Science.gov

Sample records for research 1986-1999 progress

  1. Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Douglas

    2000-04-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  2. Progress in palaeotsunami research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Nichol, Scott; Jaffe, Bruce; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The study of palaeotsunamis preserved in the sedimentary record has developed over the past three decades to a point where the criteria used to identify these events range from well-tested and accepted to new methods yet to receive wide application. In this paper we review progress with the development of these criteria and identify opportunities for refinements and for extending their application to new settings. The emphasis here is on promoting the use of multiple proxies, selected to best match the context of the site or region of interest. Ultimately, this requires that palaeotsunami research must be a multidisciplinary endeavour and indeed, extend beyond the geological sciences of sedimentology and stratigraphy and, to include knowledge and approaches from field such as archaeology, anthropology and sociology. We also argue that in some instances, despite the use of multiple proxies, the evidence for tsunami inundation of a coast simply may not be preserved.

  3. Family Research Project Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David C.; Bell, Linda G.

    This document presents an overview and progress report on the Family Research Project, started in 1974 to (1) study the relationship between family process and individual development of family members, especially children, (2) conceptualize and measure system level variables describing family structure and process, (3) develop microanalytic…

  4. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  5. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  6. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of Unituxin to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  7. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  8. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  9. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  10. Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

  11. [Research progress on hydrological scaling].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianmei; Pei, Tiefan

    2003-12-01

    With the development of hydrology and the extending effect of mankind on environment, scale issue has become a great challenge to many hydrologists due to the stochasticism and complexity of hydrological phenomena and natural catchments. More and more concern has been given to the scaling issues to gain a large-scale (or small-scale) hydrological characteristic from a certain known catchments, but hasn't been solved successfully. The first part of this paper introduced some concepts about hydrological scale, scale issue and scaling. The key problem is the spatial heterogeneity of catchments and the temporal and spatial variability of hydrological fluxes. Three approaches to scale were put forward in the third part, which were distributed modeling, fractal theory and statistical self similarity analyses. Existing problems and future research directions were proposed in the last part.

  12. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  13. [Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuhui; Zhao, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is progressing for the latest 100 years. From the discovery of its important role in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease to all aspects of its development, reflex pathways, neural regulation and physiological functions, there have been more in-depth explorations. It is now recognized that a number of other diseases also have a more specific performance of RAIR. It has become an important and indispensable part to anorectal manometry. Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex is reviewed in this article.

  14. Progress and Limitations in Psychotherapy Research

    PubMed Central

    DOCHERTY, JOHN P.; STREETER, MELISSA J.

    1993-01-01

    During the last 15 years we have made substantial advances in our understanding of psychotherapy research and our ability to conduct this research effectively. Advances have occurred in several areas, including diagnosis, outcome assessment, and the technology of efficacy studies. These advances have improved the credibility of psychotherapy as a form of medical intervention and improved the efficacy of psychotherapeutic techniques. A review of progress in the psychotherapy of depression illustrates the positive impact of these advances and provides a useful framework for exploring areas requiring increased attention and research. PMID:22700135

  15. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  16. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance.

  17. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    PubMed

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  18. Research progress on the Kelly game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang

    2010-08-01

    The growth-optimal portfolio optimization strategy has been investigated in many ways since firstly pioneered by Kelly. This paper firstly introduces the research progress of this so-called Kelly game. Based on the original Kelly game the optimality is shortly proofed. Especially generalized research is introduced such as the relation between M-V approach and the Kelly approach, the question of diversification, the influence of transaction fees and limited information, etc. Then the application of Kelly strategy is discussed with some conclusions.

  19. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance. PMID:26917535

  20. [Research progress in pathogenicity of Ureaplasma urealyticum].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Song, Tiejun; Xie, Xinyou

    2013-07-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) is closely related to human diseases including non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), infertility, premature membranes and neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Researches on the pathogenicity of UU have become a hot topic in recent years, and suggest that many potential pathogenicity genes or putative pathogenicity islands are involved in its virulence. Moreover, the biovar and serum types of UU, the infection concentration and the state of the host immune system are also important to determine whether UU can cause human disease or not. In this article the recent progress of researches in the pathogenicity of UU is reviewed.

  1. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  2. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2015-12-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  3. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  4. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  5. Progress In Indium Phosphide Solar Cell Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.

    1989-11-01

    Following a short history of the previous terrestrial program, progress is reviewed, emphasizing the use of InP solar cells in space. State-of-the-art cells have been processed by open and closed tube diffusion, OMCVD and ion-implantation and DC magnetron sputtering. Air mass zero total area efficiencies near 19% were achieved and computer modelling studies indicate that efficiencies over 21% are feasible. Radiation effects studies in both the laboratory and space are described and a comparision made between the radiation resistance of InP, GaAs and Si. Computer modelling studies are described emphasizing the behavior of InP concentrator cells at high concentration and elevated temperature with applica-tion to both the Cassegranian and SLATS concentrator systems. Pro-duction cells are discussed including their intended use to power a spacecraft scheduled for launch in 1990. Several potentially fruit-ful areas are suggested for future research.

  6. Recent Progress in Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2013-10-01

    The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas, disruption suppression depends upon the particular disruption scenario. Recent progress on the suppression of low edge q, density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code. Several new diagnostic tools, including new magnetic sensors for MHD fluctuation studies, a multipoint Thomson scattering system, and a 2D soft x-ray two-color camera system are under development to further enable our understanding of CTH disruption dynamics. Future research directions, including plans for an island divertor, will be discussed. This work is supported by U. S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02- 00ER54610.

  7. Progress in plant research in space.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, F R; Hess, E L; Halstead, T W

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  8. Progress in natural laminar flow research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    For decades, since the earliest attempts to obtain natural laminar flow (NLF) on airplanes, three classical objections to its practicality have been held in the aeronautical community. These objectives concerned first, the capability to manufacture practical airframe surfaces smooth enough for NLF; second, the apparent inherent instability and sensitivity of NLF; and third, the accumulation of contamination such as insect debris in flight. This paper explains recent progress in our understanding of the achieveability and maintainability of NLF on modern airframe surfaces. This discussion explains why previous attempts to use NLF failed and what has changed regarding the three classical objections to NLF practicality. Future NASA research plans are described concerning exploring the limits of NLF usefulness, production tolerances, operational considerations, transition behavior and measurement methods, and NLF design applications.

  9. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  10. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-15

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  11. Experimental Research Progress of the VASIMR Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J. P.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center is performing research on a Variable Specific Impulse MagnetoPlasma Rocket (VASIMR). The VASIMR is a high power, radio frequency (RF) driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of very high exhaust velocities, > 100 km/s. In addition, its unique architecture allows in- flight mission-optimization of thrust and specific impulse to enhance performance and reduce trip time. A NASA-led research team involving industry, academia and government facilities is pursuing the development of this concept in the United States. The ASPL's experimental research focuses on three major areas: helicon plasma production, ion cyclotron resonant acceleration (ICRA) and plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle. The VASIMR experiment (VX-10) performs experimental research that demonstrates the thruster concept at a total RF power on the order of 10 kW. A flexible four- magnet system, with a 1.3 Tesla maximum magnetic field strength, is computer controlled to study axial magnetic field profile shape effects. Power generated at 10 - 50 MHz with about 5 kW is used to perform helicon plasma source development. A 3 MHz RF transmitter capable of 100 kW is available for ICRA experiments. The primary diagnostics are: gas mass flow controllers, RF input power, Langmuir probes, Mach probe, retarding potential analyzers (RPA), microwave interferometer, neutral pressure measurements and plasma light emission. In addition, many thermocouples are attached inside the vacuum chamber to measure heat loads around the plasma discharge. Helicon research so far has been done with hydrogen, deuterium, helium, nitrogen, argon, xenon and mixtures of these gases. Optimization studies have been performed with the magnetic field axial profile shape, gas flow rate, gas tube geometry and RF frequency. The highest performing discharges are found with a high magnetic field choke downstream of the helicon antenna. Upwards of a 40% gas utilization is

  12. Research progress in China's Lop Nur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Lv, Ping; Qian, Guangqiang; Xia, Xuncheng; Zhao, Yuanje; Mu, Guijin

    2012-02-01

    China's Lop Nur is one of the world's largest playas, and is located in the driest part of Central Asia. Scientific explorations by Chinese and foreign researchers have been continuously conducted there since the mid- to late 1800 s, and much progress has been made, but many issues remain hotly debated. Particularly intense debate focuses on the formation, environmental evolution, drying date of the Lop Nur lake, and cause of the helical salt crusts recently revealed by remote-sensing images. In this paper, we review the status of this research to provide insights that can inform studies in other arid zones that resemble the Lop Nur. The Lop Nur depression is a secondary unit of the Tarim Block, controlled by faults and fractures formed by the Himalayan orogeny, but various competing explanations have been proposed for how these geological structures gave rise to the depression. The depression's formation date also remains unclear. Several boreholes have been created to reconstruct the environmental evolution at different time scales since the Quaternary, and deposition rates of lake sediments, especially since the Late Pleistocene, have averaged less than 1 mm annually. The drying date of the Lop Nur lake is also debated. The helical salt crust structures appear to have formed as the lake shrank, but how and when they formed is unclear. Huge potash reserves have been found, and large-scale potash fertilizer production has begun, but the origin of these deposits is debated. Understanding the factors causing environmental evolution in this region is a central issue that will help us to clarify these and other debated issues.

  13. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  14. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism: Progress in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress and aspects is the study of the geomagnetic variations in the Indian region on quiet and disturbed days, equatorial electrojet field, electromagnetic induction in the earth, magnetic pulsations, aeronomy, radio scintillations, magnetosphere and solar wind, and solar-terrestrial relationships were reported.

  15. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  16. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  17. Research progress of nanoparticles as enzyme mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, XiaoNa; Liu, JianBo; Hou, Shuai; Wen, Tao; Liu, WenQi; Zhang, Ke; He, WeiWei; Ji, YingLu; Ren, HongXuan; Wang, Qi; Wu, XiaoChun

    2011-10-01

    Natural enzymes as biological catalysts possess remarkable advantages, especially their highly efficient and selective catalysis under mild conditions. However, most natural enzymes are proteins, thus exhibiting an inherent low durability to harsh reaction conditions. Artificial enzyme mimetics have been pursued extensively to avoid this drawback. Quite recently, some inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to exhibit unique enzyme mimetics. In addition, their much higher stability overcomes the inherent disadvantage of natural enzymes. Furthermore, easy mass-production and low cost endow them more benefits. As a new member of artificial enzyme mimetics, they have received intense attention. In this review article, major progress in this field is summarized and future perspectives are highlighted.

  18. Whooping crane recovery: Progress through research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Smith, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cooperative efforts of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada, and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center have established a captive flock of whooping cranes, and at least two additional wild populations. Efforts have focused on research, habitat protection, law enforcement, and conservation education programs.

  19. Research Progress and Accomplishments on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. The first research payloads arrived at ISS more than two years ago, and continuous science has been ongoing for more than one and a half years. During this time, the research capabilities have been tremendously increased, even as assembly of the overall platform continues. Despite significant challenges along the way, ISS continues to successfully support a large number of investigations in a variety of research disciplines. The results of some of the early investigations are reaching the publication stage. The near future looms with new challenges, but experience to date and dedicated efforts give reason to be optimistic that the challenges will be overcome and that new and greater successes will be added to past ones.

  20. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  1. [Progress in research on the biological reason of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Feng, Tie-jian

    2012-04-01

    Male homosexuality is a complex phenomenon which is universal and with unknown causes. Researchers believe that both biological and environmental factors have played a role in its pathogenesis. Researches focusing on genetics, neurobiology, development and endocrinology have made certain progress. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field.

  2. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities in 1988, this is the fourteenth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report includes extended manuscripts, short reports, and progress reports. The report contains…

  3. [Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-ping

    2011-08-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry, this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently, the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith's Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the fractionation of isotopes C and O in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.

  4. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  5. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca. PMID:27141658

  6. X-48B Flight Research Progress Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the X-48B Flight research program. Major program accomplishments, a detailed description of the X-48B vehicle, along with flight tests, and wind tunnel tests are also described.

  7. Summary of research in progress at ICASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1992 through March 31, 1993.

  8. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  9. [Progress of research in retinal image registration].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lun; Wei, Lifang; Pan, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The retinal image registration has important applications in the processes of auxiliary diagnosis and treatment for a variety of diseases. The retinal image registration can be used to measure the disease process and the therapeutic effect. A variety of retinal image registration techniques have been studied extensively in recent years. However, there are still many problems existing and there are numerous research possibilities. Based on extensive investigation of existing literatures, the present paper analyzes the feature of retinal image and current challenges of retinal image registration, and reviews the transformation models of the retinal image registration technology and the main research algorithms in current retinal image registration, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various types of algorithms. Some research challenges and future developing trends are also discussed.

  10. Progress in lactic acid bacterial phage research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advanced significantly over the past number of decades and these developments have been driven by the parallel advances in technologies such as genomics, bioinformatics, protein expression systems and structural biology, combined with the ever increasing commercial relevance of this group of microorganisms. Some of the more significant and impressive outputs have been in the domain of bacteriophage-host interactions which provides a prime example of the cutting-edge model systems represented by LAB research. Here, we present a retrospective overview of the key advances in LAB phage research including phage-host interactions and co-evolution. We describe how in many instances this knowledge can be pivotal in creating real improvements in the application of LAB cultures in commercial practice. PMID:25185514

  11. Recent Progress in the Superconductivity Research Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Ataru

    Major developments in the research field of superconductivity have been achieved in 2008. Since the discovery of high-Tc superconductors, their practical application has been studied by many researchers. Coated conductors consisting of an YBa2Cu3Oy superconducting layer deposited on metal tapes buffered oxide layers were developed in the NEDO project between FY2003 and FY2007. These technologies for coated conductors are expected to be applicable to electrical power equipment. A new NEDO project that started in FY2008 is focusing on the development of superconducting electric power equipment such as power cables, superconducting magnetic energy storage devices (SMES) and transformers. Furthermore, a new family of high-Tc superconductors, Fe-As-O-based superconductors, has been discovered. The highest reported critical temperature, Tc, has rapidly increased owing to the considerable effort of many researchers. A new social environment based on superconductivity technology might indeed be realized in the near future.

  12. Recent progress in snow and ice research

    SciTech Connect

    Richter-menge, J.A.; Colbeck, S.C.; Jezek, K.C. )

    1991-01-01

    A review of snow and ice research in 1987-1990 is presented, focusing on the effects of layers in seasonal snow covers, ice mechanics on fresh water and sea ice, and remote sensig of polar ice sheets. These topics provide useful examples of general needs in snow and ice research applicable to most areas, such as better representation in models of detailed processes, controlled laboratory experiments to quantify processes, and field studies to provide the appropriate context for interpretation of processes from remote sensing.

  13. [Research progress on quantification of electroacupuncture parameters].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Liejing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiuzhu; Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-05-01

    By reviewing literature, summarization and generalization are respectively pertormed according to different electroacupunture (EA) parameters. Based on the understanding of clinical and experimental usage of EA parameters, effects of different parameters are summarized, and a preliminary evaluation is done to point out the advantages and disadvantages. It is found out that different EA parameters would produce different effects on the body, and researches are more in the field of experimental area and less in the clinical area. What's more, the majority of scholars focuses their attention on single-factor study, leading to fewer researches on the effects of parameters combination. PMID:26255537

  14. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  15. DISEASES OF CORALS: RESEARCH PROGRESS, REEF PROSPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals have been the subject of intensive research during the past few decades to improve understanding of their role in supporting diverse tropical and subtropical marine communities and to examine factors responsible for their decline and loss of community biodive...

  16. Progress in research on chlorate candle technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, J.

    1970-01-01

    Research and development program improves sodium chlorate candle formulation, production method, and igniter design. Cobalt is used as the fuel, dry processing methods are used to lower the water content, and a device based on pyrotechnic heater concepts is used as the igniter.

  17. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  18. Research 1970/1971: Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta. Science Information Research Center.

    The report presents a summary of science information research activities of the School of Information and Computer Science, Georgia Institute of Technology. Included are project reports on interrelated studies in science information, information processing and systems design, automata and systems theories, and semiotics and linguistics. Also…

  19. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1993-10-31

    The most significant development this year has been the successful elucidation of the low-energy systematics of the very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm isotopes. This includes an extensive set of Nilsson bandheads in {sup 133}Nd. Some serious errors in earlier decay scheme work were found. The results require some significant reassessments of mean-field calculations in this region. Part of our program continues to focus on shape coexistence and electric monopole (E0) transitions in nuclei. Following the discovery of coexisting ``gamma`` bands connected by E0 transitions in {sup 184}Pt, a similar behavior in {sup 186}Pt was established from {sup 186}Au decay data. This includes a pure E0 transition between states with J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}, just as was seen in {sup 184}Pt. Progress has been made in elucidating the low-energy systematics of the neutron-deficient Ir isotopes. A search for the population of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb in the decay of {sup 194}Bi was unsuccessful. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been initiated.

  20. Progress in indium phosphide solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Progress, dating from the start of the Lewis program, is reviewed emphasizing processing techniques which have achieved the highest efficiencies in a given year. To date, the most significant achievement has been attainment of AM0 total area efficiencies approaching 19 percent. Although closed tube diffusion is not considered to be an optimum process, reasonably efficient 2cm x 2cm and 1cm x 2cm InP cells have been produced in quantity by this method with a satellite to be launched in 1990 using these cells. Proton irradiation of these relatively large area cells indicates radiation resistance comparable to that previously reported for smaller InP cells. A similar result is found for the initial proton irradiations of ITO/InP cells processed by D. C. sputtering. With respect to computer modelling, a comparison of n/p homojunction InP and GaAs cells of identical geometries and dopant concentrations has confirmed the superior radiation resistance of InP cells under 1 MeV electron irradiations.

  1. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  2. Progress of research on water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    Research is described on several aspects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of 532 nm laser light in H2, D2, and CH4. The goals of this work are to develop a more thorough understanding of nonlinear processes involving the Raman effect and four-wave mixing, and to find the best way to generate radiation at several wavelengths simultaneously, for lidar applications. Issues addressed are conversion efficiency, optimization of operating conditions (gas pressure, confocal parameter, etc.) and the distribution of output pulse energy over three Stokes components, the first anti-Stokes component, and the zeroth order (pump) wavelength. The described research and results constitute another step in the development of SRS applications for NASA's atmospheric lidar program.

  3. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  4. [Research progression of short chain fatty acid].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    With the development of intestinal flora, short chain fatty acid(SCFA), produced by the intestinal microbiota, has been found to be important for the host. It also plays an important role in the part of the occurrence and development of some diseases. The relationship between SCFA produced by intestinal microbiota and the host body has become the research focus in recent years. The physiological function and clinical application of SCFA were reviewed in this article.

  5. [Progress in genetic research on pachydermoperiostosis].

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Fan, Liangliang; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Rong

    2016-02-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by finger clubbing, periostosis, cutis verticis gyrata and pachydermia accompanied by acroosteolysis and hyperhidrosis. Recently, two susceptibility genes, HPGD and SLCO2A1, have been identified, whose protein products are involved in the transportation of prostaglandin and metabolism underlying pachydermoperiostosis. Here the genetic basis of pachydermoperiostosis and its correlation with its clinical phenotype are reviewed, which may provide a reference for basic research and clinic diagnosis for the disease. PMID:26829746

  6. Progress on low altitude cloud icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeck, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    The icing environment at altitudes below 10,000 feet were studied. The following questions are asked, are: (1) existing aircraft certification criteria applicable; (2) too stringent on icing for helos; (3) based on accurate data; (4) appropriate for low (10,000 ft) altitudes? The research plan is outlined: review historical icing data, obtain new measurements, collect modern icing data from other groups, and recommend LWC, OAT, and MVD criteria for helicopters. Estimated accuracies and known sources of error are included. It is concluded that the net effect of possible sources of error of both signs is uncertain.

  7. Progress of research on water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, U. N.

    1989-01-01

    Research is summarized on applications of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of laser light into near infrared wavelengths suitable for atmospheric monitoring. Issues addressed are conversion efficiency, spectral purity, optimization of operating conditions, and amplification techniques. A Raman cell was developed and built for the laboratory program, and is now available to NASA-Langley, either as a design or as a completed cell for laboratory or flight applications. The Raman cell has been approved for flight in NASA's DC-8 aircraft. The self-seeding SRS technique developed here is suggested as an essential improvement for tunable near-IR DIAL applications at wavelengths of order 1 micrometer or greater.

  8. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  9. Center for Research for Mothers and Children. 1988 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    The 1988 Progress Report covers research activities of the five branches of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. An introductory section briefly describes the Center, notes staff activities and Center sponsored conferences and workshops, and identifies highlights of…

  10. [Research Progress of Application of Microfluidics Techniques in Cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanfeng; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Xinli

    2015-06-01

    Microfluidics technology may be an effective method to solve some problems in cryopreservation. This review presents the research progress of microfluidics technology in the field of cell membrane transport properties, cryoprotectant addition and washout and the vitrification for cryopreservation of biological materials. Existing problems of microfluidics technology in the application of cryopreservation are summarized and future research directions are indicated as well.

  11. High energy physics research. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piroue, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}} interactions and Z{sup 0} physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}} pair creation by light at SLAC; R&D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and {gamma}-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R&D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way.

  12. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  13. Progress of astrometric research in Nikolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Maigurova, Nadia; Martynov, Maxim; Pinigin, Gennadiy

    2012-08-01

    A catalog of astrometric positions and proper motions of 140237 stars in fields of ecliptical zone and high proper motion stars was derived from CCD - observations made at AMC telescope (Nikolaev) in 2008 - 2009. The UCAC2 catalog was used as a reference one for astrometric reductions. The standard error for a single position is 20 - 65 mas in right ascension and 30 - 70 mas in declination. Cross - identification of the obtained data with modern astrometric catalogs such as TYCHO2, 2MASS, CMC14, PPMX, XPM, USNO - A2.0 and XPM - 1.0 was made for investigation systematical errors and calculation of the proper motions [1]. The final catalog contains star positions, proper motions as well as photometric data (B, V, r ´, J, H, K) taken from other catalogs. For analysis of perturbed motion of selected asteroids, there was made astrometric reduction for three thousands of positions of 68 selected asteroids observed at the Russian - Turkish telescope RTT150 in 2008 - 2011 [2]. The research is conducted within the International Joint Project between IMCCE (France), NAO (Ukraine), KFU (Russia), and TUG (Turkey). The reduction was made with the UCAC2 and UCAC3 catalogs. The standard error of a single position is 0.15 arcsec in right ascension and 0.13 arcsec in declination. Also, the first results of astrometric reduction are presented for the observations of selected asteroids made at the AZT8 (Evpatoriya ) and Mobitel (Nikolaev) telescopes. The obtained positions are expected to be used for derivation masses of asteroids by dynamical method. This work is supported by State Agency on Science, Innovation and Information of Ukraine, Russian Foundation for Basic Research. 1. Jin, W., Pinigin, G., Tang, Zh., Shulga, A. (2011). The collaboration between ShAO and NAO: Celebration of the 1 90th anniversary of NAO. Proc. Int. Conf. “Astronomical Research: from near - Earth Space to the Galaxy”, Nikolaev (pp. 92 - 104). 2 . Ivantsov, A., Gumerov, R., Khamitov, I., Aslan, Z

  14. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation.

  15. Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  17. [Nitrogen balance in dairy farm: research progress].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chao; Qin, Wen-Xiao; Gao, Teng-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Zhi-Guo; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Large dairy farm with intensive management has high stocking density, but generally does not have enough space and normative feces disposal system, resulting in the discharged nitrogen surpassed the environmental carrying capacity of unit area land. Dairy farm is one of the major emission sources of nitrogen discharges in agriculture, where the nitrogen balance has being aroused attention by the experts abroad. The research on the nitrogen flow and nitrogen balance in dairy farm is the basis of the dairy farm nitrogen cycling and management study, as well as the basis for the construction of environmental laws, regulations and policies. The most reliable indicators to evaluate the nitrogen flow and nitrogen balance in dairy farm are nitrogen surplus and nitrogen use efficiency. This paper introduced the concept of nitrogen balance on farm-scale and the nitrogen flow within farm, compared the application scope of nitrogen surplus and nitrogen use efficiency, analyzed the factors affecting the nitrogen balance in dairy farm, and summarized the effective strategies to reduce the nitrogen discharges from dairy farm, aimed to provide references for the nitrogen management of dairy farm in China.

  18. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion Research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, Christine

    2002-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently transitioned from small scaled experiments to experiments with driver-scale currents at low energy. Two new experiments are in operation, the High Current Experiment (HCX), and the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The space charge in these experiments is similar to that of a driver, and enables investigation of the interaction of the beam with electrons, both those produced by beam halo scraping surfaces, and also electrons intentionally introduced to assist a neutralized focus. Other HIF-VNL experiments are being used to investigate a new approach to beam injectors. At the University of Maryland, an electron ring is being used to explore transport issues of interest. The design of all of these experiments, their goals, and recent experimental results and computer simulation, will be described. Future programmatic plans for Heavy Ion Fusion will also be discussed, including the scientific objectives and physics design of a proposed new next-step proof-of-principle experiment for Heavy Ion Fusion, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). This experiment would constitute an integrated source-to-target test of beam dynamics using a driver-scale beam. Many beam manipulations, such as drift compression (integrated with final focus and subsequent neutralization), long-length-scale transport, longitudinal wave dynamics, and bending of space-charge-dominated beams would be tested at scale for the first time in this experiment. Finally, the programmatic importance, parameters, and scientific mission of a proof-of-performance experiment, the Integrated Research Experiment, will be discussed.

  19. Computational Approaches for Translational Clinical Research in Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Mary F.; Iyengar, M. Sriram; Mercer, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, there is an ever-increasing amount of biological and clinical data available that could be used to enhance a systems-based understanding of disease progression through innovative computational analysis. In this paper we review a selection of published research regarding computational methodologies, primarily from systems biology, that support translational research from the molecular level to the bedside, with a focus on applications in trauma and critical care. Trauma is the leading cause of mortality in Americans under 45 years of age, and its rapid progression offers both opportunities and challenges for computational analysis of trends in molecular patterns associated with outcomes and therapeutic interventions. This review presents methods and domain-specific examples that may inspire the development of new algorithms and computational methods that utilize both molecular and clinical data for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in disease progression. PMID:21712727

  20. Geothermal research at the Puna facility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.

    1985-12-12

    Research progress is reported. A conceptual model of the reservoir was developed comprising two production zones of different characteristics: the upper zone producing liquid while the lower zone produces vapor. Preliminary studies were carried out at the HGP-A facility on the flocculation behavior of silica under various conditions. (ACR)

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  2. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  3. Progress of direct drive laser fusion research at ILE, Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hisanori; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Kato, Yoshinori; Kanabe, Tadashi; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Kodama, Ryosuke; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakai, Sadao; Nagatomo, Hideo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Takabe, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko

    1999-07-01

    Reviewed are the progress in direct drive implosion researches with Gekko XII laser system. Precise observation of the growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the suppression of imprints using indirect-direct hybrid implosion have been investigated. Theoretical and experimental researchers on the fast ignition scheme are also studied. Relativistic laser plasma interaction experiments with Peta-Watt Module and Gekko XII are also described. Finally, the future direction of the research including the development of solid state laser for fusion reactor is discussed.

