Science.gov

Sample records for research emphasizing low-rank

  1. Energy and environmental (JSR) research emphasizing low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, L.L.

    1994-12-01

    The products of plastic thermal depolymerization can be used for the manufacture of new plastics or various other hydrocarbon-based products. One thermal depolymerization development effort is ongoing at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) of the University of North Dakota, under joint sponsorship of the American Plastics Council, the 3M corporation, and the Department of Energy. Thermal depolymerization process development began at the EERC with a benchscale program that ran from 9/92 to 6/93 (1). Testing was conducted in a 1-4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) unit using individual virgin resins and resin blends and was intended to determine rough operating parameters and product yields and to identify product stream components. Process variables examined included temperature and bed material, with a lesser emphasis on gas fluidization velocity and feed material mix. The following work was performed: (1) a short program to determine the suitability of using CaO in a postreactor, fixed bed for chlorine remediation, (2) thermal depolymerization of postconsumer plastics, and (3) testing of industrial (3M) products and wastes to determine their suitability as feed to a thermal depolymerization process. The involvement of DOE in the development of the plastics thermal depolymerization process has helped to facilitate the transfer of coal conversion technology to a new and growing technology area -- waste conversion. These two technology areas are complementary. The application of known coal conversion technology has accelerated the development of plastics conversion technology, and findings from the plastics depolymerization process development, such as the development of chlorine remediation techniques and procedures for measurement of organically associated chlorine, can be applied to new generations of coal conversion processes.

  2. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

  3. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  4. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 6.1. Corrosion of advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nowok, J.W.; Strobel, T.M.; Bieber, J.A.; Hurley, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In order to increase national energy self-sufficiency for the near future, energy systems will be required to fire low-grade fuels and use more efficient energy cycles than those available today. The steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum steam temperature of 550{degrees}C and thus a conversion efficiency of 35%. To boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required, compelling subsystems to operate at much higher temperatures and, therefore, in much more corrosive environments than those currently used. Problems of special concern are corrosion and fatigue of direct-fired turbine blades, corrosion and blinding of hot-gas cleanup filters, catastrophic failure of high-temperature heat exchangers, and spalling and dissolution of refractory materials. The extreme conditions will require the use of advanced structural materials such as high-temperature ceramics for the construction of the subsystems. Unfortunately, little is known of the performance of these materials in actual coal combustion environments. Although some corrosion testing has been performed in the past, most has been done by groups experimenting with ash or slag stimulants composed of only one or two simple compounds. For this project performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), actual coal ash and slag will be used in simulated combustion conditions so that more realistic determinations of the mechanisms of corrosion can be made. The work includes three main research areas focusing on two fossil energy subsystems: high-temperature heat exchangers and hot-gas cleanup filters. The first area involves developing existing abilities in thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to determine the most appropriate corroding agents to include in the tests; the second area involves coal slag corrosion of high temperature heat exchangers; and the third, lower-temperature ash and gas corrosion hot-gas cleanup filters.

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 7.2, Resource data evaluation. Topical report, July 1994--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Resource Data Evaluation subtask of the US Department of Energy (DOE) base program represents an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiative to promote the integration of geographic information system (GIS) technologies with other ongoing and planned EERC research in the areas of resource utilization, remediation, land use planning, and regulatory and policy assessment. Significant demand for GIS-based information already exists for energy resource evaluation, interpretation of remote sensing data, environmental assessment at the state and local levels, and use in strategic planning. The objective of this task was to determine the appropriate platform and approach upon which to develop GIS applications for optimizing resource evaluation and integrating this information with related areas of interest. Activities associated with Task 7.2, Resource Data Evaluation, were conducted primarily during the first half of the project year. These activities included tasks associated with the development and implementation of GIS databases and construction of digitized files for research pertaining to energy studies. As previously noted, database design was undertaken for two EERC projects: 1) coal occurrence in Bowman and adjacent counties in the Fort Union Coal Region of southwestern North Dakota and 2) energy resource utilization concerns for selected sites in Alaska.

