Science.gov

Sample records for research cooperation promotion

  1. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  2. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, F.; Järvi, L.; Asmi, A.; Suárez-Muñoz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity must face enormous environmental challenges including biodiversity decline, climate change, ocean acidification, sea level rise and overpopulation. The research infrastructures (RIs) created in the last decades worldwide cover a wide range of spatial and thematic scales and collect information about the functioning of Earth ecosystems. However, we need to go one step forward: understand and simulate the functioning of the Earth as a complex system in a global change scenario. Cooperation among international RIs as well as multidisciplinary work are mandatory to achieve this challenging objective. COOP+ (EU Horizon 2020 project) aims to strengthen the links and coordination of European environmental RIs with their international counterparts. COOP+ will create cooperation threads among international research infrastructures using environmental Global Challenges (GCs) as thematic guidelines. These GCs are polyhedral and sometimes wicked problems that threaten the sustainability of our modern societies from a social and environmental perspective. This contribution describes how COOP+ uses GCs as guidelines to foster cooperation among RIs. First we have created an open survey to collect ideas about GCs within the different scientific communities. We present the structure of this survey as well as the preliminary information that it contains. The survey will be accepting responses during the project life (September 2018). We also describe the structure of a template that will be used to collaboratively characterize some selected GCs under the point of view of RIs. The main idea is to assess how RIs can be useful to address global environmental problems. We encourage all scientists related to RIs communities to participate in this process.

  3. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  4. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  5. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... United States of America, and in order to promote international regulatory cooperation, it is hereby... global economy, international regulatory cooperation, consistent with domestic law and prerogatives and U..., safety, labor, security, environmental, and other issues, international regulatory cooperation can...

  6. The Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) Conceptual Model to Promote Mental Health for Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L

    2016-06-01

    Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable.

  7. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  8. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  9. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  10. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  11. Social diversity promotes cooperation in spatial multigames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jiahu; Chen, Yaming; Kang, Yu; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Social diversity is omnipresent in the modern world. Here we introduce this diversity into spatial multigames and study its impact on the evolution of cooperation. Multigames are characterized by two or more different social dilemmas being contested among players in the population. When a fraction of players plays the prisoner's dilemma game while the remainder plays the snowdrift game cooperation becomes a difficult proposition. We show that social diversity, determined by the payoff scaling factors from the uniform, exponential or power-law distribution, significantly promotes cooperation. In particular, the stronger the social diversity, the more widespread cooperative behavior becomes. Monte Carlo simulations on the square lattice reveal that a power-law distribution of social diversity is in fact optimal for socially favorable states, thus resonating with findings previously reported for single social dilemmas. We also show that the same promotion mechanism works in time-varying environments, thus further generalizing the important role of social diversity for cooperation in social dilemmas.

  12. Onymity promotes cooperation in social dilemma experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Rui-Wu; Shi, Lei; Iwasa, Yoh; Moreno, Yamir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals. We find that onymity significantly increases the frequency of cooperation and the median payoff per round relative to anonymity. Furthermore, we also show that the correlation between players’ ranks and the usage of strategies (cooperation, defection, or punishment) underwent a fundamental shift, whereby more prosocial actions are rewarded with a better ranking under onymity. Our findings prove that reducing anonymity is a valid promoter of cooperation, leading to higher payoffs for cooperators and thus suppressing an incentive—anonymity—that would ultimately favor defection. PMID:28435860

  13. Love or fear: can punishment promote cooperation?

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Sebestian

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a paradox: Why should one perform a costly behavior only to increase the fitness of another? Human societies, in which individuals cooperate with genetically unrelated individuals on a considerably larger scale than most mammals do, are especially puzzling in this regard. Recently, the threat of punishment has been given substantial attention as one of the mechanisms that could help sustain human cooperation in such situations. Nevertheless, using punishment to explain cooperation only leads to further questions: Why spend precious resources to penalize free-riders, especially if others can avoid this investment and cheaters can punish you back? Here, it is argued that current evidence supports punishment as an efficient means for the maintenance of cooperation, and that the gravity of proposed limitations of punishment for maintaining cooperation may have been overestimated in previous studies due to the features of experimental design. Most notably, the importance of factors as characteristic of human societies as reputation and language has been greatly neglected. Ironically, it was largely the combination of the two that enabled humans to shape costly punishment into numerous low-cost and less detrimental strategies that clearly can promote human cooperation.

  14. Promoting Cooperative Learning at Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Maria; Jacobs, George

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a four-step programme designed to promote the use of cooperative learning among teachers at a Singapore primary school. In the initial step in the programme, teachers at the school were asked if they would like to participate in the programme. Six came forward. In the second step, an outside consultant did a brief workshop…

  15. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  16. Inducing peer pressure to promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the 'tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  17. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the ‘tragedy of the commons’ in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome. PMID:23619166

  18. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy. PMID:21690401

  19. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  20. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  1. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  2. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  3. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  4. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  5. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  6. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of...

  7. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  8. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  9. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  10. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  11. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of...

  12. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is...

  13. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  14. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is...

  15. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  16. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  18. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  19. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  20. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of...

  1. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  2. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is...

  4. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  5. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  6. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is...

  7. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is...

  8. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  9. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  10. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research...

  11. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of...

  12. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  13. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  14. Promoting cooperation through fast response to defection in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Nie, Sen; Chen, Shi-Ming; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental research has revealed that the cooperation in dynamic social networks, has significant scope for enhancement because individuals in a social system break the links with defective neighbours. To investigate how the length of defection tolerance affects the cooperation of prisoner’s dilemma game in dynamic ring networks, we study evolution of breaking and rewiring operations for social interaction as a response to the defection strategy. Defection tolerance is measured in terms of the time length that an individual tolerates a defector who continuously adopts the defective strategy. The results show that the dynamic nature of human social networks plays an essential role in promoting cooperation. Interestingly, there exists a critical value of the temptation to defect, below which the system is entirely dominated by cooperators, and a lower value of defection tolerance induces a larger threshold of temptation.

  15. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  16. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical... Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle...

  17. Spontaneous Giving under Structural Inequality: Intuition Promotes Cooperation in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates the role of intuitive mental processing on cooperation in experimental games involving structural inequality. Results from an experiment using conceptual priming to induce intuitive mental processing provide the first evidence that cooperation is promoted by intuition in an asymmetric context that distributes the gains from cooperation unequally among a group. Therefore, the results extend our understanding of the cognitive underpinnings of human cooperation by demonstrating the robustness of intuitive cooperation in games involving structural inequality regarding asymmetric gains from cooperation. Additionally, the results provide the first successful conceptual replication of the intuition-cooperation link using conceptual priming, therefore also contributing to the debate about the validity of previous research in other contexts. Taken together, the present research contributes to the literature on psychological and institutional mechanisms that promote cooperation.

  18. Relational diversity promotes cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

  19. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  20. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  1. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve...

  2. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  3. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  4. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  5. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the...

  6. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve...

  7. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  8. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the...

  9. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve...

  10. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  11. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the...

  12. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  13. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the...

  14. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  15. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  16. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the...

  17. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  18. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  19. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve...

  20. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  1. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve...

  2. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for...

  3. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  4. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and... Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford...

  5. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one...

  6. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one...

  7. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one...

  8. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one...

  9. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one...

  10. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  11. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  13. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  14. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  15. Promotion of International Exchange through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Hiroomi

    This article describes that Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT) has been receiving international students from all of the world increasingly every year since 1990 and the increase in the international students can be attributed to vigorous international cooperation activities by TUT. International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education (ICCEED) is playing a central role of international cooperation in TUT and two projects implemented by ICCEED in 2007 are introduced.

  16. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  17. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  18. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  19. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner’s dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model – based on repeated population growth and truncation – is more robust than Poncela et al.’s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.’s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  20. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment.

    PubMed

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P

    2016-08-09

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation.

  1. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment

    PubMed Central

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898

  2. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-12-20

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict.

  3. Population bottlenecks promote cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A

    2007-07-25

    Population bottlenecks are assumed to play a key role in the maintenance of social traits in microbes. Ecological parameters such as colonisation or disturbances can favour cooperation through causing population bottlenecks that enhance genetic structuring (relatedness). However, the size of the population bottleneck is likely to play a crucial role in determining the success of cooperation. Relatedness is likely to increase with decreasing bottleneck size thus favouring the evolution of cooperation. I used an experimental evolution approach to test this prediction with biofilm formation by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens as the cooperative trait. Replicate populations were exposed to disturbance events every four days under one of six population bottleneck treatments (from 10(3) to 10(8) bacterial cells). In line with predictions, the frequency of evolved cheats within the populations increased with increasing bottleneck size. This result highlights the importance of ecologically mediated population bottlenecks in the maintenance of social traits in microbes.

  4. Public Service Advertising to Promote Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sylvia J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an advertising campaign designed to create awareness of cooperative education in students, parents, and business people who can sponsor co-op jobs. Discusses benefits to students, employers, and society. (JM)

  5. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  6. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  7. Promoting the Quality of Sino-Foreign Cooperation School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the history and situation of the current Sino-foreign cooperation in running school, some prominent differences on the college educations between China and developed countries are discussed. The paper aims to improve the level of Sino-foreign cooperation school running, and gives some methods to promote the education quality of Chinese…

  8. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  9. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  10. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  11. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  12. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  13. Asymmetric evaluation promotes cooperation in network population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Li, Xiaoping; Shi, Lei; Deng, Zhenghong

    2017-05-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a fundamental challenge in human society. Many previous studies investigated these questions via spatial reciprocity, where players obtain their payoffs by interacting with their direct neighbors. It has also been verified that environmental factors can influence the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. In reality, however, individuals may have the limit knowledge about their indirect neighbors. Inspired by this fact, we consider an asymmetric fitness calculation mechanism, which only integrates the environment factors into the focal player, to explore the evolution of cooperation. Here, the environmental factor is defined as the average payoff of all individual neighbors, which is regulated by a tunable parameter u. Through numerical simulation, we find that, compared with the traditional version (u = 0), that the cooperation level can be greatly enhanced when u is positive. Interestingly, the larger the value of u, the higher the level of cooperation. Finally, to explore the generality of this finding, we have tested the results on different topologies.

  14. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  19. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  20. Promoting Integration and Cooperation: The Friendship Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A yearly "Friendship Games" day has been implemented at an Edmonton (Alberta) elementary school. The games focus on integration of students with and without disabilities in sports activities, many of which require cooperation. Examples of specific activities are listed (including materials needed, procedure, and scoring) and a suggested physical…

  1. Robotic Cooperative Learning Promotes Student STEM Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Pauline; Ardito, Gerald; Scollins, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The principal purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of robotic cooperative learning methodologies on middle school students' critical thinking, and STEM interest. The semi-experimental inquiry consisted of ninety four six-grade students (forty nine students in the experimental group, forty five students in the control group), chosen…

  2. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  3. Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-11-29

    Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks. Importantly, ties in these networks often are dynamic, changing in response to the behavior of one's social partners. This dynamic structure permits an important form of conditional action that has been explored theoretically but has received little empirical attention: People can respond to the cooperation and defection of those around them by making or breaking network links. Here, we present experimental evidence of the power of using strategic link formation and dissolution, and the network modification it entails, to stabilize cooperation in sizable groups. Our experiments explore large-scale cooperation, where subjects' cooperative actions are equally beneficial to all those with whom they interact. Consistent with previous research, we find that cooperation decays over time when social networks are shuffled randomly every round or are fixed across all rounds. We also find that, when networks are dynamic but are updated only infrequently, cooperation again fails. However, when subjects can update their network connections frequently, we see a qualitatively different outcome: Cooperation is maintained at a high level through network rewiring. Subjects preferentially break links with defectors and form new links with cooperators, creating an incentive to cooperate and leading to substantial changes in network structure. Our experiments confirm the predictions of a set of evolutionary game theoretic models and demonstrate the important role that dynamic social networks can play in supporting large-scale human cooperation.

  4. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  5. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  7. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    PubMed

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  8. Cooperative Learning to Promote Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2003-01-01

    When people think about how education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels can promote human rights, most people think about the content. For example, they think about lessons on topics such as overcoming discrimination or the right to a fair trial. However, teaching for human rights is not only about the "what," the content of…

  9. Genetic architecture promotes the evolution and maintenance of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Frénoy, Antoine; Taddei, François; Misevic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    When cooperation has a direct cost and an indirect benefit, a selfish behavior is more likely to be selected for than an altruistic one. Kin and group selection do provide evolutionary explanations for the stability of cooperation in nature, but we still lack the full understanding of the genomic mechanisms that can prevent cheater invasion. In our study we used Aevol, an agent-based, in silico genomic platform to evolve populations of digital organisms that compete, reproduce, and cooperate by secreting a public good for tens of thousands of generations. We found that cooperating individuals may share a phenotype, defined as the amount of public good produced, but have very different abilities to resist cheater invasion. To understand the underlying genetic differences between cooperator types, we performed bio-inspired genomics analyses of our digital organisms by recording and comparing the locations of metabolic and secretion genes, as well as the relevant promoters and terminators. Association between metabolic and secretion genes (promoter sharing, overlap via frame shift or sense-antisense encoding) was characteristic for populations with robust cooperation and was more likely to evolve when secretion was costly. In mutational analysis experiments, we demonstrated the potential evolutionary consequences of the genetic association by performing a large number of mutations and measuring their phenotypic and fitness effects. The non-cooperating mutants arising from the individuals with genetic association were more likely to have metabolic deleterious mutations that eventually lead to selection eliminating such mutants from the population due to the accompanying fitness decrease. Effectively, cooperation evolved to be protected and robust to mutations through entangled genetic architecture. Our results confirm the importance of second-order selection on evolutionary outcomes, uncover an important genetic mechanism for the evolution and maintenance of

  10. Managing cooperative research and development ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    As cooperative ventures to conduct research and development become increasingly attractive, management of these collective undertakings poses new challenges to executives. In selecting the most appropriate organizational structure and strategy the author suggests that the collective enterprise executive must strike the best balance among three distinct but related elements: contribution of the participants; creation of benefits; and transfer of benefits to contributors. Eight types of cooperative R&D ventures are proposed with discussion of the unique management tasks associated with each type.

  11. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Feng; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A.; Wang, Long

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the cooperation dynamics attributed to the interplay between the evolution of individual strategies and evolution of individual partnerships. We focus on the effect of reputation on an individual’s partner-switching process. We assume that individuals can either change their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways; that is, individuals can switch from the lowest reputation partners, either to their partners’ partners who have the highest reputation (i.e., ordering in partnership) or to others randomly chosen from the entire population (i.e., randomness in partnership). We show that when individuals are able to alter their behavioral strategies and their social interaction partnerships on the basis of reputation, cooperation can prevail. We find that the larger temptation to defect and the denser the partner network, the more frequently individuals need to shift their partnerships in order for cooperation to thrive. Furthermore, an increasing tendency of switching to partners’ partners is more likely to lead to a higher level of cooperation. We show that when reputation is absent in such partner-switching processes, cooperation is much less favored than that of the reputation involved. Moreover, we investigate the effect of discounting an individual’s reputation on the evolution of cooperation. Our results highlight the importance of the consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on the promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships.

  12. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feng; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A; Wang, Long

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the cooperation dynamics attributed to the interplay between the evolution of individual strategies and evolution of individual partnerships. We focus on the effect of reputation on an individual's partner-switching process. We assume that individuals can either change their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways; that is, individuals can switch from the lowest reputation partners, either to their partners' partners who have the highest reputation (i.e., ordering in partnership) or to others randomly chosen from the entire population (i.e., randomness in partnership). We show that when individuals are able to alter their behavioral strategies and their social interaction partnerships on the basis of reputation, cooperation can prevail. We find that the larger temptation to defect and the denser the partner network, the more frequently individuals need to shift their partnerships in order for cooperation to thrive. Furthermore, an increasing tendency of switching to partners' partners is more likely to lead to a higher level of cooperation. We show that when reputation is absent in such partner-switching processes, cooperation is much less favored than that of the reputation involved. Moreover, we investigate the effect of discounting an individual's reputation on the evolution of cooperation. Our results highlight the importance of the consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on the promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships.