  4. [The research progress of diving medicine in China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Qun; Bao, Xiao-Chen; Li, Ci; Meng, Miao; Yuan, Heng-Rong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Diving medicine is one of the branches of military medicine, and plays an important role in naval development. This review introduces the progress of researches on undersea and hyperbaric physiology and medicine in the past few years in China. The article describes our research achievement in conventional diving and its medical support, researches on saturation diving and its medical support, submarine escape and its medical support, effects of hyperbaric environments and fast buoyancy ascent on immunological and cardiological functions. Diving disorders (including decompression sickness and oxygen toxicity) are also introduced.

  5. Research progress of microbial corrosion of reinforced concrete structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Li, Dawang; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-04-01

    Microbial corrosion of reinforce concrete structure is a new branch of learning. This branch deals with civil engineering , environment engineering, biology, chemistry, materials science and so on and is a interdisciplinary area. Research progress of the causes, research methods and contents of microbial corrosion of reinforced concrete structure is described. The research in the field is just beginning and concerted effort is needed to go further into the mechanism of reinforce concrete structure and assess the security and natural life of reinforce concrete structure under the special condition and put forward the protective methods.

  6. Research progress of stem cells on glaucomatous optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya-Sha; Xu, Jian; Peng, Jun; Li, Ping; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yue; Chen, Ke-Zhu; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Ying; Peng, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is an irreversible optic neuropathy. The mechanism of optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma is undefined at present. There is no effective treatment method for the injury. Stem cells have the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation. These two features have made them become the research focus on improving the injury at present. This paper reviews the application progress on different types of stem cells therapy for optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma. PMID:27588279

  7. Research progress of stem cells on glaucomatous optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya-Sha; Xu, Jian; Peng, Jun; Li, Ping; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yue; Chen, Ke-Zhu; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Ying; Peng, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is an irreversible optic neuropathy. The mechanism of optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma is undefined at present. There is no effective treatment method for the injury. Stem cells have the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation. These two features have made them become the research focus on improving the injury at present. This paper reviews the application progress on different types of stem cells therapy for optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma.

  8. Research progress of stem cells on glaucomatous optic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ya-Sha; Xu, Jian; Peng, Jun; Li, Ping; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Yue; Chen, Ke-Zhu; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Ying; Peng, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is an irreversible optic neuropathy. The mechanism of optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma is undefined at present. There is no effective treatment method for the injury. Stem cells have the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation. These two features have made them become the research focus on improving the injury at present. This paper reviews the application progress on different types of stem cells therapy for optic nerve injury caused by glaucoma. PMID:27588279

  9. [Research progress on banana functional genomics involved in fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Xu, Bi-Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jia-Shui; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    Banana is one of the most important tropical fruits and main economical resource for tropical people. Banana quality is always becoming a focus for people to follow with interest. Here, we reviewed recent research progresses on isolation and identification of banana genes involved in fruit quality such as ripening, softening, glycometabolism, and scent, which will help us explore their functions and facilitate banana quality improvement. PMID:22522158

  10. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect.

  11. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect. PMID:27266206

  12. [Research progress in HIV auxiliary proteins counteracting host restriction factors].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Xu, Qing-Gang; Zhang, Chi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Identification and functional analyses of antiviral restriction factors in hosts have become hot research topics. Four HIV restriction factors, APOBEC3G, Trim5alpha, Tetherin, and SAMHD1, have been identified in recent years. By encoding auxiliary proteins, lentiviruses can counteract host restriction factors. For example, the auxiliary proteins Vif, Vpu, and Vpx of HIV antagonize APOBEC3G, Tetherin, and SAMHD1, respectively. Furthermore, these auxiliary proteins enable the entry of HIV into host cells and influence the replication and pathogenicity of HIV. In this paper, we review the research progress in the functions of the three HIV auxiliary proteins that can antagonize the host restriction factors.

  13. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  14. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    PubMed

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  15. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  16. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer.

  17. Overview of research in progress at the Center of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    The Center of Excellence (COE) was created nine years ago to facilitate active collaboration between the scientists at Ames Research Center and the Stanford Psychology Department. Significant interchange of ideas and personnel continues between Stanford and participating groups at NASA-Ames; the COE serves its function well. This progress report is organized into sections divided by project. Each section contains a list of investigators, a background statement, progress report, and a proposal for work during the coming year. The projects are: Algorithms for development and calibration of visual systems, Visually optimized image compression, Evaluation of advanced piloting displays, Spectral representations of color, Perception of motion in man and machine, Automation and decision making, and Motion information used for navigation and control.

  18. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer. PMID:27097400

  19. Moving toward 2017: progress in rehabilitation intervention effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Woodson, Anne; Watford, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Halfway into the 10-yr American Occupational Therapy Association Centennial Vision initiative, occupational therapy has made notable progress in establishing itself as a science-driven profession. Through the diligent work of many talented occupational therapy scholars, 42 research studies exploring interventions used in rehabilitation research were published in the past 5 years. A variety of both novel and established intervention strategies were investigated using diverse research designs and measurement tools. A predominant number of studies were conducted with the poststroke population. Moving forward to 2017 and building on our success, we can recognize our full potential by fostering knowledge translation, expanding participant numbers, exploring less-studied populations, increasing the volume of systematic reviews published, and reporting occupation-centered outcomes, the unique and defining component of our profession.

  20. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised.

  1. [Research progress of bonding strength between porcelain veneer and enamel].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Fu-qiang

    2014-02-01

    Porcelain veneer had gained more and more attention in dental clinical applications due to its advantages such as good esthetic effects and minor invasiveness. The reliable and consistent adhesive bonding were the key to success. The enamel which featured high mineralization and low moisture would be the ideal bonding part for porcelain veneer. This article was aimed to summarize the research progress regarding to those factors that might had effect on the bonding strength between the porcelain veneer and the enamel including the restoration types of resin adhesives and bonding surface preparations. PMID:24608629

  2. [Progress in research of new human enterovirus types].

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Tao, Ze-Xin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Song, Yan-Yan; Wang, Xian-Jun; Xu, Ai-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    More and more new human enteroviruses (HEVs) types were identified with the broad application of the molecular serotyping methods for enteroviruses. Since enterovirus 71 (EV71) was first reported in 1969, numerous epidemic outbreaks associated with new enteroviruses have occurred all around the world, and pose a significant threat to public health . The epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by EV71 infection in China have raised great concern of global scholars. This paper reviewed research progress in recent years of the molecular typing, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis attributable to new enterovirus types.

  3. [Research progress in aromatic prenyltransferases originated from microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Ri-Dao; Xie, Dan; Li, Jian-Hua; Wang, Rui-Shan; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2013-02-01

    The prenylation of aromatic compounds plays an important role in the natural product research because it not only gives rise to an astounding diversity of primary and secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria but also enhances the bioactivities and bioavailabilities of these compounds. However, further investigation of prenylated aromatic compounds is frequently hindered due to their low content in nature and difficulties in chemical synthesis. Cloning aromatic prenyltransferase genes followed by heterologous expression would be attractive tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioactive molecules. This review summarizes the classifications, structural investigations, enzymatic catalysis and other progress in aromatic prenyltransferases originated from microorganisms.

  4. Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-20

    With the increase need to seamlessly integrate the renewable energy with the current grid which itself is evolving into a more intelligent, efficient, and capable electrical power system, it is envisioned that the energy storage system will play a more prominent role in bridging the gap between the current technology and a clean sustainable future in grid reliability and utilization. Redox flow battery technology is leading the way in this perspective in providing a well balanced approach for current challenges. Recent progress in the research and development of redox flow battery technology is reviewed here with a focus on new chemistries and systems.

  5. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  6. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  7. [Research progress of bonding strength between porcelain veneer and enamel].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Fu-qiang

    2014-02-01

    Porcelain veneer had gained more and more attention in dental clinical applications due to its advantages such as good esthetic effects and minor invasiveness. The reliable and consistent adhesive bonding were the key to success. The enamel which featured high mineralization and low moisture would be the ideal bonding part for porcelain veneer. This article was aimed to summarize the research progress regarding to those factors that might had effect on the bonding strength between the porcelain veneer and the enamel including the restoration types of resin adhesives and bonding surface preparations.

  8. FY2012 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    FY 2012 annual report of the energy storage research and development effort within the VT Office. An important step for the electrification of the nation’s light duty transportation sector is the development of more cost-effective, long lasting, and abuse-tolerant PEV batteries. In fiscal year 2012, battery R&D work continued to focus on the development of high-energy batteries for PEVs and very high power devices for hybrid vehicles. This document provides a summary and progress update of the VTP battery R&D projects that were supported in 2012.

  9. Laboratory directed research and development: FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1998-05-01

    This is the FY 1997 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic and molecular physics and plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1998 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Vigil; Kyle Wheeler

    1999-04-01

    This is the FY 1998 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principle investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  11. Research And Development Contributions to Aviation Progress (RADCAP): Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Positive contributions of military aeronautical research and development programs to civil aviation are reviewed and some possible future contributions of those military programs are assessed. A summary is presented of detailed results concerned with: (1) review of the progress that has been made in aviation since 1925 and the significant technological advances that have been made; (2) an examination of current and planned military aeronautical research and technology programs and an assessment of their relevancy to the aeronautical R and D needs of civil aviation; (3) the relationship of the development base generated by military programs to the needs of civil airliner design, development, and production; (4) information on aeronautical R and D funding; and (5) the findings and observations of the RADCAP study.

  12. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  13. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  14. Research Progress in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András; Terry, Sharon F.; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Heritable ectopic mineralization disorders represent a phenotypically diverse group of conditions characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in soft connective tissues. The prototype of such conditions is pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and related conditions with overlapping clinical features include generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC). Molecular genetic investigations have revealed mutations in the genes physiologically involved in generation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphate (Pi), and the findings suggest a unifying pathomechanism relating to reduced PPi/Pi ratio. This hypothesis is based on the notion that PPi serves as a powerful inhibitor of mineralization while Pi is a pro-mineralization factor, and an appropriate PPi/Pi ratio is critical for prevention of ectopic mineralization under homeostatic conditions. PXE International, the premiere patient support organization, advocating on behalf of patients and families with PXE, sponsors regular research meetings evaluating the progress in this and related ectopic mineralization disorders. The latest meetings were held in September 2014 in Bethesda, MD and in September 2015 in Budapest, Hungary. This report summarizes the latest progress in research on PXE and related ectopic mineralization disorders, based on presentations and discussions in these meetings, with pharmacologic implications for currently intractable disorders. PMID:26902123

  15. [Research progress and direction of atmospheric brown carbon].

    PubMed

    Yan, Cai-Qing; Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Organic aerosol is one of the most important components of atmospheric aerosols. In recent years, organic aerosol has been found and proved to be light absorbing in UV-Visible region. Light absorbing organic carbon (also named as brown carbon) has been one of the forefronts in the field of atmospheric research. Its light absorption contributions to radiative forcing, regional air quality, and global climate change have drawn much attention. Regional air pollution is complex in China. Frequent visibility decline and severe regional haze episodes occurred since January 2013. Previous studies showed high amount of estimated columnar light-absorbing organic carbon in China, and according to current research findings, major sources of fine particulate matter in China (e. g. biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion) were also recognized as the main sources for brown carbon. Considering the high abundance of brown carbon in atmosphere, there is a great need to reconsider and reevaluate contributions of organic aerosol to light absorption, especially its role in haze formation and radiative forcing. However, up to now, basic researches on light absorbing organic carbon are still limited in China. This study aimed to elucidate the need for basic research on brown carbon, summarize previous studies and research progress from different aspects such as sources, composition, measurement, mass concentration distribution, optical property, radiative forcing of brown carbon, point out the existing problems and deficiencies, and put forward suggestions for future study.

  16. [Progress in the research of carbon nanotubes as drug carriers].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-gang; Huang, Ke-long; Yang, Qiao-qin; Liu, Su-qin; Tang, Jin-chun

    2008-10-01

    Research and development of new drug carriers are crucial to the research of drugs. Due to their unique hollow structure and nano-diameter, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as drug carriers. Functionalization of CNTs with peptides, proteins, nucleic acids or even drug molecules, the so obtained functionalized CNTs can be used as carriers to deliver bioactive molecules into cells without causing any toxicity. The research progress of CNTs as drug carriers in recent years is summarized, and the CNTs' cytotoxicity and their ability to penetrate cells are discussed, and the methods of functionalizing carbon nanotubes are also mentioned in the paper. Along with the advancement of CNTs in drug carriers system, the relationship between the way to functionalize CNTs and the so obtained modified CNTs' ability to penetrate into cells, including the effect of dimension, should be further studied. Preparation of functionalized CNTs with high solubility and low toxicity as drug carriers will be the main research areas in the near future. PMID:19127860

  17. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  18. [Research progress on techniques for artificial propagation of corals].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-hong; Hong, Wen-ting; Chen, Ji-xin; Chen, Yun; Wang, Yi-lei; Zhang, Zi-ping; Weng, Zhao-hong; Xie, Yang-jie

    2015-09-01

    The natural coral reef resources degrade rapidly because of climate change, environmental pollution and exploitation of aquarium species. Artificial propagation is an effective way to facilitate the reduction of wild harvesting, reef restoration, preservation of biodiversity. This paper reviewed the technique and research progresses focused on coral artificial propagation. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction as well as in situ and ex situ propagation. Moreover, we summarized the important roles of irradiation, flow rate, nutrients, feed and other factors in coral propagation within recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Irradiation is the key to successful ex situ coral culture and different species show different needs of radiation intensity and light spectrum. Therefore, artificial lighting in RAS, as well as. power and maintenance costs, are very important for ex situ coral aquaculture. In addition, corals are very sensitive to NH4+, NO3-, NO2- as well as phosphate in RAS, and many physical, chemical and biological methods are acquired to maintain low nutrients condition. Although RAS has progressed a lot in terms of irradiation, flow rate and nutrient control, future studies also should focus on sexual reproduction, genetic modification and disease control.

  19. [Research progress on techniques for artificial propagation of corals].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-hong; Hong, Wen-ting; Chen, Ji-xin; Chen, Yun; Wang, Yi-lei; Zhang, Zi-ping; Weng, Zhao-hong; Xie, Yang-jie

    2015-09-01

    The natural coral reef resources degrade rapidly because of climate change, environmental pollution and exploitation of aquarium species. Artificial propagation is an effective way to facilitate the reduction of wild harvesting, reef restoration, preservation of biodiversity. This paper reviewed the technique and research progresses focused on coral artificial propagation. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction as well as in situ and ex situ propagation. Moreover, we summarized the important roles of irradiation, flow rate, nutrients, feed and other factors in coral propagation within recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Irradiation is the key to successful ex situ coral culture and different species show different needs of radiation intensity and light spectrum. Therefore, artificial lighting in RAS, as well as. power and maintenance costs, are very important for ex situ coral aquaculture. In addition, corals are very sensitive to NH4+, NO3-, NO2- as well as phosphate in RAS, and many physical, chemical and biological methods are acquired to maintain low nutrients condition. Although RAS has progressed a lot in terms of irradiation, flow rate and nutrient control, future studies also should focus on sexual reproduction, genetic modification and disease control. PMID:26785577

  20. [Research Progress on Cytometric Bead Assay for Platelet Antibody Detection].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Kong, Xin; Chen, Bao-An

    2015-08-01

    Anti-platelet specific antibody is one of the most important reasons leading to thrombocytopenia and megakaryocyte dysmaturity. The detection of platelet autoantibodies is an important step in the diagnosis of ITP because of the absence of specific clinic feature. The monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) has become a "gold standard" for determination of PLT specific antibody, which has high specificity and low sensitivity. However, this assay is time-consuming and tedious work. Routine use of this assay in hospital is difficult. Recently, some researches reporded the cytometric bead assay that has higher sensitivity than MAIPA, and so probably solves the problem of time-consuming partly, that also can use different beads for simultaneous detection. This review focuses on recent progress of the cytometric bead assay. PMID:26314475

  1. Progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/p homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators.

  2. [Characteristics of molecular genetics and research progress on mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Si, Yanmei; Zhao, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial diseases is a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal structure and dysfunction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Abnormalities of mtDNA include point mutations, deletions, and rearrangements and depletion of mtDNA. These may affect the ability of mitochondria to generate energy in cells of various tissues and organs. As many factors are involved in the regulation of mtDNA mutations, most mitochondrial diseases may manifest great genetic heterogeneity and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. On the other hand, for the low prevalence of single disease, these disorders may be easily missed or with delayed diagnosis. This review focuses on the pathological mutations and benign variations of mtDNA, and research progress on such disorders. PMID:27577231

  3. [Research progress on musk secretion mechanism of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Feng, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Gui-Jun; Zeng, De-Jun; Zhang, Cheng-Lu; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), a rare wild medicinal animal, is listed under the category of the state key protected wildlife list of China. Musk, secreted by the musk glands, is with high economic and medicinal value and used as precious traditional medicine in China. In order to meet the needs of musk in Chinese traditional medicine, forest musk deer farming was conducted in 1950s, but the research progress on musk secretion mechanism was slow. Therefore, by reviewing the histological and anatomical structure of forest musk deer musk gland, the relationship between sex hormones and the musk secretion process, and the molecular mechanism of the musk secretion, the existing problems in investigating the musk secretion mechanism were analyzed and the development trends in this field were also discussed, in order to provide a reference for further studies on the musk secretion mechanism and improve musk production of forest musk deer.

  4. [Progress on the research of apomixis related genes in plant].

    PubMed

    Hu, Long-Xing

    2008-02-01

    Apomixis is a special asexual reproduction that plants can form embryo and produce progenies via seeds without sperm-egg fusion. Since apomitic embryo is a complete genetic clone of maternal parent without the participation of sperm, it is an ideal pathway to fix and utilize hybrid vigor and has unpredictable potential value in crop breeding, thus be called "the asexual revolution". According to the formation of the apomitic embryos, apomixis could be divided into three major types: diplospory, apospory and adventive embryony. This review is focused on the recent research progresses of related genes in the development of embryo, endosperm, and miosis, and several genes may involved in the regulation of apomitic development.

  5. [Research Progress on Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-long; Pan, Wei-qing

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a novel and effective antimalarial drug discovered in China. As recommended by the World Health Organization, the ART-based combination therapies (ACTs) have become the first-line drugs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. ART and its derivatives have contributed greatly to the effective control of malaria globally, leading to yearly decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality. However, there have recently been several reports on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to ART in Southeast Asia. This is deemed a serious threat to the global malaria control programs. In this paper, we reviewed recent research progress on ART resistance to P. falciparum, including new tools for resistance measurement, resistance-associated molecular markers, and the origin and spread of the ART-resistant parasite strains.

  6. [Research Progress on Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-long; Pan, Wei-qing

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a novel and effective antimalarial drug discovered in China. As recommended by the World Health Organization, the ART-based combination therapies (ACTs) have become the first-line drugs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. ART and its derivatives have contributed greatly to the effective control of malaria globally, leading to yearly decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality. However, there have recently been several reports on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to ART in Southeast Asia. This is deemed a serious threat to the global malaria control programs. In this paper, we reviewed recent research progress on ART resistance to P. falciparum, including new tools for resistance measurement, resistance-associated molecular markers, and the origin and spread of the ART-resistant parasite strains. PMID:27089770

  7. [Progress of research on microRNAs of parasites].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Xin; Zhou, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Zhong-Xi; Fan, Hong-Jie; Yao, Huo-Chun

    2013-04-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecules of non-coding RNA, a class size of about 21-25 nt widespread in eukaryotes, resulting from single-stranded RNA precursors with the size of 70-90 bases of a hairpin structure generated after dicer enzyme processing. They play an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation, widely involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, metabolism, apoptosis and other physiological activities. miRNA extensively involved in the physiological and metabolic processes of the parasite development process, but the key miRNA relevant to parasite invasion of a host still lacks reports. This paper summarizes the miRNA analytical methods and the progress on its researches in parasitology.

  8. Noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: Research progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Du, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention in cancer research field. They are involved in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The dysregulation of ncRNAs has been reported in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has deepened our understanding of ncRNAs, and several emerging ncRNAs have been identified, such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks include mRNAs, microRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circRNAs, which play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of GC. This review summarizes the recent hotspots of ncRNAs involved in GC pathobiology and their potential applications in GC. Finally, we briefly discuss the advances in the ceRNA network in GC. PMID:27547004

  9. Recent research progress with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yan; Ye, Lidan; Xu, Jun; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphate monoesters and diacylglycerol. It has many applications in the enzymatic degumming of plant oils. PLC Bc , a bacterial PLC from Bacillus cereus, is an optimal choice for this activity in terms of its wide substrate spectrum, high activity, and approved safety. Unfortunately, its large-scale production and reliable high-throughput screening of PLC Bc remain challenging. Herein, we summarize the research progress regarding PLC Bc with emphasis on the screening methods, expression systems, catalytic mechanisms and inhibitor of PLC Bc . This review hopefully will inspire new achievements in related areas, to promote the sustainable development of PLC Bc and its application. PMID:26437973

  10. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided.

  11. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review.

  12. [Research progress and prospect of universal influenza vaccine].

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong-Yu; Xue, Chun-Yi; Cao, Yong-Chang

    2013-11-01

    The constant outbreaks of influenza in a global scale have aroused great concern all over the world. Vaccine has been the most effective and economic means against influenza. However, the broad tropism and high mutation of influenza viruses have limited the effectiveness of influenza vaccines. Current influenza virus vaccines provide effective protection against virus strains that are identical or highly similar to the vaccine strain. Once a highly mutated or new strain of influenza virus appears, the current vaccine would lose its effectiveness. Therefore, the development of a universal vaccine against highly mutated or new influenza virus subtypes has become a hot spot in the field of influenza vaccine research. The major methods of developing the universal influenza vaccine are to select a conserved protein of influenza virus as an antigen. At least three universal influenza vaccines have been tested in clinical trials. Moreover, changing the routes of vaccine immunization and immunization schemes could also improve the effect of heterosubtypic immunity. This review summarized the research progresses of universal influenza vaccines and provided our prospective on universal influenza vaccine research.

  13. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review. PMID:26080892

  14. SCN8A encephalopathy: Research progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Meisler, Miriam H; Helman, Guy; Hammer, Michael F; Fureman, Brandy E; Gaillard, William D; Goldin, Alan L; Hirose, Shinichi; Ishii, Atsushi; Kroner, Barbara L; Lossin, Christoph; Mefford, Heather C; Parent, Jack M; Patel, Manoj; Schreiber, John; Stewart, Randall; Whittemore, Vicky; Wilcox, Karen; Wagnon, Jacy L; Pearl, Phillip L; Vanderver, Adeline; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2016-07-01

    On April 21, 2015, the first SCN8A Encephalopathy Research Group convened in Washington, DC, to assess current research into clinical and pathogenic features of the disorder and prepare an agenda for future research collaborations. The group comprised clinical and basic scientists and representatives of patient advocacy groups. SCN8A encephalopathy is a rare disorder caused by de novo missense mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN8A, which encodes the neuronal sodium channel Nav 1.6. Since the initial description in 2012, approximately 140 affected individuals have been reported in publications or by SCN8A family groups. As a result, an understanding of the severe impact of SCN8A mutations is beginning to emerge. Defining a genetic epilepsy syndrome goes beyond identification of molecular etiology. Topics discussed at this meeting included (1) comparison between mutations of SCN8A and the SCN1A mutations in Dravet syndrome, (2) biophysical properties of the Nav 1.6 channel, (3) electrophysiologic effects of patient mutations on channel properties, (4) cell and animal models of SCN8A encephalopathy, (5) drug screening strategies, (6) the phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy, and (7) efforts to develop a bioregistry. A panel discussion of gaps in bioregistry, biobanking, and clinical outcomes data was followed by a planning session for improved integration of clinical and basic science research. Although SCN8A encephalopathy was identified only recently, there has been rapid progress in functional analysis and phenotypic classification. The focus is now shifting from identification of the underlying molecular cause to the development of strategies for drug screening and prioritized patient care. PMID:27270488

  15. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  16. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  17. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Dong, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  18. Progress in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic-device research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Fabick, L.; Zweibel, K.; Hardy, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    Recent results from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Thin Film Photovoltaic Device Program are presented. The program encompasses materials and device research on highly absorbing compound semiconductors including CuInSe2, CdTe, Cu/sub 2-x/Se, Zn3P2, ZnSiAs2, and Cu2S. Excitement in the program has been generated by recent progress in the (Cd,Zn)S/CuInSe2 device area where an efficiency of 10.6% on a 5 micrometers thick device has been reported. Other highlights include deposition of a hybrid CdS/Cu2S device (evaporated CdS, sputtered Cu2S) with a 7.1% AMI efficiency, and of a 3.94% AMI efficiency all sputtered CdS/Cu2S cell. AMI efficiencies exceeding 5% are reported for CdTe Schottky barrier and heterojunction devices, and for a CdS/Cu/sub 2-x/Se heterojunction. AMI efficiencies exceeding 4% are reported for Mg/Zn3P3 Schottky barrier cells. Future research emphasis is outlined.

  19. Why is earthquake prediction research not progressing faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Max

    2001-08-01

    As a physical phenomenon, earthquakes must be predictable to a certain degree. However, the problem is difficult, because the source volume inside the earth is inaccessible to direct observation and because the most important parameter, the stress level, cannot be measured directly. Also, seismology is such a young science that the cause of earthquakes was discovered in the 1960s only. Advanced seismograph networks as well as modern techniques to measure crustal deformations, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry technique (InSAR), have come on line only recently, and only in Japan are they deployed with the densities necessary for significant advances in the understanding of the rupture initiation process. In addition, no real program for earthquake prediction research exists in the United States, largely because funding agencies and peer reviewers shy away from a field in which unprofessional, but motivated individuals are active. Although claims of successful predictions are often not justified, a few correct predictions have been made. Most of these had time-windows of years, but some were accurate to days and allowed preparatory actions. To make significant progress, we must learn how to conduct rigorous science in a field where amateurs cannot be discouraged to venture. Leadership is necessary to raise the funding to an adequate level and to involve the best minds in this promising, potentially extremely rewarding, but controversial research topic.