  6. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.4 -- Hot-gas cleaning. Topical report (includes semiannual report for January--June 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of three subtasks completed in support of the current and future hot-gas cleanup activities at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The overall objective of the EERC hot-gas cleanup task is to develop reliable methods to remove particulate matter from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams produced from coal combustion and/or gasification. Near-term task objectives include (1) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure bench-scale filter vessel; (2) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure sampling train; and (3) the preliminary design of a pilot-scale high-temperature, high-pressure filter vessel and support systems. Bench-scale hot-gas filter research will be performed with the pressurized fluid-bed reactor (PFBR) or the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and a hot-gas filter vessel. The objectives of future work with the bench-scale system will be to determine particulate and vapor-phase alkali degradation of candidate ceramic filter structures as well as filter performance relative to particulate collection efficiency, differential pressure, and filter cleanability. Construction of the high-temperature, high-pressure sampling system was intended to support bench- and pilot-scale activities with respect to conventional particulate sampling (total mass and particle-size distribution) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) sampling. Finally, pilot-scale tests will be performed to evaluate filter performance and determine alkali corrosion of ceramic materials with a hot-gas filter vessel attached to the EERC Transport Reactor Development Unit (TRDU).

  7. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  9. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  10. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  11. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.7, Fuel utilization properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Gasification-type entrained ash and deposits were produced in a pressurized test furnace at high temperature. For the subbituminous Black Thunder coal, the effect of fuel-rich conditions was an increase in quartz, calcite, dolomite, and calcium-rich phases in the entrained ash. Lower particle temperatures, as compared to full air conventional combustion, and the oxygen-lean atmosphere may have caused a reduction in the interaction and assimilation of pure quartz and organically bound calcium into calcium aluminosilicate phases. For the Illinois No. 6 entrained fly ash fuel-rich conditions prevented the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite to iron oxide. Lower temperatures within and surrounding char particles during reducing conditions combustion may have prevented the decomposition of pyrrhotite and enhanced the reaction of iron with aluminosilicate phases. The deposits show similar trends, with the Illinois No. 6 deposit grown under pressurized conditions at a lower temperature having Na and (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K) aluminosilicates, calcium carbonate, and an iron sulfide, probably pyrrohotite, present. At higher temperature, loss of sulfur occurs with the increased formation of iron aluminosilicate phases. The Illinois No. 6 and Black Thunder coals were tested with kaolin and lime additives under highly reducing conditions to simulate a gasification environment. The deposit collection zone temperature was varied from 750{degree}C to 1OOO{degree}C. Although no clear trends were evident for the interaction of kaolin or lime with the deposits, the deposits did become more porous, with greatly reduced strength shown for both additives.

  14. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 5.7, Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, T.R.; Grisanti, A.A.; Knudson, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    Atomobile evaporative emission canisters contain activated carbon sorbents that trap and store fuel vapors emitted from automobile fuel tanks during periods of hot ambient temperatures and after engine operation. When a vehicle is started, combustion air is pulled through the canister, and adsorbed vapors are removed from the sorbent and routed to the intake manifold for combustion along with fuel from the tank. The two primary requirements of an effective canister sorbent are that (1) it must be a strong enough adsorbent to hold on to the fuel vapors that contact it and (2) it must be a weak enough adsorbent to release the captured vapors in the presence of the airflow required by the engine for fuel combustion. Most currently available commercial canister sorbents are made from wood, which is reacted with phosphoric acid and heat to yield an activated carbon with optimum pore size for gasoline vapor adsorption. The objectives of Task 5.7 were to (1) design and construct a test system for evaluating the performance of different sorbents in trapping and releasing butane, gasoline, and other organic vapors; (2) investigate the use of lignite char as an automobile fuel evaporation canister sorbent; (3) compare the adsorbing and desorbing characteristics of lignite chars with those of several commercial sorbents; and (4) investigate whether the presence of ethanol in fuel vapors affects sorbent performance in any way. Tests with two different sorbents (a wood-derived activated carbon and a lignite char) showed that with both sorbents, ethanol vapor breakthrough took about twice as long as hydrocarbon vapor breakthrough. Possible reasons for this, including an increased sorbent affinity for ethanol vapors, will be investigated. If this effect is real (i.e., reproducible over an extensive series of tests under varying conditions), it may help explain why ethanol vapor concentrations in SHED test evaporative emissions are often lower than would be expected.

  17. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  18. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Biological degradation of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.J.