  13. Interactive diversity promotes the evolution of cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Long

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary games on networks traditionally assume that each individual adopts an identical strategy to interact with all its neighbors in each generation. Considering the prevalent diversity of individual interactions in the real society, here we propose the concept of interactive diversity, which allows individuals to adopt different strategies against different neighbors in each generation. We investigate the evolution of cooperation based on the edge dynamics rather than the traditional nodal dynamics in networked systems. The results show that, without invoking any other mechanisms, interactive diversity drives the frequency of cooperation to a high level for a wide range of parameters in both well-mixed and structured populations. Even in highly connected populations, cooperation still thrives. When interactive diversity and large topological heterogeneity are combined together, however, in the relaxed social dilemma, cooperation level is lower than that with just one of them, implying that the combination of many promotive factors may make a worse outcome. By an analytical approximation, we get the condition under which interactive diversity provides more advantages for cooperation than traditional evolutionary dynamics does. Numerical simulations validating the approximation are also presented. Our work provides a new line to explore the latent relation between the ubiquitous cooperation and individuals’ distinct responses in different interactions. The presented results suggest that interactive diversity should receive more attention in pursuing mechanisms fostering cooperation.

  14. Annual Report, 1995. California Educational Research Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zykowski, Jane L.; And Others

    The California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC) of the School of Education, University of California, Riverside, was established in 1988 as a joint venture designed to bring educational professionals and researchers together. CERC is a partnership among the Riverside and San Bernadino County Offices of Education, 19 local school districts,…

  15. California Educational Research Cooperative. Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zykowski, Jane L.

    This annual report outlines activities of the California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC). The CERC was established in 1988 to bring educational professionals and research scholars together, and its partnerships involve 26 school districts working with the University of California, Irvine. The document lists CERC's mission and goals, its…

  16. California Educational Research Cooperative. Annual Report 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Educational Research Cooperative, Riverside.

    The California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC) is a partnership between county and local school systems and the School of Education at the University of California, Riverside. The annual report of this organization is presented. The report details the missions and goals of CERC and its effort to bring professionals and research scholars…

  17. 16 CFR § 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. § 1028.114 Section Â... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each...

  18. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  19. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Durka, P. J.; Blinowski, G. J.; Klekowicz, H.; Malinowska, U.; Kuś, R.; Blinowska, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl) with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research. PMID:19753299

  20. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  1. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.

  2. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  3. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  4. California Educational Research Cooperative Annual Report, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zykowski, Jane L.

    This report discusses the activities of the California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC) over the past year. The CERC was established in 1998 as a joint venture between the School of Education at the University of California, Riverside, the San Bernardino County Offices of Education, and 19 local school districts to bring educational…

  5. Effective usage of credit records promotes cooperation on weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Michael Z Q; Rong, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-03-01

    The cooperative behaviors of players on weighted networks are investigated by incorporation of trust mechanisms into a well-accepted game model, i.e., the networked prisoner's dilemma game, afterwards some weight-updating schemes are designed according to the credit records. Despite the differences in network topologies and strategy updating protocols, a simple yet significant principle surfaces that, to promote the emergence of cooperation over abundant weighted networks, only the latest credit record of partners is required to be taken into consideration, whereas incorporating more previous records may even deteriorate the cooperation performance. To support such an appealing principle, we have investigated more deeply into the role of credit records so as to give a detailed explanation underlying it. The virtue of this work lies in providing insights into the effective usage of the currently available credit records.

  6. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-04-04

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation.

  8. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  9. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    PubMed Central

    TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.

    2002-01-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547

  10. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trasco, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A joint agreement between NASA/Goddard and The University of Maryland currently supports cooperative research in Satellite Based Studies of Photons and Charged Particles in the following areas: 1) Detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; 2) Research with several past and upcoming X-ray satellites; 3) High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; 4) Theoretical astrophysics.

  11. [Occupational safety and health promotion: competition or cooperation?].

    PubMed

    Kohte, W

    2003-03-01

    Between 1988-1998 in Germany Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) rivalled with Workplace Health Promotion (WHP). Now that European legislation has influenced modernisation of the German OSH, both can embark on useful cooperation. Safety Services and personnel are required to evaluate risk assessment accurately; the results can be helpful for WHP. Safety communication and workers' participation will explore and ensure new avenues in WHP and--in consequence--scientific knowledge concerning work. This knowledge, in turn, can now support modern OSH.

  12. 76 FR 66324 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Nasgro Development and Support Notice is hereby given that, on October 3, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301...

  13. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing Notice is hereby given that, on April 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  14. 77 FR 47882 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel VI Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  15. 75 FR 66792 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel V Notice is hereby given that, on October 7, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  16. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program...--Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Programs (``P3'') has filed written notifications... speed pre-ignition (LSPI), and design a solution to eliminate it. Secondary objectives are to...

  17. 14 CFR § 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. § 1230.114 Section Â... SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those... research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human...

  18. Promotion of Cooperation amongst Research and Development Organizations in the Field of Vocational Training. Working Meeting Papers (Berlin, West Germany, May 20-21, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    The 10 short presentations contained in this document were given by representatives of vocational training research and development organizations from 9 of 10 member states of the Eurpoean community and concern the current and future research and development priorities of these organizations. An introduction discusses objectives and highlights the…

  19. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...-- Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour...

  20. 75 FR 4422 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel V Notice is hereby given that, on December 10, 2009, pursuant to Section ] 6(a) of the National Cooperative...

  1. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  2. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Changes in priorities for forest management on federal and state lands in the Pacific Northwest have raised many questions about the best ways to manage young-forest stands, riparian areas, and forest landscapes. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) Program draws together scientists and managers from the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Forestry, and Oregon State University to find science-based answers to these questions. Managers, researchers, and decisionmakers, working within the CFER program, are helping develop and disseminate the knowledge needed to carry out ecosystem-based management successfully in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games.

  4. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion.

  5. 76 FR 58539 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded.... (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of... have been made in either the membership or planned productivity of the group research...

  6. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of... Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded Pipes... the membership or planned activity of the group research project. Membership in this group...

  7. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  8. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  9. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones). Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems.

  10. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group On: Diesel After Treatment Accelerated Aging Cycles--Heavy Duty Notice is hereby... Research Group on Diesel After Treatment Accelerated Aging Cycles--Heavy-Duty (``DAAAC-HD'') has...

  11. Putting Research to Work: Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the views of three scholars on cooperative learning: cooperation in content areas (team-assisted individualization and cooperative integrated reading and composition); grading techniques (e.g., individual score plus group bonus points, group scores, and scoring only one member's paper); and structuring social interaction (round robin,…

  12. 75 FR 16178 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Integrated Investigations of Faulting in Carbonate Strata Notice is hereby given that, on February 25, 2010, pursuant to...

  13. 76 FR 66325 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on September 26, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National... Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of...

  14. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions.

  15. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    PubMed

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  16. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  17. The Increased Risk of Joint Venture Promotes Social Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games. PMID:23750204

  18. Shape matters: lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations.

    PubMed

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-03-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems.

  19. Shape matters: Lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations

    PubMed Central

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-01-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  20. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner's dilemma for children.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; Rand, David G; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-09-29

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged.

  1. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner’s dilemma for children

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Peter R.; Rand, David G.; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged. PMID:26417661

  2. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  3. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  4. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications...

  5. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously...

  6. 76 FR 9811 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously...

  7. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on March... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications...

  8. 75 FR 79024 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given, on November 4...-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...

  9. 75 FR 62569 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that, on... High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II, (``HEDGE II'') has filed written notifications...

  10. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations.

    PubMed

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K L

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an "implicit punishment" mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  11. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  12. Promoting cooperation by reputation-driven group formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    In previous studies of the spatial public goods game, each player is able to establish a group. However, in real life, some players cannot successfully organize groups for various reasons. In this paper, we propose a mechanism of reputation-driven group formation, in which groups can only be organized by players whose reputation reaches or exceeds a threshold. We define a player’s reputation as the frequency of cooperation in the last T time steps. We find that the highest cooperation level can be obtained when groups are only established by pure cooperators who always cooperate in the last T time steps. Effects of the memory length T on cooperation are also studied.

  13. Summary of Research Report Cooperative Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several areas of work related to commercialization of technology developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) are discussed in this report. The areas are: (1) perform a feasibility study to develop a software commercialization center is at ARC; (2) perform preliminary work for formation of joint development of sensor technology for telemedicine applications; (3) development of a discovery interview process and staff training to assist the commercialization of technology developed at Ames, specifically aimed at working with researchers; (4) develop partners to further develop and commercialize image compression technology developed at AMES; (5) assist efforts to commercialize a software technology which imparts the ability to establish relevance-based retrieval in the handling of large repositories of information; (6) explore the development of cryocooler technology using pulse tube refrigeration; (7) assess interest in commercialization of a new method of measuring skin friction drag on wind tunnel models using liquid crystal material; (8) attempt to incorporate emerging technologies in the infrastructure of natural hazards mitigation; and (9) forming a nonprofit organization, "The Bootstrap Alliance", whose mission is to promote the use of digital technologies for collaborative problem solving. The results of these initiatives are discussed.

  14. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  15. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-05-13

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001.

  16. Spatial population expansion promotes the evolution of cooperation in an experimental Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Van Dyken, J David; Müller, Melanie J I; Mack, Keenan M L; Desai, Michael M

    2013-05-20

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in nature, but explaining its existence remains a central interdisciplinary challenge. Cooperation is most difficult to explain in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, where cooperators always lose in direct competition with defectors despite increasing mean fitness. Here we demonstrate how spatial population expansion, a widespread natural phenomenon, promotes the evolution of cooperation. We engineer an experimental Prisoner's Dilemma game in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to show that, despite losing to defectors in nonexpanding conditions, cooperators increase in frequency in spatially expanding populations. Fluorescently labeled colonies show genetic demixing of cooperators and defectors, followed by increase in cooperator frequency as cooperator sectors overtake neighboring defector sectors. Together with lattice-based spatial simulations, our results suggest that spatial population expansion drives the evolution of cooperation by (1) increasing positive genetic assortment at population frontiers and (2) selecting for phenotypes maximizing local deme productivity. Spatial expansion thus creates a selective force whereby cooperator-enriched demes overtake neighboring defector-enriched demes in a "survival of the fastest." We conclude that colony growth alone can promote cooperation and prevent defection in microbes. Our results extend to other species with spatially restricted dispersal undergoing range expansion, including pathogens, invasive species, and humans.

  17. Spatial population expansion promotes the evolution of cooperation in an experimental Prisoner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyken, J. David; Müller, Melanie J.I.; Mack, Keenan M.L.; Desai, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cooperation is ubiquitous in nature, but explaining its existence remains a central interdisciplinary challenge [1–3]. Cooperation is most difficult to explain in the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, where cooperators always lose in direct competition with defectors despite increasing mean fitness [1, 4, 5]. Here we demonstrate how spatial population expansion, a widespread natural phenomenon [6–11], promotes the evolution of cooperation. We engineer an experimental PD game in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to show that, despite losing to defectors in non-expanding conditions, cooperators increase in frequency in spatially expanding populations. Fluorescently labeled colonies show genetic demixing [8] of cooperators and defectors followed by increase in cooperator frequency as cooperator sectors overtake neighboring defector sectors. Together with lattice-based spatial simulations, our results suggest that spatial population expansion drives the evolution of cooperation by 1) increasing positive genetic assortment at population frontiers and 2) selecting for phenotypes maximizing local deme productivity. Spatial expansion thus creates a selective force whereby cooperator-enriched demes overtake neighboring defector-enriched demes in a “survival of the fastest”. We conclude that colony growth alone can promote cooperation and prevent defection in microbes. Our results extend to other species with spatially restricted dispersal undergoing range expansion, including pathogens, invasive species and humans. PMID:23664975

  18. CEMA cooperation in microelectronics research, production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The assignments resulting from an agreement concerning multilateral specialization and cooperation among European socialist countries in the development and production of microelectronic components for computer technology are enumerated. Several areas which impact directly on the manufacture of large scale and very large scale integrated components are identified.

  19. State Research Project on Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjeldgaard, Jerry

    A survey instrument was designed and mailed to all 101 California community colleges in order to gather information on their cooperative work experience programs. In all, 88 schools responded. This document presents a statistical summary of survey responses which establishes: the employment status and salary range of program directors; program…

  20. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  1. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  2. Cooperators Unite! Assortative linking promotes cooperation particularly for medium sized associations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of cooperative behaviour is widely studied in different models where interaction is heterogeneous, although static among individuals. However, in nature individuals can often recognize each other and chose, besides to cooperate or not, to preferentially associate with or to avoid certain individuals. Here we consider a dynamical interaction graph, in contrast to a static one. We propose several rules of rejecting unwanted partners and seeking out new ones, and study the probability of emergence and maintenance of cooperation on these dynamic networks. Results Our simulations reveal that cooperation can evolve and be stable in the population if we introduce preferential linking, even if defectors can perform it too. The fixation of cooperation has higher probability than that of on static graphs, and this effect is more prevalent at high benefit to cost ratios. We also find an optimal number of partners, for which the fixation probability of cooperation shows a maximum. Conclusions The ability to recognize, seek out or avoid interaction partners based on the outcome of past interactions has an important effect on the emergence of cooperation. Observations about the number of partners in natural cooperating groups are in concordance with the result of our model. PMID:20540710

  3. Ten Mid-West Institutions Grouped Cooperatively to Develop Research Capability. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Charles J.

    This report describes the most significant activities of the Dayton-Miami Valley Consortium during the period of September 1, 1967 - February 28, 1970. The purpose of the Consortium is to promote interinstitutional cooperation and thus improve planning, research, instruction, and administrative services. The activities of the Consortium fell in 2…

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  5. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... to implement this cooperative research program. Due to obligation limitations, recissions, and... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program...

  6. Cooperative Training Partnership in Aquatic Toxicology and Ecosystem Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-ORD seeks applications to enter into a cooperative agreement with EPA that will provide training opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral trainees on-site at ORD’s Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) research

  7. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones). Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems. PMID:26102082

  8. Preferential interactions promote blind cooperation and informed defection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    2016-12-06

    It is common sense that costs and benefits should be carefully weighed before deciding on a course of action. However, we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Current models show that punishment of information gathering can be beneficial because it forces blind decisions, which under some circumstances enhances cooperation. Here we show that aversion to information gathering can be beneficial even in the absence of punishment, due to a different mechanism: preferential interactions with reliable partners. In a diverse population where different people have different-and unknown-preferences, those who seek additional information before agreeing to cooperate reveal that their preferences are close to the point where they would choose not to cooperate. Blind cooperators are therefore more likely to keep cooperating even if conditions change, and aversion to information gathering helps to interact preferentially with them. Conversely, blind defectors are more likely to keep defecting in the future, leading to a preference for informed defectors over blind ones. Both mechanisms-punishment to force blind decisions and preferential interactions-give qualitatively different predictions, which may enable experimental tests to disentangle them in real-world situations.