  20. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  1. Research guidance studies. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to provide research guidance and quantification of research progress in the areas of direct and indirect coal liquefaction, coal/waste coprocessing, refining of coal-derived liquid fuels, and natural gas conversion. Specifically, the work is divided into two subtasks that relate to whether the technology application is direct or indirect. In subtask (a), Direct Coal Liquefaction technology is the subject of the analyses, and in subtask (b), Indirect Liquefaction, technologies will be evaluated in accordance with the priorities of the COR. Mitretek Systems has been developing detailed computer simulation models of direct and indirect coal and natural gas conversion systems for several years. These models are constantly being updated and improved as more data and better cost information becomes available. These models also include detailed refinery models based on bench-scale upgrading data of coal derived liquid fuels to specification transportation fuels. In addition to the simulation models of actual conversion system configurations, Mitretek is able to simulate innovative process configurations for coal and gas conversion to fuels, power, and chemicals. To supplement these system models and to provide a context to investigate expected energy use scenarios when alternate coal and natural gas based fuels will be needed, Mitretek`s staff has also developed world and country by country energy supply and demand models. This work will be accomplished by using the existing models where appropriate and by extending and modifying the system models where necessary.

  2. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  3. Progress in complementary and alternative medicine research: Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Millet, John D

    2010-09-01

    Integrative Medicine at Yale and the Yale Center for Continuing Medical Education (CME) sponsored the Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine in March 2010 at the university's School of Medicine. Delivering the keynote address, Dr. Josephine P. Briggs, Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), highlighted recent progress made in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

  4. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  5. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized. PMID:27539355

  6. [Recent progresses in RNA N6-methyladenosine research].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Li; Yu, Jun; Song, Shu-Hui

    2013-12-01

    RNA modifications, especially methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (A)--m6A, represent an emerging research territory in RNA biology. m6A is a post-transcriptional modification of RNAs, which is catalyzed by the mRNA: m6A methyltransferase complex containing three individual components and is the most common form found in the internal sequences of mRNAs in eukaryotes. Latest study showed that the fat mass and obesity-associated protein could remove the methyl group, indicating that the modification is reversible. Importantly, inhibiting or silencing the methyltransferase will cause significant changes of phenotypes. However, due to limited detection methods, the mechanism of m6A has not been figured out yet. Next-generation sequencing combining with IP (immunoprecipitation) technologies makes it possible to detect m6A modifications in a large scale. Here, we reviewed recent progresses of m6A studies including the discovery of m6A, mechanism of biosynthesis, tissue and genome distribution, detection methodology and possible biological functions. We also compared three IP-seq technologies that are currently widely used, and summarized the challenges in m6A studies. PMID:24645343

  7. Recent progress in artificial organ research at Tohoku University.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Kawano, Satoyuki; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Shigenao; Amae, Shintato; Wada, Naoshi; Kamiyama, Takamichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Luo, Run; Hayashi, Junko; Kovalev, Yuri A; X D Sha, Dan; Nanka, Shunsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Mibiki, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Tohoku University has developed various artificial organs over the last 30 years. Pneumatic driven ventricular assist devices with a silicone ball valve have been designed by the flow visualization method, and clinical trials have been performed in Tohoku University Hospital. On the basis of these developments, a pneumatic driven total artificial heart has been developed and an animal experimental evaluation was conducted. The development of artificial organs in Tohoku University has now progressed to the totally implantable type using the transcutaneous energy transmission system with amorphous fibers for magnetic shielding. Examples of implantable systems include a vibrating flow pump for ventricular assist device, an artificial myocardium by the use of shape memory alloy with Peltier elements, and an artificial sphincter for patients with a stoma. An automatic control system for artificial organs had been developed for the ventricular assist devices including a rotary blood pump to avoid suction and to maintain left and right heart balance. Based upon the technology of automatic control algorithm, a new diagnostic tool for evaluating autonomic nerve function has been developed as a branch of artificial organ research and this new machine has been tested in Tohoku University Hospital. Tohoku University is following a variety of approaches aimed at innovation in artificial organs and medical engineering fields.

  8. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization. PMID:26477800

  9. Research progress of terahertz wave technology in food inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhanke; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hongjian; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Food safety and quality concern have become more and more significant in recent years. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to food quality evaluation or safety inspection, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. For example, the technique of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for the authentication of agricultural products and food samples. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, is electromagnetic wave lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. The main two applications in which THz fields involved are THz spectroscopy and THz imaging. Terahertz wave technology, as a new area of research, has shown its wide prospects in imaging, diagnosis, detection, and monitoring, etc. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the progress of THz techqiues in the field of food inspection. The properties of THz wave, its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications, and the prospect of this novel technology in food industry were discussed.

  10. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively.

  11. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being

  12. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  13. Thermonuclear Fusion Research Progress and the Way to the Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Raymond

    2006-06-01

    The paper reviews the progress of fusion research and its prospects for electricity generation. It starts with a reminder of the principles of thermonuclear fusion and a brief discussion of its potential role in the future of the world energy production. The reactions allowing energy production by fusion of nuclei in stars and on earth and the conditions required to sustain them are reviewed. At the high temperatures required for fusion (hundred millions kelvins), matter is completely ionized and has reached what is called its 4th state: the plasma state. The possible means to achieve these extreme temperatures is discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the most promising of these approaches, magnetic confinement. The operating principles of the presently most efficient machine of this type — the tokamak — is described in some detail. On the road to producing energy with fusion, a number of obstacles have to be overcome. The plasma, a fluid that reacts to electromagnetic forces and carries currents and charges, is a complex medium. Fusion plasma is strongly heated and is therefore a good example of a system far from equilibrium. A wide variety of instabilities can grow in this system and lead to self-organized structures and spontaneous cycles. Turbulence is generated that degrades the confinement and hinders easy achievement of long lasting hot plasmas. Physicists have learned how to quench turbulence, thereby creating sort of insulating bottles inside the plasma itself to circumvent this problem. The recent history of fusion performance is outlined and the prospect of achieving power generation by fusion in a near future is discussed in the light of the development of the "International Tokamak Experimental Reactor" project ITER.

  14. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  15. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  16. Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that while there are a variety of frames or perspectives that guide research into learning science, a pre-paradigmatic field need not be a "free-for-all". Lakatos suggested that academic research fields were characterised by research programmes (RP), which offered heuristic guidance to researchers, and which…

  17. A Year of Unprecedented Progress in Down Syndrome Basic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Roger H.; Garner, Craig C.

    2007-01-01

    The years 2006 and 2007 saw the publication of three new and different approaches to prevention or amelioration of Down syndrome effects on the brain and cognition. We describe the animal model systems that were critical to this progress, review these independent breakthrough studies, and discuss the implications for therapeutic approaches…

  18. Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E C.G.; Ne'eman, Y

    1983-08-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)

  19. Research on Automatic Classification, Indexing and Extracting. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, F.T.; And Others

    In order to contribute to the success of several studies for automatic classification, indexing and extracting currently in progress, as well as to further the theoretical and practical understanding of textual item distributions, the development of a frequency program capable of supplying these types of information was undertaken. The program…

  20. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  1. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality. PMID:27455023

  2. FY2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-01-31

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  3. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    Summarizing research activities in 1986, this is the twelfth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report contains the following 23 articles: "Comprehension of Digitally Encoded Natural Speech Using…

  4. Research on Speech Perception. Progress Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    Summarizing research activities in 1989, this is the fifteenth annual report of research on speech perception, analysis, synthesis, and recognition conducted in the Speech Research Laboratory of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University. The report contains the following 21 articles: "Perceptual Learning of Nonnative Speech Contrasts:…

  5. Recent Progress on Nutraceutical Research in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, nutraceuticals have received increasing attention as the agents for cancer prevention and supplement with conventional therapy. Prostate Cancer (PCa) is most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in US. Growing evidences from epidemiological studies, in vitro experimental studies, animal studies, and clinical trials have shown that nutraceuticals could be very useful for the prevention and treatment of PCa. Several nutraceuticals including isoflavone, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3’-diindolylmethane, lycopene, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and curcumin are known to down-regulate the signal transductions in AR, Akt, NF-κB, and other signal transduction pathways which are vital for the development of PCa and the progression of PCa from androgen-sensitive to castrate-resistant PCa. Therefore, nutraceutical treatment in combination with conventional therapeutics could achieve better treatment outcome in prostate cancer therapy. Interestingly, some nutraceuticals could regulate the function of cancer stem cell (CSC) related miRNAs and associated molecules, leading to the inhibition of prostatic CSCs which are responsible for drug-resistance, tumor progression, and recurrence of PCa. Hence, nutraceuticals may serve as powerful agents for the prevention of PCa progression and they could also be useful in combination with chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy. Such strategy could become a promising newer approach for the treatment of metastatic PCa with better treatment outcome by improving overall survival. PMID:24375392

  6. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  7. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  8. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  9. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  10. Program Participation and Academic Progress of Second Language Learners: Texas Middle School Update. Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    This study examined program participation and academic progress of second language learners, following a cohort of Texas public school students from the school years, 1992-93 to 1999-00 as they progressed through the elementary and middle grades. Researchers examined the following: changes in Texas policy related to students with limited English…

  11. Accelerating Regulatory Progress in Multi-Institutional Research

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; Lauf, Sherry Lee; Pieper, Lisa E.; Rowe, Jared; Vargas, Ileana M.; Goff, Melissa A.; Daley, Matthew F.; Tuzzio, Leah; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-institutional collaborations are necessary in order to create large and robust data sets that are needed to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. Before scientific work can begin, a complex maze of administrative and regulatory requirements must be efficiently navigated to avoid project delays. Innovation: Staff from research, regulatory, and administrative teams involved in three HMO Research Network (HMORN) multi-institutional collaborations developed and employed novel approaches: to secure and maintain Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals; to enable data sharing, and to expedite subawards for two data-only minimal risk studies. These novel approaches accelerated required processes and approvals while maintaining regulatory, human subjects, and institutional protections. Credibility: Outcomes from the processes described here are compared with processes outlined in the research and regulatory literature and with processes that have been used in previous multisite research collaborations. Conclusion and Discussion: Research, regulatory, and administrative staff are essential contributors to the success of multi-institutional collaborations. Their flexibility, creativity, and effective communication skills can lead to the development of efficient approaches to achieving the necessary oversight for these complex projects. Elements of these specific strategies can be adapted and used by other research networks. Other efforts in these areas should be evaluated and shared. The processes that help develop a “learning research system” play an important and complementary role in sustaining multi-institutional research collaborations. PMID:25848593

  12. [Research progress studies on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of ligustilide].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ai-Hua; Wang, Li; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Ligustilide is contained highly or around 1% in such umbelliferous plants as Angelica sinensis and Ligusticum chuanxiong, is one of main bioactive constituents. It shows many pharmacological activities related to their efficacy. At present, ligustilide has attracted extensive attention and more and more studies have been reported, indicating that it is a promising compound. This essay summarizes the progress of pharmacological effects of ligustilide on neuroprotection, vasodilatation, anti-caner and anti-tumor, analgesia and anti-inflammation, and pharmacokinetics including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, providing basis for further studies and development of ligustilide. PMID:23373200

  13. [Research progress on mechanisms of modern medicine in cancer metastasis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Qu, Jing-Lian; Gong, Jie-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the most dangerous stage of tumorigenesis and evolution, the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Clinically, more than 60% of cancer patients have found metastasis at the time of examination. Modern medicine has made significant progress on the mechanisms of cancer metastasis in recent years, from the simple "anatomy and machinery" theory forward to the "seed and soil" theory, then to the "microenvironmental" theory and the "cancer stem cell" theory. The emerging "cancer stem cell" theory successfully explains phenomenon such as tumor genetic heterogeneity, anoikis resistance, tumor dormancy, providing more new targets and ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer metastasis.

  14. A Progress Report on Agenda-Setting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Maxwell; Shaw, Donald L.

    Although empirical research on the agenda-setting function of mass communication dates only from the 1968 presidential election, historically there has been long-standing concern over the control of communication because of its assumed influence. Early communication research shared this concern and assumption, focusing on the ability of the media…

  15. Laboratory directed research and development. FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1996-03-01

    This document presents an overview of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Programs at Los Alamos. The nine technical disciplines in which research is described include materials, engineering and base technologies, plasma, fluids, and particle beams, chemistry, mathematics and computational science, atmic and molecular physics, geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics, and biosciences. Brief descriptions are provided in the above programs.

  16. Practice and Progression in Second Language Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…

  17. Research on Youth Violence: Progress by Replacement, Not Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the need to concentrate more educational research into efficacy studies on the effectiveness of specific preventive and treatment interventions targeted at disruptive behavior disorders. Other research needs are highlighted such as underlying mechanisms by which aggressive behavior develops, involvement in gangs, positive…

  18. Male prostitution: pathology, paradigms and progress in research.

    PubMed

    Bimbi, David S

    2007-01-01

    The body of research on male sex workers (MSWs) in the social science literature has evolved concurrently with the research that de-pathologized homosexuality. Unfortunately, the majority of studies focusing on MSWs have been dominated by paradigms that dehumanize the researched. Psychopathology, social deviance and, with the advent of HIV, MSWs as "vectors of disease," framed research questions. Further, many researchers have focused on typologies of MSWs, reporting respective associated characteristics. However, the knowledge gained by past research was often a product of the places MSWs were sampled; social scientists relied heavily on street MSWs. although other places and venues for sex work existed. What has been learned through this narrow focus has often been generalized to all men engaged in sex work resulting in stigmatization, stereotyping, and demonization. In the past decade, two important developments related to the field of sex work have been introduced. First, researchers have embraced a new paradigm that respects MSWs' personal motivations for sex work. Dominant among these motivations is the view of sex work as a job and, hence, a valid source of income. Second, the Internet has emerged as a new venue for sex work; a venue to which researchers are just beginning to turn their gaze. PMID:18019068

  19. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  20. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  1. Light-water-reactor safety research program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, W.E.; Kyger, J.A.

    1980-08-01

    This progress report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during January, February, and March 1980 on water-reactor-safety problems. The research and development area covered is Transient Fuel Response and Fission-Product Release.

  2. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, July 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes progress made for the period July 1984 through September 1985. Sections describe research in health studies, dosimetry and biophysical transport, biological and radiation physics, chemical physics, and risk analysis. (ACR)

  3. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  4. Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research progress and accomplishments on International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Roe, Lesa B; Uri, John J

    2003-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks.

  6. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-08

    A DOE grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is being used by the U-M Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and grad student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy-related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  8. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  9. Progress in Documentation; Research in User Behaviour in University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Geoffrey

    1973-01-01

    Perhaps the most important finding of this review of research in user behaviour is that it has yet to be demonstrated that the use of lbiraries has any definite influence on anything else. (111 references) (Author/NH)

  10. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  11. [Research progress on the management of no packing after septoplasty].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Zhang, Longcheng; Li, Jieen

    2016-01-01

    Packing the nose after septoplasty is common practice. The use of postoperative packing has been proposed to reduce the dead space between the subperichondrial flaps and minimize postoperative complications such as hemorrhage, septal hematoma, and formation of synechiae. Additionally, postoperative packing is thought to stabilize the remaining cartilaginous septum and minimize persistence or recurrence of septal deviation. Despite these theoretic advantages, evidence to support the use of postoperative packing is lacking. Additionally, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure. The use of nasal packing actually cause these complications such as postop- erative pain, mucosal injury, bleeding, worsening of breathing due to sleep disorders, and postoperative infections. Routine use of anterior nasal packing after septoplasty should be challenged for not presenting proven benefit. As alternatives to traditional packing, septal suturing, septal stapler and fibrin glue have been used recently. The purpose of this article is to summarize the progress of traditional packing to no packing after septoplasty. PMID:27197467

  12. Research progress on the mollusc immunity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2013-01-01

    The economical and phylogenic importance of mollusc has led an increasing number of investigations giving emphasis to immune defense mechanism. This review discusses the advances in immunological study of mollusc in China, with special reference to dominant aquaculture species over the past decades. As an invertebrate group, molluscs lack adaptive immunity and consequently they have evolved sophisticated strategies of innate immunity for defense against pathogens. This review aims to present the various immunologically significant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), lectins, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), scavenger receptors (SRs) employed by mollucans. This work also highlights immune proteolytic cascade, TLR signaling pathway and an extensive repertoire of immune effectors including antimicrobial peptide, lysozyme, antioxidant enzyme and heat shock protein. Further, the review presents the preliminary progress made on the catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system in scallop and its immunomodulation function to throw light into neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in lower invertebrates.

  13. Experimental progress in magnetic-mirror fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonen, T. C.

    1981-08-01

    This paper discusses experimental progress in the control, confinement, and understanding of magnetic-mirror confined plasmas. A summary is given of the data base established in previous experiments on which magnetic-mirror principles are based. It includes a detailed description of present tandem and field-reversed mirror experimental results. The discussion also includes the concepts and parameters of experiments now under construction; it is shown how these experiments can both test new thermal-barrier concepts and bridge the gap between existing facilities and eventual power producers. Consideration is given to small-scale physics-oriented experiments, aimed at testing new ideas and refining the knowledge of mirror confinement. The paper concludes with an extensive bibliography of reports from the field of magnetic-mirror fusion.

  14. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes.

  15. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26931047

  16. The specialized centers of research in rheumatoid arthritis. Recent progress and prospects for future advances.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S; Haynes, B F; Lipsky, P E; Kang, A H; Postlethwaite, A E

    1991-06-01

    Specialized Centers of Research (SCOR) in arthritis are interdisciplinary research programs to investigate disease pathogenesis as well as advance diagnosis and treatment. A recent meeting of investigators from the three SCOR programs in rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated progress in several important research areas. Because of the multiplier effects of SCOR programs, new investigators have been enlisted into arthritis research as issues related to this disease become a focus of investigation throughout universities and medical centers. Continued progress by the SCOR programs should provide new targets for therapeutic intervention as well as strategies for monitoring disease activity.

  17. [Top ten progressions of clinical research in fundus diseases in China].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Ten research items in the past five years representing the progression of clinical research in fundus diseases in China were voted by specialists from the Ocular Fundus Disease Group of Ophthalmology Society of Chinese Medical Association. Choroidal neovascular disease, pediatric retinal disease, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, intraocular malignant tumor, and intraocular infection caused by specific pathogens are covered. Novel treatment, like anti-VEGF medication, PDT, minimally invasive vitrectomy, and intraocular injection, establishment of the Clinical Research Center of New Drug Development, and the epidemiologic study of fundus diseases are also included. These landmark research progressions represent the power and influence of Chinese fundus disease scholars in the world.

  18. Research in progress: FY 1992. Summaries of projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program of OHER has two main missions: (1) to develop the knowledge base necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and development and (2) to utilize the Department`s unique scientific and technological capabilities to solve major scientific problems in medicine, biology, and the environment. These missions reflect a commitment to develop the beneficial uses of advanced energy technologies while at the same time assuring that any potentially adverse health and environmental impacts of the Nation`s energy policies are fully identified and understood. The BER Program includes research in atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial processes, including the linkage between the use in greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and regional and global climate change; in molecular and subcellular mechanisms underlying human somatic and genetic processes and their responses to energy-related environmental toxicants; in nuclear medicine, structural biology, the human genome, measurement sciences and instrumentation, and other areas that require the unique capabilities of the Department`s laboratory system. The principal areas of research are Health Research and Environmental Research.

  19. Theory, Modeling and Simulation: Research progress report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.C.; Dixon, D.A.; Dunning, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). In April 1994, construction began on the new EMSL, a collaborative research facility devoted to advancing the understanding of environmental molecular science. Research in the Theory, Modeling, and Simulation (TM and S) program will play a critical role in understanding molecular processes important in restoring DOE`s research, development, and production sites, including understanding the migration and reactions of contaminants in soils and ground water, developing processes for isolation and processing of pollutants, developing improved materials for waste storage, understanding the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of contaminants, and understanding the interaction of hazardous chemicals with living organisms. The research objectives of the TM and S program are fivefold: to apply available electronic structure and dynamics techniques to study fundamental molecular processes involved in the chemistry of natural and contaminated systems; to extend current electronic structure and dynamics techniques to treat molecular systems of future importance and to develop new techniques for addressing problems that are computationally intractable at present; to apply available molecular modeling techniques to simulate molecular processes occurring in the multi-species, multi-phase systems characteristic of natural and polluted environments; to extend current molecular modeling techniques to treat ever more complex molecular systems and to improve the reliability and accuracy of such simulations; and to develop technologies for advanced parallel architectural computer systems. Research highlights of 82 projects are given.

  20. Recent Progress on Sonic Boom Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sonic boom research conducted at NASA through the Supersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is oriented toward understanding the potential impact of sonic boom noise on communities from new low-boom supersonic aircraft designs. Encompassing research in atmospheric propagation, structural response, and human response, NASA research contributes to knowledge in key areas needed to support development of a new noise-based standard for supersonic aircraft certification. Partnerships with several industry, government, and academic institutions have enabled the recent execution of several acoustic field studies on sonic booms. An overview of recent activities funded by NASA includes: focus boom model development and experimental validation, field experiments of structural transmission of sonic booms into large buildings, and low boom community response testing.

  1. [Research Progress of Automatic Sleep Staging Based on Electroencephalogram Signals].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qunxia; Zhou, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-10-01

    The research of sleep staging is not only a basis of diagnosing sleep related diseases but also the precondition of evaluating sleep quality, and has important clinical significance. In recent years, the research of automatic sleep staging based on computer has become a hot spot and got some achievements. The basic knowledge of sleep staging and electroencephalogram (EEG) is introduced in this paper. Then, feature extraction and pattern recognition, two key technologies for automatic sleep staging, are discussed in detail. Wavelet transform and Hilbert-Huang transform, two methods for feature extraction, are compared. Artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM), two methods for pattern recognition are discussed. In the end, the research status of this field is summarized, and development trends of next phase are pointed out. PMID:26964329

  2. Research progress on expansive soil cracks under changing environment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Zheng, Cheng-feng; Wu, Jin-kun

    2014-01-01

    Engineering problems shunned previously rise to the surface gradually with the activities of reforming the natural world in depth, the problem of expansive soil crack under the changing environment becoming a control factor of expansive soil slope stability. The problem of expansive soil crack has gradually become a research hotspot, elaborates the occurrence and development of cracks from the basic properties of expansive soil, and points out the role of controlling the crack of expansive soil strength. We summarize the existing research methods and results of expansive soil crack characteristics. Improving crack measurement and calculation method and researching the crack depth measurement, statistical analysis method, crack depth and surface feature relationship will be the future direction. PMID:25013869

  3. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  4. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  5. [Ten most progression of cataract research in China].

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Ten researches that may represent the most advanced cataract related studies in China were reviewed, which were recommended and voted by specialists from Chinese Cataract and Intraocular Lens Society. These researches focused on the following fields: the clinical study of the refractive cataract surgery, the clinical study on the premium intraocular lens, location and function study of the disease-associated genes of congenital cataract, the mechanism and prevention of age-related cataract, the mechanism and prevention of oxidative damage of crystalline lens and so on. These studies represented the level of crystalline lens related disease field in China.

  6. Laboratory-directed research and development: FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the FY 1996 goals and accomplishments of Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, and provides an index to the projects` principal investigators. Projects are grouped by their LDRD component: Individual Projects, Competency Development, and Program Development. Within each component, they are further divided into nine technical disciplines: (1) materials science, (2) engineering and base technologies, (3) plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (4) chemistry, (5) mathematics and computational sciences, (6) atomic and molecular physics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) biosciences.

  7. Black Faculty at Research Universities: Has Significant Progress Occurred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Jonathon L.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the representation, career advancement, and workplace perceptions of Black faculty at research universities in the United States over time, in comparison to White faculty were examined. Based on the analysis of data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) surveys, we found that although the overall…

  8. Center for Research for Mothers and Children: 1983 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Described in this report are the extramural activities for fiscal year 1983 of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children (CRMC). The CRMC is designed to advance knowledge about fetal development, pregnancy, and birth; to identify the prerequisites of optimal growth and development through infancy, childhood, and adolescence; and to…

  9. Progress in grain pearl millet research and market developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) has historically been grown only for forage and hay in the southern United States. However, recent research and technology transfer activities are resulting in continued improvements in grain hybrids adapted to the southeast and the emergence of new mark...

  10. Soil & Tillage Research: Publication history and assessment of progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The journal, Soil and Tillage Research, is concerned with the changes in physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of the soil environment brought about by soil tillage and field traffic, their effects on both below- and above-ground environmental quality, crop establishment, root d...

  11. Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)

  12. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-30

    An overview is presented of a research program whose objective is to link the individual demographic data of the population of Iceland from 1840 to the present to studies in the genetics of first-cousin marriages; studies in the familiarity of breast cancer, heart disease, and mental disorders; and studies on the hereditary analysis of blood groups. (ACR)

  13. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  14. Follicular transport route--research progress and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2009-02-01

    The important role of hair follicles as penetration pathways and reservoir structures for topically applied compounds has been validated in numerous animal models as well as in humans. Follicular penetration rates are modulated by regional variations in size and proportions and the functional status. Advances have especially been made in the targeting of hair follicle-associated cell populations including antigen-presenting cells and stem cells. Improved investigative methods based on differential stripping, spectrophotometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy have led to the determination of the penetration profiles and kinetics for a multiplicity of drugs and drug delivery systems. The observation that particulate delivery systems aggregate and remain in hair follicle openings and their penetration along the follicular duct occurs in a size-dependent manner, which has led to advanced concepts of targeted drug delivery of bioactive compounds in the field of solid particles, as well as semi-solid particles, such as liposomes. This review summarizes the recent progress in this field, and underlines the necessity for pilot studies in human volunteers to further the development of clinical applications for follicular targeting. PMID:19041720

  15. Recent progress in injectable bone repair materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Zhang, Xiuli; Kang, Lingzhi; Xu, Fei; Wang, Zhaoling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive injectable self-setting materials are useful for bone repairs and for bone tissue regeneration in situ. Due to the potential advantages of these materials, such as causing minimal tissue injury, nearly no influence on blood supply, easy operation and negligible postoperative pain, they have shown great promises and successes in clinical applications. It has been proposed that an ideal injectable bone repair material should have features similar to that of natural bones, in terms of both the microstructure and the composition, so that it not only provides adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation but also offers a satisfactory biological environment for new bone to grow at the implantation site. This article reviews the properties and applications of injectable bone repair materials, including those that are based on natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate/polymer composites and calcium sulfate, to orthopedics and bone tissue repairs, as well as the progress made in biomimetic fabrication of injectable bone repair materials.

  16. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  18. [Research progress on index system of regional ecological risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ji-Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hong

    2009-04-01

    Regional ecological risk assessment (RERA) covers the assessments of multiple risk sources, receptors, and endpoints, while the selection of assessment indices is quite complicated, being a hotspot in regional environment management research. Domestic and international researches on RERA revealed that three processes in RERA are of vital, i.e., risk probability assessment measured by risk probability index, status and value assessment of ecosystem at regional scale indicated by ecological index, and vulnerability assessment of each ecosystem in a region under risk measured by vulnerability index. The main problems in the establishment of RERA index system are the strong subjectivity and poor comparability, and thus, the index system should be set up in the three key processes under the principles of objectivity, integration, hierarchy, and comparability. Due to the fact that the status and value assessment of ecosystem is most complicated, the index system should be formulated by compulsory and optional components to increase the comparability of RERA results between regions.