    1989-06-01

    The principal objective of this research project as to investigate the potential for anaerobic bioconversion of low-rank coal. The research was divided into three phases, including: (a) assessment of biodegradation and coal chemistry, (b) anaerobic bioconversion of ''model'' low-rank coal constituents; and (c) anaerobic bioconversion of coal. A literature review of coal chemistry and microbially-mediated processes related to coal bioconversion was performed. Initial lab studies were conducted with selected ''model'' compounds, including simple aromatic constituents (phenol, cresol, catechol) as well as more complex aromatic compounds (naphthol, 9-phenanthrol, dibenzothiophene) which may be components of low-rank coal. Analytical procedures were developed for efficient extraction, separation and quantitation of the test ''model'' compounds. Additional studies with a benzene-derived extract of a low-rank coal sample were performed. Extraction and quantitation procedures were developed to assess bioconversion potential. Preliminary toxicity experiments with ''model'' compounds revealed partial inhibition of growth of selected pure bacterial cultres as well as inhibition of microbial consortia at concentrations above those used in our test system. For most of the test compounds, little or no inhibition (toxicity) was noted. Overall results suggest that complex aromatic constituents which may be representative of low-rank coal structure are relatively recalcitrant to microbial attack by natural microbial populations. 88 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  1. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  3. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.

  4. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  5. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  6. Method for stabilizing dried low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1987-03-17

    A method is described for protection of heated and dried pyrophoric particles, such as low rank coals, containing a reduced moisture content by treating the particles with a pyrophoric protection fluid within a vessel having a gas-solid separator in combination with a cooling fluid comprising: (a) introducing the heated and dried pyrophoric particles into a vessel which vessel lacks a means for supporting the particles during cooling thereof; (b) fluidizing the particles with the cooling fluid at ambient temperature; (c) applying a pyrophoric protection fluid to the fluidized particles thereby coating the particles sufficiently to cause at least a substantial portion of the particles to agglomerate and fall while simultaneously cooling the agglomerated particles; and (d) removing continuously the agglomerated cooled particles and the cooling fluid from the vessel. The method is also described where in step (b) the pyrophoric protection fluid is at least one member selected from the group consisting of petroleum residual oil, heavy oil, a mixture of tall oil and rosin, and gelatinized starch, in an amount of from about 0.01 weight percent to about 5 weight percent of the particles.

  7. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1988-04-01

    Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.

  8. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  9. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  10. Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches.

  11. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  12. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  13. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  14. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  15. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) estimate the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and methane production from, low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the east-central Texas region, (2) quantify uncertainty associated with these estimates, (3) conduct reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells, and (4) compare the results with those obtained from previous studies of vertical wells. To estimate the total volumes of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered in, and total volumes of methane that can be produced from, the Wilcox Group low-rank coals in east-central Texas, we used data provided by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, data obtained during this research, and results of probabilistic simulation modeling studies we conducted. For the analysis, we applied our base-case coal seam characteristics to a 2,930-mi{sup 2} (1,875,200-ac) area where Calvert Bluff coal seams range between 4,000 and 6,200 ft deep. Results of the probabilistic analysis indicate that potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor, range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we presented the paper SPE 100584 at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on May 15-18, 2006. Also, we submitted an abstract to be considered for inclusion in a special volume dedicated to CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic media, which

  16. A Nonconvex Optimization Framework for Low Rank Matrix Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

    2016-01-01

    We study the estimation of low rank matrices via nonconvex optimization. Compared with convex relaxation, nonconvex optimization exhibits superior empirical performance for large scale instances of low rank matrix estimation. However, the understanding of its theoretical guarantees are limited. In this paper, we define the notion of projected oracle divergence based on which we establish sufficient conditions for the success of nonconvex optimization. We illustrate the consequences of this general framework for matrix sensing. In particular, we prove that a broad class of nonconvex optimization algorithms, including alternating minimization and gradient-type methods, geometrically converge to the global optimum and exactly recover the true low rank matrices under standard conditions. PMID:28316458

  17. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  19. CWM production from upgraded young low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurui, Masao; Katagiri, Tsutomu; Yanagimachik, Harumitsu; Tokuda, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Noboru; Yui, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Takeshi