  9. Cooperation Induces Other Cooperation: Fruiting Bodies Promote the Evolution of Macrocysts in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Shota; Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu

    2017-04-03

    Biological studies of the evolution of cooperation are challenging because this process is vulnerable to cheating. Many mechanisms, including kin discrimination, spatial structure, or by-products of self-interested behaviors, can explain this evolution. Here we propose that the evolution of cooperation can be induced by other cooperation. To test this idea, we used a model organism Dictyostelium discoideum because it exhibits two cooperative dormant phases, the fruiting body and the macrocyst. In both phases, the same chemoattractant, cyclic AMP (cAMP), is used to collect cells. This common feature led us to hypothesize that the evolution of macrocyst formation would be induced by coexistence with fruiting bodies. Before forming a mathematical model, we confirmed that macrocysts coexisted with fruiting bodies, at least under laboratory conditions. Next, we analyzed our evolutionary game theory-based model to investigate whether coexistence with fruiting bodies would stabilize macrocyst formation. The model suggests that macrocyst formation represents an evolutionarily stable strategy and a global invader strategy under this coexistence, but is unstable if the model ignores the fruiting body formation. This result indicates that the evolution of macrocyst formation and maintenance is attributable to coexistence with fruiting bodies. Therefore, macrocyst evolution can be considered as an example of evolution of cooperation induced by other cooperation.

  10. First carrot, then stick: how the adaptive hybridization of incentives promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Brännström, Åke; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-06

    Social institutions often use rewards and penalties to promote cooperation. Providing incentives tends to be costly, so it is important to find effective and efficient policies for the combined use of rewards and penalties. Most studies of cooperation, however, have addressed rewarding and punishing in isolation and have focused on peer-to-peer sanctioning as opposed to institutional sanctioning. Here, we demonstrate that an institutional sanctioning policy we call 'first carrot, then stick' is unexpectedly successful in promoting cooperation. The policy switches the incentive from rewarding to punishing when the frequency of cooperators exceeds a threshold. We find that this policy establishes and recovers full cooperation at lower cost and under a wider range of conditions than either rewards or penalties alone, in both well-mixed and spatial populations. In particular, the spatial dynamics of cooperation make it evident how punishment acts as a 'booster stage' that capitalizes on and amplifies the pro-social effects of rewarding. Together, our results show that the adaptive hybridization of incentives offers the 'best of both worlds' by combining the effectiveness of rewarding in establishing cooperation with the effectiveness of punishing in recovering it, thereby providing a surprisingly inexpensive and widely applicable method of promoting cooperation.

  11. First carrot, then stick: how the adaptive hybridization of incentives promotes cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Brännström, Åke; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Social institutions often use rewards and penalties to promote cooperation. Providing incentives tends to be costly, so it is important to find effective and efficient policies for the combined use of rewards and penalties. Most studies of cooperation, however, have addressed rewarding and punishing in isolation and have focused on peer-to-peer sanctioning as opposed to institutional sanctioning. Here, we demonstrate that an institutional sanctioning policy we call ‘first carrot, then stick’ is unexpectedly successful in promoting cooperation. The policy switches the incentive from rewarding to punishing when the frequency of cooperators exceeds a threshold. We find that this policy establishes and recovers full cooperation at lower cost and under a wider range of conditions than either rewards or penalties alone, in both well-mixed and spatial populations. In particular, the spatial dynamics of cooperation make it evident how punishment acts as a ‘booster stage’ that capitalizes on and amplifies the pro-social effects of rewarding. Together, our results show that the adaptive hybridization of incentives offers the ‘best of both worlds’ by combining the effectiveness of rewarding in establishing cooperation with the effectiveness of punishing in recovering it, thereby providing a surprisingly inexpensive and widely applicable method of promoting cooperation. PMID:25551138

  12. Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible.

    PubMed

    P Hauser, Oliver; A Nowak, Martin; G Rand, David

    2014-11-07

    It has been argued that punishment promotes the evolution of cooperation when mutation rates are high (i.e. when agents engage in 'exploration dynamics'). Mutations maintain a steady supply of agents that punish free-riders, and thus free-riders are at a disadvantage. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that free-riders sometimes also pay to punish cooperators. Inspired by these empirical results, theoretical work has explored evolutionary dynamics where mutants are rare, and found that punishment does not promote the evolution of cooperation when this 'anti-social punishment' is allowed. Here we extend previous theory by studying the effect of anti-social punishment on the evolution of cooperation across higher mutation rates, and by studying voluntary as well as compulsory Public Goods Games. We find that for intermediate and high mutation rates, adding punishment does not promote cooperation in either compulsory or voluntary public goods games if anti-social punishment is possible. This is because mutations generate agents that punish cooperators just as frequently as agents that punish defectors, and these two effects cancel each other out. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of punishment for promoting cooperation when mutations are common, and highlight how decisions about which strategies to include in the strategy set can have profound effects on the resulting dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Promoting cooperation by preventing exploitation: The role of network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkovski, Zoran; Stojkoski, Viktor; Basnarkov, Lasko; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence indicates that social and cooperative behavior can be affected by cognitive and neurological factors, suggesting the existence of state-based decision-making mechanisms that may have emerged by evolution. Motivated by these observations, we propose a simple mechanism of anonymous network interactions identified as a form of generalized reciprocity—a concept organized around the premise "help anyone if helped by someone'—and study its dynamics on random graphs. In the presence of such a mechanism, the evolution of cooperation is related to the dynamics of the levels of investments (i.e., probabilities of cooperation) of the individual nodes engaging in interactions. We demonstrate that the propensity for cooperation is determined by a network centrality measure here referred to as neighborhood importance index and discuss relevant implications to natural and artificial systems. To address the robustness of the state-based strategies to an invasion of defectors, we additionally provide an analysis which redefines the results for the case when a fraction of the nodes behave as unconditional defectors.

  14. Promoting Problem-Solving and Reasoning during Cooperative Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that was conducted on the effects of training students in specific strategic and meta-cognitive questioning strategies on the development of reasoning, problem-solving, and learning during cooperative inquiry-based science activities. The study was conducted in 18 sixth grade classrooms and involved 35 groups of…

  15. Promoting Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement through Cooperation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita Espino

    This digest discusses a project conducted in the Ysleta Independent School District in El Paso, Texas, that sought to integrate effective practices in literacy education, an empirically based cooperative learning model, and a classroom management model to help teachers develop the English and Spanish language proficiency of their students. The…

  16. Promotion of Cooperation in a Spatial Public Goods Game with Long Range Learning and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Hua, Da-Yin

    2012-11-01

    We studied the effect of population density in a spatial public goods game. We found that the effect on the evolution of cooperation is very complex when the strategy learning and mobility of players in a long range are considered in a two-dimensional lattice. As the learning range is larger than the mobility range, the system is driven to enter into a cooperation state for a low population density, because a small local group is beneficial to sustain a high level of cooperation. As population density increases to a moderate range, the mobility of players from a domain invaded by defectors supports the evolution stability of cooperation. When the mobility range is larger than the learning range, a formation of compact domains of cooperators promotes cooperation as the population density becomes high.

  17. Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.

    PubMed

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2014-03-07

    Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution.

  18. Diversity of neighborhoods promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjuan; Lu, Jun; Shi, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important and interesting problems in a myriad of disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, statistical physics, social science and economics Up to now, there have been a great number of works aiming to this issue with the help of evolutionary game theory. However, vast majority of existing literatures simply assume that the interaction neighborhood and replacement neighborhood are symmetric, which seems inconsistent with real-world cases. In this paper, we consider the asymmetrical neighborhood: player of type A, whose factor is controlled by a parameter τ, has four interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors, while player of type B, whose factor is controlled by a parameter 1 - τ, possess eight interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we found that middle τ can make the cooperation reach the highest level While for this finding, its robustness can be further validated in more games.

  19. Nuclear Challenges in Southeast Asia: Promoting Cooperation and Consensus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    for nuclear energy development is energy security, as states seek to increase and diversify their energy supplies . • However, observers from outside...tied to NWS signing the Protocol to the Bangkok Treaty, which they have not yet done. • Widespread interest in the development of nuclear energy...creates new opportunities for regional cooperation, especially in human resource development, fuel supply , and radioactive waste management

  20. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  5. Population heterogeneity promotes a preference for blind cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    Game theory--and common sense--recommend to carefully weigh costs and benefits before deciding on a course of action. Yet we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Hoffman et al. (2015) have shown that such aversion to information gathering may be beneficial when it is strong enough to increase the level of cooperation. Here we show that the same type of aversion arises in heterogeneous populations, but for a different reason: individuals who seek additional information may reveal themselves to be undesirable partners, since they are less likely to cooperate in the future when conditions change. Aversion to information gathering thus facilitates preferential interactions with blind cooperators, who are more favorable partners. Due to this new mechanism the prevalence of such aversion rapidly increases with population diversity, because partner discrimination is more useful in populations which harbor partners of a more varied quality. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, EMBO and Human Frontier Science Program.

  6. Promoting Helping Behavior in Cooperative Small Groups in Middle School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Farivar, Sydney

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects on achievement and verbal interaction of a cooperative learning instructional program promoting basic communication skills and academic helping skills (experimental condition) with those of a program promoting only basic communication skills. Results with 166 seventh graders show more elaborated help and higher achievement for…

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  9. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  10. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  11. The role of institutional incentives and the exemplar in promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Li, Cong; Zhang, Bo-Yu; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    People on average do not play their individually rational Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy in game experiments based on the public goods game (PGG) that model social dilemmas. Differences from NE behavior have also been observed in PGG experiments that include incentives to cooperate, especially when these are peer-incentives administered by the players themselves. In our repeated PGG experiment, an institution rewards and punishes individuals based on their contributions. The primary experimental result is that institutions which both reward and punish (IRP) promote cooperation significantly better than either institutions which only punish (IP) or which only reward (IR), and that IP has contribution levels significantly above IR. Although comparing their single-round NE strategies correctly predicts which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, individuals do not play these strategies overall. Our analysis shows that other intrinsic motivations that combine conforming behavior with reactions to being rewarded/punished provide a better explanation of observed outcomes. In our experiments, some individuals who display more cooperation than other individuals can be regarded as the exemplars (or leaders). The role of these exemplars in promoting cooperation provides important insights into understanding cooperation in PGG and the effectiveness of institutional incentives at promoting desirable societal behavior. PMID:25242265

  12. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Particle Sensor Performance and Durability Notice is hereby given that, on May... Particle Sensor Performance and Durability (``PSPD'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... the performance and durability of various particle sensor technologies on a diesel engine...

  13. 77 FR 15395 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation... planned activity is to understand mechanical stratigraphy and natural deformation in Eagle Ford Formation...

  14. Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "cooperation"--related to animal, personal, national, and global cooperation; rules and regulations; and team efforts. K-8 resources on the theme include World Wide Web sites, CD-ROM, software, videos, books, and others. Features include cooperative living, alliances of nations, songs of cooperation, and animals…

  15. Advantages of international cooperation in space life sciences research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resources and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss four possible types of cooperation: formal data exchange agreements; formal data exchange coupled with standardized data collection; joint strategic and tactical planning and full exchange of standardized data; and joint international team research with full data sharing and standardization. The advantages of these types of cooperation will be described.

  16. Promotion of cooperation in social dilemma games via generalised indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, Raymond; Kirley, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel generalised indirect reciprocity approach for promoting cooperation in social dilemma games. Here, players decide upon an action to play in the game based on public information (or "external cues") rather than individual-specific information. The public information is constantly updated according to the underlying learning model. Comprehensive simulation experiments using the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games show that generalised indirect reciprocity promotes high levels of cooperation across a wide range of conditions. This is despite the fact that the make-up of player groups is continually changing. As expected, the extent of cooperative behaviour observed in the "constraint-relaxed" N-player SD game is significantly higher than the N-player PD game. Our proposed generalised indirect reciprocity model may shed light on the conundrum of cooperation between anonymous individuals.

  17. Promoting global safeguards cooperation: Argentine-U.S. technical achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, L.; Smith, C.

    1996-04-01

    The bilateral ENREN (Argentina National Nuclear Regulatory Board)-DOE Safeguards Agreement was signed by Dr. Dan Beninson, ENREN, and Dr. Kenneth Baker, DOE, at the Peaceful Uses Conference in Bariloche in 1994. Two major activities identified for immediate cooperation were: nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for Pilcaniyeu, and advanced containment and surveillance at Embalse. Both of these are discussed here. While the activities of the past year and a half are significant, many more opportunities remain for valuable cooperative partnering to discover more effective and efficient ways to apply safeguards. Several that have been identified by ENREN and DOE for 1996 are: (1) environmental monitoring as a safeguards technique; (2) Pilcaniyeu measurement studies and joint IAEA support program activities; (3) information management and analysis tools; (4) safeguards analytical laboratory support; (5) study of the safeguards approach for Embalse; (6) expansion of the remote monitoring system at Embalse; (7) use of ground-penetrating radar technology at Embalse; and (8) computerized material control and accounting tools for Pilcaniyeu.

  18. Research Libraries--Automation and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David R.; Hurowitz, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Description of Research Libraries Information Network, an automated technical processing and information retrieval system, notes subsystems (acquisitions, cataloging, message, print, tables), functions, design, and benefits to participating libraries. (Request complimentary subscription on institution letterhead from Editor, "Perspectives in…

  19. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  20. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-08-07

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors' payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans.

  1. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible. PMID:26634907

  2. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  3. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-04

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  4. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors’ payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans. PMID:22773811

  5. Cooperative analysis expert situation assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    For the past few decades, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has been conducting research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). When the recent advances in hardware technology made many AI techniques practical, the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate of RADC initiated an applications program entitled Knowledge Based Intelligence Systems (KBIS). The goal of the program is the development of a generic Intelligent Analyst System, an open machine with the framework for intelligence analysis, natural language processing, and man-machine interface techniques, needing only the specific problem domain knowledge to be operationally useful. The development of KBIS is described.

  6. Cooperative research in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Details of the activities conducted under the joint effort of the University of Maryland and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics are detailed for the period July 1989 through April 1994. The research covered a variety of topics including: (1) detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; (2) support work for several x-ray satellites; (3) high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; (4)theoretical astrophysics; and (5) active galaxies.

  7. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  8. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  9. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  10. CIRP (Cooperative Institutional Research Program) Freshman Survey Report. Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Sandra; And Others

    The Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) is a nationwide project to gather data on incoming freshman classes at two- and four-year institutions and compare them to previous classes. This report presents findings from the fall 1992 CIRP survey for the Pennsylvania College of Technology (Penn College) and the 403 other colleges…

  11. Inter-Organizational Cooperation in a Competitive Research Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Inter-organizational cooperation was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research…

  12. Adaptive and Bounded Investment Returns Promote Cooperation in Spatial Public Goods Games

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Liu, Yongkui; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations. PMID:22615836

  13. Diverse strategy-learning styles promote cooperation in evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-11-01

    Observational learning and practice learning are two important learning styles and play important roles in our information acquisition. In this paper, we study a spacial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game, where players can choose the observational learning rule or the practice learning rule when updating their strategies. In the proposed model, we use a parameter p controlling the preference of players choosing the observational learning rule, and found that there exists an optimal value of p leading to the highest cooperation level, which indicates that the cooperation can be promoted by these two learning rules collaboratively and one single learning rule is not favor the promotion of cooperation. By analysing the dynamical behavior of the system, we find that the observational learning rule can make the players residing on cooperative clusters more easily realize the bad sequence of mutual defection. However, a too high observational learning probability suppresses the players to form compact cooperative clusters. Our results highlight the importance of a strategy-updating rule, more importantly, the observational learning rule in the evolutionary cooperation.

  14. Adaptive and bounded investment returns promote cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Liu, Yongkui; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations.