  19. [Research progress of quantitative analysis for respiratory sinus arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Sun, Congcong; Zhang, Zhengbo; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun; Ang, Qing; Wang, Weidong

    2011-12-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is known as fluctuations of heart rate associated with breathing. It has been increasingly used as a noninvasive index of cardiac vagal tone in psychophysiological research recently. Its analysis is often influenced or distorted by respiratory parameters, posture and action, etc. This paper reviews five methods of quantification, including the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), peak valley RSA (pvRSA), cosinor fitting, spectral analysis, and joint timing-frequency analysis (JTFA). Paced breathing, analysis of covariance, residua method and msRSA per liter tidal volume are adjustment strategies of measurement and analysis of RSA in this article as well. At last, some prospects of solutions of the problems of RSA research are given.

  20. [Research progress of probe design software of oligonucleotide microarrays].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Zaoquan; Liu, Zhengchun

    2014-02-01

    DNA microarray has become an essential medical genetic diagnostic tool for its high-throughput, miniaturization and automation. The design and selection of oligonucleotide probes are critical for preparing gene chips with high quality. Several sets of probe design software have been developed and are available to perform this work now. Every set of the software aims to different target sequences and shows different advantages and limitations. In this article, the research and development of these sets of software are reviewed in line with three main criteria, including specificity, sensitivity and melting temperature (Tm). In addition, based on the experimental results from literatures, these sets of software are classified according to their applications. This review will be helpful for users to choose an appropriate probe-design software. It will also reduce the costs of microarrays, improve the application efficiency of microarrays, and promote both the research and development (R&D) and commercialization of high-performance probe design software.

  1. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde. PMID:27141665

  2. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  3. [Research hotspot and progress of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianhong; Pan, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become an important component of comprehensive treatment for rectal cancer. Although local recurrent risk has been remarkably reduced by CRT, distant metastasis remains the main cause of therapeutic failure. Therefore, more and more studies focused on controlling distant metastasis in order to prolong long-term survival. Recently, CRT has achieved certain progression in rectal cancer: (1)Patients with stage T3 should be classified into specific subgroups to formulate individualized treatment regimen. For stage T3a, it is feasible to perform surgery alone or administrate low intensity preoperative CRT; for stage T3b and T3c, conventional preoperative CRT should be performed in order to reduce the risk of recurrence postoperatively. (2)With regard to combined regimen for chemotherapy, oral capecitabine superiors to intravenous bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and is comparable to continuous intravenous infusion 5-FU with a better safety. Therefore, capecitabine is recommended for older patients and those with poor tolerance to chemotherapy. Compared to single 5-FU concurrent CRT, addition of oxaliplatin into preoperative CRT may result in a higher survival benefit in Chinese patients. As to the application of irinotecan, bevacizumab or cetuximab, unless there are more evidence to confirm their efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trial, they should not be recommended for adding to preoperative CRT routinely. (3)On the optimization in CRT pattern, the application values of induction chemotherapy before concurrent CRT, consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent CRT, neoadjuvant sandwich CRT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone and short-course preoperative radiotherapy remain further exploration. (4)On the treatment strategy for clinical complete response (cCR) after CRT, whether "wait and see" strategy is able to be adopted, it is still a hot topic with controversy. PMID:27353093

  4. Recent progress in bone imaging for osteoporosis research.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masako

    2011-03-01

    Advances in bone imaging techniques have provided tools for analyzing bone structure at the macro-, micro- and nano-level. Quantitative assessment of macrostructure can be achieved using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), particularly volumetric quantitative CT (vQCT). In vivo quantitative techniques for assessing the microstructure of trabecular bone non-invasively and non-destructively include high-resolution CT (HR-CT) and high-resolution magnetic resonance (HR-MR). Compared with MR imaging, CT-based techniques have the advantage of directly visualizing the bone in the axial skeleton, with high spatial resolution, but the disadvantage of delivering a considerable radiation dose. Micro-CT (μCT), which provides a higher resolution of the microstructure and is principally applicable in vitro, has undergone technological advances such that it is now able to elucidate the physiological skeletal change mechanisms associated with aging and determine the effects of therapeutic intervention on the bone microstructure. In particular, synchrotron μCT (SR-CT) provides a more detailed view of trabecular structure at the nano-level. For the assessment of hip geometry, DXA-based hip structure analysis (HSA) and CT-based HSA have been developed. DXA-based HSA is a convenient tool for analyzing biomechanical properties and for assuming cross-sectional hip geometry based on two-dimensional (2D) data, whereas CT-based HSA provides these parameters three-dimensionally in robust relationship with biomechanical properties, at the cost of greater radiation exposure and the lengthy time required for the analytical procedure. Further progress in bone imaging technology is promising to bring new aspects of bone structure in relation to bone strength to light, and to establish a means for analyzing bone structural properties in the everyday clinical setting.

  5. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  6. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  7. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  8. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches. PMID:25876422

  9. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  10. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina

    2016-01-01

    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  11. Sex bias in psychological research. Progress or complacency?

    PubMed

    Gannon, L; Luchetta, T; Rhodes, K; Pardie, L; Segrist, D

    1992-03-01

    A total of 4,952 articles published in 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990 in the areas of developmental, clinical, physiological, and social psychology were reviewed for the purpose of assessing various indicators of sexism in human psychological research. Significant changes in sex of first author, sex of participants, sexist language, and inappropriate generalization indicated that sexism has clearly diminished in the past two decades. Despite these improvements, however, the data revealed continued evidence of discriminatory practices, suggesting that efforts to eliminate sexism must be strengthened if psychology is to be a nonsexist discipline.

  12. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n + p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  13. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap, component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and an n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n+p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  15. Health and Safety Research Division. Progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Research progress for the period October 1, 1979 through March 31, 1981 is reported. Research conducted by the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis, Health Studies Section, Technology Assessments Section, Biological and Radiation Physics Section, and Chemical Physics Section is summarized. (ACR)

  16. (Mis)Understanding Human Beings: Theory, Value, and Progress in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in what can be called an "experimentist" approach to education research. The claim is that if researchers would focus on experiments and "evidence-based" policies and practices, irreversible progress in education can be achieved. This experimentist approach cannot provide the understanding of knowledge and human beings…

  17. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  18. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  19. Water Reactor Safety Research Division quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evaluation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  20. Research Progress Concerning Fungal and Bacterial β-Xylosidases.

    PubMed

    Bosetto, Adilson; Justo, Priscila Innocenti; Zanardi, Bruna; Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Graciano, Luciana; dos Santos, Elaine Luzia; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2016-02-01

    In the present review, we briefly summarize the biotechnological applications of microbial β-xylosidases in the processing of agro-industrial residues into fuels and chemicals and report the importance of using immobilization techniques to study the enzyme. The advantages of utilizing genes that encode β-xylosidases are readily apparent in the bioconversion of abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resources into economically important products, such as xylitol and bioethanol. We highlight recent research characterizing fungal and bacterial β-xylosidases, including the use of classical biochemical methods such as purification, heterologous recombinant protein expression, and metagenomic approaches to discovery β-xylosidases, with focus on enzyme molecular and kinetic properties. In addition, we discuss the relevance of using experimental design optimization methodologies to increase the efficacy of these enzymes for use with residual biomass. Finally, we emphasize more extensively the advances in the regulatory mechanisms governing β-xylosidase gene expression and xylose metabolism in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Unlike previous reviews, this revision covers recent research concerning the various features of bacterial and fungal β-xylosidases with a greater emphasis on their biochemical characteristics and how the genes that encode these enzymes can be better exploited to obtain products of biotechnological interest via the application of different technical approaches. PMID:26536888

  1. [Research Progress in Black Queen Cell Virus Causing Disease].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Song, Zhanyun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xianghui; Sui, Jiachen; Wang, Zhenguo; Mou, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In nature, honeybees are the most important pollinators. They play a vital role in both protecting the diversity of natural ecosystems, and maintaining the yield-improving effects of agroecosystems. But in recent years, epidemic disease in bees has caused huge losses. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) is a bee pathogen that was first reported in 1955. It mainly infects bee larvae and pupae, making their bodies turn dark and black, and causing a massive decrease in the bee population. More specifically, the virus makes the exterior of the cell walls in the larvae and pupae turn black. BQCV is a seasonal epidemic, spread by means horizontal and vertical transmission, and is often unapparent. BQCV not only infects a variety of bee species, but also spiders, centipedes and other arthropods. It can also be coinfected with other honeybee viruses. In recent years, research has shown that the Nosema intestinal parasite plays an important role in BQCV transmission and bees carrying Nosema that become infected with BQCV have increased mortality. Here we summarize current research on the incidence, prevalence, geographical distribution and transmission of BQCV. PMID:26470541

  2. The perfect mix: recent progress in adjuvant research.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    Developing efficient and safe adjuvants for use in human vaccines remains both a challenge and a necessity. Past approaches have been largely empirical and generally used a single type of adjuvant, such as aluminium salts or emulsions. However, new vaccine targets often require the induction of well-defined cell-mediated responses in addition to antibodies, and thus new immunostimulants are required. Recent advances in basic immunology have elucidated how early innate immune signals can shape subsequent adaptive responses and this, coupled with improvements in biochemical techniques, has led to the design and development of more specific and focused adjuvants. In this Review, I discuss the research that has made it possible for vaccinologists to now be able to choose between a large panel of adjuvants, which potentially can act synergistically, and combine them in formulations that are specifically adapted to each target and to the relevant correlate(s) of protection. PMID:17558426

  3. Arsenicosis history and research progress in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guifan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Quanmei; Xi, Shuhua

    2011-09-01

    This article provides the history of arsenicosis in Mainland China and the research situation in the recent 10 years. The first large area of arsenicosis caused by high levels of arsenic in drinking water in Mainland China was discovered in Kuitun, Xinjiang Province, in 1983. The government attached great importance to arsenicosis and finally regarded it as the epidemic disease throughout the nation in 1994. Until 2006, the survey areas of wells with arsenic concentration greater than 50 μg/L in drinking water have involved 16 provinces in Mainland China. The molecular epidemiological studies on relationship between arsenic metabolism and manifestations of arsenicosis caused by chronic exposure to high level of arsenic in drinking water and the studies on arsenic exposure and related health effects in different arsenic exposure populations are summarized in this review.

  4. Cylindrospermopsin: A Decade of Progress on Bioaccumulation Research

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is rapidly being recognised as one of the most globally important of the freshwater algal toxins. The ever-expanding distribution of CYN producers into temperate zones is heightening concern that this toxin will represent serious human, as well as environmental, health risks across many countries. Since 1999, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability for CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms. This paper synthesizes the most current information on CYN accumulation, including notes on the global distribution of CYN producers, and a précis of CYN’s ecological and human effects. Studies on the bioaccumulation of CYN are systematically reviewed, together with an analysis of patterns of accumulation. A discussion on the factors influencing bioaccumulation rates and potential is also provided, along with notes on detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Finally, key gaps in the existing research are identified for future study. PMID:20411114

  5. [Research progress in microbial methane oxidation coupled to denitrification].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Meng-Dong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is an essential bond to connect carbon- and nitrogen cycling. To deeply research this process will improve our understanding on the biochemical cycling of global carbon and nitrogen. As an exogenous gaseous carbon source of denitrification, methane can both regulate the balance of atmospheric methane to effectively mitigate the greenhouse effect caused by methane, and reduce the cost of exogenous carbon source input in traditional wastewater denitrification treatment process. As a result, great attention has being paid to the mechanical study of the process. This paper mainly discussed the two types of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, i. e., aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) and anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (ANME-D), with the focus on the microbiological coupling mechanisms and related affecting factors. The existing problems in the engineering application of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification were pointed out, and the application prospects were approached. PMID:24697087

  6. [Research progress in microbial methane oxidation coupled to denitrification].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Meng-Dong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is an essential bond to connect carbon- and nitrogen cycling. To deeply research this process will improve our understanding on the biochemical cycling of global carbon and nitrogen. As an exogenous gaseous carbon source of denitrification, methane can both regulate the balance of atmospheric methane to effectively mitigate the greenhouse effect caused by methane, and reduce the cost of exogenous carbon source input in traditional wastewater denitrification treatment process. As a result, great attention has being paid to the mechanical study of the process. This paper mainly discussed the two types of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, i. e., aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) and anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (ANME-D), with the focus on the microbiological coupling mechanisms and related affecting factors. The existing problems in the engineering application of methane oxidation coupled to denitrification were pointed out, and the application prospects were approached.

  7. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  8. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  9. Nitrilases in nitrile biocatalysis: recent progress and forthcoming research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, nitrilases have drawn considerable attention because of their application in nitrile degradation as prominent biocatalysts. Nitrilases are derived from bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts, and plants. In-depth investigations on their natural sources function mechanisms, enzyme structure, screening pathways, and biocatalytic properties have been conducted. Moreover, the immobilization, purification, gene cloning and modifications of nitrilase have been dwelt upon. Some nitrilases are used commercially as biofactories for carboxylic acids production, waste treatment, and surface modification. This critical review summarizes the current status of nitrilase research, and discusses a number of challenges and significant attempts in its further development. Nitrilase is a significant and promising biocatalyst for catalytic applications. PMID:23106943

  10. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra-rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts configurations that were not well publicized at the time, were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and acceptable noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of propfan performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data with higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system with favorable results. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The current projections for the technology are presented.

  11. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra- rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts/configurations were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and lower noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of 'propfan' performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data and higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system. Contemporary designs have demonstrated high net efficiency, approximately 86%, at 0.78 Mach, and low noise, greater than 15 EPNdB cumulative margin to Chapter 4 when analyzed on a NASA derived aircraft/mission. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller/open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The remaining technical challenges to a production engine include

  12. Progresses of researches on numerical weather prediction in China: 1999 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jishan

    2004-06-01

    The recent progresses in the research and development of (NWP) in China are reviewed in this paper. The most impressive achievements are the development of direct assimilation of satellite irradiances with a 3DVAR (three-dimentional variational) data assimilation system and a non-hydrostatic model with a semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit scheme. Progresses have also been made in model physics and model application to precipitation and environmental forecasts. Some scientific issues of great importance for further development are discussed.

  13. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  14. Bidirectional Translational Research: Progress in Understanding Addictive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kreek, MJ; Schlussman, SD; Reed, B; Zhang, Y; Nielsen, DA; Levran, O; Zhou, Y; Butelman, ER

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this review is primarily on recent developments in bidirectional translational research on the addictions, within the Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases at The Rockefeller University. This review is subdivided into major interacting aspects, including: a) Investigation of neurobiological and molecular adaptations (e.g., in genes for the opioid receptors or endogenous neuropeptides) in response to cocaine or opiates, administered under laboratory conditions modeling chronic patterns of human self-exposure (e.g., chronic escalating “binge”). b) The impact of such drug exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and interacting neuropeptidergic systems (e.g., opioid, orexin and vasopressin). c) Molecular genetic association studies using candidate gene and whole genome approaches, to define particular systems involved in vulnerability to develop specific addictions, and response to pharmacotherapy. d) Neuroendocrine challenge studies in normal volunteers and current addictive disease patients along with former addicts in treatment, to investigate differential pharmacodynamics and responsiveness of molecular targets, in particular those also investigated in the experimental and molecular genetic approaches described above. PMID:18725235

  15. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    PubMed

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue. PMID:25872308

  16. Research progress on the proliferation and differentiation of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, A.; Tan, B.

    Space environments such as microgravity magnetic field radiation and heavy metal ions affects the development and functions of human and mammalian cells To study these influences and the corresponding metabolisms is in favour of knowing about the development and differentiation process of organism cells In recent years researches on the differentiation of stem cells induced in vitro provide a new pathway for the repair of tissue lesion and therapy of human diseases Stem cells are potential in capable of differentiating into different functional cells But there has no reliable methods to induce the stem cells differentiating forward specific cells and to gain enough cells for transplantation which limited their application on clinical therapy It has been indicated that microgravity influenced embryonic development hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and so on Hematopoietic stem cell migration and its differentiation were affected by microgravity The specific differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells was inhibited under microgravity The expression of proteins regulating cell cycle period also changed Mesenchymal stem cells provide a source of cells for the repair of musculoskeletal tissue in ground experiment While under microgravity the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells were influenced along with the differentiated cells function changed Furthermore in the differentiation process of stem cells under microgravity the mechanism of signal transport was also affected and the specific differentiation

  17. Research progress in the genetics of hyperuricaemia and gout.

    PubMed

    Min, Zheng; Junwu, Ma

    2016-04-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia, which is affected by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Early researches show that a few of rare monogenic mutations, such as PRPS1 and HPRT1 mutations, lead to abnormal purine anabolism and then cause hyperuricaemia and gout. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of susceptibility loci and/or candidate genes associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 cause hereditary hypouricaemia, while their overexpression may increase the reabsorption of uric acid. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in ABCG2, SLC17A1, and SLC17A3 cause urate underexcretion of renal and intestinal. These variations leading to blood uric acid excretion disorder (excess reabsorption and underexcretion) are the main genetic factors affecting hyperuicemia and gout. Moreover, to some degree, inhibins-activins growth factor system, transcription factors, cytoskeleton and gene-environment interaction can also affect the level of blood uric acid. In addition, two risk genes, RFX3 and KCNQ1, which might impair immune response and lead to functional deficiency of beta cell were recently discovered to influence hyperuiceamia and gout in Han Chinese. This paper systematically reviews genetic studies on hyperuricaemia and gout to improve our understanding of pathogenesis of hyperuricaemia and gout.

  18. Current Progress of Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Gün, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first transgenic pigs were generated for agricultural purposes about three decades ago. Since then, the micromanipulation techniques of pig oocytes and embryos expanded from pronuclear injection of foreign DNA to somatic cell nuclear transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer, lentiviral transduction, and cytoplasmic injection. Mechanistically, the passive transgenesis approach based on random integration of foreign DNA was developed to active genetic engineering techniques based on the transient activity of ectopic enzymes, such as transposases, recombinases, and programmable nucleases. Whole-genome sequencing and annotation of advanced genome maps of the pig complemented these developments. The full implementation of these tools promises to immensely increase the efficiency and, in parallel, to reduce the costs for the generation of genetically engineered pigs. Today, the major application of genetically engineered pigs is found in the field of biomedical disease modeling. It is anticipated that genetically engineered pigs will increasingly be used in biomedical research, since this model shows several similarities to humans with regard to physiology, metabolism, genome organization, pathology, and aging. PMID:25469311

  19. AB017. Basic research progress in microenergy medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering has brought a host of opportunities and innovations for biomedical informatics and health care in microenergy medicine, and it is called the third revolution in the field of life science research. Low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT), a form of physical therapy in energy medicine, was shown to markedly improve erectile function in patients with organic ED, as well as in diabetic rats. In addition, LESWT has been demonstrated to facilitate elongation of myelinated axons, with consequent neurologic functional recovery in a rat model. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a form of ultrasound that delivered at a much lower intensity than traditional ultrasound energy and output in the mode of pulse wave. LIPUS have been demonstrated to have a rage of biological effects on tissues, including promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue regeneration, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. Recent studies showed that biological effects of LIPUS in healing morbid body tissues may be mainly associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation and promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines. Therapeutic magnetic field, a good paradigm of convergence medicine, has been demonstrated to have beneficial results in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), human breast carcinoma, peripheral nerve regeneration, hand osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, and nucleic acid delivery. Magnetic field has been proven to be a safe, non-invasive method for numerous cell and tissue modifications, especially in musculoskeletal system.

  20. [Research progress on molecular ecology of Sciurus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Tian, Xin-min; Chen, Huan; Guo, Hui-yan; Jin, Jian-li; Zhang, Xiao-jun

    2015-03-01

    Today, the main threats for Sciurus vulgaris are illegal hunting, deforestation, and subsequent population fragmentation, combined with interspecific competition from S. carolinensis in some regions of Europe, which has led to a sharp reduction in the number of population. S. vulgaris has been listed as Near Threatened IUCN Red List and included in key protected wild animals in Jilin Province, China. The molecular ecology of S. vulgaris is developing rapidly with the rapid development of molecular biology methods. In particular, the research of mtDNA fragments and the application squirrel study microsatellite loci has further promoted the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris. In this study, the molecular phylogeny, the genetic diversity and the molecular phylogeography involving the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were reviewed. Four areas for the future development in molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were proposed: 1) to further explore the molecular phylogeny relationship between S. vulgaris and S. lis; 2) the comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of S. vulgaris for continuous populations, isolated populations and metapopulation; 3) the analysis of molecular phylogeography of S. vulgaris based on other markers of nuclear; 4) to explore whether there existed the quaternary glacial refuge in Asia. PMID:26211081

  1. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Methods Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. Results A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications. PMID:23596206

  2. Annual research progress report, FY 1980. Annual report 1 Oct 79-30 Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    During Fiscal Year 1980 progress was attained at the Letterman Army Institute of Research in the following research areas: Basic and applied studies on blood, blood products and blood substitutes; physiology of hemorrhagic shock, pharmacological intervention of shock; the determination of coherent radiation exposure thresholds causing damage to the eye, definition and treatment for laser injuries of the skin and eye; military stress and combat effectiveness; evaluation and toxicology of insect repellents; defense against chemical agents. The progress made in this fiscal year is described in the reports of the work units presented.

  3. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    PubMed Central

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results (i.e., discovery research). Results of the additional analyses suggested that the reward contingency functioned as punishment (because the participant preferred the task to the rewards) and that withdrawal of the contingency produced punishment contrast. PMID:12723865

  4. Mathematics and statistics research department. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, W.E.; Kane, V.E.; Scott, D.S.; Shepherd, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the twenty-fourth in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department of the Computer Sciences Division, Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND). Part A records research progress in biometrics research, materials science applications, model evaluation, moving boundary problems, multivariate analysis, numerical linear algebra, risk analysis, and complementary areas. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the UCC-ND complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biology and health sciences, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety research, materials sciences, safeguards, surveys, and uranium resource evaluation. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  5. US Army Research Office research in progress, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The US Army Research Office, under the US Army Materiel Command (AMC), is responsible for coordinating and supporting research in the physical and engineering sciences, in materials science, geosciences, biology, and mathematics. This report describes research directly supported by the Army Research Projects Agency, and several AMC and other Army commands. A separate section is devoted to the research program at the US Army Research, Development and Standardization Group - United Kingdom. The present volume includes the research program in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, mathematics, engineering sciences, metallurgy and materials science, geosciences, electronics, and the European Research Program. It covers the 12-month period from 1 July 1991 through 30 June 1992.

  6. Mathematics and statistics research progress report, period ending June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, J. J.; Denson, M. V.; Heath, M. T.; Lever, W. E.; Wilson, D. G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is the twenty-sixth in the series of progress reports of Mathematics and Statistics Research of the Computer Sciences organization, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division. Part A records research progress in analysis of large data sets, applied analysis, biometrics research, computational statistics, materials science applications, numerical linear algebra, and risk analysis. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the Oak Ridge Department of Energy complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biological sciences, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety, and safeguards. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  7. Mathematics and Statistics Research Department progress report, period ending June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, M.V.; Funderlic, R.E.; Gosslee, D.G.; Lever, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    This report is the twenty-fifth in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department of the Computer Sciences Division, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND). Part A records research progress in analysis of large data sets, biometrics research, computational statistics, materials science applications, moving boundary problems, numerical linear algebra, and risk analysis. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the UCC-ND complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biology, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety, materials science, safeguards, surveys, and the waste storage program. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  8. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  9. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  10. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, April 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    Research progress for the reporting period is briefly summarized for the following sections: (1) health studies, (2) technology assessments, (3) biological and radiation physics, (4) chemical physics, (5) Office of Risk Analysis, and (6) health and environmental risk and analysis. (ACR)

  11. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  12. Researchers' Bibliography for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, J. H., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography enables researchers who are using Raven's Progressive Matrices or the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales to become familiar with other work that used these tests. The bibliography derives from Raven's own collection of sources, updated to the end of 1971. The major division of material is by tests rather than subject areas;…

  13. Autism Research and Services for Young Children: History, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by…

  14. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  15. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  16. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berven, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    This is a progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology, Biological and Radiation Physics, Chemical Physics, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis, Risk Analysis, Center for Risk Management, Associate Laboratories for Excellence in Radiation Technology (ALERT), and Contributions to National and Lead Laboratory Programs and Assignments--Environmental Restoration.

  17. Research in the geosciences related to resource assessment. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kivelson, M.G.

    1980-07-18

    Research progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) development of a field data acquisition and processing system for use in exploration geophysics; (2) analysis of seismic data from Imperial Valley and Mt. Etna; and (3) the genesis of uranium ore deposits. (ACR)

  18. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  19. Design-Based Research: A Decade of Progress in Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Shattuck, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) evolved near the beginning of the 21st century and was heralded as a practical research methodology that could effectively bridge the chasm between research and practice in formal education. In this article, the authors review the characteristics of DBR and analyze the five most cited DBR articles from each year of this…

  20. UCLA accelerator research and development. Progress report, [November 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-09-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  1. Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Task A. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.

  2. NOAA-ERL solar ultraviolet radiation and climate research project: Program description and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Baker-Blocker, A.; Bouwer, S. D.; Lean, J.

    1982-09-01

    Research of the temporal variations of solar ultraviolet radiation is reviewed. Progress on a collaborative program to analyze Dr. D. F. Heath's NIMBUS-7 SBUV measurements of the solar UV spectral irradiance is summarized. Significant progress has been made on determining the wavelength and temporal characteristics of UV variations caused by solar active region evolution (birth, growth, peak, decay and occasionally rejuvenation) and by solar rotation (area foreshortening, center-to-limb darkening and limb occulation). Work on trying to corroborate an observed semiannual UV variation has commenced. Extensive progress on modeling solar UV variations has been achieved. Support for improved rocket-flight measurements of solar UV spectral irradiance is discussed. The importance of obtaining accurate recalibration is stressed.

  3. Overview of AA and Research Progress: What Have We Learned and Where Are We Headed?

    PubMed

    Norris, David A

    2015-11-01

    During its 25th anniversary year, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation undertook a project to completely re-evaluate their research program and to help focus and direct future directions of alopecia areata research to better meet the goals of people with alopecia areata (AA) and the scientists working to discover mechanisms of disease and better treatments for AA. This project was embodied in four research summits in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2012, as part of the Foundation's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program to accelerate progress toward a viable alopecia areata treatment. The first summit was an evaluation of the progress of AA research in a global sense, with an emphasis on how to use the research programs to bring better treatments to patients. The second summit focused on immunology and how to better understand the autoimmune nature of AA. The third summit focused on developing a clinical research network that could most effectively bring new treatments to patients. The fourth summit consolidated the considerable evidence of the mechanisms of AA, and how these mechanisms could be targeted by modern therapies, many of which were being used effectively in other autoimmune diseases. These four summits laid the foundation for the fifth summit in the series: From Targets to Treatments: Bridging Autoimmune Research to Advance Understanding of Alopecia Areata.