    1997-12-31

    CWM is a mixture of pulverized coal (60 to 70%) and water (30 to 40%) with a very small quantity of dispersant. It is stable under storage conditions and is sufficiently fluid to be transported by means of long-distance pipelines, and ocean going tankers. In order to overcome the economic difficulties of CWM, the authors started the development of a new type of CWM based on abundant non-utilized young low grade coal. This R and D aims at developing and demonstrating an economical clean coal fuel manufacturing technology to ensure safe transportation and storage. To this end, it is necessary to develop a technology to irreversibly dewater coals while maintaining volatility as far as possible, and to convert dewatered coals to high-concentration coal water mixtures (CWM). Japan COM Company Limited and JGC Corporation have been jointly conducting research and development of low rank coals upgrading technology to establish CWM production and utilization technologies from upgraded coals at lower cost and higher quality. In the first phase, the authors investigated available low rank coals upgrading technologies and selected the hot water drying (HWD) process as suited for the conversion of coals to CWM. In the second phase, they conducted HWD upgrading tests using an autoclave and a continuous type bench plant for laboratory-scale tests to convert upgraded coals to CWM, and thus confirmed upgrading effects. In the third phase, they constructed an upgrading pilot plant of 8.4 t/d (dry coal) processing capacity and have conducted upgrading tests. They have also conducted CWM production tests using a CWM production facility of 500 kg/h, and assessed the combustibility of upgraded coal CWM. The operation is carried out using three coals, two Indonesian sub-bituminous coals and one Australian brown coal, which were selected through the bench-scale testing. The following tests were carried out from Dec. of 1994 to March 1996: (1) Continuous upgrading tests by newly

  20. Catalysts, Emphases, and Elements of Virtual Learning Communities: Implications for Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines theoretical and conceptual issues around promoting the growth of virtual learning communities and considers issues around using communication technologies in formal and informal learning environments. Highlights include: the theoretical context of community; categories for examining virtual learning communities; emphases of virtual…

  1. Relations Among Some Low-Rank Subspace Recovery Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Junbin

    2015-09-01

    Recovering intrinsic low-dimensional subspaces from data distributed on them is a key preprocessing step to many applications. In recent years, a lot of work has modeled subspace recovery as low-rank minimization problems. We find that some representative models, such as robust principal component analysis (R-PCA), robust low-rank representation (R-LRR), and robust latent low-rank representation (R-LatLRR), are actually deeply connected. More specifically, we discover that once a solution to one of the models is obtained, we can obtain the solutions to other models in closed-form formulations. Since R-PCA is the simplest, our discovery makes it the center of low-rank subspace recovery models. Our work has two important implications. First, R-PCA has a solid theoretical foundation. Under certain conditions, we could find globally optimal solutions to these low-rank models at an overwhelming probability, although these models are nonconvex. Second, we can obtain significantly faster algorithms for these models by solving R-PCA first. The computation cost can be further cut by applying low-complexity randomized algorithms, for example, our novel l2,1 filtering algorithm, to R-PCA. Although for the moment the formal proof of our l2,1 filtering algorithm is not yet available, experiments verify the advantages of our algorithm over other state-of-the-art methods based on the alternating direction method.

  2. The Effects of Different Teaching, Research, and Service Emphases on Individual and Organizational Outcomes in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative emphasis that educators give to teaching, research, and service in the business discipline and 4 other academic disciplines. The authors also investigated the effects of different faculty activity emphases on faculty teaching effectiveness, research performance, service levels, job and pay satisfaction,…

  3. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  4. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  5. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  6. The Two-Semester Thesis Model: Emphasizing Research in Undergraduate Technical Communication Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julie Dyke; Bracken, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses previous arguments that call for increased emphasis on research in technical communication programs. Focusing on the value of scholarly-based research at the undergraduate level, we present New Mexico Tech's thesis model as an example of helping students develop familiarity with research skills and methods. This two-semester…

  7. A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavesley, West

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report on the use of a graduate "Special Topics" course to provide vital research and practical laboratory experience, within the context of developing a chemical process to manufacture biodiesel from algal sources. This course contained several key components that we believe are necessary skills in graduate research: 1) a…

  8. Brain electrical responses to high- and low-ranking buildings.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Ilan; Mühlmann, Heiner; Blechinger, Gerhard; Mothersill, Ian W; Hilfiker, Peter; Jokeit, Hennric; Kurthen, Martin; Krämer, Günter; Grunwald, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Since the ancient world, architecture generally distinguishes two categories of buildings with either high- or low-ranking design. High-ranking buildings are supposed to be more prominent and, therefore, more memorable. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to drawings of buildings with either high- or low-ranking architectural ornaments and found that ERP responses between 300 and 600 ms after stimulus presentation recorded over both frontal lobes were significantly more positive in amplitude to high-ranking buildings. Thus, ERPs differentiated reliably between both classes of architectural stimuli although subjects were not aware of the two categories. We take our data to suggest that neurophysiological correlates of building perception reflect aspects of an architectural rule system that adjust the appropriateness of style and content ("decorum"). Since this rule system is ubiquitous in Western architecture, it may define architectural prototypes that can elicit familiarity memory processes.