  15. One step memory of group reputation is optimal to promote cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Wu, Te; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2013-08-01

    Individuals' change of social ties has been observed to promote cooperation under specific mechanism, such as success-driven or expectation-driven migration. However, there is no clear criterion or information from players' instinctive memory or experience for them to consult as they would like to change their social ties. For the first time we define the reputation of a group based on individual's memory law. A model is proposed, where all players are endowed with the capacity to adjust interaction ambience involved if the reputation of their environment fails to satisfy their expectations. Simulation results show that cooperation decays as the increase of player's memory depth and one step memory is optimal to promote cooperation, which provides a potential interpretation for that most species memorize their reciprocators over very short time scales. Of intrigue is the result that cooperation can be improved greatly at an optimal interval of moderate expectation. Moreover, cooperation can be established and stabilized within a wide range of model parameters even when players choose their new partners randomly under the combination of reputation and group switching mechanisms. Our work validates the fact that individuals' short memory or experience within a multi-players group acts as an effective ingredient to boost cooperation.

  16. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  17. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research among Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Elena; Zhao, Weinan; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary research, many faculty have increased their efforts to form interdisciplinary research teams. Oftentimes, attempts to put together such teams are hampered because faculty have a limited picture of the research interests and expertise of their colleagues. This paper reports on…

  18. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research among Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Elena; Zhao, Weinan; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary research, many faculty have increased their efforts to form interdisciplinary research teams. Oftentimes, attempts to put together such teams are hampered because faculty have a limited picture of the research interests and expertise of their colleagues. This paper reports on…

  19. Alliances to Promote Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2007-01-01

    The publications and outreach activities of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) are designed to share successful models and strategies for establishing and institutionalizing undergraduate research programs. As CUR conducts its programs, provides services to its members, and advocates for undergraduate research at the state and national…

  20. Alliances to Promote Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2007-01-01

    The publications and outreach activities of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) are designed to share successful models and strategies for establishing and institutionalizing undergraduate research programs. As CUR conducts its programs, provides services to its members, and advocates for undergraduate research at the state and national…

  1. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  2. Semaphorin 4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada O.; Yang, Ying-Hua; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The semaphorins and plexins comprise a family of cysteine-rich proteins implicated in control of nerve growth and development and regulation of the immune response. Our group and others have found that Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) and its receptor, Plexin-B1, play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, with some neoplasms producing SEMA4D in a manner analogous to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in order to attract Plexin-B1-expressing endothelial cells into the tumor for the purpose of promoting growth and vascularity. While anti-VEGF strategies have been the focus of most angiogenesis inhibition research, such treatment can lead to upregulation of pro-angiogenic factors that can compensate for the loss of VEGF, eventually leading to failure of therapy. Here, we demonstrate that SEMA4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis in malignancies and can perform the same function in a setting of VEGF blockade. We also show the potential value of inhibiting SEMA4D/Plexin-B1 signaling as a complementary mechanism to anti-VEGF treatment, particularly in VEGF inhibitor–resistant tumors, suggesting that this may represent a novel treatment for some cancers. PMID:22476930

  3. The `MOON Mapping' Project to Promote Cooperation Between Students of Italy and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Giommi, P.; Brunetti, M. T.; Carli, C.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Forlani, G.; Gamba, P.; Lavagna, M.; Melis, M. T.; Massironi, M.; Ori, G.; Salese, F.; Zinzi, A.; Xie, G.; Kang, Z.; Shi, R.; Sun, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The research project `Moon Mapping' has been established in 2014 between the Italian and Chinese Governments to promote cooperation and exchange between undergraduate students from both countries. The operational phase of the project started in early 2015, and will end in 2017, for a total length of three years. The main aim is to train new scholars to be able to work on different kinds of remotely-sensed data collected over the Moon surface by the Chinese space missions Chang'E-1/2. The project coordination has been assigned to the Italian Space Agency for the Italian side and to the Center of Space Exploration, China Ministry of Education, for the Chinese side. Several Chinese universities and Italian national research institutes and universities have been officially involved in this project. Six main research topics have been identified: (1) map of the solar wind ion; (2) geomorphological map of the Moon; (3) data preprocessing of Chang'E-1 mission; (4) map of element distribution; (5) establishment of 3D digital visualization system; and (6) compilation and publication of a tutorial on joint lunar mapping.

  4. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N+M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals.

  5. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N +M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals.

  6. Cooperative Research between NREL and Solar Junction Corp: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-306

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    NREL and Solar Junction Corp. will perform cooperative research on materials and devices that are alternatives to standard approaches with the goal of improving solar cell efficiency while lowering cost. The general purpose of this work is to model the performance of a multi-junction concentrator cell of Solar Junction, Inc. design under normal concentrator operating conditions.

  7. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future surface...

  8. Social selection of game organizers promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; Wang, Long

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the fact that opportunities in reality are heterogeneous for individuals due to social selection, we propose an evolutionary public goods game model considering the social selection of game organizers occurring on a square lattice. We introduce a simple rule that, depending on the value of a single parameter μ, influences the selection of players that are considered as potential game organizers. For positive μ players with a high payoff will be considered more likely. Setting μ equal to zero returns the random selection of game organizers. We find that increasing the probability of selecting the wealthier individuals as game organizers can effectively promote cooperation. We show that the promotion of cooperation attributes to the dominance of the clusters of cooperative organizers in the population by investigating the evolution of spatial patterns.

  9. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  10. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with voluntary participation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions. PMID:28182707

  11. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  12. Promotion of cooperation induced by discriminators in the spatial multi-player donor-recipient game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Ren, Jian-Kang; Lu, Kun; Li, Ming-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Although the two-player donor-recipient game has been used extensively in studying cooperation in social dilemmas, the scenario in which a donor can simultaneously donate resources to multiple recipients is also common in human societies, economic systems, and social networks. This paper formulates a model of the multi-player donor-recipient game considering a multi-recipient scenario. The promotion of cooperation is also studied by introducing a discriminative cooperation strategy into the game, which donates resources to recipients in proportion to their previous donations with a cost for the collection of information. The evolutionary dynamics of individual strategies are explored in homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios by leveraging spatial evolutionary game theory. The results show that in a homogeneous scenario, defectors can dominate the network at the equilibrium state only when the cost-to-benefit ratio (R) of donated resources is large. In a heterogeneous scenario, three strategies can coexist all the time within the range of R that was studied, and the promotion of cooperation is more effective when the values of R are smaller. Results from a single node evolution and the formation of local patterns of interaction are provided, and it is analytically shown that discriminators can maintain fairness in resource donation and guarantee long-term cooperation when R is not too large.

  13. Molecular crowders and cosolutes promote folding cooperativity of RNA under physiological ionic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Boyer, Joshua A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Folding mechanisms of functional RNAs under idealized in vitro conditions of dilute solution and high ionic strength have been well studied. Comparatively little is known, however, about mechanisms for folding of RNA in vivo where Mg2+ ion concentrations are low, K+ concentrations are modest, and concentrations of macromolecular crowders and low-molecular-weight cosolutes are high. Herein, we apply a combination of biophysical and structure mapping techniques to tRNA to elucidate thermodynamic and functional principles that govern RNA folding under in vivo–like conditions. We show by thermal denaturation and SHAPE studies that tRNA folding cooperativity increases in physiologically low concentrations of Mg2+ (0.5–2 mM) and K+ (140 mM) if the solution is supplemented with physiological amounts (∼20%) of a water-soluble neutral macromolecular crowding agent such as PEG or dextran. Low-molecular-weight cosolutes show varying effects on tRNA folding cooperativity, increasing or decreasing it based on the identity of the cosolute. For those additives that increase folding cooperativity, the gain is manifested in sharpened two-state-like folding transitions for full-length tRNA over its secondary structural elements. Temperature-dependent SHAPE experiments in the absence and presence of crowders and cosolutes reveal extent of cooperative folding of tRNA on a nucleotide basis and are consistent with the melting studies. Mechanistically, crowding agents appear to promote cooperativity by stabilizing tertiary structure, while those low molecular cosolutes that promote cooperativity stabilize tertiary structure and/or destabilize secondary structure. Cooperative folding of functional RNA under physiological-like conditions parallels the behavior of many proteins and has implications for cellular RNA folding kinetics and evolution. PMID:24442612

  14. Molecular crowders and cosolutes promote folding cooperativity of RNA under physiological ionic conditions.

    PubMed

    Strulson, Christopher A; Boyer, Joshua A; Whitman, Elisabeth E; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-03-01

    Folding mechanisms of functional RNAs under idealized in vitro conditions of dilute solution and high ionic strength have been well studied. Comparatively little is known, however, about mechanisms for folding of RNA in vivo where Mg(2+) ion concentrations are low, K(+) concentrations are modest, and concentrations of macromolecular crowders and low-molecular-weight cosolutes are high. Herein, we apply a combination of biophysical and structure mapping techniques to tRNA to elucidate thermodynamic and functional principles that govern RNA folding under in vivo-like conditions. We show by thermal denaturation and SHAPE studies that tRNA folding cooperativity increases in physiologically low concentrations of Mg(2+) (0.5-2 mM) and K(+) (140 mM) if the solution is supplemented with physiological amounts (∼ 20%) of a water-soluble neutral macromolecular crowding agent such as PEG or dextran. Low-molecular-weight cosolutes show varying effects on tRNA folding cooperativity, increasing or decreasing it based on the identity of the cosolute. For those additives that increase folding cooperativity, the gain is manifested in sharpened two-state-like folding transitions for full-length tRNA over its secondary structural elements. Temperature-dependent SHAPE experiments in the absence and presence of crowders and cosolutes reveal extent of cooperative folding of tRNA on a nucleotide basis and are consistent with the melting studies. Mechanistically, crowding agents appear to promote cooperativity by stabilizing tertiary structure, while those low molecular cosolutes that promote cooperativity stabilize tertiary structure and/or destabilize secondary structure. Cooperative folding of functional RNA under physiological-like conditions parallels the behavior of many proteins and has implications for cellular RNA folding kinetics and evolution.

  15. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics between JHU and GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This grant was awarded to establish and support cooperative research programs between the Center of Astrophysical Sciences (CAS) at the Johns Hopkins University and the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goals o f the program are to facilitate, encourage and initiate: (1) sharing of resources, knowledge and expertise in the general astrophysics, and relevant databases; (2) new collaborations and projects between the two institutions and its scientists, (3) training and mentoring of JHU students and junior researchers by way of connecting them with appropriate researchers and experts at the LHEA.

  16. Fusing enacted and expected mimicry generates a winning strategy that promotes the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ilan; Frid, Alex; Goerg, Sebastian J; Levin, Simon A; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Selten, Reinhard

    2013-06-18

    Although cooperation and trust are essential features for the development of prosperous populations, they also put cooperating individuals at risk for exploitation and abuse. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the solution to the problem resides in the practice of mimicry and imitation, the expectation of opponent's mimicry and the reliance on similarity indices. Here we fuse the principles of enacted and expected mimicry and condition their application on two similarity indices to produce a model of mimicry and relative similarity. Testing the model in computer simulations of behavioral niches, populated with agents that enact various strategies and learning algorithms, shows how mimicry and relative similarity outperforms all the opponent strategies it was tested against, pushes noncooperative opponents toward extinction, and promotes the development of cooperative populations. The proposed model sheds light on the evolution of cooperation and provides a blueprint for intentional induction of cooperation within and among populations. It is suggested that reducing conflict intensities among human populations necessitates (i) instigation of social initiatives that increase the perception of similarity among opponents and (ii) efficient lowering of the similarity threshold of the interaction, the minimal level of similarity that makes cooperation advisable.

  17. Playing against the fittest: A simple strategy that promotes the emergence of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, M.

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the emergence and sustainability of cooperation is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology and is frequently studied in the framework of evolutionary game theory. A very powerful mechanism to promote cooperation is network reciprocity, where the interaction patterns and opportunities for strategy spread of agents are constrained to limited sets of permanent interactions partners. Cooperation survives because it is possible for close-knit communities of cooperation to be shielded from invasion by defectors. Here we show that parameter ranges in which cooperation can survive are strongly expanded if game play on networks is skewed towards more frequent interactions with more successful neighbours. In particular, if agents exclusively select neighbors for game play that are more successful than themselves, cooperation can even dominate in situations in which it would die out if interaction neighbours were chosen without a bias or with a preference for less successful opponents. We demonstrate that the "selecting fitter neighbours" strategy is evolutionarily stable. Moreover, it will emerge as the dominant strategy out of an initially random population of agents.

  18. Promoting Action Research in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Background: In 2005, the North Zone Clusters of Schools made action research their niche development project with the aim of equipping the teachers with conceptual understanding and skills in conducting action research. Training workshops were mounted in seven centres. This is the first time action research is promoted en mass among Singapore as a…

  19. The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, J. R.; Wardell, N.; Cooper, A. K.; Brancolini, G.

    2001-12-01

    The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) was designed by members of the Antarctic geoscience community to facilitate open access to multichannel seismic reflection data, and to promote collaborative research based on these data. The SDLS was formally adopted in 1991 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and mandates of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Recommendation XVI-12. Since that time, library branches have been established in countries worldwide, and more than 50,000 km of digital seismic reflection profile data have been provided to the SDLS by data collectors in 10 countries. The library system is a dynamic library where data resides for use by all members of the research community in collaboration with data collectors. Data are available at the SDLS during the period between 4 and 8 years following data collection, after which they go to the World Data Center. The SDLS system protects intellectual property rights of data collectors and provides open access to data, as required by the Antarctic Treaty, to facilitate timely and multinational geoscience research products. This abstract outlines recommendations to update the data-access technology used by the SDLS, while retaining the basic tenets and guidelines upon which the library system was adopted and now operates. In the early 1990's when the SDLS was developed, the computer technologies were by today's standards primitive. We propose an updated SDLS design that incorporates a variety of new features and capabilities utilizing modern technology and current standards for the organization and dissemination of geospatial data. Some of the features of the proposed SDLS design include: ” The new SDLS will be principally Web-based, allowing on-line access to digital datasets. Security and access to data will be controlled according to the terms of the original SDLS agreement, either by limiting on-line access to sensitive data files

  20. Success-driven distribution of public goods promotes cooperation but preserves defection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2011-09-01

    Established already in Biblical times, the Matthew effect refers to the fact that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. Here we investigate a game theoretical model describing the evolution of cooperation on structured populations where the distribution of public goods is driven by the reproductive success of individuals. Phase diagrams reveal that cooperation is promoted irrespective of the uncertainty by strategy adoptions and the type of interaction graph, yet the complete dominance of cooperators is elusive due to the spontaneous emergence of superpersistent defectors that owe their survival to extremely rare microscopic patterns. This indicates that success-driven mechanisms are crucial for effectively harvesting benefits from collective actions but that they may also account for the observed persistence of maladaptive behavior.

  1. Promotion of cooperation induced by nonuniform payoff allocation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Yang, H.-X.; Wang, W.-X.; Chen, G. R.; Wang, B.-H.

    2010-02-01

    A nonuniform payoff allocation mechanism is proposed for spatial public goods games where individuals are nodes on a scale-free network. Each individual is assigned a weight ki α, where ki is the degree of individual i and α is an adjustable parameter that controls the degree of diversity in individuals’ profits. During the evolution progress, the allocation of payoff on individual i is assumed to be proportional to its weight. Individuals synchronously update their strategies according to the stochastic rule with a fixed noise level. It is found that there exists an optimal value of α which yields the highest level of cooperation. Other pertinent quantities, including the payoff and the probability of finding a node playing as cooperator versus the degree, are also investigated computationally and analytically. Our results suggest that a suitable degree of diversity among individuals can promote the emergence of cooperation.

  2. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1207.335 Section 1207.335... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion....