  4. Progress of applied superconductivity research at Materials Research Laboratories, ITRI (Taiwan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R. S.; Wang, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    A status report based on the applied high temperature superconductivity (HTS) research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is given. The aim is to develop fabrication technologies for the high-TC materials appropriate to the industrial application requirements. To date, the majorities of works have been undertaken in the areas of new materials, wires/tapes with long length, prototypes of magnets, large-area thin films, SQUID's and microwave applications.

  5. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continues to maintain an outstanding program of basic and applied research displaying a high level of creativity and achievement as documented by awards, publications, professional service, and successful completion of variety of projects. Our focus is on human health and the scientific basis for measurement and assessment of health-related impacts of energy technologies. It is our custom to publish a division progress report every 18 months that summarizes our programmatic progress and other measures of achievement over the reporting period. Since it is not feasible to summarize in detail all of our work over the period covered by this report (October 1, 1988, to March 30, 1990), we intend this document to point the way to the expensive open literature that documents our findings. During the reporting period the Division continued to maintain strong programs in its traditional areas of R D, but also achieved noteworthy progress in other areas. Much of the Division's work on site characterization, development of new field instruments, compilation of data bases, and methodology development fits into this initiative. Other new work in tunneling microscopy in support of DOE's Human Genome Program and the comprehensive R D work related to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy have attained new and exciting results. These examples of our progress and numerous other activities are highlighted in this report.

  6. [Current Research of the Roles of IL-35 in Tumor Progression].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongbiao; Tian, Ye; Cui, Yan; Xu, Jie; Xin, Liang; Yang, Xueling; Qi, Daliang

    2016-04-20

    Interleukin(IL)-35 is a new member of the interleukin-12 superfamily. Since its first report in 2007, IL-35 rapidly became a research highlight in the field of immunology. Like other IL-12 superfamily members, IL-35 was a heterodimer which was composed of an α chain P35 and a β chain Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3). Recent research work revealed two distinct roles of IL-35. Firstly, IL-35 is highly expressed in some kinds of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases and plays import roles in the pathogenesis. Secondly, IL-35 is positively expressed in some cancers and plays some roles in the process of tumor progression. Here we demonstrate the structure and the signalling of IL-35. We reviewed the the roles of IL-35 in promoting tumor progression.

  7. Aeroelasticity at the NASA Langley Research Center Recent progress, new challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent progress in aeroelasticity, particularly at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed to look at the questions answered and questions raised, and to attempt to define appropriate research emphasis needed in the near future and beyond. The paper is focused primarily on the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Program because Langley is the lead NASA center for aerospace structures research, and essentially is the only one working in depth in the area of aeroelasticity. Historical trends in aeroelasticity are reviewed broadly in terms of technology and staffing particularly at the LaRC. Then, selected studies of the Loads and Aeroelasticity Division at LaRC and others over the past three years are presented with attention paid to unresolved questions. Finally, based on the results of these studies and on perceptions of design trends and aircraft operational requirements, future research needs in aeroelasticity are discussed.

  8. Identifying Indicators of Progress in Thermal Spray Research Using Bibliometrics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-T.; Khor, K. A.; Yu, L.-G.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the research publications on thermal spray in the period of 1985-2015 using the data from Web of Science, Scopus and SciVal®. Bibliometrics analysis was employed to elucidate the country and institution distribution in various thermal spray research areas and to characterize the trends of topic change and technology progress. Results show that China, USA, Japan, Germany, India and France were the top countries in thermal spray research, and Xi'an Jiaotong University, Universite de Technologie Belfort-Montbeliard, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, ETH Zurich, National Research Council of Canada, University of Limoges were among the top institutions that had high scholarly research output during 2005-2015. The terms of the titles, keywords and abstracts of the publications were analyzed by the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model and visually mapped using the VOSviewer software to reveal the progress of thermal spray technology. It is found that thermal barrier coating was consistently the main research area in thermal spray, and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray and cold spray developed rapidly in the last 10 years.

  9. [Research progress on peptidoglycan recognition proteins of medical shells and molluscs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Lu; Guo, Yun-Hai; Luo, Tai-Chang; Zhang, Yi

    2012-08-30

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are highly conserved pattern recognition receptors in evolution, and they can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) and bacteria that contain PGN in their cell wall component in early immune process of host, then provide signal transduction and activate a series of immune proteins. PGRPs are extensively present in insects, molluscs, echinoderms and vertebrates. Research progress and frontiers on PGRPs gene, type, structure, express localization, function, and evolution in medical molluscs and other snails were briefly reviewed in this article.

  10. [Progress in research of detection assay for pathogens causing community acquirerd pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Jiang, L X; Ren, H Y; Zhou, H J; Chen, Y; Shao, Z J; Qin, T

    2016-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia(CAP)is a common respiratory infectious disease. The etiologic diagnosis of CAP remains an uneasy task. Early etiologic diagnosis is critical for proper treatment and might improve the prognosis. So, it is important to identify pathogens causing CAP in early time and accurate way with sensitive and effective method. This paper summarizes the recent progress in the research of the detection assay for CAP. PMID:27453123

  11. [Progress of researches on lysozyme and its expression in Oncomelania hupensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiu-an; Huang, Han-tao; Du, Kang; Wang, An-yun; Zhao, Jin-song

    2016-02-01

    Lysozyme generally exists in animals, plants and microorganisms, and it is used as a natural anti-infection material and one of the important non-specific immune factors in organisms. This paper reviews the progress of researches on its classification, gene structure and function, and expression regulation in Oncomelania hupensis, and on the factors affecting its activities in recent years, in order to further discuss its distribution in O. hupensis. PMID:27356422

  12. Activities, accomplishments and research progress of the Center for Theoretical Geoplasma Physics, Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tom

    1992-02-01

    This annual report contains a detailed description of the activities, accomplishments, and research progress of the MIT Center for Theoretical Geoplasma Physics established under the University Research Initiative Program by AFOSR. During this second phase of the program, the Center has made definite strides toward the goals prescribed in the renewal proposal. The Center now has a staff of twenty-five (25) faculty, research scientists, postdoctoral, graduate and undergraduate students and visiting scientists. Members of the Center published forty-eight (48) scientific papers and five (5) books and proceedings, delivered forty (40) invited lectures and fifty-one (51) contributed papers. We have initiated a number of new research activities to complement our other ongoing research programs. Some of our research efforts have already been utilized by Dr. J. R. Jasperse's group at the Geophysics Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory in practical space technology applications relevant to the missions of the Air Force. In addition to the Phillips Laboratory, the Center has interacted with numerous research organizations and universities. The research publications are generally the direct product of such interactions.

  13. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK).

    PubMed

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-02-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies.

  14. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK)

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies. PMID:26205878

  15. [Progress in research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex].

    PubMed

    Du, Yihui; Wang, Zhiping; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy, increase of cultural exchanges and changes of people's ideology in China, the number of female sex workers (FSWs) increased rapidly under the influence of various social factors. The diverse motivations for women engaging in commercial sex have been observed. Foreign researchers have conducted some surveys of factors associated with female commercial sex, while few such studies were conducted among FSWs in China. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex both at home and abroad to provide evidence for future study. PMID:26822661

  16. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly technical progress report, February--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; and applied energy science. Oil and gas research includes: CROW {sup TM} process modeling; and miscible-immiscible gas injection processes. Advanced systems applications covers: development and optimization of a process for the production of a premium sold fuel from western US coals; development of an on-line alkali monitoring probe; optimization of the recycle oil process for eastern oil shale; and process support and development. Environmental technologies has solid waste management; and remediation of contaminated soils.

  17. [Progress in research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex].

    PubMed

    Du, Yihui; Wang, Zhiping; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy, increase of cultural exchanges and changes of people's ideology in China, the number of female sex workers (FSWs) increased rapidly under the influence of various social factors. The diverse motivations for women engaging in commercial sex have been observed. Foreign researchers have conducted some surveys of factors associated with female commercial sex, while few such studies were conducted among FSWs in China. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex both at home and abroad to provide evidence for future study.

  18. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  19. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment. PMID:25249030

  20. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  1. Declassification Productivity Research Center: Progress report number 9, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the progress achieved by the Declassification Productivity Research Center (DPRC) during the third quarter of its third year of operations. The DPRC was established at The George Washington University (GWU) as an independent world-class research capability and computer facility to support the DOE Declassification Productivity Initiative (DPI). The original intent of DOE was to provide seed funding for the DPRC, which might be supplemented by other interested agencies as opportunities for research were identified and projects funded. The goal of DPI is to increase the flow of unrestricted government information to the public. To this end, the work at GWU involves both basic and applied research in the areas of (1) system-level declassification process analysis and modeling, (2) development of computer systems to automate declassification processes, including text analysis and interpretation, (3) coordination/integration of new technology into the processes, and (4) development and promulgation of inter-operability and document transfer standards.

  2. progressive problemshifts between different research programs in science education: A lakatosian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Given the importance of epistemology and philosophy of science, the Lakatos (1970) methodology is particularly suited to evaluate competing research programs in science education. This article has two objectives: (a) to evaluate critically the interpretations of Gilbert and Swift (1985) and Rowell and Dawson (1989), and (b) to postulate a progressive problemshift between Piaget's epistemic subject and Pascual-Leone's metasubject. Regarding the Gilbert and Swift interpretation, it is concluded that the alternative conceptions movement at its present stage of development cannot explain the previous success of its rival (Piagetian school) nor supersede it by a further display of heuristic power as required by Lakatos. If we accept the Rowell and Dawson thesis it would amount to the postulation of Piagetian and integrated (Piagetian and schema) theories as rival research programs. It appears that the Rowell and Dawson approach would enrich Piagetian theory with descriptive content rather than explanatory constructs, and thus would not lead to a progressive problemshift. It is concluded that Pascual-Leone's theory extends Piaget's negative heuristic by introducing antecedent variables, and at the same time enriches the positive heuristic by introducing metasubjective task analysis, which leads to a progressive problemshift.

  3. Landbird migration in the American West: Recent progress and future research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, J.D.; Skagen, S.K.; Kus, B.E.; van Riper, Charles; Paxton, K.L.; Kelly, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of avian behaviors during the nonbreeding period still lags behind that of the breeding season, but the last decade has witnessed a proliferation in research that has yielded significant progress in understanding migration patterns of North American birds. And, although historically the great majority of migration research has been conducted in the eastern half of the continent, there has been much recent progress on aspects of avian migration in the West. In particular, expanded use of techniques such as radar, plasma metabolites, mist-netting, count surveys, stable isotopes, genetic data, and animal tracking, coupled with an increase in multi-investigator collaborations, have all contributed to this growth of knowledge. There is increasing recognition that migration is likely the most limiting time of year for migratory birds, increasing the importance of continuing to decipher patterns of stopover ecology, identifying critical stopover habitats, and documenting migration routes in the diverse and changing landscapes of the American West. Here, we review and briefly synthesize the latest findings and advances in avian migration and consider research needs to guide future research on migration in the West. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  5. NASA's Human Research Program at The Glenn Research Center: Progress and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha; Griffin, DeVon; Myers, Jerry; Perusek, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program is aimed at correcting problems in critical areas that place NASA human spaceflight missions at risk due to shortfalls in astronaut health, safety and performance. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) and partners from Ohio are significant contributors to this effort. This presentation describes several areas of GRC emphasis, the first being NASA s path to creating exercise hardware requirements and protocols that mitigate the effects of long duration spaceflight. Computational simulations will be a second area that is discussed. This includes deterministic models that simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, as well as probabilistic models that bound and quantify the probability that adverse medical incidents will happen during an exploration mission. Medical technology development for exploration will be the final area to be discussed.

  6. Applied Analytical Combustion/emissions Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center - a Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  7. High Pressure Low NOx Emissions Research: Recent Progress at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi-Ming, Lee; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Wey, Changlie

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration with U.S. aircraft engine companies, NASA Glenn Research Center has contributed to the advancement of low emissions combustion systems. For the High Speed Research Program (HSR), a 90% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (relative to the then-current state of the art) has been demonstrated in sector rig testing at General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). For the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST), a 50% reduction in NOx emissions relative to the 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards has been at demonstrated in sector rigs at both GEAE and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). During the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), a 70% reduction in NOx emissions, relative to the 1996 ICAO standards, was achieved in sector rig testing at Glenn in the world class Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR) and at contractor facilities. Low NOx combustor development continues under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To achieve these reductions, experimental and analytical research has been conducted to advance the understanding of emissions formation in combustion processes. Lean direct injection (LDI) concept development uses advanced laser-based non-intrusive diagnostics and analytical work to complement the emissions measurements and to provide guidance for concept improvement. This paper describes emissions results from flametube tests of a 9- injection-point LDI fuel/air mixer tested at inlet pressures up to 5500 kPa. Sample results from CFD and laser diagnostics are also discussed.

  8. Measuring progress in multirobot research with rating methods--the RoboCup example.

    PubMed

    Shmilovici, Armin; Ramkddam, Foaid; Lopez, Beatriz; de la Rosa, Josep Lluis

    2004-04-01

    Rating the intelligence of artificially made systems is important for measuring progress in scientific and engineering methods. Unfortunately, there is currently no universal agreement about what is considered an intelligent system, and how to measure its intelligence. This research focus on measuring the progress in the robotic technologies deployed for the RoboCup competitions, since one of the original premises of those competitions was to advance the development of intelligent robotic systems. A method used for rating the competence of human chess players is adapted for measuring the advancement in the competence of robotic teams. The results indicate significant yearly improvements in the capabilities of the robotic teams. The same method can be used to indirectly quantify the benefits in specific technology choices. PMID:15376876

  9. Environmental reporting and accounting in Australia: progress, prospects and research priorities.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Mount, Richard; Gibbons, Philip; Vardon, Michael; Canadell, Pep

    2014-03-01

    Despite strong demand for information to support the sustainable use of Australia's natural resources and conserve environmental values and despite considerable effort and investment, nation-wide environmental data collection and analysis remains a substantially unmet challenge. We review progress in producing national environmental reports and accounts, identify challenges and opportunities, and analyse the potential role of research in addressing these. Australia's low and concentrated population density and the short history since European settlement contribute to the lack of environmental data. There are additional factors: highly diverse data requirements and standards, disagreement on information priorities, poorly measurable management objectives, lack of coordination, over-reliance on researchers and businesses for data collection, lack of business engagement, and short-term, project-based activities. New opportunities have arisen to overcome some of these challenges: enhanced monitoring networks, standardisation, data management and modelling, greater commitment to share and integrate data, community monitoring, increasing acceptance of environmental and sustainability indicators, and progress in environmental accounting practices. Successes in generating climate, water and greenhouse gas information appear to be attributable to an unambiguous data requirement, considerable investment, and legislative instruments that enhance data sharing and create a clearly defined role for operational agencies. Based on the analysis presented, we suggest six priorities for research: (1) common definitions and standards for information that address management objectives, (2) ecological measures that are scalable from local to national level, (3) promotion of long-term data collection and reporting by researchers, (4) efficient satellite and sensor network technologies and data analysis methods, (5) environmental modelling approaches that can reconcile multiple data

  10. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlman, R. C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

    1980-04-01

    Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

  11. Task A: Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida; Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1993-11-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.

  12. Anticipation - the underlying science of sport. Report on research in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Professional sport practitioners intuitively acknowledge anticipation. Sports researchers sometimes discuss it. Still, there is little data-based evidence to characterize the role anticipation plays in human performance. Even less documented is the distinction between reaction and anticipation. This text presents the real-time quantification environment developed as an AnticipationScope™. Based on a very large data harvest from this experimental set-up, hypotheses regarding the role of anticipation in sport are advanced. The conclusion is that while preparation and reaction play an important role in sports performance, in the final analysis anticipation distinguishes the professional from other sport practitioners. Work in progress is presented with the aim of engaging the community of researchers in the design of alternative methods for quantifying anticipation and for processing the data. Generalization from sport to human performance is one of the intended outcomes of this research.

  13. New Researches and Application Progress of Commonly Used Optical Molecular Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Optical molecular imaging, a new medical imaging technique, is developed based on genomics, proteomics and modern optical imaging technique, characterized by non-invasiveness, non-radiativity, high cost-effectiveness, high resolution, high sensitivity and simple operation in comparison with conventional imaging modalities. Currently, it has become one of the most widely used molecular imaging techniques and has been applied in gene expression regulation and activity detection, biological development and cytological detection, drug research and development, pathogenesis research, pharmaceutical effect evaluation and therapeutic effect evaluation, and so forth, This paper will review the latest researches and application progresses of commonly used optical molecular imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging. PMID:24696850

  14. Designing and measuring the progress and impact of health research capacity strengthening initiatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening capacity in poorer countries to generate multi-disciplinary health research and to utilise research findings, is one of the most effective ways of advancing the countries' health and development. This paper explores current knowledge about how to design health research capacity strengthening (RCS) programmes and how to measure their progress and impact. It describes a systematic, evidence-based approach for designing such programmes and highlights some of the key challenges that will be faced in the next 10 years. These include designing and implementing common frameworks to facilitate comparisons among capacity strengthening projects, and developing monitoring indicators that can capture their interactions with knowledge users and their impact on changes in health systems.

  15. [Recent progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Jiang, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In the process of modern drug research, the new methods and technologies which can detect drug molecules' chemical composition, structure and interaction with biomolecules are always the key scientific problems people care about. Spectra (including IR, UV and NMR) are the most common analytical methods, of which NMR can obtain detailed parameter about the nucleus of organic molecules through researching the laws of nuclear transition in the impact of surrounding chemical environment. The parameter contains rich information about the chemical composition, structure and interaction with other molecules of organic molecules. In many complex environments, such as liquid, solid or gas state, even biological in situ environment, NMR can provide molecules' chemical composition, atomic-resolution three-dimensional structure, information of interaction with each other and dynamic process, especially the information about drug interacting with biomacromolecules. In recent years, the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum in drug research and development are more and more widespread. This paper reviewed its recent progress in structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in drug research and development. In the first part, we gave a brief introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance technology and its applications in drug research. In the second part, we explained the basic principles briefly and summarized progress in methods and techniques for drug research. In the third part, we discussed applications of nuclear magnetic resonance ir structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in detail. The conclusions were stated in the last part.

  16. [Recent progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Jiang, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In the process of modern drug research, the new methods and technologies which can detect drug molecules' chemical composition, structure and interaction with biomolecules are always the key scientific problems people care about. Spectra (including IR, UV and NMR) are the most common analytical methods, of which NMR can obtain detailed parameter about the nucleus of organic molecules through researching the laws of nuclear transition in the impact of surrounding chemical environment. The parameter contains rich information about the chemical composition, structure and interaction with other molecules of organic molecules. In many complex environments, such as liquid, solid or gas state, even biological in situ environment, NMR can provide molecules' chemical composition, atomic-resolution three-dimensional structure, information of interaction with each other and dynamic process, especially the information about drug interacting with biomacromolecules. In recent years, the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum in drug research and development are more and more widespread. This paper reviewed its recent progress in structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in drug research and development. In the first part, we gave a brief introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance technology and its applications in drug research. In the second part, we explained the basic principles briefly and summarized progress in methods and techniques for drug research. In the third part, we discussed applications of nuclear magnetic resonance ir structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in detail. The conclusions were stated in the last part. PMID:25993865

  17. Present progress and future research in the relativistic klystron amplifier program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Moshe; Serlin, Victor; Lampe, Martin; Hubbard, Richard F.

    1994-05-01

    This paper addresses the development of the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) which is a high power microwave (HPM) source. This source was invented at the Naval Research Laboratory and developed during the last ten years. The present RKA has a 50 db gain and is operated at a frequency of 1.3 GHz with a peak output power > 10 GW and with an efficiency > 35%. However this HPM amplifier is rather large and expensive for many applications. Moreover, extending the frequency of the NRL RKA to frequencies above 3.5 GHz was not fully successful. Recently, it was suggested that incorporation of two modifications to the RKA technology should improve the capabilities of the present NRL HPM source by orders of magnitude and extend the operational frequency to X-band. These improvements enhance the potential for successful and effective military and civilian applications. These modifications are described.

  18. [Research progress on medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2009-03-01

    The paper summarizes the research progress on the medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species in recent years. Besides the 45 species in 7 genus within Meloidae insects which contain cantharidin, there are also more 9 species in 7 close origin genus containing cantharidin which include Zanna, Fulgora and Lycorma within Fulgoridae of Homoptera, Oxocopis, Heliocis Xanthochroa and Oedemera within Oedemeridae of Coleoptera. New medicinal resources of cantharidin are redundant, there are biological relationships in the biosynthesis of cantharidin, the emerge of cantharidin is related to ecology and there is more attention on the new methods of utilizing Mylabris resources such as living body extraction.

  19. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  20. FY 2014 Annual Progress Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  1. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  2. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  3. [Research progress on medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2009-03-01

    The paper summarizes the research progress on the medicinal resources of Mylabris and close origin species in recent years. Besides the 45 species in 7 genus within Meloidae insects which contain cantharidin, there are also more 9 species in 7 close origin genus containing cantharidin which include Zanna, Fulgora and Lycorma within Fulgoridae of Homoptera, Oxocopis, Heliocis Xanthochroa and Oedemera within Oedemeridae of Coleoptera. New medicinal resources of cantharidin are redundant, there are biological relationships in the biosynthesis of cantharidin, the emerge of cantharidin is related to ecology and there is more attention on the new methods of utilizing Mylabris resources such as living body extraction. PMID:19623996

  4. [Research progress of drugs commonly used to anti-rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Chi, Li-Qun; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a kind of chronic, progressive, multiple, invasive autoimmune disease with two chief cclinical manifestations arthrosynovitis and ex-arthrosis, easy to occur in middle-aged women, also occur in children and the elderly, is characterized by progressive and break out repeatedly. RA pathogenesis is complex, there is no special treatment, used in treatment of R drug varied, new drugs and new therapies also emerge in endlessly, main including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), slow action anti-rheumatism medicine (SAARDs), glucocorticoids (GCs), biological agent, traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine preparations, domestic market for rheumatoid main drug treatment are NSAIDs, SAARDs, GCs, traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medi- cine preparations for the treatment of RA have its unique advantages, show the characteristics of overall adjustment, multi-level and multiple targets, and also can alleviate and against side effects of western medicine. In recent years, more and more get people's atten- tion. This paper reviewed the research progress and treatment features of commonly used therapeutic agents for the treatment of RA in recent years, which provides reference and basis for future medicine anti-RA.

  5. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

  6. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  7. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  8. Current Research and Professional Practice: Reports of Work in Progress into the Assessment of Young Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Dickins, Pauline

    2000-01-01

    Introduces articles that follow discussing research in progress on assessing foreign language learners at the elementary school levels. The articles describe contexts in Austria, Norway, and Italy. (Author/VWL)

  9. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review quarter ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. A list of available publications is also included.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 71, quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  11. Recent progresses in atmospheric remote sensing research in China —Chinese national report on atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Chen, Hongbin

    2004-06-01

    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003 are summarily introduced. This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3) remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing, including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  12. Language Research in Progress: Report No. 7, January 1969; A Cross-Referenced List of Documented Language Research Projects Current April 1968 - November 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alfred S.; Vis, Joan

    This document is the seventh report in the Language Research in Progress (LRIP) series, and lists a wide variety of language-related research projects current between April 1968 and November 1968. Research projects terminated in the six months prior to publication are included as well. Approximately 250 projects in the U.S. and abroad are…

  13. [Eco-toxicological effect of metal-based nanoparticles on plants: Research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Peng, Cheng; Yang, Jian-Jun; Shi, Ji-yan

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology and the potential environmental risk of wide application of artificial nanoparticles (NPs) have raised considerable concerns. Metal-based nanoparticles (MB NPs) have dual-toxicity of metal and NPs, and thus, their bio-toxicity and ecological risk are the hotspots in the studies of nanotoxicology. Plant, as a main component of ecosystem, is a potential pathway for NPs bioaccumulation and entering into food chain. This paper discussed the MB NPs absorption, translocation, and accumulation by plants, and summarized the eco-toxicological effect of MB NPs on plants and related mechanisms. The factors affecting the phytotoxicity of MB NPs were approached, and the research progress on the eco-toxicological effect of MB NPs on plants, especially on food crops, was reviewed. Also, the existing problems in present MB NPs phytotoxicity studies were analyzed, and the future research directions were proposed.

  14. Progress of the Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.; Ringh, Ulf; Jansson, Christer; Reinhold, Olaf

    1998-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of uncooled microbolometer IR focal plane detector arrays (IRFPDA) under a research collaboration between the Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA), and the Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO), Australia. The paper describes current focal plane detector arrays designed by Electro-optic Sensor Design (EOSD) for readout circuits developed by FOA. The readouts are fabricated in 0.8 micrometer CMOS, and have a novel signal conditioning and 16 bit parallel ADC design. The arrays are post-processed at DSTO on wafers supplied by FOA. During the past year array processing has been carried out at a new microengineering facility at DSTO, Salisbury, South Australia. A number of small format 16 X 16 arrays have been delivered to FOA for evaluation, and imaging has been demonstrated with these arrays. A 320 X 240 readout with 320 parallel 16 bit ADCs has been developed and IRFPDAs for this readout have been fabricated and are currently being evaluated.

  15. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications. PMID:27501687

  16. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  17. [Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future.

  18. Progress report for the CCT-WG5 high temperature fixed point research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R.; Anhalt, K.; Bloembergen, P.; Sadli, M.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    An overview of the progress in High Temperature Fixed Point (HTFP) research conducted under the auspices of the CCT-WG5 research plan is reported. In brief highlights are: Provisional long term stability of HTFPs has been demonstrated. Optimum construction methods for HTFPs have been established and high quality HTFPs of Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C have been constructed for thermodynamic temperature assignment. The major sources of uncertainty in the assignment of thermodynamic temperature have been identified and quantified. The status of absolute radiometric temperature measurement has been quantified through the circulation of a set of HTFPs. The measurement campaign to assign low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures to a selected set of HTFPs will begin in mid-2012. It is envisaged that this will be complete by 2015 leading to HTFPs becoming routine reference standards for radiometry and high temperature metrology.

  19. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications.

  20. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  1. Progress and prospects in human genetic research into age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasue; Sugiura, Saiko; Sone, Michihiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.