  9. Denoising MR spectroscopic imaging data with low-rank approximations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien M; Peng, Xi; Do, Minh N; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the denoising problem associated with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been a critical problem. A new scheme is proposed, which exploits two low-rank structures that exist in MRSI data, one due to partial separability and the other due to linear predictability. Denoising is performed by arranging the measured data in appropriate matrix forms (i.e., Casorati and Hankel) and applying low-rank approximations by singular value decomposition (SVD). The proposed method has been validated using simulated and experimental data, producing encouraging results. Specifically, the method can effectively denoise MRSI data in a wide range of SNR values while preserving spatial-spectral features. The method could prove useful for denoising MRSI data and other spatial-spectral and spatial-temporal imaging data as well.

  10. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  11. Ion exchange and adsorption on low rank coals for liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this program involve the study of the catalysis of liquefaction of low rank coals. Ion exchange and adsorption techniques are being used or modified to incorporate catalytically active metals into coal samples. Relative oil yields will be determined by Sandia National Laboratory and PETC collaborators to establish the effectiveness of the catalyst incorporation techniques. This report describes work done over the past 12 months of an on-going project.

  12. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe

    2017-02-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  13. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  14. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  15. Emphasizing Spectrum Management for Sustainable Development Research and Applications in Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Stephen; Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    NASA's spaceborne Earth and Heliospheric Observatories and airborne sensors provide a plethora of measurements. These measurements are used in science research to understand the climatology of our home planet and the solar fluxes and cycle of the only star in our solar system 'Sun' which is critical driver for the retention of life on Earth. Specifically, these measurements help us to understand the water and energy cycle, the carbon cycle, weather and climate, atmospheric chemistry, solar variability, and solid Earth and interior to feed into sophisticated mathematical models to analyze and predict the Earth's behavior as an integrated system. The main thrust of this research is on improving the prediction capability in the areas of weather, long term climate and solid Earth processes, and further help the humanity and future generations in terms of societal benefits in managing natural disasters, sustainability issues and many more. This work is further linked with our contributions in the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Specifically, the data and knowledge resulting from the Earth observing systems and analytical models of the Earth can be made available for assimilation into decision support systems to serve society for disaster management. Through partnerships with national and international agencies and organizations, NASA's Science Mission Directorate's, Applied Sciences Program contributes to benchmarking practical uses of observations and predictions from Earth science remote sensing systems research. The objective is to establish innovative solutions using Earth observations and science information to provide decision support that can be adapted in applications of national and international priority. We along with the international community will continue this critical field of investigation by using our existing and future sensors from space, airborne and insitue environment. In our quest to expanding our knowledge, there will be a need

  16. Moving object detection via low-rank total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Qian; Shao, Na

    2016-09-01

    Moving object detection is a challenging task in video surveillance. Recently proposed Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) can recover the outlier patterns from the low-rank data under some mild conditions. However, the l-penalty in RPCA doesn't work well in moving object detection because the irrepresentable condition is often not satisfied. In this paper, a method based on total variation (TV) regularization scheme is proposed. In our model, image sequences captured with a static camera are highly related, which can be described using a low-rank matrix. Meanwhile, the low-rank matrix can absorb background motion, e.g. periodic and random perturbation. The foreground objects in the sequence are usually sparsely distributed and drifting continuously, and can be treated as group outliers from the highly-related background scenes. Instead of l-penalty, we exploit the total variation of the foreground. By minimizing the total variation energy, the outliers tend to collapse and finally converge to be the exact moving objects. The TV-penalty is superior to the l-penalty especially when the outlier is in the majority for some pixels, and our method can estimate the outlier explicitly with less bias but higher variance. To solve the problem, a joint optimization function is formulated and can be effectively solved through the inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) method. We evaluate our method along with several state-of-the-art approaches in MATLAB. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method works effectively on a large range of complex scenarios.