  7. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1207.335 Section 1207.335... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The Cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1207.335 Section 1207.335... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  18. Experiences of professionals participating in inter-organisational cooperation aimed at promoting clients' return to work.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Elsy; Vimarlund, Vivian; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In Sweden, the activities initiated to promote return to work (RTW) are performed in parallel by four different public organisations: the health services, the social services, the employment and the social insurance authorities. The aim was to gain deeper understanding on the experiences of professionals involved in cooperative projects aimed at promoting RTW among unemployed sickness benefit recipients. Qualitative analyses were performed of transcribed data from interviews of professionals participating in cooperative projects. First, the analysis identified that the daily collaboration on the same cases enabled development of good relationships and cooperative competence, which improved the contact with clients. Second, the cooperative projects made it possible to include only clients perceived motivated for RTW measures. Third, the closer and more frequent interaction with clients proved to be constructive in that it facilitated recognition and mobilisation of strengths and abilities. Fourth, the differences in rules and regulations between the social insurance and the unemployment insurance standards were often perceived to induce problems, for example, on how to assess the work capacity of clients. The assessments of work capacity represent important and complex tasks that professionals must perform without having access to either scientific knowledge or consensus agreement on which to base their decisions.

  19. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  20. Inferring Reputation Promotes the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Social Dilemma Games

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others’ reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1−p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve

  1. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  2. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  3. Health promotion research: dilemmas and challenges.

    PubMed

    Koelen, M A; Vaandrager, L; Colomér, C

    2001-04-01

    To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development. The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature. The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma). Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.

  4. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-07

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social diversity and promotion of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in wealth and social status is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by generating random variables that determine the social diversity of players engaging in the prisoner's dilemma game. Here the term social diversity is used to address extrinsic factors that determine the mapping of game payoffs to individual fitness. These factors may increase or decrease the fitness of a player depending on its location on the spatial grid. We consider different distributions of extrinsic factors that determine the social diversity of players, and find that the power-law distribution enables the best promotion of cooperation. The facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the inhomogeneous social state of players, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are ruled by socially high-ranking players that are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large temptation to defect. To confirm this, we also study the impact of spatially correlated social diversity and find that cooperation deteriorates as the spatial correlation length increases. Our results suggest that the distribution of wealth and social status might have played a crucial role by the evolution of cooperation amongst egoistic individuals.

  6. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications.

  7. The Enforcement of Moral Boundaries Promotes Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior in Groups

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brent; Willer, Robb; Harrell, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another’s self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members. In a laboratory experiment, groups whose members could make moral judgments achieved greater cooperation than groups with no capacity to sanction, levels comparable to those of groups featuring costly material sanctions. In addition, members of moral judgment groups subsequently showed more interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and generosity than all other groups. These findings extend prior work on peer enforcement, highlighting how the enforcement of moral boundaries offers an efficient solution to cooperation problems and promotes prosocial behavior between group members. PMID:28211503

  8. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  9. Recent Cooperative Research Activities of HDD and Flexible Media Transport Technologies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Kyosuke

    This paper presents the recent status of industry-university cooperative research activities in Japan on the mechatronics of information storage and input/output equipment. There are three research committees for promoting information exchange on technical problems and research topics of head-disk interface in hard disk drives (HDD), flexible media transport and image printing processes which are supported by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering (JSME), the Japanese Society of Tribologists (JAST) and the Japan Society of Precision Engineering (JSPE). For hard disk drive technology, the Storage Research Consortium (SRC) is supporting more than 40 research groups in various different universities to perform basic research for future HDD technology. The past and present statuses of these activities are introduced, particularly focusing on HDD and flexible media transport mechanisms.

  10. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  11. What promotes and inhibits cooperation in mental health care across disciplines, services and service sectors? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bramesfeld, A; Ungewitter, C; Böttger, D; El, Jurdi J; Losert, C; Kilian, R

    2012-03-01

    To explore the practice of cooperation in mental health care across services and identify conditions that promote and inhibit cooperation. Focus groups with relevant service providers were conducted in four exemplary regions in Germany (rural/ urban and East/West). The discussions were content analysed. Seven central categories were deduced: (1) involved service providers, (2) comprehension, (3) reasons, (4) instruments for cooperation, (5) promoting and inhibiting conditions, (6) interdisciplinarity, and (7) regional and personal networks. Cooperation is practiced in networks, rather than defined relations. Who is involved in cooperation depends on patients/clients needs and may vary from case to case. Service providers do not have theoretical concepts of cooperation. Cooperation relies not only on personal contacts and knowledge between services but also on time, financial reimbursement and the social capital of the environment. In particular, cooperation with physicians was considered to be difficult by non-medical professionals. Physician's role models do not seem to include cooperation with other disciplines as a core task. To improve cooperation, regional and sustainable mental health networks have to be systematically implemented by providing leadership, time and reimbursement for network meetings. Interdisciplinary cooperation practice should be part of the curricula of medical students and residents in psychiatry.

  12. Promotion of Cooperation amongst Research and Development Organizations in the Field of Vocational Training. Working Meeting Papers (Berlin, West Germany, September 11-12, 1986). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    Eleven working papers are provided from a meeting to enable national training research and development organizations to present their current and future research and development priorities and exchange information and experience on projects of mutual concern. They cover a wide range of subjects in 11 of the 12 European Community Member States, but…

  13. 65 FR 10599 - Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-28

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information... Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... comments regarding proposed amendments to the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information...

  14. Co-operative working in aged care: The Cooperative for Healthy Ageing Research and Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Maggie; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the partnership mechanisms that supported teaching and research in aged care, in one of the 16 funded projects under the auspices of the Teaching and Research in Aged Care Service project. Located in ACT and southern NSW, the Co-operative for Healthy Ageing Research and Teaching (CHART) was comprised of eleven partners from the residential care sector, higher education, and hospital and non-government sectors. A descriptive study of the project engagement and partnership processes and outcomes using documentation review and stakeholder interviews. The overarching goal of the CHART project was to facilitate the development of aged care service models that combine teaching, learning and research. This study describes (i) the processes and investment required to enable care providers to partner in teaching and research activities; and (ii) the structure and practices required to build workforce capacity and create career pathways in the sector. Maintaining consistency of engagement and collaboration required significant, and often invisible, investment in partnership arrangements. Overall, the partnerships were often person, rather than organisation, dependent. New student placements were introduced, but support for continued nursing placements remained variable. Local practice innovation was advanced when partnership investment was aligned at strategic and operational levels. Continuous, and often invisible, investment in maintaining operational partnerships is critical to sustained change. Partnering in a private aged care service environment to achieve sector-wide changes was challenging, but the investment can result in innovation and service improvement. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  15. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and potato...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and potato...

  17. Promoting the participation of minorities in research.

    PubMed

    Garber, Mandy; Arnold, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    The current policy of the National Institute of Health designed to increase the participation of women and minorities is radically different from previous policies designed to protect minorities from abuses in research studies. The principal arguments to support this policy are twofold: 1) Increased representation of minorities and women in research would increase the generalizability of research data and allow for valid analyses of differences in subpopulations; and 2) being in a clinical research study is advantageous to participants regardless of the final research study results. It remains unclear whether minorities find these arguments compelling. Instead of telling minorities that participation in research is good for them, the research community should focus on understanding what minority communities want from clinical research and then tailoring the message to meet this need. Persuasive arguments to promote long-term increased representation of minorities in clinical research must come from within minority communities.

  18. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  19. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  20. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  1. Synergistic cooperation promotes multicellular performance and unicellular free-rider persistence

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, William W; Travisano, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of multicellular life requires cooperation among cells, which can be undermined by intra-group selection for selfishness. Theory predicts that selection to avoid non-cooperators limits social interactions among non-relatives, yet previous evolution experiments suggest that intra-group conflict is an outcome, rather than a driver, of incipient multicellular life cycles. Here we report the evolution of multicellularity via two distinct mechanisms of group formation in the unicellular budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Cells remain permanently attached following mitosis, giving rise to clonal clusters (staying together); clusters then reversibly assemble into social groups (coming together). Coming together amplifies the benefits of multicellularity and allows social clusters to collectively outperform solitary clusters. However, cooperation among non-relatives also permits fast-growing unicellular lineages to ‘free-ride' during selection for increased size. Cooperation and competition for the benefits of multicellularity promote the stable coexistence of unicellular and multicellular genotypes, underscoring the importance of social and ecological context during the transition to multicellularity. PMID:28580966

  2. Synergistic cooperation promotes multicellular performance and unicellular free-rider persistence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William W; Travisano, Michael

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of multicellular life requires cooperation among cells, which can be undermined by intra-group selection for selfishness. Theory predicts that selection to avoid non-cooperators limits social interactions among non-relatives, yet previous evolution experiments suggest that intra-group conflict is an outcome, rather than a driver, of incipient multicellular life cycles. Here we report the evolution of multicellularity via two distinct mechanisms of group formation in the unicellular budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Cells remain permanently attached following mitosis, giving rise to clonal clusters (staying together); clusters then reversibly assemble into social groups (coming together). Coming together amplifies the benefits of multicellularity and allows social clusters to collectively outperform solitary clusters. However, cooperation among non-relatives also permits fast-growing unicellular lineages to 'free-ride' during selection for increased size. Cooperation and competition for the benefits of multicellularity promote the stable coexistence of unicellular and multicellular genotypes, underscoring the importance of social and ecological context during the transition to multicellularity.

  3. Aspiring to the fittest and promotion of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2010-08-01

    Strategy changes are an essential part of evolutionary games. Here, we introduce a simple rule that, depending on the value of a single parameter w , influences the selection of players that are considered as potential sources of the new strategy. For positive w players with high payoffs will be considered more likely, while for negative w the opposite holds. Setting w equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that increasing the probability of adopting the strategy from the fittest player within reach, i.e., setting w positive, promotes the evolution of cooperation. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process and for different interaction networks. Since the evolution to widespread defection is tightly associated with cooperators having a lower fitness than defectors, the fact that positive values of w facilitate cooperation is quite surprising. We show that the results can be explained by means of a negative feedback effect that increases the vulnerability of defectors although initially increasing their survivability. Moreover, we demonstrate that the introduction of w effectively alters the interaction network and thus also the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    PubMed

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  5. A new model in teaching undergraduate research: A collaborative approach and learning cooperatives.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Pamela V; McClellan, Lynx Carlton; Jarosinski, Judith M

    2016-05-01

    Forming new, innovative collaborative approaches and cooperative learning methods between universities and hospitals maximize learning for undergraduate nursing students in a research course and provide professional development for nurses on the unit. The purpose of this Collaborative Approach and Learning Cooperatives (CALC) Model is to foster working relations between faculty and hospital administrators, maximize small group learning of undergraduate nursing students, and promote onsite knowledge of evidence based care for unit nurses. A quality improvement study using the CALC Model was implemented in an undergraduate nursing research course at a southern university. Hospital administrators provided a list of clinical concerns based on national performance outcome measures. Undergraduate junior nursing student teams chose a clinical question, gathered evidence from the literature, synthesized results, demonstrated practice application, and developed practice recommendations. The student teams developed posters, which were evaluated by hospital administrators. The administrators selected several posters to display on hospital units for continuing education opportunity. This CALC Model is a systematic, calculated approach and an economically feasible plan to maximize personnel and financial resources to optimize collaboration and cooperative learning. Universities and hospital administrators, nurses, and students benefit from working together and learning from each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting research participation: why not advertise altruism?

    PubMed

    Williams, Brian; Entwistle, Vikki; Haddow, Gill; Wells, Mary

    2008-04-01

    Participation rates have a major impact on the quality, cost and timeliness of health research. There is growing evidence that participation rates may be falling and that new research governance structures and procedures may be increasing the likelihood of recruitment bias. It may be possible to encourage public reflection about research participation and enhance recruitment by providing information about the potential benefits of research to others as well as to research participants and by stimulating debate and influencing social expectations about involvement. Publicly funded and charitable bodies use various forms of advertising to encourage altruistic behaviour and generate social expectations about donating money, blood and organs for the benefit of others. Consideration should be given to the use of similar persuasive communications to promote wider participation in health research generally.

  7. Precompetitive cooperative research: the culture of the '90s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holton, William C.

    1991-03-01

    In the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry. and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompeutive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that emables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils. has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MW workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly S400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well-being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi-tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emeging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new producLs, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U. S. government cooperation, must respond.

  8. Cooperative Learning in the Thinking Classroom: Research and Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine; And Others

    As a classroom organization and instructional method, cooperative learning merits serious consideration for use in thinking classrooms. Cooperative learning is more than just groupwork. In traditional group learning, students work in groups with no attention paid to group functioning, whereas in cooperative learning, group work is carefully…

  9. Myb and Ets proteins cooperate in transcriptional activation of the mim-1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, H; Tantravahi, R V; Rao, V N; Reddy, E S; Reddy, E P

    1992-01-01

    In the generation of the acutely transforming avian retrovirus E26, both myb and ets genes have been transduced, leading to the production of a Gag-Myb-Ets fusion protein. This co-occurrence of v-myb and v-ets oncogenes suggests that the two might have a functional relationship. To look for such a relationship, we tested the transcriptional activation activity of Myb alone or with coexpressed Ets-1 or Ets-2. Using the promoter of the v-Myb-inducible mim-1 gene as a target, we found that full-length c-Myb gene products were poor activators of transcription, while an oncogenic (truncated) form of this protein was a strong trans-activator. However, coexpression of Ets-2 with full-length or truncated forms of Myb greatly increased trans-activation. Coexpression of Ets-1, Fos, Jun, or Myc with Myb did not increase trans-activation of the mim-1 promoter. The ability of Myb and Ets-2 to transactivate was cooperative, since Ets-2 alone gave little or no activation. Bacterially synthesized Ets-2 protein was found to bind specifically to the mim-1 promoter, suggesting that it may be a target for both Myb and Ets proteins. Thus, Myb and Ets proteins can cooperate in transcriptional activation, and their co-occurrence in the E26 virus may reflect a functional relationship between these two oncoproteins. Truncated forms of Myb may have a reduced need for cooperating factors such as Ets-2, and this might constitute an important mechanism associated with oncogenic activation. Images PMID:1741383

  10. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  11. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development...

  12. Cooperation between structural elements in hormono-regulated transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Gouilleux, F; Sola, B; Couette, B; Richard-Foy, H

    1991-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is under the control of several types of regulatory agents. The proximal promoter within the long terminal repeat (LTR), from -200 to the CAP site and its regulation by steroid hormones have been extensively studied. However the precise role of sequences located upstream of this region remain unclear. We have constructed MMTV LTR deletion mutants coupled to the luciferase reporter gene and assayed their activities after transient transfection into transformed mammary epithelial cells (34i) and immortalized fibroblasts (NIH-3T3). In the absence of hormone, the MMTV promoter is almost silent, and deletions in the LTR have no significant effect on basal activity. In the presence of hormone, deletions spanning from the 5'-end to -455 have only slight effects on luciferase levels. In contrast, deletion of the region spanning from -450 to -201 leads to a dramatic decrease in transcription. A substantial decrease, more marked in 34i cells, is also clear when 90bp between -290 and -201 are deleted. At least one element cooperating positively with the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) is present between -223 and -201, as supported by the results of substitution mutation experiments. In 34i cell line, dexamethasone stimulates the MMTV LTR transcriptional activity to a level comparable to that of SV40. In contrast, in NIH-3T3 cells, MMTV promoter inducibility is weak. This results from a glucocorticoid receptor content 10-fold lower in NIH-3T3 cells than in 34i cells. Transfection of a glucocorticoid receptor expression plasmid allows recovery of a high inducibility of the MMTV promoter. This was true with all the MMTV LTR mutants studied here and suggests that NIH-3T3 cells possess all the factors necessary to cooperate with the steroid hormone in order to achieve a high transcriptional activity. PMID:1851294

  13. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development...

  14. 78 FR 50424 - NIH Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Program: Invitation To Solicit Nonclinical and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Program: Invitation To Solicit Nonclinical and Clinical Research Proposals From NIH Intramural Research Program... organizations); public and private foundations and nonprofit organizations to solicit research proposals from...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  18. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  20. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  1. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  2. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  3. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges.

  4. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.

  5. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or promotional...