  2. The complement system in teleost fish: progress of post-homolog-hunting researches.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Miki; Tsujikura, Masakazu; Ichiki, Satoko; Vo, Tam K; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2011-12-01

    Studies on the complement system of bony fish are now finishing a stage of homologue-hunting identification of the components, unveiling existence of almost all the orthologues of mammalian complement components in teleost. Genomic and transcriptomic data for several teleost species have contributed much for the homologue-hunting research progress. Only an exception is identification of orthologues of mammalian complement regulatory proteins and complement receptors. It is of particular interest that teleost complement components often exist as multiple isoforms with possible functional divergence. This review summarizes research progress of teleost complement system following the molecular identification and sequence analysis of the components. The findings of extensive expression analyses of the complement components with special emphasis of their prominent extrahepatic expression, acute-phase response to immunostimulation and various microbial infections, and ontogenic development including maternal transfer are discussed to infer teleost-specific functions of the complement system. Importance of the protein level characterization of the complement components is also emphasized, especially for understanding of the isotypic diversity of the components, a unique feature of teleost complement system.

  3. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Progress report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Potchen, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Effort since the last progress report (September 1979) has been directed toward assessing the potential short and long term benefits of continued development and application and medical research of emission computed tomograhy (ECT). This report contains a review of existing ECT technology, including functional descriptions of current and proposed image systems, for both sngle-photon ECT (SPECT) and positron ECT (PECT) approaches. Medical research and clinical topics to which ECT has been, or may be, applied are presented. One such area of investigation involves the effects of stroke. The application of ECT to laboratory research, and to clinical diagnosis and prognosis, of stroke may result in improved management of the disease. An illustration of the potential savings in the cost of management of stroke due to the effects of applied ECT research is included. The results represent a compilation of data collected from conversations with, and conference presentations by, ECT users, researchers and image system designers, and from a review of the literature.

  4. Latest research progress in the correlation between baicalein and breast cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YAN, WAN-JUN; MA, XING-CONG; GAO, XIAO-YAN; XUE, XING-HUAN; ZHANG, SHU-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring female malignant tumors. According to the 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, produced by the International Agency for Research On Cancer (‘IARC’), nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer, with 522,000 related deaths: An increase in the incidence of breast cancer and associated mortality by nearly 18% from 2008. Metastasis is the final step in breast cancer progression, and represents the most common cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, a search for low-toxicity, safe and effective anti-breast cancer drugs in the form of natural compounds has become an intense focus of research. Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has extensive antitumor activity. The present review briefly describes the research that has been performed on the association between baicalein and breast cancer metastasis, and further illustrates the influence of baicalein on the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis, adding a novel theory basis for baicalein antitumor research. In conclusion, baicalein may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27073644

  5. The origins and progress of genomics research on Tef (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    Girma, Dejene; Assefa, Kebebew; Chanyalew, Solomon; Cannarozzi, Gina; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Tadele, Zerihun

    2014-06-01

    Tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, is the most important cereal in Ethiopia. Tef is cultivated by more than five million small-scale farmers annually and constitutes the staple food for more than half of the population of 80 million. The crop is preferred by both farmers and consumers due to its beneficial traits associated with its agronomy and utilization. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of tef in Ethiopia is a national treasure of potentially global importance. In order for this diversity to be effectively conserved and utilized, a better understanding at the genomic level is necessary. In the recent years, tef has become the subject of genomic research in Ethiopia and abroad. Genomic-assisted tef improvement holds tremendous potential for improving productivity, thereby benefiting the smallholder farmers who have cultivated and relied on the crop for thousands of years. It is hoped that such research endeavours will provide solutions to some of the age-old problems of tef's husbandry. In this review, we provide a brief description of the genesis and progress of tef genomic research to date, suggest ways to utilize the genomic tools developed so far, discuss the potential of genomics to enable sustainable conservation and use of tef genetic diversity and suggest opportunities for the future research.

  6. Research on environmental impacts of tourism in China: progress and prospect.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Linsheng; Deng, Jinyang; Song, Zengwen; Ding, Peiyi

    2011-11-01

    With the rapid development of tourism industry in China since 1980, the country has experienced an increasing use of its natural and cultural environment for tourism, resulting in tourism resources being adversely impacted in many tourism destinations. This paper described the research progress in tourism impacts on the environment in the context of China through a review of the growing literature in this field. Specifically, research on tourism impacts on the biophysical and socio-cultural environments, tourism carrying capacity, environmental quality assessment, and measures for the protection and management of tourism resources was reviewed. The review found that the majority of research was qualitative and descriptive in nature, and there was a lack of case studies and theoretical development. Future research should focus on the evaluation of environmental impacts, particularly those gradual cumulative impacts on the tourism environment; examination of the quantitative relationship between the impact and the level of tourism use for different activities; development of methods to estimate the carrying capacity; and understanding of positive impacts of tourism.

  7. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change. PMID:23479899

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research, Technical Quarterly Progress Report. October 1, 1998--December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-19

    Major accomplishments during this reporting period by the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) are: AGTSR submitted FY99 program continuation request to DOE-FETC for $4M; AGTSR submitted program and workshop Formation to the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) initiative; AGTSR distributed research accomplishment summaries to DOE-FETC in the areas of combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from Arizona State, Cornell, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, Clemson, Texas and Georgia Tech; AGTSR prepared background material for DOE-FETC on three technology workshops for distribution at the DOE-ATS conference in Washington, DC; AGTSR coordinated two recommendations for reputable firms to conduct an economic impact analysis in support of new DOE gas turbine initiatives; AGTSR released letters announcing the short-list winners/non-winners from the 98RFP solicitation AGTSR updated fact sheet for 1999 and announced four upcoming workshops via the SCIES web page AGTSR distributed formation to EPRI on research successes, active university projects, and workshop offerings in 1999 AGTSR continued to conduct telephone debriefings to non-winning PI's born the 98RFP solicitation AGTSR distributed completed quarterly progress report assessments to the IRB experts in the various technology areas AGTSR provided Formation to GE-Evandale on the active combustion control research at Georgia Tech AGTSR provided information to AlliedSignal and Wright-Pat Air Force Base on Connecticut's latest short-listed proposal pertaining to NDE of thermal barrier coatings AGTSR submitted final technical reports from Georgia Tech - one on coatings and the other on active combustion control - to the HU3 for review and evaluation AGTSR coordinated the format, presentation and review of 28 university research posters for the ATS Annual Review Meeting in November, 1998 AGTSR published a research summary paper at the ATS Annual

  9. Research in high energy physics. Progress report, 1 July 1993--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.; Block, M.; Buchholz, D.

    1994-07-01

    Progress on Task A centered around data analysis. E835 is now approved. It will extend E760 studies, exploring new charmonium states and featuring an upgraded detector system plus operation at 4--6 times higher luminosity. Results are given on E760 analysis. Task B has 10 papers that have either appeared in print, or have been prepared for publication. They break down into four categories; experimental physics, theoretical physics, and computer computational techniques. They are described here along with an exciting new experimental proposal to use Da{Phi}ne, the {Phi} factory that is being constructed at Frascati National Laboratory. Progress for Task C which includes participating in the D0 project at TeV I, and the photoproduction experiment, E687, at TeV II is given. While Northwestern is not participating in the top quark physics group at D0, they have been involved in the data analysis and the discussions that led to the limits on the top quark mass. Task D comprises the shared services for the Northwestern DOE contract. This includes the maintenance and operation of all computers within the HEP group. The projects supported by Task D during the past year are given. Task E progress was to resolve the apparent conflict between EMC, SMC, and SLAC results on nucleon structure functions and Bjorken sum rules. Task F covered research in hadronic decay of the tau, thermal field theory, plasma effects in astrophysics, and heavy quarkonium. Task G covers E665, a general purpose muon scattering experiment which can detect both the scattered muon and most charged and neutral hadrons produced in the forward region. The Northwest group has collaborated very closely in the past year with the Harvard group on analyses of structure functions and vector meson production in the 1991 data sample.

  10. Recent progress in genetic and epigenetic research on type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-03-11

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  11. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  12. Recent progress in genetic and epigenetic research on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:26964836

  13. [Progress in induced pluripotent stem cell research for age-related neurodegenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuya; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, Takahashi et al. established a method for reprogramming somatic cells by introducing definite transcription factors, which enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells. In turn, it has become possible to use these iPSCs for producing various tissues needed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, which have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is expected to bring forth rapid progress in the clarification of mechanisms underlying the diseases and discovery of new innovative drugs and lead to rapid progress in regenerative medicine. In recent years, recapitulation and analysis of disease conditions using iPSCs derived from the patients themselves have been reported, and remarkable advances have been made, even for late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. These findings show that the phenotypes of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders can be recapitulated in iPSC-derived neuronal cells, which are reflected the early developmental stages, indicating cellular abnormalities exist from the prenatal period, despite the late onset diseases. In this review, we summarize the state of iPSCs research in the context of neurodegenerative disorders, discuss the possible ways for understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and discovering new drugs, and describe some other aspects of regenerative medicine.

  14. Twenty-Seventh Quarterly Progress Report of the Research Coordinating Unit (RCU) in Wisconsin. October 1, 1972-December 31, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison. Research Coordinating Unit.

    A progress report (covering the period October 1, 1972--December 31, 1972) of the Research Coordinating Unit (RCU) of the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education, the report briefly describes activities relating to the accomplishment of objectives and lists research activities. Objectives relate to the stimulation,…

  15. A Progress Report on a Department of Psychiatry Faculty Practice Plan Designed to Reward Educational and Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Robert E.; Shahrokh, Narriman C.; Servis, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide a progress report on a faculty practice plan that assigns a monetary value to administrative duties, teaching, scholarship, community service, and research. Methods: Modifications to the original plan are described and quantifiable results in the areas of scholarship and research are summarized. Results: During a…

  16. [Research progress of the drug delivery system of antitumor platinum drugs with macrocyclic compounds].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan-zhu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji; Fei, Fan; Wang, Tian-shuai; Yang, Bo; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Ying-jie

    2015-06-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs have been becoming one of the most effective drugs for clinical treatment of malignant tumors for its unique mechanism of action and broad range of anticancer spectrum. But, there are still several problems such as side effects, drug resistance/cross resistance and no-specific targeting, becoming obstacles to restrict its expanding of clinical application. In recent years, supramolecular chemistry drug delivery systems have been gradually concerned for their favorable safety and low toxicity. Supramolecular macrocycles-platinum complexes increased the water solubility, stability and safety of traditional platinum drugs, and have become hot focus of developing novel platinum-based anticancer drugs because of its potential targeting of tumor tissues/organs. This article concentrates in the research progress of the new drug delivery system between platinum-based anticancer drugs with three generations of macrocycles: crown ether, cyclodextrin, cucurbituril and calixarene. PMID:26521433

  17. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  18. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry. PMID:27542505

  19. Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks and in particular to understand the role of turbulence. So that they can continue to study the physics that is most relevant to the fusion program, TEXT completed a significant device upgrade this year. The new capabilities of the device and new and innovative diagnostics were exploited in all main program areas including: (1) configuration studies; (2) electron cyclotron heating physics; (3) improved confinement modes; (4) edge physics/impurity studies; (5) central turbulence and transport; and (6) transient transport. Details of the progress in each of the research areas are described.

  20. [Research progress in mild hypothermia treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Guo-Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of mild hypothermia in the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which can reduce mortality or the incidence of severe neurological sequelae. Mild hypothermia has been used in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as a routine treatment method for neonatal HIE in many developed countries, and it is increasingly applied in some NICUs in China. However, 40%-50% of the neonates treated with mild hypothermia die or develop severe neurological disability. Thus, to achieve the best neuroprotective effect, issues such as selection of patients with indications for mild hypothermia, cooling method, optimal time for mild hypothermia, duration of mild hypothermia, optimal target temperature, and the safety and long-term effects of mild hypothermia combined with other therapies, need to be further discussed. This article reviews the latest progress in clinical research on these issues.

  1. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry.

  2. [Research progress on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tooth eruption].

    PubMed

    Shiyan, Huang; Nanquan, Rao; Shuhao, Xu; Xiaobing, Li

    2016-06-01

    Tooth eruption is a series of complicated physiological processes occurring once the crown is formed completely, as well as when the tooth moves toward the occasion plane. As such, the tooth moves through the alveolar bone and the oral mucosa until it finally reaches its functional position. Most studies indicate that the process of tooth eruption involves the alveolar bone, dental follicles, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and multiple cytokines. Dental follicles regulate both resorption and formation of the alveolar bone, which is required for tooth eruption. Furthermore, root formation with periodontal ligament facilitates continuous tooth eruption. However, the exact mechanism underlying tooth eruption remains unclear. Hence, this review describes the recent research progress on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tooth eruption. PMID:27526461

  3. Research efforts to control highly pathogenic arenaviruses: a summary of the progress and gaps.

    PubMed

    Kerber, R; Reindl, S; Romanowski, V; Gómez, R M; Ogbaini-Emovon, E; Günther, S; ter Meulen, J

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the past 10 years in unraveling the molecular biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses that are endemic in several West African countries (Lassa fever virus) and in some regions of South America (Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses). While this has resulted in proof-of-concept studies of novel vaccine candidates in non-human primates and in the discovery of several novel antiviral small molecule drug candidates, none of them has been tested in the clinic to date. The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa has demonstrated very clearly that there is an urgent need to develop the prophylactic and therapeutic armamentarium against viral hemorrhagic fever viruses as part of a global preparedness for future epidemics. As it pertains to this goal, the present article summarizes the current knowledge of highly pathogenic arenaviruses and identifies opportunities for translational research. PMID:25549822

  4. [Research progress in roles of high-risk human papillomavirus E2 protein].

    PubMed

    Wu, En-Qi; Tang, Yuan-Yu

    2014-03-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of various cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, vulvar cancer, and some head and neck cancers. In the viral life cycle, by interacting with both viral and host DNA and proteins, the HPV E2 protein plays a pivotal role in viral transcriptional regulation and DNA replication, and it is also associated with modification of various cellular processes, including host gene transcription, RNA processing, apoptosis, ubiquitination, and intracellular trafficking, to create a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus and contribute to the HPV pathogenesis. Elucidating the roles of E2 protein throughout the viral life cycle will improve our understanding of the viral life cycle and pathogenesis and help us identify novel antiviral agents with therapeutic potential. This article reviews the research progress in the structure, roles, and activity of high-risk HPV E2 protein, particularly that of HPV-16.

  5. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  6. Progress in burns research: a review of advances in burn pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jewo, P.I.; Fadeyibi, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Severe burns trigger a wide range of responses in the victim. Initial vascular changes are followed by hypermetabolic, inflammatory and immunologic changes. The prolonged hypermetabolic response is associated with an elevated resting rate of energy consumption, tissue wasting and altered substrate kinetics. There is increased blood glucose though insulin levels are above normal. The cortisol level is raised and, together with catecholamine, drives the metabolic response. The immune system is typically weakened. There is elevation in blood levels of a wide range of cytokines from activated cells. These agents drive a prolonged inflammatory response which can lead to tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Dynamic fluid resuscitation regimens have cut down mortality from shock in the early post-burn period. However, unbalanced activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can leave patients in an immuno-suppressed state that affects outcomes. So far, many treatments, such as propranolol, a cardio-protector, and anabolic agents, such as oxandrolone and growth hormone, have been tried with mixed results. This review focuses on research that elucidated burn pathophysiology. Some clinical areas in which treatment centred on correcting altered physiology were also included. We have highlighted both the challenges and significant findings. Finally, this paper draws attention to the gaps between progress in basic research and clinical application and suggests areas where further research and funding could be focused. PMID:27252608

  7. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research. PMID:27371361

  8. Progress in burns research: a review of advances in burn pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jewo, P I; Fadeyibi, I O

    2015-06-30

    Severe burns trigger a wide range of responses in the victim. Initial vascular changes are followed by hypermetabolic, inflammatory and immunologic changes. The prolonged hypermetabolic response is associated with an elevated resting rate of energy consumption, tissue wasting and altered substrate kinetics. There is increased blood glucose though insulin levels are above normal. The cortisol level is raised and, together with catecholamine, drives the metabolic response. The immune system is typically weakened. There is elevation in blood levels of a wide range of cytokines from activated cells. These agents drive a prolonged inflammatory response which can lead to tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Dynamic fluid resuscitation regimens have cut down mortality from shock in the early post-burn period. However, unbalanced activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can leave patients in an immuno-suppressed state that affects outcomes. So far, many treatments, such as propranolol, a cardio-protector, and anabolic agents, such as oxandrolone and growth hormone, have been tried with mixed results. This review focuses on research that elucidated burn pathophysiology. Some clinical areas in which treatment centred on correcting altered physiology were also included. We have highlighted both the challenges and significant findings. Finally, this paper draws attention to the gaps between progress in basic research and clinical application and suggests areas where further research and funding could be focused.

  9. 94-1 Research and Development Project lead laboratory support: Fiscal year 1997. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    On May 26, 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which expressed the board`s concern about nuclear materials left in the manufacturing pipeline after the US halted its nuclear weapons production activities. The DNFSB emphasized the need for remediation of these materials. As part of Recommendation 94-1, the DNFSB defined research objectives as follows: that a research program be established to fill any gaps in the information base needed for choosing among the alternate processes to be used in safe conversion of various types of fissile materials to optimal forms for safe interim storage and the longer-term disposition. To achieve this objective a research and technology development program with two elements is needed: a technology-specific program that is focused on treating and storing materials safety, with concomitant development of storage criteria and surveillance requirements, centered around 3- and 8-year targets; and a core technology program to augment the knowledge base about general chemical and physical processing and storage behavior and to assure safe interim material storage until disposition policies are formulated. The paper reports the progress on the following: materials identification and surveillance; stabilization process development; surveillance and monitoring; core technologies; and project management.

  10. Advanced biomass research program. Annual report for 1987. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    These results are from an interdisciplinary program researching plant growth and bioconversion processes for enhancing methane from biomass. Modern molecular and cellular biology approaches are being used to characterize the genes and to develop methods for accomplishing transformations to improve biomass quality by regulating plant chemicals. Quality is being emphasized since quantities of 25 Mg/ha can be sustained for five years and conditions for higher yields of some grasses were identified. Breeding has succeeded in the development of hexaploids that produce seeds, and vegetative propagation from tissue cultures for asexual species. Gel seeding of tissue culture derived plantlets inoculated with mycrohizal to improve survivability has shown promise. Biological methane potential assays have revealed the effects of harvesting frequency, storage and the proportion of plant parts on methane yields. Non-hydrolytical depolymerization of polypectate and hydrolytic degradation of cellulose occur more rapidly at near neutral pH's. A gene encoding for the xylan-degrading enzymes was isolated. These enzymes are repressed by glucose. Kinetic modeling of these reactions is progressing. Methods of describing the microbial community structure in digesters are being developed and used to monitor digester health and performance. Polyclonal antibodies for 9 methanogenic bacteria were developed, propionate and butyrate inhibited dissimilation of large organic polymers, the cellular location of key enzyme were revealed and cellulolytic bacteria were found to attack cells from inside the lumen. Controls of formate production and conversion to gas were identified and the genes for the hydrogenase enzymes in the conversions were cloned. System analysis allows the authors to assess the impact of research progress on cost factors. Sixty scientific papers reporting program results were published in 1987.

  11. Progress in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in Asia.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will

  12. Research progress of on-the-go soil parameter sensors based on NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xiaofei; Meng, Zhijun; Wu, Guangwei; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Both the ever-increasing prices of fertilizer and growing ecological concern over chemical run-off into sources of drinking water have brought the issues of precision agriculture and site-specific management to the forefront of present technological development within agriculture and ecology. Soil is an important and basic element in agriculture production. Acquisition of soil information plays an important role in precision agriculture. The soil parameters include soil total nitrogen, phosporus, potassium, soil organic matter, soil moisture, electrical conductivity and pH value and so on. Field rapid acquisition to all the kinds of soil physical and chemical parameters is one of the most important research directions. And soil parameter real-time monitoring is also the trend of future development in precision agriculture. While developments in precision agriculture and site-specific management procedures have made significant in-roads on these issues and many researchers have developed effective means to determine soil properties, routinely obtaining robust on-the-go measurements of soil properties which are reliable enough to drive effective fertilizer application remains a challenge. NIRS technology provides a new method to obtain soil parameter with low cost and rapid advantage. In this paper, research progresses of soil on-the-go spectral sensors at domestic and abroad was combed and analyzed. There is a need for the sensing system to perform at least six key indexes for any on-the-go soil spectral sensor to be successful. The six indexes are detection limit, specificity, robustness, accuracy, cost and easy-to-use. Both the research status and problems were discussed. Finally, combining the national conditions of china, development tendency of on-the-go soil spectral sensors was proposed. In the future, on-the-go soil spectral sensors with reliable enough, sensitive enough and continuous detection would become popular in precision agriculture.

  13. Fiber laser beam combining and power scaling progress: Air Force Research Laboratory Laser Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T. J.

    2012-02-01

    Numerous achievements have been made recently by researchers in the areas of fiber laser beam combining and power scaling. Industry has demonstrated multi-kW power from a single fiber amplifier, and a US national laboratory has coherently combined eight fiber amplifiers totaling 4 kW. This paper will survey the recent literature and then focus on fiber laser results from the Laser Division, Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Progress has been made in the power scaling of narrow-linewidth fiber amplifiers, and we are transitioning lessons learned from PCF power scaling into monolithic architectures. SBS suppression has been achieved using a variety of techniques to lower the Brillioun gain, including acoustically tailored fiber, laser gain competition resulting from multitone seeding and inducing a longitudinal thermal gradient. We recently demonstrated a 32-channel coherent beam combination result using AFRL's phaselocking technique and are focused on exploring the limitations of this technique including linewidth broadening, kW-induced phase nonlinearities and auto-tuning methods for large channel counts. Additionally, we have recently refurbished our High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office-sponsored 16-amplifier fiber testbed to meet strict PER, spatial drift, power stability and beam quality requirements.

  14. Recent progress in research on high-voltage electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi; Ji, Ya J; Zhang, Zhong R; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-21

    Developing a stable and safe electrolyte that works at voltages as high as 5 V is a formidable challenge in present Li-ion-battery research because such high voltages are beyond the electrochemical stability of the conventional carbonate-based solvents available. In the past few years, extensive efforts have been carried out by the research community toward the exploration of high-voltage electrolytes. In this review, recent progress in the study of several promising high-voltage electrolyte systems, as well as their recipes, electrochemical performance, electrode compatibility, and characterization methods, are summarized and reviewed. These new electrolyte systems include high-voltage film-forming additives and new solvents, such as sulfones, ionic liquids, nitriles, and fluorinated carbonates. It appears to be very difficult to find a good high-voltage (∼5 V) electrolyte with a single-component solvent at the present stage. Using mixed fluorinated-carbonate solvents and additives are two realistic solutions for practical applications in the near term, while sulfones, nitriles, ionic liquids and solid-state electrolyte/polymer electrolytes are promising candidates for the next generation of high-voltage electrolyte systems.

  15. Research progress on mechanisms of male sterility in plants based on high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yongming, Liu; Ling, Zhang; Tao, Qiu; Zhuofan, Zhao; Moju, Cao

    2016-08-01

    Male sterility is defined as failing to produce functional pollen during stamen development in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant reproductive research and hybrid seed production in utilization of crop heterosis. High throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been used widely in the study of different fields of life science, as it readily detects all the mRNA and non-coding RNA in cells. Recently, RNA-seq has been reported to be applied in different species and kinds of pollen abortion types in plants, which has contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism and metabolic networks of male sterility at the transcription level. In this review, we summarize research progress on the mechanisms of male sterility in plants, focusing on RNA-seq analysis encompassing strategies of RNA library construction, differentially expressed genes and functional characteristics of noncoding RNAs involved in stamen abortion. Furthermore, we also discuss application of transcriptome sequencing technology to elucidate pollen abortion mechanisms and map fertility-related genes. We hope to provide references to the study of male sterility in plants. PMID:27531606

  16. Review: dairy cattle reproductive physiology research and management--past progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Foote, R H

    1996-06-01

    Artificial insemination developed as the solution for two important problems in the dairy cattle industry during the past 50 yr: 1) the need for genetic improvement and 2) the elimination of costly venereal diseases. Cooperation among researchers, extension workers, veterinarians, dairy producers, and emerging AI organizations in pooling their expertise, was instrumental to the remarkably rapid development of AI. The cooperation of universities, government, and producers to fund teams of reproductive specialists to collaborate and transfer findings quickly to potential users was a major component of this successful venture. Money invested in these experiments was estimated to have returned about $100 for each $1 invested. Successful freezing of sperm led to the development of the field of cryobiology, and AI paved the way for embryo transfer. The development of ultrasound equipment; various types of rapid hormone assays; prostaglandins, progestogens, and GnRH; and computerization made possible various alternative management plans for controlling reproduction. Multidisciplinary, multigeographical teams that gather basic needed information have the potential for making excellent progress. As herd size increases, new programs for efficient reproductive management and for identifying needed research through computer modeling are a must. Sexed embryos from elite cows and bulls will be used selectively. When embryonic stem cell technology becomes practical, it will revolutionize cattle breeding. PMID:8827461

  17. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  18. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  19. Recent progressions in stem cell research: breakthroughs achieved and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Tani, Jowy; Umbas, Rainy

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell studies have been conducted to study characteristics of stem cells, to develop better techniques for patient-specific stem cell lines generation, and to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells. Techniques that enable efficient generation of new stem cell lines would facilitate research and allow generation of patient-specific stem cell lines for transplantation therapy. Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), which involves injection of donor cell nucleus into enucleated ovum, is the standard technique for new embryonic stem (ES) cell lines generation; presently its efficiency is low. A newer technique, pluripotent stem cell induction, reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by introducing certain factors into somatic cells. While certain adult stem cell treatments have been investigated on human participants, most ES cell or iPS cell treatments were still experimented on animal models. Recently, therapeutic potential of stem cell for several disorders was demonstrated. Researchers demonstrated stem cell's potential for treating hematologic disorders by correcting sickle cell anemia in rat model with iPS cells. Its potential role in treating cardiovascular disorder was demonstrated as injection of damaged rat heart with human ES cells derived cardiomyocyte plus "prosurvival" cocktail improved heart function. It might also treat nervous system disorders; injected into brain, ES cells derived neurons replace some loss cells in stroke rats and iPS cells derived neurons improved Parkinsonian syndrome in rats. Progress was also seen in other aspects of regenerative medicine. To overcome controversies caused by embryo destruction for obtaining ES cells, single blastomer stem cell derivation, Cdx2-inactivation, and parthenogenesis were proposed. All ES cell, iPS cell, and adult stem cell research should be continued with support from all sides.

