub 2} mitigation and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane; optimization of carbonizer operations in the FMC coke process; chemical sensor and field screening technology development; demonstration of the koppelman {open_quotes}series c{close_quotes} process using a batch test unit with Powder River Basin coal as feed; remote chemical sensor development; market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use; solid-state NMR analysis and interpretation of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; Crow{trademark} field demonstration with bell lumber and pole; {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} series pilot plant tests; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program.

  20. Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.