  6. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  7. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility...

  8. 77 FR 3007 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National Shipbuilding Research Program Notice is hereby given that, on December 20, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  10. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  14. Why do people cooperate with medical research? Findings from three studies.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we distinguish decisions about cooperation with medical research from decisions about research participation. We offer an empirical and theoretical exploration of why people in three different UK-based medical research projects chose to cooperate. Data analysis of the accounts of 128 participants across the three studies was based on the constant comparative method. Participants' cooperation was engaged by a perception that they would be contributing to the 'public good', but they also wanted to justify their decision as sensible and safe. Critical to their cooperation was their belief that researchers would fulfil their side of the cooperative bargain, by not exposing participants to risks of harm or exploitation. Although participants were generally unaware of the details of the regulatory regime for research, they demonstrated a generalised reliance on regulation as a feature of everyday life that would provide a safe context for cooperation. In their assessment of particular projects, participants made judgements about whether to cooperate based on more specific cues, which acted as signs to assure them that researchers shared their cooperative intentions. These cues included organisational and professional credentials, the role identities and perceived trustworthiness of those involved in recruiting to research, and visible signs of reasonable practice mandated by regulatory systems. Thus participants drew on their understandings of an institutional field that was much broader than that of research alone. We propose that the social organisation of research is fundamental to the judgements people make about cooperation with research. Cooperation may be a more useful way of thinking about how people come to engage in collaboratively oriented actions such as research participation, rather than currently dominant individualistic models. Attention to the institutional context of research is critical to understanding what makes cooperation possible

  15. Overview of USEPA/NERL Cooperative Agreement Research Program on Air Pollution Exposure and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently initiated a two-year Cooperative Agreement Research Program between EPA and three academic institutions: Emory University, Rutgers University and University of Washington. Under this EPA/NERL sponsored research, nov...

  16. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is... Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum...

  17. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  18. Cooperation promotes the evolution of separate sexes from hermaphrodites with unitary growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Yang, Jiang-Nan

    2014-01-21

    Most animals have specialized into separate sexes but most plants remain hermaphroditic. The underlining cause for this is still unclear. Here we address this question by evolutionary stable strategy analysis and exact calculation of frequency-dependent selection and genetic drift in geographically structured populations. Reproductive investments of hermaphrodites are divided into male and female functions, and each sex requires linear investments that increase linearly with successful gamete number and reusable investments (RIs) that increase less than linearly. Individuals specializing into one sex require RIs of only this sex and thus can produce more gametes. However, these gametes suffer strong kin competition as they are of the same sex and gamete number of the other sex decreases. The success of individuals specializing into one sex requires individuals specializing into the other sex to cooperate with them, providing them with more opposite-sex gametes and relaxing them of the same-sex competition. The evolution of this cooperation does not require two rare mutations to happen simultaneously at the same place, because single-sex mutants can sparsely spread in a hermaphroditic population with RIs despite genetic drift and wait for mutants of the other sex to arise. RI resembles fixed cost in previous theories. However, previous theories considered all costs except for costs for gametes as fixed costs and this does not capture an important plant-animal difference; modular growth of sexual organs in most plants and some animals promotes reproductive investments to increase linearly with offspring number, so their investments in sexual organs are linear investments rather than fixed costs. This study shows the evolution of separate sexes from hermaphrodites as an example of the evolution of cooperation and mutualism as in harmony games, and highlights modular growth as an important factor that prevents most plants and some animals from evolving into separate

  19. 78 FR 24780 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Concrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Concrete... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Concrete... principal place of business of the standards development organization is Concrete Reinforcing...

  20. 79 FR 24450 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-04-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... Robotics Foundation, Inc., Mountain View, CA; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Stratford, CT; and...

  1. 74 FR 62599 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-11-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... are: 5D Robotics, Inc., Boise, ID; Adaptive Materials, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI; Advanced...

  2. 78 FR 73884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National... November 14, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993...Lean, VA; Central Screw Products dba Detroit Gun Works, Troy, MI; Cherokee-Technical Specialists, LLC...

  3. 77 FR 64128 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Wireless Industrial Technology Konsortium Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on September 25, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq....

  4. Ethics and Accountability: Participatory Research in a Worker Co-Operative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Mary

    1988-01-01

    The author describes a participatory research project that took place in a garment workers' co-operative. The project's purpose was to record the history and working relationships of the co-operative in an attempt to help similar ventures. Problems of participatory research are considered. (CH)

  5. Guenther receives 2011 Yoram J. Kaufman Unselfish Cooperation in Research Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Alex B.

    2012-03-01

    Alex B. Guenther received the Yoram J. Kaufman Unselfish Cooperation in Research Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes "broad influence in atmospheric science through exceptional creativity, inspiration of younger scientists, mentoring, international collaborations, and unselfish cooperation in research.

  6. Guenther receives 2011 Yoram J. Kaufman Unselfish Cooperation in Research Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Alex B. Guenther received the Yoram J. Kaufman Unselfish Cooperation in Research Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “broad influence in atmospheric science through exceptional creativity, inspiration of younger scientists, mentoring, international collaborations, and unselfish cooperation in research.”

  7. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  8. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  9. 78 FR 1884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  10. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  11. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International Standards (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  12. 78 FR 35646 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Federal Trade...

  13. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International Standards (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and...

  14. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ASTM International (``ASTM'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Federal Trade...

  15. 77 FR 34067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics..., Inc., Burke, VA; Lithos Robotics Corporation, Amherst, NY; Mechatron Inc., Somerville, MA; Mercedes...

  16. 78 FR 13896 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics...; Humanistic Robotics, Inc., Philadelphia, PA; Polaris Sales, Inc., Medina, MN; TDC Acquisition Holdings, Inc...

  17. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... Robotics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; Energetics Technology Center, Inc., La Plata, MD; Expertise Applications Inc...

  18. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote...

  19. Cooperation during cultural group formation promotes trust towards members of out-groups

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    People often cooperate with members of their own group, and discriminate against members of other groups. Previous research establishes that cultural groups can form endogenously, and that these groups demonstrate in-group favouritism. Given the presence of cultural groups, the previous literature argues that cultural evolution selects for groups that exhibit parochial altruism. The source of initial variation in these traits, however, remains uninformed. We show here that a group's economic production environment may substantially influence parochial tendencies, with groups formed around more cooperative production (CP) displaying less parochialism than groups formed around more independent production (IP) processes. Participants randomized into CP and IP production tasks formed cultural groups, and subsequently played hidden-action trust games with in-group and out-group trustees. We found CP to be associated with significantly greater sharing and exchanging behaviours than IP. In trust games, significant parochial altruism (in-group favouritism combined with out-group discrimination) was displayed by members of IP groups. By contrast, members of CP groups did not engage in either in-group favouritism or out-group discrimination. Further, we found the absence of out-group discrimination in CP to persist even following ‘betrayal’. Finally, belief data suggest that members of CP are not more intrinsically generous than IP members, but rather more likely to believe that out-group trustees will positively reciprocate. Our results have important implications for anyone interested in building cooperative teams, and shed new light on connections between culture and cooperation. PMID:23658200

  20. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals’ distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment. PMID:25988875

  1. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-05-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals’ distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment.

  2. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-05-19

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals' distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment.

  3. NASA LeRC/Akron University Graduate Cooperative Fellowship Program and Graduate Student Researchers Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertis, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    On June 1, 1980, the University of Akron and the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) established a Graduate Cooperative Fellowship Program in the specialized areas of Engine Structural Analysis and Dynamics, Computational Mechanics, Mechanics of Composite Materials, and Structural Optimization, in order to promote and develop requisite technologies in these areas of engine technology. The objectives of this program are consistent with those of the NASA Engine Structure Program in which graduate students of the University of Akron participate by conducting research at Lewis. This report is the second on this grant and summarizes the second and third year research effort, which includes the participation of five graduate students where each student selects one of the above areas as his special field of interest. Each student is required to spend 30 percent of his educational training time at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the balance at the University of Akron. His course work is judiciously selected and tailored to prepare him for research work in his field of interest. A research topic is selected for each student while in residence at the NASA Lewis Research Center, which is also approved by the faculty of the University of Akron as his thesis topic for a Master's and/or a Ph.D. degree.

  4. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  5. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  6. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum...

  7. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for...

  8. 75 FR 55255 - Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1250 Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY... rate in the Egg Research and Promotion Order (Order) will be implemented if it is approved by two... promotion, research, and consumer information program. DATES: Effective Date: September 13, 2010....

  9. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: Deborah Simmons, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs,...

  10. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the...

  11. 76 FR 69094 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... establishes an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh cut Christmas trees. The Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) is authorized under the...

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Program of International Technical Cooperation for Research Reactor Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, D.; Manning, M.; Ellis, R.; Apt, K.; Flaim, S.; Sylvester, K.

    2004-10-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has initiated collaborations with the national nuclear authorities of Egypt, Peru, and Romania for the purpose of advancing the commercial potential and utilization of their respective research reactors. Under its Office of International Safeguards ''Sister Laboratory'' program, DOE/NNSA has undertaken numerous technical collaborations over the past decade intended to promote peaceful applications of nuclear technology. Among these has been technical assistance in research reactor applications, such as neutron activation analysis, nuclear analysis, reactor physics, and medical radioisotope production. The current collaborations are intended to provide the subject countries with a methodology for greater commercialization of research reactor products and services. Our primary goal is the transfer of knowledge, both in administrative and technical issues, needed for the establishment of an effective business plan and utilization strategy for the continued operation of the countries' research reactors. Technical consultation, cooperation, and the information transfer provided are related to: identification, evaluation, and assessment of current research reactor capabilities for products and services; identification of opportunities for technical upgrades for new or expanded products and services; advice and consultation on research reactor upgrades and technical modifications; characterization of markets for reactor products and services; identification of competition and estimation of potential for market penetration; integration of technical constraints; estimation of cash flow streams; and case studies.

  13. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  14. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review postcard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.

  15. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  16. Consistent Strategy Updating in Spatial and Non-Spatial Behavioral Experiments Does Not Promote Cooperation in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grujić, Jelena; Röhl, Torsten; Semmann, Dirk; Milinski, Manfred; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The presence of costly cooperation between otherwise selfish actors is not trivial. A prominent mechanism that promotes cooperation is spatial population structure. However, recent experiments with human subjects report substantially lower level of cooperation then predicted by theoretical models. We analyze the data of such an experiment in which a total of 400 players play a Prisoner's Dilemma on a square lattice in two treatments, either interacting via a fixed square lattice (15 independent groups) or with a population structure changing after each interaction (10 independent groups). We analyze the statistics of individual decisions and infer in which way they can be matched with the typical models of evolutionary game theorists. We find no difference in the strategy updating between the two treatments. However, the strategy updates are distinct from the most popular models which lead to the promotion of cooperation as shown by computer simulations of the strategy updating. This suggests that the promotion of cooperation by population structure is not as straightforward in humans as often envisioned in theoretical models. PMID:23185242

  17. Promotion of cooperation induced by heterogeneity of both investment and payoff allocation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ruguo; Zhang, Yingqing; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Hongjuan

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity has attracted mounting attention across multiple disciplines and is confirmed to be a greater promoter of cooperation. It is often the case that the heterogeneity always exists in investment and payoff allocation concurrently instead of separately. In addition, the factors that affect heterogeneous investment and payoff allocation are various. Inspired by this, this paper extends the previous models by incorporating heterogeneous investment and payoff allocation into the typical PGG model to further investigate the incentive mechanisms of cooperative behavior. In order to better understand the model, three different feedback mechanisms, namely the wealth-preference mechanism, the social-self-preference mechanism, and the mixed-preference mechanism, are addressed. The former two mechanisms correspond to the case of single factor and the latter corresponds to the case of double factors. The numerical simulations indicate that feedback mechanism by bridging the connections between the investment and the payoff allocation can reduce the free-rider problem. Furthermore, it is found that the cooperative frequency and average payoff perform better in the case of the mixed-preference mechanism where players will not only take previous payoff feedback as well as current investment but also their social status into their game decision-making process. In addition, full cooperation and profitability over all players can be promoted by means of increasing r or reducing α. At last, compared with another two classic networks, the extent of cooperation is promoted under the structures of the BA scale free networks.

  18. Consistent strategy updating in spatial and non-spatial behavioral experiments does not promote cooperation in social networks.

    PubMed

    Grujić, Jelena; Röhl, Torsten; Semmann, Dirk; Milinski, Manfred; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The presence of costly cooperation between otherwise selfish actors is not trivial. A prominent mechanism that promotes cooperation is spatial population structure. However, recent experiments with human subjects report substantially lower level of cooperation then predicted by theoretical models. We analyze the data of such an experiment in which a total of 400 players play a Prisoner's Dilemma on a 4×4 square lattice in two treatments, either interacting via a fixed square lattice (15 independent groups) or with a population structure changing after each interaction (10 independent groups). We analyze the statistics of individual decisions and infer in which way they can be matched with the typical models of evolutionary game theorists. We find no difference in the strategy updating between the two treatments. However, the strategy updates are distinct from the most popular models which lead to the promotion of cooperation as shown by computer simulations of the strategy updating. This suggests that the promotion of cooperation by population structure is not as straightforward in humans as often envisioned in theoretical models.

  19. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  20. 76 FR 26930 - Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1150 Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Rule..., and the Dairy Promotion and Research Order (Dairy Order), as amended, which require the Secretary...

  1. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  2. COSPAR, a platform for international cooperation in space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, Jean-Louis

    The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was founded by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958, with the aim of favouring the dialogue between the USSR and USA in the time of the Cold War. Fifty-six years later, COSPAR is continuing its mission of service to the worldwide space research community. Thousands of scientists attend COSPAR assemblies, read and publish their results in its journals, participate in its workshops, colloquia and symposia, but many are unaware of the wealth of activities that COSPAR undertakes or supports. Many of them ignore the processes through which this organisation develops its activities, how it is structured, how to get involved in its governance, how to promote new initiatives with its help, etc. Young space scientists do not know the history of, and prominent roles played by COSPAR, past and present, and more importantly need to understand better the benefits that can be accrued from their involvement within COSPAR. This presentation will review these aspects and offer all interested scientists a detailed overview of COSPAR activities and plans for the future.

  3. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Case Studies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elmima C.; And Others

    This report presents nine case studies of Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported during 1978-1980 by the National Science Foundation. The intent of this document is to provide readers with a qualitative picture of cooperative science as practiced under the IUCR program. The information presented in this report is…

  4. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  5. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  6. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  7. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, INC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ODVA, INC. Notice is hereby given that, on July 18, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 301...

  8. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  9. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33... promotion. (a) The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid...

  10. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33... promotion. (a) The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising...

  11. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  12. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  13. Asynchronous updates can promote the evolution of cooperation on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, James M.; Hoyle, Rebecca B.

    2017-04-01

    We study the importance to the frequency of cooperation of the choice of updating strategies in a game played asynchronously or synchronously across layers in a multiplex network. Updating asynchronously in the public goods game leads to higher frequencies of cooperation compared to synchronous updates. How large this effect is depends on the sensitivity of the game dynamics to changes in the number of cooperators surrounding a player, with the largest effect observed when players payoffs are small. The discovery of this effect enhances understanding of cooperation on multiplex networks, and demonstrates a new way to maintain cooperation in these systems.