  20. Research progress on electronic phase separation in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite oxide manganites with a general formula of R1-x AxMnO3 (where R is a trivalent rare-earth element such as La, Pr, Sm, and A is a divalent alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, and Ba) have received much attention due to their unusual electron-transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. Recent advances in the science and technology have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices based on perovskite manganite oxides down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. At the nanoscale, low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures display novel physical properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Recently, there is strong experimental evidence to indicate that the low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures are electronically inhomogeneous, consisting of different spatial regions with different electronic orders, a phenomenon that is named as electronic phase separation (EPS). As the geometry sizes of the low-dimensional manganite nanostructures are reduced to the characteristic EPS length scale (typically several tens of nanometers in manganites), the EPS is expected to be strongly modulated, leading to quite dramatic changes in functionality and more emergent phenomena. Therefore, reduced dimensionality opens a door to the new functionalities in perovskite manganite oxides and offers a way to gain new insight into the nature of EPS. During the past few years, much progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures both from experimentalists and theorists, which have a profound impact on the oxide nanoelectronics. This nanoreview covers the research progresses of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanowires/nanotubes, and nanostructured films and/or patterns. The possible physical origins of the

  1. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Progress in High-pT Physics at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bazilevsky, A.; Bland, L.; Vogelsang, W.

    2010-03-17

    This volume archives the presentations at the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop 'Progress in High-PT Physics at RHIC', held at BNL in March 2010. Much has been learned from high-p{sub T} physics after 10 years of RHIC operations for heavy-ion collisions, polarized proton collisions and d+Au collisions. The workshop focused on recent progress in these areas by both theory and experiment. The first morning saw review talks on the theory of RHIC high-p{sub T} physics by G. Sterman and J. Soffer, and on the experimental results by M. Tannenbaum. One of the most exciting recent results from the RHIC spin program is the first observation of W bosons and their associated single-spin asymmetry. The new preliminary data were reported on the first day of our workshop, along with a theoretical perspective. There also were detailed discussions on the global analysis of polarized parton distributions, including the knowledge on gluon polarization and the impact of the W-data. The main topic of the second workshop day were single-transverse spin asymmetries and their analysis in terms of transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. There is currently much interest in a future Drell-Yan program at RHIC, thanks to the exciting physics opportunities this would offer. This was addressed in some of the talks. There also were presentations on the latest results on transverse-spin physics from HERMES and BELLE. On the final day of the workshop, the focus shifted toward forward and small-x physics at RHIC, which has become a cornerstone of the whole RHIC program. Exciting new data were presented and discussed in terms of their possible implications for our understanding of strong color-field phenomena in QCD. In the afternoon, there were discussions of nuclear parton distributions and jet observables, among them fragmentation. The workshop was concluded with outlooks toward the near-term (LHC, JLab) and longer-term (EIC) future. The workshop has been a great success. We had

  2. Panel discussion: Progress and plans for magnetic fusion: Summary of comments on recent progress in fusion research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in fusion research is marked not so much by a few giant steps as by a continual number of small steps, which yield a steady advance toward the goal of producing a fusion reactor. During the past year, there have been two such steps in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) program: the experimental demonstration of access to the second stable region of beta in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF); and the acceleration of a frozen hydrogen pellet by an intense electron beam. This paper discusses these steps.

  3. Research Progress on Extremely Red Objects at z≈11,2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Wang, Min; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-07-01

    The extremely red objects (EROs) refer to one kind of galaxies selected by using the color indices in optical and near-infrared wavebands (such as I-K>4 mag). The studies indicate that the EROs are comprised of two classes: one stands for the dust-reddened star-forming galaxies with high redshifts, which are reddened by a large amount of dust, they are mainly the younger spiral galaxies and irregular galaxies with stars forming, and called the DGs, another one stands for the high-redshift elliptical galaxies, which are dominated by old stellar populations (≥ 1 Ga), with no or only with weak star formations, and simply called the OGs. The both classes of EROs are very possibly the precursors of nearby massive galaxies, and only represent the different evolutionary histories respectively. This paper has introduced the research progress on the physical properties of different classes of EROs, such as the morphology and structure, spectral feature, clustering, redshift distribution and galaxy count, as well as the direction of future studies in this field.

  4. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  5. Jointly sponsored research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Deans, H.A.

    1994-05-01

    This is a progress report on work performed by Western Research Institute for the U.S. DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center in the period October- December 1993. Tasks addressed include: development and demonstration of a practical electric downhole steam generator for thermal recovery of heavy oil and tar; wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems; coal gasification, power generation, and product market study; the impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay liners; investigation of coprocessing of heavy oil, automobile shredder residue, and coal; injection into coal seams for simultaneous CO{sub 2} mitigation and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane; optimization of carbonizer operations in the FMC coke process; chemical sensor and field screening technology development; demonstration of the koppelman {open_quotes}series c{close_quotes} process using a batch test unit with Powder River Basin coal as feed; remote chemical sensor development; market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use; solid-state NMR analysis and interpretation of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; Crow{trademark} field demonstration with bell lumber and pole; {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} series pilot plant tests; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program.

  6. Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report for period ending June 30, 1980. [Syracuse Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The High Energy Theory Group at Syracuse conducted basic research in several areas of current interest. A great deal of progress was made in the understanding of systems with unusual topological properties. A variational formulation of the equations that govern spinning particles in general relativity was accomplished. Perturbative as well as nonperturbative properties (incorporated in an effective Lagrangian) of quantum chromodynamics aspects were investigated. The question concerning gauge fixing in non-Abelian gauge theories was studied. Several new phenomenological aspects of unified electroweak interactions were explored with the object of finding experimental tests for models other than the currently accepted Salam-Weinberg theory. A unified electroweak model based on the group (SU(2) x U(1)) x U'(1) was investigated to account for the repeated fermionic generations and to incorporate CP violations and explain the CP violation as well as the Cabibbo-like angles in terms of the quark masses. A unified theory for all interactions (with the exception of gravitational interactions) based on the group SU(5) x SU(5) was proposed. Finally, axially symmetric multi-instanton solutions were shown to be generated from a set of conformal mappings. The work performed is described briefly; references are given.

  7. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This report describes progress on the Advanced Coal Liquefaction project by the Gulf Research and Development Company's Merriam Laboratory during the months of January through March 1983. The liquefaction behavior of Illinois No. 6 coal beneficiated in various ways was studied in both single-stage recycle (SRC II) and short contact time (SCT) modes of operation. The distillate yield increased as the iron level in the feed slurry increased in both modes of operation. In the SCT mode, the conversion increased at greater depths of cleaning. In the SRC II mode, the distillate yield and conversion were much higher with deep cleaning and add-back of pyrite than with conventional cleaning. Pyrite addition resulted in a significant increase in short contact time conversion of subbituminous Belle Ayr coal in both high and low quality solvents. Solvent quality itself, however, had little effect on conversion. With Loveridge coal, the hydrocarbon gas yield and conversion decreased as the residence time was reduced in the range of 3 to 8 minutes. The bottoms product was filterable only at residence times of 6 minutes or greater. Addition of a small amount of nickel to a molybdenum emulsion catalyst improved yields slightly with Belle Ayr coal in the SRC II mode. Higher levels of nickel resulted in the same oil yield as with none at all.

  8. [Research progress in genetic abnormalities and etiological factors of congenital anorectal malformation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Ren, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) is one of the most common gastrointestinal congenital diseases, accounting for 1/4 in digestive tract malformation, and is one of the congenital malformations in routine surveillance by the World Health Organization. Because of the variety of risk factors and the complexity of the pathological changes, etiology of ARM is still not clear. It is mostly considered that ARM is resulted from hereditary factors and environmental factors in the development of embryogenesis. Through animal experiments, scholars have found that Hox, Shh, Fgf, Wnt, Cdx and TCF4, Eph and ephrin play crucial role during the development of digestive tract. When the genes/signaling pathway dysfunction occurs, ARM may happen. In addition, ARM is related to the external factors in pregnancy. Because of the complexity of related factors in the development of human embryogenesis, the research progress of human ARM is very slow. This paper reviews relevant literatures in genetic factors and environmental factors, in order to provide the theoretical basis for the treatment and prevention of ARM. PMID:26797848

  9. [Research Progress on the Interaction Effects and Its Neural Mechanisms between Physical Fatigue and Mental Fatigue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Chuncui; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is an exhaustion state caused by prolonged physical work and mental work, which can reduce working efficiency and even cause industrial accidents. Fatigue is a complex concept involving both physiological and psychological factors. Fatigue can cause a decline of concentration and work performance and induce chronic diseases. Prolonged fatigue may endanger life safety. In most of the scenarios, physical and mental workloads co-lead operator into fatigue state. Thus, it is very important to study the interaction influence and its neural mechanisms between physical and mental fatigues. This paper introduces recent progresses on the interaction effects and discusses some research challenges and future development directions. It is believed that mutual influence between physical fatigue and mental fatigue may occur in the central nervous system. Revealing the basal ganglia function and dopamine release may be important to explore the neural mechanisms between physical fatigue and mental fatigue. Future effort is to optimize fatigue models, to evaluate parameters and to explore the neural mechanisms so as to provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for complex task designs and fatigue monitoring.

  10. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  11. Recent Research Progress in Natural Bioactive Constituents against Lipid Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lirong; Song, Hang; He, Ai; Yao, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolic disorder refers to the dyslipidemia in the plasma. Abnormal working or lipid metabolism process leads to supernormal increase of one or multi kinds of lipids in plasma. It is a significant risk factor for many diseases and has become a serious danger to the mankind health. The clinical drugs adjusting lipid levels have a great variety in the market, side effects and adverse reactions. Meanwhile, many Chinese herbal medicines and natural medicines have the unnegligible role of regulating lipid metabolism, which become the research focus of medical workers in past decades. With advantages of fewer side effects, abundant resources and multi-target functions, terrestrial and marine bioactive constituents are proved as one of the important sources of the lead compounds in drug discovery and have been widely applied in the treatment and prevention of lipid metabolic diseases. In this paper, the recent advancements and current status of natural medicinal ingredients mainly based on lipid-lowering activities were reviewed in detail. Moreover, their bioactivity screening and important mechanisms in hyperlipemia progression were summarized and compared. It was also selectively introduced about related structural modification and new drug development on the basis of promising lead compounds. Finally, the current problems and possible prospects of natural constituents against lipid metabolism disorder in the future were discussed. PMID:27086784

  12. Current progress in stem cell research and its potential for islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Ng, K Y

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency concomitant with hyperglycemia due to reduced islet cell mass and/or dysfunction. Currently, insulin replacement is the first-line treatment option for patients with type 1 and a severe form of type 2 diabetes. Treatment by insulin injection is generally effective but nonphysiological, and has the potential of producing chronic complications. On the other hand, islet transplantation can maintain normoglycemia without hypoglycemic side effects, potentially freeing diabetic patients of insulin dependence. In practice, islet transplantation remains hindered by the lack of organ donors and transplant rejection concerns. Recent advances in stem cell research and regenerative medicine, however, offer promise for the clinical application of islet cell transplantation. This review article offers a critical appraisal of current molecular induction approaches, such as directed differentiation, microenvironment induction, and genetic modification, which mimic islet cell development by inducing a variety of stem cells; they include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and various tissue-derived stem cells to become functional and transplantable insulin-producing islet cells. Despite good progress, several obstacles remain to be overcome before islet transplantation can be translated into a therapy for human patients, including, but are not limited to, immunogenicity and risk of tumorogenesis. PMID:22834839

  13. Research progress of optical H2O sensor with a DFB diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guangping; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qingpu; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2014-06-01

    In the field of near infrared H2O sensing, the acquisition of the absorption signal usually is from a noisy background, thus it is important to adopt an effective signal demodulation method. This study introduced the research progress in the field of trace water vapor detection, covering different individual gas detection techniques. On the basis of the conventional double-beam differential absorption, the division method in voltage and the dual-peak method based on the differential value of two adjacent absorption lines have been studied. Voltage division has an excellent stability to temperature variation, mechanical extrusion, and fiber bend loss. The dual-peak method proved a linear relation with the water vapor concentration, and this method provided a way to measure the concentration at high pressure. Furthermore, the so called balanced ratiometer detection (BRD) was introduced. It has an outstanding self-adjusting capability, and it can also avoid an excess phase difference caused by the current-to-voltage converting circuit, thus this method has a high sensitivity. In addition, the second harmonic technique applied to gas detection was introduced, and for the high-frequency modulation via driving current, 1/ f was suppressed apparently; as a result, this technique realized a better sensitive detection by one to two orders of magnitude.

  14. Progress in research April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The period 1 April 1993--31 March 1994 has seen a number of significant developments of the research program as will be noted by the large increase in individual projects reviewed in this annual report. Among the highlights of the K500 experimental program in Sections 1, 2, and 4 are the investigations of excitation energy deposition and of fission dynamics employing both GDR and particle emission probes, measurements of isospin equilibration, studies of (d, {sup 2}He) reactions with the proton spectrometer and of the {beta} decay of {sup 57}Cu with MARS, and the precise studies of ionic charge state distributions using x-ray measurements. Progress in theoretical studies of the nuclear spectral function and the decay of many body systems, on the properties of mesons in hot hadronic matter and on the determination of astrophysical S-factors from experimental studies of very peripheral reactions are presented in Section 3. The status of the LAMPF based MEGA experiment and of the CERN based NA66 experiment, both of which involve institute scientists, is also briefly presented in this report. The shift to a seven day a week operation coupled with installation of cryopanels and more careful temperature control of the cooling water system have resulted in significant improvements in the operational efficiency and beam capabilities. Operating statistics are presented in Section 5.

  15. Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

  16. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]. Summary of research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under ``Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO{sub 2}. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO{sub 2} on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO{sub 2} in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  17. Autism research and services for young children: history, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-03-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by the discovery and dissemination of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism that created the impetus for earlier accurate diagnosis. Other factors influencing the rapid growth in autism research were the first accepted diagnostic test for autism, the Autism Diagnostic Interview and Observation Schedule (ADI and ADOS). Developments in brain imaging and genetic technology combined to create a fuller understanding of the heterogeneity of autism, its multiple aetiologies, very early onset and course, and strategies for treatment. For a significant proportion of children with autism, it appears EIBI may be capable of promoting brain connectivity in specific cerebral areas, which is one of autism's underlying challenges. Disagreements about the most appropriate early intervention approach between developmental and behavioural psychologists have been unproductive and not contributed to advancing the field. Naturalistic behavioural and structured discrete trial methods are being integrated with developmental strategies with promising outcomes. Over these past 30 years, young people with autism have gone from receiving essentially no proactive treatment, resulting in lives languishing in institutions, to today, when half of children receiving EIBI treatment subsequently participate in regular classrooms alongside their peers. The future has entirely changed for young people with autism. Autism has become an eminently treatable condition. The time is overdue to set aside philosophical quarrels regarding theories of child development and apply what we know for the benefit of children with autism

  18. National flow cytometry and sorting research resource. Annual progress report, July, 1, 1994--June 30, 1995, Year 12

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.

    1995-04-27

    Research progress utilizing flow cytometry is described. Topics include: rapid kinetics flow cytometry; characterization of size determinations for small DNA fragments; statistical analysis; energy transfer measurements of molecular confirmation in micelles; and enrichment of Mus spretus chromosomes by dual parameter flow sorting and identification of sorted fractions by fluorescence in-situ hybridization onto G-banded mouse metaphase spreads.

  19. Electronics Research Laboratory, Plasma Theory and Simulation Group annual progress report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-12-31

    This is a brief progress report, covering our research in general plasma theory and simulation, plasma-wall physics theory and simulation, and code development. Reports written in this period are included with this mailing. A publications list plus abstracts for two major meetings are included.

  20. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  1. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-01

    photocatalytic activity and/or light adsorption capability. Comments on current and future challenges are also provided. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide a current summary of recent progress in perovskite materials for use in these important areas and to provide some useful guidelines for future development in these hot research areas. PMID:25976276

  2. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-01

    photocatalytic activity and/or light adsorption capability. Comments on current and future challenges are also provided. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide a current summary of recent progress in perovskite materials for use in these important areas and to provide some useful guidelines for future development in these hot research areas.

  3. The Status, Potential and Research Progress of CO2 Storage Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basava-Reddi, L.; Camps, A.

    2012-04-01

    Energy demand continues to grow and is expected to have increased by 35% by 2035, and CO2 emissions continue to increase with a current pathway to 650ppm by 2050. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is considered to be an important carbon dioxide mitigation technology. The IEA CCS Technology Roadmap 2009 based on the 'blue map' scenario predicts that to reach CO2 reduction targets 100 commercial CCS projects is desired by 20201, compared to the G8 target of 20 CCS projects by 2020. A recent analysis of current storage projects and future projections shows the G8 target is possible if adequate resourcing is provided and if CO2-EOR projects are included; however the IEA Roadmap CCS target may be unattainable2. With sufficient funding, 50 projects are achievable by 2025 and 100 projects by 2028 inclusive of CO2-EOR projects, the latter requiring 6 billion Euros of total investment. Project lead times are long, which could be up to 15 years for deep saline formation storage projects, and without sufficient funding the gap between targets and the current number of projects will widen. However, there has been progress. 74 CCS projects have been identified by the Global CCS Institute with 14 large scale integrated projects in the operate and execute phase expressing a total storage capacity of 33 Mtpa: 3 more projects in the execute phase since 2009, and 10 more have announced they will be ready for a final investment decision in the next 12 months hence ready to move to the execute phase3. Explanations of project suspension or cancellation have been predominated by non-technical issues; however there are technical challenges remaining; including injectivity and uncertainty in capacity, particularly for deep saline formations; all of which are being considered by the CCS research community. Other considerations that are currently being assessed are subsurface resource interaction, which includes potential interactions of CO2 storage with hydrocarbon production

  4. Learning Progressions in Science: An Evidence-Based Approach to Reform. CPRE Research Report # RR-63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Tom; Mosher, Frederic A.; Rogat, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that has been done so far on learning progressions in science, examine the challenges to developing usable learning progressions, determine if further investments are warranted, and if so, what investments are needed to realize their promised benefits. The report examines the quality and utility…

  5. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Bertsch,

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  6. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  7. Construction Progress and Science Planning for the New Research Vessel R/V Sikuliaq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    The research vessel R/V Sikuliaq (pronounced [see-KOO-lee-auk]) is currently being constructed on behalf of the NSF to support future scientific studies in high latitude waters. The 261 foot global class vessel will be capable of breaking 2.5 foot thick ice at 2 knots with an endurance of 45 days at sea and cruising at 11 knots. The R/V Sikuliaq will have a beam of 52 feet and a draft of 18.9 feet that will carry 26 scientists and a crew of 20. Berthing accommodations are a combination of single/double rooms with one stateroom and the common areas of the vessel are designed for ADA access and accommodations. The total laboratory space (main, analytical, electronics, wet, upper, and Baltic room will be 2100 square feet. The 4360 square foot working deck that is approximately 70 feet in length will accommodate 2-4 vans and multiple science operations. The vessel design strives to have the lowest possible environmental impact, including a low underwater-radiated noise signature. The science systems are prescribed to be state-of-the-art for bottom mapping, over-the-side "hands free" gear handling, broad band communications and scientific walk-in freezer and environmental chamber. More details and photos of the construction progress are available on the website at www.sfos.uaf.edu/arrv. The tentative shipyard schedule has a launch date of June 2012 and delivery to the University of Alaska Fairbanks in June 2013. Scientific operations following trials and testing is planned to start in January 2014. A Sikuliaq science planning workshop has been arranged for 18-19 February 2012 in Salt Lake City, UT just prior to the 2012 Ocean Sciences meeting. Interested participants should contact Terry Whitledge (terry@ims.uaf.edu).

  8. Advanced coal-liquefaction research. Technical progress report, August 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report describes progress on the Advanced Coal-Liquefaction Project by the Gulf Research and Development Company's Merriam Laboratory. It was demonstrated that all oil products from the SRC II Processing of Powhatan No. 3 (Pittsburgh seam), Elkol-Sorensen or Belle Ayr coals boiling above 270/sup 0/C (518/sup 0/F) can be recycled to extinction. There was no loss in liquid yield, no increase in gas make and no significant change in hydrogen requirement. It has also been demonstrated that the net C/sub 5/-270/sup 0/C (518/sup 0/F) product is inactive in the Ames test and presumably poses substantially less threat than the conventional product as a potential carcinogen. The potential impact of coal cleaning and pyrite addition on liquefaction were determined with a high-reactivity Pittsburgh seam coal from the Ireland Mine. The results indicate that deep cleaning (to 6-8 wt % ash) by heavy media separation with add back of pyrite would give a better yield structure than the normal cleaning (to 12 wt % ash) envisioned for liquefaction plants. Screening of feedstocks for liquefaction processes was extended to the low-ash (5 wt % MF basis), subbituminous Elkol-Sorensen coal. Although the low ash content allowed increased recycle of bottoms product, the relatively low reactivity of the organic matrix resulted in a lower oil yield than with subbituminous Belle Ayr coal. A simulation of staged liquefaction was carried out by preparing filtrate in the SRC I mode and then studying the production of gas and distillate at lower temperature (420/sup 0/C, 788/sup 0/F) using a molybdenum emulsion catalyst. Distillate yields were low (29 wt %, based on MF coal) compared to single-stage, high temperature runs. Multiple-pass operations indicated no mechanistic barriers to high distillate yields although reaction rates were unacceptably low at the conditions employed in these preliminary experiments.

  9. Progress in research, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    Reports on research activities, facility operation, and facility development of the Texas A and M Cyclotron Institute for the period 1 April 1991--31 March 1992 are presented in this document. During the report period, the ECR-K500 Cyclotron Combination operated 4,377 hours. Of this time, 832 hours was used for beam development, 942 hours was used for tuning and optics, and the beam was available for experiments 2,603 hours. This time was used in a variety of studies including elastic and inelastic scattering, projectile break-up, the production and decay of giant resonances, fusion and fission dynamics, intermediate mass fragment emission, e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} production and molecular dissociation. In addition, studies of surfaces and metastable states in highly charged ions were carried out using the ECR source. Completion of two 19-element BaF{sub 2} arrays, of the focal plane detector for the proton spectrometer and installation of the HiLi multidetector have provided significant new experimental capabilities which have been further enhanced by major additions to the computer network. Progress on the Mass Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) is such that first operation of that device should occur this summer. Funding for installation of the MDM spectrometer was obtained at the beginning of this year. As this report is being completed, the Enge Split Pole Spectrometer is being disassembled and removed to make room for the MDM spectrometer. The split-pole will be shipped to CEBAF for use in experiments there. Installation of the MDM should be completed within the next year. Also expected in the next year is a 92 element plastic-CsI ball.

  10. Progress in heavy ion drivers inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; de Hoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-03-01

    provide an integrated test of the beam physics necessary for a driver, but in addition will provide target and chamber data. This paper will review the experimental and theoretical progress in heavy ion accelerator driver research from the scaled experiments through the present experiments and will discuss plans for the IRE.

  11. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    integrated test of the beam physics necessary for a driver, but in addition will provide target and chamber data. This paper will review the experimental and theoretical progress in heavy ion accelerator driver research from the scaled experiments through the present experiments and will discuss plans for the IRE.

  12. "Progressive Problemshifts" between Different Research Programs in Science Education: A Lakatosian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1993-01-01

    Concludes that Pascual-Leone's theory extends Piaget's negative heuristic by introducing antecedent variables and at the same time enriches the positive heuristic by introducing metasubjective task analysis, which leads to a progressive problemshift. (Author/PR)

  13. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development.

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  15. Effectiveness of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT)[R] on Hypernasality in Non-Progressive Dysarthria: The Need for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Rachel J.; Theodoros, Deborah; Cornwell, Petrea

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypernasality is a common feature of non-progressive dysarthria. However, limited research has investigated the effectiveness of treatments for this impairment. Preliminary research has revealed positive effects on nasalance when using increased loudness in certain non-progressive dysarthric speakers. However, the long-term effects of…

  16. [The research progress in determining lignocellulosic content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; An, Dong; Xia, Tian; Huang, Yan-Hua; Li, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Yun-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology, as a new analytic method, can be used to determine the content of lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose which is faster, effective, easier to operate, and more accurate than the traditional wet chemical methods. Nowadays it has been widely used in measuring the composition of lignocelluloses in woody plant and herbaceous plant. The domestic and foreign research progress in determining the lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content in woody plant ( wood and bamboo used as papermaking raw materials and wood served as potential biomass energy) and herbaceous plant (forage grass and energy grass) by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology is comprehensively summarized and the advances in method studies of measuring the composition of lignocelluloses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology are summed up in three aspects, sample preparation, spectral data pretreatment and wavelength selection methods, and chemometric analysis respectively. Four outlooks are proposed combining the development statues of wood, forage grass and energy grass industry. First of all, the authors need to establish more feasible and applicable models for a variety of uses which can be used for more species from different areas, periods and anatomical parts. Secondly, comprehensive near infrared reflectance spectroscopy data base of grass products quality index needs to be improved to realize on-line quality and process control in grassproducts industry, which can guarantee the quality of the grass product. Thirdly, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy quality index model of energy plant need to be built which can not only contribute to breed screening, but also improve the development of biomass industry. Besides, modeling approaches are required to be explored and perfected any further. Finally, the authors need to try our best to boost the advancement in the determination method of lignin, cellulose and hemi

  17. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: 10 years of progress in research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, J; Svensson, L; Rosenqvist, M

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac disease is the most common cause of mortality in Western countries, with most deaths due to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). In Sweden, 5000-10 000 OHCAs occur annually. During the last decade, the time from cardiac arrest to start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation has increased, whereas survival has remained unchanged or even increased. Resuscitation of OHCA patients is based on the 'chain-of-survival' concept, including early (i) access, (ii) CPR, (iii) defibrillation, (iv) advanced cardiac life support and (v) post-resuscitation care. Regarding early access, agonal breathing, telephone-guided CPR and the use of 'track and trigger systems' to detect deterioration in patients' condition prior to an arrest are all important. The use of compression-only CPR by bystanders as an alternative to standard CPR in OHCA has been debated. Based on recent findings, guidelines recommend telephone-guided chest compression-only CPR for untrained rescuers, but trained personnel are still advised to give standard CPR with both compressions and ventilation, and the method of choice for this large group remains unclear and demands for a randomized study. Data have shown the benefit of public access defibrillation for dispatched rescuers (e.g. police and fire fighters) but data are not as strong for the use of automated defibrillators (AEDs) by trained or untrained rescuers. Postresuscitation, use of therapeutic hypothermia, the importance of specific prognostic survival factors in the intensive care unit and the widespread use of percutaneous coronary intervention have all been considered. Despite progress in research and improved treatment regimens, most patients do not survive OHCA. Particular areas of interest for improving survival include (i) identification of high-risk patients prior to their arrest (e.g. early warning symptoms and genes); (ii) increased use of bystander CPR training (e.g. in schools) and simplified CPR techniques; (iii

  18. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  19. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  20. Vibrational and optical properties of amorphous metals: Progress report and projected research, July 1, 1988--June 20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lannin, J.S.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers progress and projected research in vibrational and optical properties of amorphous metals. Topics covered are: the setup and initiation of thin film deposition and analysis capabilities in ultrahigh vaccuum, Auger and LPS measurements on ion bombarded films of a-Ni/sub 95/Tb/sub 5/ films that have been studied by diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering measurements, and Raman scattering measurements on crystalline NiSi/sub 2/metals. (JL)

  1. CMC Research at NASA Glenn in 2015: Recent Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of recent research in Ceramic Matrix Composite materials at NASA Glenn Research Center. For presentation at the July 16, 2015 GRC Dialogue Day with Ohio Academia, as part of the establishment of the Ohio Federal Research Network.

  2. Progress in muscular dystrophy research with special emphasis on gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    SUGITA, Hideo; TAKEDA, Shin’ichi

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Since the disease was described by physicians in the 19th century, information about the subject has been accumulated. One author (Sugita) was one of the coworkers who first reported that the serum creatine kinase (CK) level is elevated in progressive muscular dystrophy patients. Even 50 years after that first report, an elevated serum CK level is still the most useful marker in the diagnosis of DMD, a sensitive index of the state of skeletal muscle, and useful to evaluate therapeutic effects. In the latter half of this article, we describe recent progress in the therapy of DMD, with an emphasis on gene therapies, particularly exon skipping. PMID:20689232

  3. Fundamental combustion and diagnostics research at Sandia. Progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gusinow, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    The combustion research emphasizes basic research into fundamental problems associated with combustion. The overall program addresses detailed chemistry of combustion, fundamental processes associated with laminar and turbulent flames, development of research techniques specifically applicable to combustion environments, and operation of the user-oriented Combustion Research Facility. The first section of this report contains activities in Combustion Research, the second section contains activities in Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy, and the third section contains activities in Diagnostics Research.

  4. Institutional Factors That Motivate Research Activity in Research Universities. A Progress Report. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Frank E.

    A study of the institutional factors at research universities that motivate faculty to pursue research grants and are correlated with significant movement up and down an index of overall research activity is reported. Two institutions within one state system, one with a positive and one with a negative change, are used. Surveys of faculty at…

  5. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  6. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  7. Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, March 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.

    1993-10-01

    Theoretical work on effective action expansion, low-energy models of hadrons and lattice gauge theories is reported. The progress on the electron-proton experiment ZEUS in Germany, LSND neutrino experiment at LAMPF, the Dumand experiment in Hawaii, and the Super Kamiokande experiment in Japan is described. Results from IMB are described.

  8. FY2013 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-12-01

    Annual progress report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine Program. The Advanced Combustion Engine Program supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by addressing critical technical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions, advanced combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  9. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research. Progress report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-12-31

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.

  10. Applied nuclear data research and development. Semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1984-06-01

    This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Group for April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983. Topics covered include theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; nuclear cross-section processing and testing; neutron activation; fission products, and actinides; and core neutronics code development in support of LMFBR carbide core assessment. (GHT)

  11. Education, Industrialization and Technical Progress in Mexico. IIEP Research Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padua, Jorge

    This report attempts to analyze the contributions of the educational system and job training programs to industrialization and technical progress in the Conubal zone of the Lower Balsas River of Mexico. The first of the study's three sections consists of two chapters that provide general background. Chapter 1, "Theories of Development and the Role…

  12. Progress on stem cell research towards the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stuart A J; Gao, Guo-Dong; McDonagh, Katya; Shen, Sanbing

    2012-04-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation of Lewy body inclusions along with selective destruction of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the nigrostriatal tract of the brain. Genetic studies have revealed much about the pathophysiology of PD, enabling the identification of both biomarkers for diagnosis and genetic targets for therapeutic treatment, which are evolved in tandem with the development of stem cell technologies. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells facilitates the derivation of stem cells from adult somatic cells for personalized treatment and thus overcomes not only the limited availability of human embryonic stem cells but also ethical concerns surrounding their use. Non-viral, non-integration, or non-DNA-mediated reprogramming technologies are being developed. Protocols for generating midbrain DA neurons are undergoing constant refinement. The iPS cell-derived DA neurons provide cellular models for investigating disease progression in vitro and for screening molecules of novel therapeutic potential and have beneficial effects on improving the behavior of parkinsonian animals. Further progress in the development of safer non-viral/non-biased reprogramming strategies and the subsequent generation of homogenous midbrain DA neurons shall pave the way for clinical trials. A combined approach of drugs, cell replacement, and gene therapy to stop disease progression and to improve treatment may soon be within our reach.

  13. Competency Progression and Completion: How Is the Policy Being Enacted in Three Trades? Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Guthrie, Hugh; Every, Pam; Harding, Regan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how competency progression and completion is implemented in practice in three trades. In particular, it focuses on: interactions between teachers and/or assessors and workplace supervisors; the different approaches used to integrate on- and off-the job training; assessment and signoff practices; and the ways by which workplace…

  14. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  15. Progress and status of the IAEA coordinated research project: production of Mo-99 using LEU fission or neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Ira N.; Adelfang, Pablo E-mail: P.Adelfang@iaea.org; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2008-07-15

    Since late 2004, the IAEA has developed and implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to assist countries interested in initiating indigenous, small-scale production of Mo-99 to meet local nuclear medicine requirements. The objective of the CRP is to provide interested countries with access to non-proprietary technologies and methods to produce Mo-99 using LEU foil or LEU mini-plate targets, or for the utilization of n,gamma neutron activation, e.g. through the use of gel generators. The project has made further progress since the RERTR 2006 meeting, with a Technical Workshop on Operational Aspects of Mo99 Production held 28-30 November 2006 in Vienna and the Second Research Coordination Meeting held in Bucharest, Romania 16-20 April 2007. The paper describes activities carried out as noted above, and as well as the provision of LEU foils to a number of participants, and the progress by a number of groups in preparing for LEU target assembly and disassembly, irradiation, chemical processing, and waste management. The participants' progress in particular on thermal hydraulics computations required for using LEU targets is notable, as also the progress in gel generator plant operations in India and Kazakhstan. Poland has joined as a new research agreement holder and an application by Egypt to be a contract holder is undergoing internal review in the IAEA and is expected to be approved. The IAEA has also participated in several open meetings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Study on Producing Medical Radioisotopes without HEU, which will also be discussed in the paper. (author)

  16. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  18. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  19. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  20. Computation and graphics in mathematical research. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  1. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-01-19

    The energy storage research and development effort within the VT Program is responsible for researching and improving advanced batteries and ultracapacitors for a wide range of vehicle applications, including HEVs, PHEVs, EVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

  2. Progress report on research in nuclear physics, August 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, R.L.; Hindi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    The progress on Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40314 from August 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995, is summarized in this report. The activities for the past year were focused on the rare electron capture studies, using experimental facilities at Tennessee Technological University and Montana State University. Also discussed are the PC-based multiparameter data acquisition systems and the two-dimensional position-sensitive microchannel plate detector.

  3. Research in theoretical physics. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1992-12-01

    Progress made in the following areas is summarized: simulation of extensive air showers induced by interactions existing beyond the currently accepted ``Standard Model`` of elementary particle interactions; search for physics beyond the ``Standard Model`` in gluonic inclusive decays of heavy quarks; obtaining limits on the applicability of the special theory of relativity; an improved method of obtaining upper limits on the masses of primaries of extensive air showers associated with point sources in the sky. 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  4. U.C. Davis high energy particle physics research: Technical progress report -- 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Summaries of progress made for this period is given for each of the following areas: (1) Task A--Experiment, H1 detector at DESY; (2) Task C--Experiment, AMY detector at KEK; (3) Task D--Experiment, fixed target detectors at Fermilab; (4) Task F--Experiment, PEP detector at SLAC and pixel detector; (5) Task B--Theory, particle physics; and (6) Task E--Theory, particle physics.

  5. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This interdisciplinary laboratory in the College of Engineering support research in areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. These research programs are developed with the assistance of faculty, students, and research associates in the departments of Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Nuclear Engineering.

  6. Review of Physics Research Programs at LAMPF. Progress report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Research and development summaries are presented under the main headings: research, proton storage ring construction and research program development, status of LAMPF II, facility and experimental development, and accelerator operations. Complete lists are given for experiments run in 1983, new prospects, and active and complete experiments by channel. (WHK)

  7. Shale oil value enhancement research. First quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E.; Wiser, J.W.

    1993-06-25

    Concurrent progress is being made in all key areas, namely, separation, characterization and market assessment. The market area, not one of our traditionally strong areas, has been going better than expected. We believe this is due mainly to the emerging interest in new and unconventional materials. The characterization work has been progressing solidly with the fundamental Z-BASIC correlations providing information not heretofore available in the chemical literature. Our agreement with Hewlett-Packard regarding the purchase of equipment at a reduced price is complete and the gc-ms will be ordered shortly. The separation work has progressed satisfactorily although an unexpected amount of time has been required for ``facilities`` and ``equipment`` related issues. Some of these issues have dealt with safety and regulatory compliance when storing larger quantities of samples. These now seem to be solved. We have a lot of direct experience in shale oil separations dating back to the OXY project and before. Also, we will streamline our work by going to prepacked micro-separation tools for some of our separation characterization work. This will allow us to stay on schedule. Overall, we are on schedule with the project. All administration requirements are in place and the accounting and financial records are current.

  8. Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Recent Progress, Challenges and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Both G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate large signaling networks, control multiple cell functions and are implicated in many diseases including various cancers. Both of them are also the top therapeutic targets for disease treatment. The discovery of the cross-talk between GPCRs and RTKs connects these two vast signaling networks and complicates the already complicated signaling networks that regulate cell signaling and function. In this review, we focus on the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a subfamily of RTKs, by GPCRs. Since the first report of EGFR transactivation by GPCR, significant progress has been made including the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transactivation. Here, we first provide a basic picture for GPCR, EGFR and EGFR transactivation by GPCR. We then discuss the progress made in the last five years and finally provided our view of the future challenge and future researches needed to overcome these challenges. PMID:26771606

  9. How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion.

  10. How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion. PMID:24748913

  11. How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion. PMID:24748913

  12. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  13. Research in progress and other activities of the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics and computer science during the period April 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustic and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  14. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  15. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  16. Computation and graphics in mathematical research. Progress report, September 15, 1992--September 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1993-06-01

    Current research is described on: grain boundaries and dislocations in compound polymers, boundary value problems for hypersurfaces constant Gaussian curvature, and discrete computational geometry. 19 refs, 4 figs.

  17. Western Research Institute: Annual technical progress report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    Accomplishments for the year are presented for the following five areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuel research. Oil shale research covers: chemical and physical characterization of reference shales; oil shale retorting studies; and environmental base studies for oil shale. Tar sand covers: reference resource (tar sand deposits) evaluation; chemical and physical propeerties of reference tar sand; recovery processes; mathematical modeling; product evaluation; and environmental base studies. Underground coal gasification covers environmental impact assessment and groundwater impact mitigation. Advanced process technology includes advanced process analysis (contaminant control and new technology) and advanced mitigation concepts. Advanced fuels research is on jet fuels from coal. (AT).

  18. Materials research for the clean utilization of coal. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Effort this quarter has been concentrated on the book Construction Materials for Coal Conversion - Performance and Properties Data. The status of the various subsections of Section A (Materials Considerations and Performance Data) is: (1) Operating requirements - completed; (2) Performance Data and Candidate Materials - being drafted in final form. The assembling of test data for Section B is essentially complete and analysis of this data is in progress. Data was obtained on the creep of a fused cast ..cap alpha.. + ..beta.. alumina (Monofrax A) under thermal cycling conditions and on silicon nitride using both linear variable differential transformers and specimen dimension measurements.

  19. The research progress on Hodograph Method of aerodynamic design at Tsinghua University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zuoyi; Guo, Jingrong

    1991-01-01

    Progress in the use of the Hodograph method of aerodynamic design is discussed. It was found that there are some restricted conditions in the application of Hodograph design to transonic turbine and compressor cascades. The Hodograph method is suitable not only to the transonic turbine cascade but also to the transonic compressor cascade. The three dimensional Hodograph method will be developed after obtaining the basic equation for the three dimensional Hodograph method. As an example of the Hodograph method, the use of the method to design a transonic turbine and compressor cascade is discussed.

  20. Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

  1. Progress of research on plasma facing materials in University of Science and Technology Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chang-Chun; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Song, Shu-Xiang; Du, Juan; Zhong, Zhi-Hong

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we report some new progress on plasma facing materials in University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), China. They include fabrication of tungsten coating with ultra-fine grain size by atmosphere plasma spraying; fabrication of tungsten with ultra-fine grain size by a newly developed method named as resistance sintering under ultra-high pressure; using the concept of functionally graded materials to join tungsten to copper based heat sink; joining silicon doped carbon to copper by brazing using a Ti based amorphous filler and direct casting.

  2. Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.

    1992-10-01

    We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion on an effective low energy theory of hadrons and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has analyzed data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. The LSND neutrino experiment is preparing to take data in 1993. IMB data has been analyzed. Preparations for a beam test at KEK for IMB are in progress. Dumand is preparing to test one string of the detector early next summer. The ZEUS electron proton colliding beam experiment has started to take data. Early results have been reported.

  3. The Preclinical Research Progress of Stem Cells Therapy in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xianyun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rui; Yu, Xuerui; Dong, Ci; Liu, Pujuan; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Jie; Qi, Yixin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Quanhai; Yan, Baoyong

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of degenerative disorder of the basal ganglia, causing tremor at rest, muscle rigidity hypokinesia, and dementia. The effectiveness of drug treatments gradually diminishes because the conversion to dopamine within the brain is increasingly disrupted by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic terminals. After long-term treatment, most patients with PD suffer from disability that cannot be satisfactorily controlled. To solve these issues, stem cells have recently been used for cell therapy of PD. In this review, the characteristics of different stem cells and their therapeutic effects on PD treatment will be discussed. PMID:27379248

  4. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming.

  5. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This reports reports the progress/efforts performed on six technical projects: 1. systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; 2. site remediation technologies (SRT):drain- enhanced soil flushing for organic contaminants removal; 3. SRT: in situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; 4. excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; 5. chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; and 6. development of organic sensors: monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors.

  6. The Preclinical Research Progress of Stem Cells Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianyun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rui; Yu, Xuerui; Dong, Ci; Liu, Pujuan; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Jie; Qi, Yixin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of degenerative disorder of the basal ganglia, causing tremor at rest, muscle rigidity hypokinesia, and dementia. The effectiveness of drug treatments gradually diminishes because the conversion to dopamine within the brain is increasingly disrupted by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic terminals. After long-term treatment, most patients with PD suffer from disability that cannot be satisfactorily controlled. To solve these issues, stem cells have recently been used for cell therapy of PD. In this review, the characteristics of different stem cells and their therapeutic effects on PD treatment will be discussed. PMID:27379248

  7. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Keyvan; McGahan, Anita M; Rezaie, Rahim; Mitchell, Will; Daar, Abdallah S

    2015-01-01

    On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea). Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  8. Progress in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in the United States between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Keyvan; McGahan, Anita M.; Rezaie, Rahim; Mitchell, Will; Daar, Abdallah S.

    2015-01-01

    On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) out of concern for the “vast ethical mine fields” associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea). Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions. PMID:25812114

  9. A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

  10. Research project on CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizes current progress in the research project at SUNY Stony Brook on CO2-induced climate change. Three tasks are described, corresponding to the task categories in the USDOE/PRC CAS cooperative project on climate change. Task 1, led by Dr. Robert Cess, concerns the intercomparison of CO2 related climatic warming in contemporary general circulation models. Task 2, directed by Dr. Sultan Hameed, looks at understanding the natural variability in climatic data and comparing its significant features between observations and model simulations. Task 3, also directed by Dr. Hameed focuses on analysis of historical climate data developed at the institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Recycling research progress at the forest products laboratory. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document summarizes accomplishments of USDA Forest Service researchers in the area of recycling. Specifically, it describes work in economic assessment paper recycling, recycled housing and industrial applications of recycle materials, other recycled applications, and technology transfer. The literature list includes the references cited in the text and additional publications regarding Forest Service recycling research.

  12. Videotelephones and Mental Retardation. Survey of Results Achieved and Research in Progress. Report 92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Magnusson, Magnus

    This two-section report presents a review of European research on the use of videotelephone technology by people with mental retardation. The first section examines relevant research concerning those with speech and language disabilities in general. Considered are visual communication including augmentative and alternative communication systems,…

  13. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  14. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  15. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-22

    Research programs from the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) are briefly described. Topics include enhanced recovery, studies on reservoir rock, microbial EOR, development of analytical techniques for petroleum analysis, and imaging techniques applied to fluids study in porous media. (CBS)

  16. Systematic Review of Design-Based Research Progress: Is a Little Knowledge a Dangerous Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient attention and resources have been allocated to design-based research (DBR) to warrant review concerning if and how its potential has been realized. Because the DBR literature clearly indicates that this type of research strives toward both the development of an intervention to address a problem in practice and empirical investigation…

  17. Research on Screening and Diagnosis in Autism: A Work in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol-Power, Marie M.; Spinella, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of a 1998 conference which reviewed research on screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and identifies promising areas of research especially the search for the ultimate diagnostic indicator, infant screening and diagnosis, the role of sensory-motor disorders, diagnosis of co-occurring disorders,…

  18. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  19. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  20. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  1. THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PARTICULATE MATTER HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH CENTERS PROGRAM: A MIDCOURSE REPORT OF STATUS, PROGRESS, AND PLANS. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Design Research on Mathematics Education: Investigating the Progress of Indonesian Fifth Grade Students' Learning on Multiplication of Fractions with Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Hartono, Yusuf; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; de Haan, Dede

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the progress of students' learning on multiplication fractions with natural numbers through the five activity levels based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach proposed by Streefland. Design research was chosen to achieve this research goal. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory…

  3. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25414098

  4. [Soil seed bank research in China: present status, progress and challenges].

    PubMed

    Shen, You-Xin; Zhao, Chun-Yan

    2009-02-01

    By searching soil seed bank (SSB) papers from http://www.cqvip.com (1989-2006) and Web of Science (1985-2006), the information on SSB density, species richness, and research methods were summarized according to the 29 classified vegetation types in Vegetation of China. In total, the data of 238 sites with 14 vegetation types were collected. The results showed that the research methods adopted by different researchers and the obtained data of SSB density and species richness varied greatly. In related researches, sampling work was mostly conducted in April and October, sampling plot number ranged from 2 to 480, plot area ranged from 78 cm2 to 10,000 cm2, with 10 cm x 10 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm as most common, and total sampling area ranged from 600 cm2 to 500,000 cm2, with the most being 1,000-10,000 cm2. SSB density varied from 8 ind x m(-2) (desert) to 65,355 ind x m(-2) (tropical rain forest), and species richness varied from 1 (secondary bare alkali-saline patch in temperate) to 74 (tropical seasonal rain forest) per site. SSB density and species richness were higher in tropical rain forest and seasonal rain forest than in temperate coniferous forest, and in manmade forest than in agricultural land or barren land. Grassland, desert, and meadow had smaller species richness. In future, the SSB research should be extended both in scope and in deepness, with the focus on the long term research and strategy research of some important ecosystems, and the research should be incorporated into vegetation regeneration and restoration studies. The related methodological research should be also emphasized in the future. PMID:19459392

  5. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such

  6. [Soil seed bank research in China: present status, progress and challenges].

    PubMed

    Shen, You-Xin; Zhao, Chun-Yan

    2009-02-01

    By searching soil seed bank (SSB) papers from http://www.cqvip.com (1989-2006) and Web of Science (1985-2006), the information on SSB density, species richness, and research methods were summarized according to the 29 classified vegetation types in Vegetation of China. In total, the data of 238 sites with 14 vegetation types were collected. The results showed that the research methods adopted by different researchers and the obtained data of SSB density and species richness varied greatly. In related researches, sampling work was mostly conducted in April and October, sampling plot number ranged from 2 to 480, plot area ranged from 78 cm2 to 10,000 cm2, with 10 cm x 10 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm as most common, and total sampling area ranged from 600 cm2 to 500,000 cm2, with the most being 1,000-10,000 cm2. SSB density varied from 8 ind x m(-2) (desert) to 65,355 ind x m(-2) (tropical rain forest), and species richness varied from 1 (secondary bare alkali-saline patch in temperate) to 74 (tropical seasonal rain forest) per site. SSB density and species richness were higher in tropical rain forest and seasonal rain forest than in temperate coniferous forest, and in manmade forest than in agricultural land or barren land. Grassland, desert, and meadow had smaller species richness. In future, the SSB research should be extended both in scope and in deepness, with the focus on the long term research and strategy research of some important ecosystems, and the research should be incorporated into vegetation regeneration and restoration studies. The related methodological research should be also emphasized in the future.

  7. Results at Mallik highlight progress in gas hydrate energy resource research and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent studies that project the role of gas hydrates in the future energy resource management are reviewed. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually be a commercial resource for the future. A Joint Industry Project led by ChevronTexaco and the US Department of Energy is designed to characterize gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. Countries including Japan, canada, and India have established large gas hydrate research and development projects, while China, Korea and Mexico are investigating the viability of forming government-sponsored gas hydrate research projects.

  8. RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server: A Progressing Testbed for AI Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darab, Mohammad Ali Darvish; Ebrahimi, Mosalam

    RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation is a growing domain that makes a wide variety of AI and Multi-Agent researches possible. The RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server is a Multi-Agent environment that supports 22 independent agents to play a soccer match within a real-time and complex environment. Many researchers from all over the world have been using this simulator to pursue their researches in a wide variety of areas such as multiagent learning, cooperative actions and multiagent planning. This paper illustrates the current organization of RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server.

  9. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carol

    2001-07-27

    The Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, July 22-27, 2001. The conference had 133 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was place on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions; poster sessions were held.

  10. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project: involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Bethany V; Schultheis, Patrick J; Strome, Erin D

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced; however, little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs had only risen from 75.31% to 78%, while the number of uncharacterized ORFs had decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing > 700 genes still left in this category; http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot). Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course, with multiple instructors, to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF, which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies, including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate that the authentic research experience had positive impacts on students' perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore, we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. PMID:26460164

  11. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project: involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Bethany V; Schultheis, Patrick J; Strome, Erin D

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced; however, little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs had only risen from 75.31% to 78%, while the number of uncharacterized ORFs had decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing > 700 genes still left in this category; http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot). Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course, with multiple instructors, to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF, which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies, including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate that the authentic research experience had positive impacts on students' perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore, we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction.

  12. Another Decade of Research in Handwriting: Progress and Prospect in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Michaeleen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A review of handwriting research conducted in the 1970s reveals that innovative statistical designs were being used, a large number of experimental studies were conducted, and there was increased emphasis on teaching handwriting to handicapped students. (JD)

  13. [Research progress in biological basis of cold and heat essence of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yu-Ting; Li, Xiao-Wan; Dong, Yang; Shi, Jian-Rong

    2012-12-01

    Cold-heat problem is one core of traditional Chinese medicine theory. This paper summarizes the experimental research related to the biological basis of cold-heat essence in cold-heat syndrome, cold-heat body constitution and cold-heat property of Chinese herbs. In view of the classical physiological and biochemical indices, gene expression, protein expression and metabolic differences, differences in cold-heat syndrome or cold-heat constitution are mainly based on neurotransmitter, thyroid function, sex hormone, cyclic nucleotide system, and energy metabolism relating to the corresponding gene and protein expression. Furthermore, this paper analyses the change of correlation indices that accompany with a dynamic development process of "constitution-syndrome-herbal intervention", implying that the research of biological basis of cold-heat essence has turned from single index to multiple indices, and from dispersion research to system research. PMID:23257124

  14. Research in Chemical Kinetics: Progress Report, January 1, 1978 to September 30, 1978

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rowland, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research was conducted on the following topics: stratospheric chemistry of chlorinated molecules, atmospheric chemistry of methane, atmospheric chemistry of cosmogenic tritium, reactions of energetic and thermal radioactive atoms, methylene chemistry, and laboratory simulation of chemical reactions in Jupiter atmosphere. (DLC)

  15. Community-level climate change vulnerability research: trends, progress, and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Graham; Ford, James; Jones, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This study systematically identifies, characterizes, and critically evaluates community-level climate change vulnerability assessments published over the last 25 years (n = 274). We find that while the field has advanced considerably in terms of conceptual framing and methodological approaches, key shortcomings remain in how vulnerability is being studied at the community-level. We argue that vulnerability research needs to more critically engage with the following: methods for evaluating future vulnerability, the relevance of vulnerability research for decision-making, interdependencies between social and ecological systems, attention to researcher / subject power dynamics, critical interpretation of key terms, and consideration of the potentially positive opportunities presented by a changing climate. Addressing these research needs is necessary for generating knowledge that supports climate-affected communities in navigating the challenges and opportunities ahead.

  16. Research in progress at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April 1, 1987 through October 1, 1987.

  17. [Research progress on Huang Fu-mi's A-B classic of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-kun; Xing, Yu-rui

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand the research status of HUANG Fu-mi's A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 83 pieces of literature that have been publically published since 1978 were analyzed. A summary was performed according to 7 aspects including version origin, emendation, arrangement and summary, theory discussion, clinical research, value evaluation, the rest questions, etc. It is believed that deep research work has been done on explanations, emendation and translation regarding A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. However, the exploration work on the theory and application is far from enough. Therefore, beginning from historical and cultural background, we should analyze the humanistic spirit of HUANG Fu-mi combined with A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion to perform a deep exploration, so we could have a thorough and comprehensive research on HUANG Fu-mi's academic thoughts.

  18. Progress of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound recipe of Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei

    2008-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.

  19. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982 on Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the continued design work for the low mass flow train superheater. The detailed design of this component continued and the overall arrangement drawing for the superheater and air heater was finalized. The air heater procurement reached the point of contract award, but the actual purchase order award was held up pending receipt of additional funding from the Department of Energy. Testing activity reported includes two additional tests in the LMF1C series, which concludes this test series. Test data are presented, along with preliminary analyses for the combustor, nozzle, diagnostic channel, diffuser, radiant furnace/secondary combustor and Materials Test Module. In addition to the nitrogen oxide test measurements, corrosion and erosion rates for the boiler tube specimens and the materials test module are reported.

  20. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly technical progress report, August--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following area of studies: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; and applied energy science. Oil and gas includes the following tasks: CROW{sup TM} process modeling; and miscible-immiscible gas injection processes. Advanced systems applications covers: development and optimization of a process for the production of a premium solid fuel from Western U.S. coals; development of an on-line alkali monitoring probe; optimization of the recycle oil process for Eastern oil shale; and process support and development. Tasks in the environmental technologies are: solid waste management; and remediation of contaminated soils. Applied energy science covers heavy oil/plastics co-processing.