  14. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  15. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of dates. The expenses... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  16. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of dates. The expenses... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  17. The cooperative research unit program and wildlife education: Historic development, future challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Leslie, David M.; Nordstrom, L.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1932, J. N. 'Ding' Darling proposed a 3-year tripartite arrangement between the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, Iowa State University, and himself to establish the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. Three years later, the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program was broadened to include 9 land-grant colleges representing recognized ecoregions in the United States. In 1960, the Units were given statutory recognition by Public Law 86-686 that also included provision for establishing Cooperative Fishery Units. The Cooperative Research Unit idea has evolved to 39 Units in 2000. Today, the main cooperators of the Unit program are the land-grant university, the state fish and game or conservation agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Wildlife Management Institute. The Cooperative Units mission, as stated in Public Law 86-686, remains: 'To facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government, colleges and universities, and private organizations for cooperative unit programs of research and education relating to fish and wildlife and for other purposes.' Graduate research and education continue to be the program's primary missions. In any given year >600 graduate and post-graduate students are involved. Post-graduate employment of Unit-afffiliated students is >90%. Perhaps the primary benefit to the education process is the Units' formal connection to the state cooperator and to their federal agency that might not otherwise be available to university faculty and students. Units are conduits to state and federal funding for research projects conducted by university faculty and students. The CRU program is well positioned to educate a multitalented, ethnically diverse cadre of graduate students who will be prepared not only for their first professional job but also for their career by having been instilled with a desire for life-long professional accomplishment.

  18. Critical Role for GAB2 in Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis through the Promotion of SHP2/MYCN Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Cheng; Ung, Choong Yong; He, Shuning; Tao, Ting; Oliveira, Andre M; Meves, Alexander; Ji, Baoan; Look, A Thomas; Li, Hu; Neel, Benjamin G; Zhu, Shizhen

    2017-03-21

    Growing evidence suggests a major role for Src-homology-2-domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2/PTPN11) in MYCN-driven high-risk neuroblastoma, although biologic confirmation and a plausible mechanism for this contribution are lacking. Using a zebrafish model of MYCN-overexpressing neuroblastoma, we demonstrate that mutant ptpn11 expression in the adrenal gland analog of MYCN transgenic fish promotes the proliferation of hyperplastic neuroblasts, accelerates neuroblastomagenesis, and increases tumor penetrance. We identify a similar mechanism in tumors with wild-type ptpn11 and dysregulated Gab2, which encodes a Shp2 activator that is overexpressed in human neuroblastomas. In MYCN transgenic fish, Gab2 overexpression activated the Shp2-Ras-Erk pathway, enhanced neuroblastoma induction, and increased tumor penetrance. We conclude that MYCN cooperates with either GAB2-activated or mutant SHP2 in human neuroblastomagenesis. Our findings further suggest that combined inhibition of MYCN and the SHP2-RAS-ERK pathway could provide effective targeted therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients with MYCN amplification and aberrant SHP2 activation.

  19. Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 overexpression to promote lymphoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Tadros, Saber; González-Herrero, Inés; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Moore, Dalia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; Rivas, Javier De Las; Hartert, Keenan; Duval, Romain; Klinkebiel, David; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Lunning, Matthew; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Brindle, Paul; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Alizadeh, Ash; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2017-01-01

    CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein. PMID:28288979

  20. Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 overexpression to promote lymphoma in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Tadros, Saber; González-Herrero, Inés; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Moore, Dalia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; Rivas, Javier De Las; Hartert, Keenan; Duval, Romain; Klinkebiel, David; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Lunning, Matthew; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Brindle, Paul; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Alizadeh, Ash; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Green, Michael R

    2017-05-11

    CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Cdc42 and noncanonical Wnt signal transduction pathways cooperate to promote cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Karni; McManus, Edward J; Hall, Alan

    2007-07-30

    Scratch-induced disruption of cultured monolayers induces polarity in front row cells that can be visualized by spatially localized polymerization of actin at the front of the cell and reorientation of the centrosome/Golgi to face the leading edge. We previously reported that centrosomal reorientation and microtubule polarization depend on a Cdc42-regulated signal transduction pathway involving activation of the Par6/aPKC complex followed by inhibition of GSK-3beta and accumulation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein at the plus ends of leading-edge microtubules. Using monolayers of primary rodent embryo fibroblasts, we show here that dishevelled (Dvl) and axin, two major components of the Wnt signaling pathway are required for centrosome reorientation and that Wnt5a is required for activation of this pathway. We conclude that disruption of cell-cell contacts leads to the activation of a noncanonical Wnt/dishevelled signal transduction pathway that cooperates with Cdc42/Par6/aPKC to promote polarized reorganization of the microtubule cytoskeleton.

  2. Group in-course assessment promotes cooperative learning and increases performance.

    PubMed

    Pratten, Margaret K; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the impact of the ICA was performed by comparing end of module practical summative marks in student cohorts who had, or had not, participated in the ICAs. Summative marks were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test, or by repeated measures ANOVA, as appropriate. A cohort of medical students was selected that had experienced both practical classes without (year one) and with the new ICA structure (year two). Comparison of summative year one and year two marks illustrated an increased improvement in year two performance in this cohort. A significant increase was also noted when comparing this cohort with five preceding year two cohorts who had not experienced the ICAs (P <0.0001). To ensure that variation in the practical summative examination was not impacting on the data, a comparison was made between three cohorts who had performed the same summative examination. Results show that students who had undertook weekly ICAs showed significantly improved summative marks, compared with those who did not (P <0.0001). This approach to ICA promotes engagement with learning resources in an active, team-based, cooperative learning environment.

  3. 77 FR 25488 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Federal wireless system partner. This integrated communications system should provide for interoperability... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for public comments. SUMMARY:...

  4. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? A Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center— (a) Shall...

  5. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? A Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center— (a) Shall...

  6. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? A Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center— (a) Shall...

  7. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... No: 2012-12522] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee will be held... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development...

  8. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2010-11-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  9. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2009-09-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  10. Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man Machine Interface Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    Systems for Advancing Man- Machine Interface Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man- Machine ...of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Cooperative Man- Machine Systems Research and Education Daniel Pack, Yufei Huang, Chunjiang Qian

  11. Reduced-Order Modeling: Cooperative Research and Development at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Beran, Philip S.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Guendel, Randal E.; Kurdila, Andrew; Prazenica, Richard J.; Librescu, Liviu; Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Raveh, Daniella E.

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative research and development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involving reduced-order modeling (ROM) techniques are presented. Emphasis is given to reduced-order methods and analyses based on Volterra series representations, although some recent results using Proper Orthogonal Deco in position (POD) are discussed as well. Results are reported for a variety of computational and experimental nonlinear systems to provide clear examples of the use of reduced-order models, particularly within the field of computational aeroelasticity. The need for and the relative performance (speed, accuracy, and robustness) of reduced-order modeling strategies is documented. The development of unsteady aerodynamic state-space models directly from computational fluid dynamics analyses is presented in addition to analytical and experimental identifications of Volterra kernels. Finally, future directions for this research activity are summarized.

  12. Promoting the scholarship of research for faculty and students.

    PubMed

    Adderly-Kelly, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Research has become a highly valued activity for nurses. Students at the undergraduate and graduate levels are experiencing more and more research in their programs. As part of the faculty role in higher education, promotion and tenure are tied to the scholarship of research. Yet many schools of nursing do not have a well-developed capacity of nursing faculty members who have the knowledge and skills to competently engage in a research program of their own or to guide and inspire students to pursue a research career. This paper is an attempt to challenge administrators to more aggressively promote research, and faculty and students to think more intensively about the scholarship of research. The challenges of developing a program of research for promoting faculty and students' research are discussed. Strategies for promoting faculty research and advice for beginning researchers are included.

  13. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  14. The promotion of cooperation by the poor in dynamic chicken games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important issues in game theory. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can evolve only under highly limited conditions, and various modifications have been introduced to games to explain the evolution of cooperation. Recently, a utility function basic to game theory was shown to be dependent on current wealth as a conditional (state) variable in a dynamic version of utility theory. Here, we introduce this dynamic utility function to several games. Under certain conditions, poor players exhibit cooperative behavior in two types of chicken games (the hawk-dove game and the snowdrift game) but not in the prisoner’s dilemma game and the stag hunt game. This result indicates that cooperation can be exhibited by the poor in some chicken games. Thus, the evolution of cooperation may not be as limited as has been suggested in previous studies.

  15. Diversity of game strategies promotes the evolution of cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-06-01

    We propose a mechanism allowing strategy diversity instead of a common combination of cooperation and defection to study how cooperation evolves in public goods games. Each individual is assigned a variable valued in the unit interval as its cooperation degree. Thus, diverse cooperation degrees express the diversity of game strategies in the way of multiple contributions of players, and the investment in the common pool is positively correlated with cooperation degrees correspondingly. Moreover, we also define two particular roles named altruist and egotist defined locally since they depend on the behavior of their neighboring players. Numerical simulations show that the proposed diversity of strategies can substantially evoke the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. Notably, we also find that no player will act as a long-term exploiter (egotist) or exploitee (altruist) in the whole evolutionary process.

  16. The promotion of cooperation by the poor in dynamic chicken games

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important issues in game theory. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can evolve only under highly limited conditions, and various modifications have been introduced to games to explain the evolution of cooperation. Recently, a utility function basic to game theory was shown to be dependent on current wealth as a conditional (state) variable in a dynamic version of utility theory. Here, we introduce this dynamic utility function to several games. Under certain conditions, poor players exhibit cooperative behavior in two types of chicken games (the hawk-dove game and the snowdrift game) but not in the prisoner’s dilemma game and the stag hunt game. This result indicates that cooperation can be exhibited by the poor in some chicken games. Thus, the evolution of cooperation may not be as limited as has been suggested in previous studies. PMID:28233837

  17. The promotion of cooperation by the poor in dynamic chicken games.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2017-02-24

    The evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important issues in game theory. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can evolve only under highly limited conditions, and various modifications have been introduced to games to explain the evolution of cooperation. Recently, a utility function basic to game theory was shown to be dependent on current wealth as a conditional (state) variable in a dynamic version of utility theory. Here, we introduce this dynamic utility function to several games. Under certain conditions, poor players exhibit cooperative behavior in two types of chicken games (the hawk-dove game and the snowdrift game) but not in the prisoner's dilemma game and the stag hunt game. This result indicates that cooperation can be exhibited by the poor in some chicken games. Thus, the evolution of cooperation may not be as limited as has been suggested in previous studies.

  18. What We Know About: Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    Instructional methods that seek to promote learning through student cooperation, rather than competition, are discussed in this handbook. Sections include an outline of the characteristics of cooperative learning techniques; a summary of research on the effects of cooperative learning on academic achievement, ethnic relations, mainstreaming, and…

  19. Market Research. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Cletis G.; Fowler, Joseph S.

    An overview of market research is provided, with advice about conducting market research for the educator. Market research is any kind of research that gives information about the current state of the market and offers guidance in improving one's position in that market. The relative advantages of conducting market research by oneself or by hiring…

  20. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  1. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  2. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and the...

  3. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science...

  4. A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin; Rychtář, Jan; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-03-21

    Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual's death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized.

  5. [The Role of Certified Nurse in Palliative Care to Promote the Discharge Support and Regional Cooperation for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mina; Abe, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yukie; Ino, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yoshie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the issues and solutions considered by certified nurses(CN)in palliative care (hereinafter referred to as"palliative care CN)regarding discharge support and regional cooperation for cancer patients, and to discover the roles and responsibilities of palliative care CN. Data obtained from training sessions for 22 palliative care CNs was reconfigured and analyzed. As a result, problems related to discharge support and regional cooperation for cancer patients were classified into 13 categories and 3 core categories. The following roles for palliative care CN were proposed to promote discharge support and regional cooperation for cancer patients: (1) Inter-professional sharing of knowledge about patients and their families to reconcile the intentions of the patient and family members with predictions of progression of the illness; (2) Enable hospital nurses to obtain information about patients after discharge in order to establish a clear image for medical treatment; and(3) Support for ward nurses regarding cooperation to alleviate symptoms and offer medical care to patients who are highly dependent on medical care, and to become a point of contact for cooperation with visiting nurses.

  6. Management Guidance and Advisory Services: Promoting Cooperative Ventures. Governor's Commission on the Financing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Gail S., Comp.

    Issues concerning a state policy supporting cooperative ventures among colleges and universities in Pennsylvania are discussed. It is suggested that a state policy encouraging successful interinstitutional cooperation must: avoid threatening the institutions, recognize that they must be the actual bargaining entities, inspire their interest…

  7. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  8. Students with Disabilities Participating in Mainstream Schools: Policies that Promote and Limit Teacher and Therapist Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmingsson, Helena; Gustavsson, Anders; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines participatory arrangements for students with physical disabilities in mainstream education, cooperation between teachers and therapists to ensure that these arrangements are efficient and the organizational prerequisites for such cooperation. The study comprises data obtained from 14 "groups", with each group…

  9. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  10. Promoting Cooperative Learning in Science and Mathematics Education: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Effandi; Iksan, Zanaton

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current shortcomings in science and mathematics education in Malaysia. The use of cooperative learning as an alternative to traditional method is emphasized. Cooperative learning is grounded in the belief that learning is most effective when students are actively involved in sharing ideas and work…

  11. Cooperative Learning through Collaborative Faculty-Student Research Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2006-01-01

    A structured research team experience can add a great deal to a graduate student's academic and professional training, and it also can support a positive research culture within a department. In this study, we discuss how one department developed and implemented collaborative learning research teams to enhance students' research experiences. We…

  12. Research Use by Cooperative Extension Educators in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Chen, Emily K.; Pillemer, Karl; Meador, Rhoda H.

    2013-01-01

    A Web-based survey of 388 off-campus Cornell Extension educators in New York State examined their attitudes toward research, sources of research-based information, knowledge and beliefs about evidence-based programs, and involvement in research activities. Strong consensus emerged that research is central and that educators are capable of reading…

  13. Promoting Healthy Schools through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research funded as a "Best Practice" project by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) designed to use action research to progress the government agenda for healthy schools. The project involved teachers working with university researcher. The outcome is five small research reports consisting of two…

  14. Promoting Healthy Schools through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research funded as a "Best Practice" project by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) designed to use action research to progress the government agenda for healthy schools. The project involved teachers working with university researcher. The outcome is five small research reports consisting of two…

  15. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to... address provided above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Douglass, Marketing Specialist, Research...

  16. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  17. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY... Mango Board (Board) members from 20 to 18 to reflect the elimination of two non-voting wholesaler/retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order),...

  18. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or...

  19. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research, promotion, and market development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish...

  20. [Promotion of public health research: attempting to balance relevance and excellence].

    PubMed

    de los Ríos, R

    1999-01-01

    Those in charge of directing scientific research face a daunting task: finding a proper balance between excellence in research and that research's relevance to people's health problems. In developing countries, this task is further hampered by deficient scientific and technological infrastructure, the lack of competitiveness of its research community, and the shortage of research funds. This article explains some of the mechanisms that have been put in place in Latin America to achieve a balance between excellence and relevance, especially by promoting research that targets pertinent public health problems. Within this context, the multicenter studies being conducted under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization's Program for the Support of Research are described. The article also lays out the fundamental features of a new model for international cooperation to generate knowledge to help resolve the public health problems of the countries of the Americas.

  1. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community.

  2. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community. PMID:26480001

  3. Cooperative Learning: Experiencing the Constitution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Lawrence; Foyle, Harvey C.

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving students in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. Research studies have consistently found that cooperative learning promotes increased academic achievement and involves relative use of implementation and reasonable costs. Improved behavior, increased positive…

  4. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, R. C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace.

  5. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Power-law distributed temporal heterogeneity of human activities promotes cooperation on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Rong

    2016-09-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with players located on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks is studied. The impact of players' heterogeneous temporal activity pattern on the evolution of cooperation is investigated. To this end, the normal procedure that players update their strategies immediately after a round of game is discarded. Instead, players update strategies according to their assigned reproduction time, which follows a power-law distribution. We find that the temporal heterogeneity of players' activities facilitates the prosperity of cooperation, indicating the important role of hubs in the maintenance of cooperation on scale-free networks. When the reproduction time is assigned to individuals negatively related to their degrees, a fluctuation of the cooperation level with the increase of the exponent β is observed.

  7. Debating Whether Dinosaurs Should Be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA To Promote Cooperative Learning in an Introductory Evolution Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Constance M.; Huerta, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Describes an interactive internet exercise that enables students to engage in cooperative library and web research on a controversial topic in science, specifically the cloning of extinct lifeforms. Creates a dynamic learning environment in a large introductory geology course and demonstrates the importance of scientific literacy. (Author/SAH)

  8. Debating Whether Dinosaurs Should Be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA To Promote Cooperative Learning in an Introductory Evolution Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Constance M.; Huerta, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Describes an interactive internet exercise that enables students to engage in cooperative library and web research on a controversial topic in science, specifically the cloning of extinct lifeforms. Creates a dynamic learning environment in a large introductory geology course and demonstrates the importance of scientific literacy. (Author/SAH)

  9. Hunting for wealthy encounters promotes cooperation in spatial Prisoner's Dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihu; Wu, Te; Li, Zhi; Wang, Long

    2013-04-01

    We consider an evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game on the lattice where a parameter α is employed to determine with whom individuals aspire to interact in future iterations. Specifically, for positive α, rich environments are preferentially considered when individuals hunt for new surroundings, while for negative α, the opposite holds. When α = 0, individuals adopt `random move'-like migration. The results indicate that aspiring for wealthy ambience makes cooperation survive and even thrive under certain circumstances. Moreover, there exist the optimal population densities that most uphold cooperation. We also investigate the expansion of cooperators. And the discovery of utmost salience is that cooperators can spontaneously break out for the population consisting of full defectors in the presence of strategy mutation. Our results relax the requirements for cooperation to outbreak and suggest that spying into others' strategies is not always necessary for the cooperation to burst. Finally, we deepen our studies by exploring the situation that each individual has an independent α and find that the fate of evolution is mainly determined by the population composition in this scenario.

  10. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-12-07

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail to cooperate because they behave as if they were to play only once. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with monogamous zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were tested in a two-choice apparatus, with either their social partner or an experimental opponent of the opposite sex. We found that zebra finches maintained high levels of cooperation in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game only when interacting with their social partner. Although other mechanisms may have contributed to the observed difference between the two treatments, our results support the hypothesis that animals do not systematically give in to the short-term temptation of cheating when long-term benefits exist. Thus, our findings contradict the commonly accepted idea that reciprocal altruism will be rare in non-human animals.

  11. Subject's Conception of Human Nature in Indonesia: Experiences in Research Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerter, Rolf

    The main purpose of this paper on a study of Indonesian concepts of human nature is to demonstrate practical instances of cooperation between Western and Third World researchers. It is asserted that Western researchers must understand the general views of human nature held by individuals in Third World countries before they can apply theories in…

  12. Leadership in University-Based Cooperative Research Centres: A Qualitative Investigation of Performance Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, S. Bartholomew; Hess, Clara E.; McGinnis, Jennifer Lindberg; Gray, Denis O.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance often attached to the role played by leadership in university-based cooperative research centres, we know very little about what "leadership" means in this specific context. The research reported here used a qualitative approach to identify fifteen dimensions of leadership performance for directors of university-based…

  13. FINAL REPORT: EPA/AWWARF COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT PROGRAM FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in 1984 and continuing in 1985 and 1986, Congress agreed to support a joint research program and approved adding $1 million to the EPA annual budget for the purpose of establishing a cooperative agreement (CA) with the American Water Works Association Research Foundatio...

  14. Interaction between Research and Education: Can Industry Cooperation Improve the Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to provide a new perspective on current shifts in knowledge production through analysing the relationship between research and education. The study, based on interviews and questionnaires, focuses on the interaction within applied research centres with a close industry cooperation. The results suggest that the interaction…

  15. FINAL REPORT: EPA/AWWARF COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT PROGRAM FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in 1984 and continuing in 1985 and 1986, Congress agreed to support a joint research program and approved adding $1 million to the EPA annual budget for the purpose of establishing a cooperative agreement (CA) with the American Water Works Association Research Foundatio...

  16. Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century: Cooperative Agreement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through this $10 million cooperative agreement, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) will increase its recognition as an active leader and supporter of research that seeks innovative solutions to problems posed by aging water i...

  17. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation...

  18. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation...

  19. 76 FR 77250 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and ODVA intends to file... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ODVA... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), ODVA, Inc. (``ODVA...

  20. Cooperative research in space geodesy and crustal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This research grant, which covered the period of July 1991 to August 1994, was concerned with a variety of topics within the geodesy and crustal dynamics fields. The specific topics of this grant included satellite tracking and gravity field determinations and crustal dynamics (this concentrated of space geodetic site stability for VLBI sites). Summaries of the specific research projects are included along with a list of publications and presentations supported by this research grant.

  1. Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins and flotillins cooperate to promote uropod formation in T cells.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Sibylla; Chen, Emily J H; Clarke, Fiona; Lyck, Ruth; Affentranger, Sarah; Burkhardt, Janis K; Niggli, Verena

    2013-01-01

    T cell uropods are enriched in specific proteins including adhesion receptors such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), lipid raft-associated proteins such as flotillins and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins which associate with cholesterol-rich raft domains and anchor adhesion receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Using dominant mutants and siRNA technology we have tested the interactions among these proteins and their role in shaping the T cell uropod. Expression of wild type (WT) ezrin-EGFP failed to affect the morphology of human T cells or chemokine-induced uropod recruitment of PSGL-1 and flotillin-1 and -2. In contrast, expression of constitutively active T567D ezrin-EGFP induced a motile, polarized phenotype in some of the transfected T cells, even in the absence of chemokine. These cells featured F-actin-rich ruffles in the front and uropod enrichment of PSGL-1 and flotillins. T567D ezrin-EGFP was itself strongly enriched in the rear of the polarized T cells. Uropod formation induced by T567D ezrin-EGFP was actin-dependent as it was attenuated by inhibition of Rho-kinase or myosin II, and abolished by disruption of actin filaments. While expression of constitutively active ezrin enhanced cell polarity, expression of a dominant-negative deletion mutant of ezrin, 1-310 ezrin-EGFP, markedly reduced uropod formation induced by the chemokine SDF-1, T cell front-tail polarity, and capping of PSGL-1 and flotillins. Transfection of T cells with WT or T567D ezrin did not affect chemokine-mediated chemotaxis whereas 1-310 ezrin significantly impaired spontaneous 2D migration and chemotaxis. siRNA-mediated downregulation of flotillins in murine T cells attenuated moesin capping and uropod formation, indicating that ERM proteins and flotillins cooperate in uropod formation. In summary, our results indicate that activated ERM proteins function together with flotillins to promote efficient chemotaxis of T cells by structuring the uropod of migrating T cells.

  2. Research directions in oral health promotion for older adults.

    PubMed

    Gift, H C

    1992-09-01

    Health education and health promotion facilitate voluntary adoption of behaviors and provide educational, organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behaviors conductive to health. Health education and health promotion are complementary and any effort to eliminate oral disease requires both activities. Federal research initiatives in oral health promotion have encouraged more biomedical and behavioral research on oral health and aging through the establishment of research centers. Other initiatives have been established to speed the generation of basic and clinical research. Recent initiatives encourage research on aging and provide opportunities for oral health promotion during the coming decade. These include Healthy People 2000, the nation's health objectives for the decade; the NIH framework for the development of a strategic plan, and the NIDR Long-Range Research Plan, Broadening the Scope.

  3. The psychology of primate cooperation and competition: a call for realigning research agendas

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are two key components of social life. Current research agendas investigating the psychological underpinnings of competition and cooperation in non-human primates are misaligned. The majority of work on competition has been done in the context of theory of mind and deception, while work on cooperation has mostly focused on collaboration and helping. The current impression that theory of mind is not necessarily implicated in cooperative activities and that helping could not be an integral part of competition might therefore be rather misleading. Furthermore, theory of mind research has mainly focused on cognitive aspects like the type of stimuli controlling responses, the nature of representation and how those representations are acquired, while collaboration and helping have focused primarily on motivational aspects like prosociality, common goals and a sense of justice and other-regarding concerns. We present the current state of these two bodies of research paying special attention to how they have developed and diverged over the years. We propose potential directions to realign the research agendas to investigate the psychological underpinnings of cooperation and competition in primates and other animals. PMID:26644603

  4. The psychology of primate cooperation and competition: a call for realigning research agendas.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep

    2016-01-19

    Cooperation and competition are two key components of social life. Current research agendas investigating the psychological underpinnings of competition and cooperation in non-human primates are misaligned. The majority of work on competition has been done in the context of theory of mind and deception, while work on cooperation has mostly focused on collaboration and helping. The current impression that theory of mind is not necessarily implicated in cooperative activities and that helping could not be an integral part of competition might therefore be rather misleading. Furthermore, theory of mind research has mainly focused on cognitive aspects like the type of stimuli controlling responses, the nature of representation and how those representations are acquired, while collaboration and helping have focused primarily on motivational aspects like prosociality, common goals and a sense of justice and other-regarding concerns. We present the current state of these two bodies of research paying special attention to how they have developed and diverged over the years. We propose potential directions to realign the research agendas to investigate the psychological underpinnings of cooperation and competition in primates and other animals.

  5. Semiconductor Research Corporation: A Case Study in Cooperative Innovation Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logar, Nathaniel; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    In the study of innovation institutions, it is important to consider how different institutional models can affect a research organization in conducting or funding successful work. As an industry collaborative, Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an example of a privately funded institution that leverages the inputs of several member…

  6. Semiconductor Research Corporation: A Case Study in Cooperative Innovation Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logar, Nathaniel; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    In the study of innovation institutions, it is important to consider how different institutional models can affect a research organization in conducting or funding successful work. As an industry collaborative, Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an example of a privately funded institution that leverages the inputs of several member…

  7. Cooperative Instructional Application of Writing Research. Final Report. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce; And Others

    The second of three volumes on the relationship between writing research and instruction, this report first describes a 1982 conference on writing policies and problems sponsored by the Educational Research and Development division of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and the California State University, Long Beach. The second section…

  8. Promoting Research in an Undergraduate Shakespeare Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay concerns the methods I use in my 300-level Shakespeare course at Winthrop University to foster research worthy of frequent conference presentation and occasional publication. In short, my approach is to provide suitable topics and to require multiple stages in the composition and research process. The results, I have discovered, are…

  9. Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.

  10. Comprehensive consideration of strategy updating promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya; Lan, Xin; Deng, Xinyang; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2014-06-01

    We investigate how the cooperation emerges in the square lattice when individuals play the prisoner's dilemma game by adopting different strategy updating methods. First, we classify individuals in two classes at the strategy updating stage: stochastic players and smart players. The stochastic players are those who take the classical Fermi rule, while the smart players are those who make comprehensive evaluation for strategy updating. Second, we adopt Dempster-Shafer theory to combine smart players' evaluations from payoff and environment aspects. Simulation results reveal that the comprehensive strategy updating method has a positive impact on the emergence of cooperation. Furthermore, the number of cooperators increases with the proportion of smart player increase. However, it is noteworthy that defector never become extinct, even all players in the network are smart ones. This is because some smart players would maximize their payoff if they choose to betray their cooperative neighbors. Our work in this paper may provide further understanding of the origin of cooperation in social and biology systems.

  11. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  12. Promotion of cooperation induced by a self-questioning update rule in the spatial traveler's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Juan; Hu, Meng-long; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Qiu-shi; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-01-01

    In sociology and economics, evolutionary game theory has provided a powerful framework to illustrate the social dilemma's problems, and many evolutionary game models are presented, such as prisoner's dilemma game, snowdrift game, public goods game, and so on. In this paper, however, we focus on another typical pair-wise game model: Traveler's Dilemma Game (TDG), which has been deeply investigated in economics, but less attention has been paid to this topic within the physics community. We mainly discuss the influence of strategy update rules on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial TDG, and in detail explore the role of a novel self-questioning or self-learning update mechanism in the evolution of cooperation of the TDG model on the square lattice. In our self-questioning rule, each player does not imitate the strategy state of his or her nearest neighbors and simply plays the traveler's dilemma games twice with nearest neighbors: one is to calculate the actual payoff in the current game round; the other is to perform a virtual game which is used to obtain an intangible payoff if he or she adopts another random strategy. Then, the focal player decides to keep the current strategy or to change into that virtual strategy according to the Fermi-like dynamics. A great number of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that our self-questioning rule is a low information game decision-making mechanism which can greatly promote the evolution of cooperation for some specific conditions in the spatial TDG model. Furthermore, this novel rule can also be applied into the prisoner's dilemma game, and likewise the behavior of cooperation can be largely enhanced. Our results are of high importance to analyze and understand the emergence of cooperation within many real social and economical systems.

  13. Promoting Employability Skills Development in a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Geoff; Henson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the place of employability in universities, with a focus on research-intensive institutions, and to outline an initiative that was introduced to promote employability skills development at the University of Nottingham. Design/methodology/approach: Following a discussion of literature on the promotion of…

  14. Promoting Employability Skills Development in a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Geoff; Henson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the place of employability in universities, with a focus on research-intensive institutions, and to outline an initiative that was introduced to promote employability skills development at the University of Nottingham. Design/methodology/approach: Following a discussion of literature on the promotion of…

  15. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured.

  16. Cooperative Research: An Experience Developed between Theorists and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munarriz, Begona; And Others

    This project brought together educational theorists and practitioners in Spain to create a model of teacher training based on research by trainees into their own practice and to create a curriculum of Spanish language adapted to the students of the location where it was developed. The project was undertaken in the context of educational policy…

  17. Family-School Cooperation through Action-Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Raquel-Amaya Martinez

    The involvement of parents in schools has been legislated in Spain since 1970, with the main activities being parents associations and school councils, but these partnerships do not represent a particularly friendly situation. A research project was carried out through the University of Oviedo, Spain, Department of Education, to create a mechanism…

  18. Cooperative Water Resources Research and Training 1969 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Office of Water Resources Research.

    This report is presented in four parts: (1) Research Results and Their Application; (2) Manpower, Training and Public Involvements; (3) OWRR Activities; (4) Highlight Reports by the 51 State Institute Directors. Part 1 reviews the results expected to be forthcoming through projects financed during the Calendar Year 1969. This section focuses on 12…

  19. Interlaboratory studies with the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to detect tumor-promoting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bohrman, J.S.; Burg, J.R.; Elmore, E.; Gulati, D.K.; Barfknecht, T.R.; Niemeier, R.W.; Dames, B.L.; Toraason, M.; Langenbach, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the usefulness of the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to predict the tumor-promoting activity of selected chemical. Twenty-three chemicals of different chemical structures (phorbol esters, barbiturates, phenols, artificial sweeteners, alkanes, and peroxides) were chosen for testing based on in vivo promotion activities, as reported in the literature. Assay protocols and materials were standardized, and the chemicals were coded to facilitate unbiased evaluation. A chemical was tested only once in each laboratory, with one of the three laboratories testing only 15 out of 23 chemicals. Dunnett's test was used for statistical analysis. Chemicals were scored as positive (at least two concentration levels statistically different than control), equivocal (only one concentration statistically different), or negative. For 15 chemicals tested in all three laboratories, there was complete agreement among the laboratories for nine chemicals. For the 23 chemicals tested in only two laboratories, there was agreement on 16 chemicals. With the exception of the peroxides and alkanes, the metabolic cooperation data were in general agreement with in vivo data. However, an overall evaluation of the V79 cell system for predicting in vivo promotion activity was difficult because of the organ specificity of certain chemicals and/or the limited number of adequately tested nonpromoting chemicals.

  20. 75 FR 54652 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Warheads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act... Research Group, Inc., Dayton, OH; Cyalume Technologies, Inc., West Springfield, MA; Fibertek, Inc.,...