  17. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Accelerating Parameter Mapping with a Locally Low Rank Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Pauly, John M.; Levesque, Ives R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To accelerate MR parameter mapping (MRPM) using a locally low rank (LLR) constraint, and the combination of parallel imaging (PI) and the LLR constraint. Theory and Methods An LLR method is developed for MRPM and compared with a globally low rank (GLR) method in a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping experiment. For acquisition with coil arrays, a combined LLR and PI method is proposed. The proposed method is evaluated in a variable flip angle T1 mapping experiment and compared with the LLR method and PI alone. Results In the multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping experiment, the LLR method is more accurate than the GLR method for acceleration factors 2 and 3, especially for tissues with high T2 values. Variable flip angle T1 mapping is achieved by acquiring datasets with 10 flip angles, each dataset accelerated by a factor of 6, and reconstructed by the proposed method with a small normalized root mean square error of 0.025. Conclusion The LLR method is likely superior to the GLR method for MRPM. The proposed combined LLR and PI method has better performance than the two methods alone, especially with highly accelerated acquisition. PMID:24500817

  19. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  20. Integrated Low-Rank-Based Discriminative Feature Learning for Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pan; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Feature learning plays a central role in pattern recognition. In recent years, many representation-based feature learning methods have been proposed and have achieved great success in many applications. However, these methods perform feature learning and subsequent classification in two separate steps, which may not be optimal for recognition tasks. In this paper, we present a supervised low-rank-based approach for learning discriminative features. By integrating latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) with a ridge regression-based classifier, our approach combines feature learning with classification, so that the regulated classification error is minimized. In this way, the extracted features are more discriminative for the recognition tasks. Our approach benefits from a recent discovery on the closed-form solutions to noiseless LatLRR. When there is noise, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based denoising step can be added as preprocessing. When the scale of a problem is large, we utilize a fast randomized algorithm to speed up the computation of robust PCA. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  1. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. PMID:28096809

  2. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  3. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  4. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  5. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  6. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  7. Ion exchange and adsorption on low rank coals for liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this program are to study the application of catalysts and the catalysis of liquefaction of low rank coals. Ion exchange and adsorption techniques are being used or modified to incorporate catalytically active metals (Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) in relatively small (100-2000 ppM) quantities into coal samples. Relative oil yields are being determined by PETC and Auburn University workers as collaborators to establish the effectiveness of the catalyst incorporation techniques. It is hoped that these techniques will provide highly active forms of the catalyst in low concentrations to minimize the need for metals recovery. A two step preparation of the coal is used to (1) remove material which both limits oil conversion and prepares for the addition of exchangeable catalyst, and (2) add catalytically active material which enhances the conversion of the coal matter to the oil fraction in the processing.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON PRODUCTS FROM LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the production of carbon fibers from low-rank coal (LRC) tars. To this end, the effect of demineralization on the tar yields and composition was investigated using high-sodium and high-calcium lignites commonly mined in North Dakota. These coals were demineralized by ion exchange with ammonium acetate and by cation dissolution with nitric acid. Two types of thermal processing were investigated for obtaining suitable precursors for pitch and fiber production. Initially, tars were produced by simple pyrolysis of the set of samples at 650 C. Since these experiments produced little usable material from any of the samples, the coals were heated at moderate temperatures (380 and 400 C) in tetralin solvent to form and extract the plastic material (metaplast) that forms at these temperatures.

  9. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. Mcvay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration performance in coalbed methane reservoirs under various operational conditions. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Therefore, we interpreted and created isopleth maps of coal occurrences, and correlated individual coal seams within the coal bearing subdivisions of the Wilcox Group--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations. Preliminary modeling studies were run to determine if gravity effects would affect the performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs. Results indicated that gravity could adversely affect sweep efficiency and, thus, volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced in thick, vertically continuous coals. Preliminary modeling studies were also run to determine the effect of injection gas composition on sequestration in low-rank coalbeds. Injected gas composition was varied from pure CO{sub 2} to pure N{sub 2}, and results show that increasing N{sub 2} content degrades CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production performance. We have reached a Data Exchange Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. We are currently incorporating the Anadarko data into our work, and expect these data to greatly enhance the accuracy and value of our studies.

  10. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) determine the effects of permeability anisotropy on performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas, and (2) begin reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells. To evaluate the effects of permeability anisotropy on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds, we conducted deterministic reservoir modeling studies of 100% CO{sub 2} gas injection for the 6,200-ft depth base case (Case 1b) using the most likely values of the reservoir parameters. Simulation results show significant differences in the cumulative volumes of CH{sub 4} produced and CO{sub 2} injected due to permeability anisotropy, depending on the orientation of injection patterns relative to the orientation of permeability anisotropy. This indicates that knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of permeability anisotropy will be an important consideration in the design of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects. We continued discussions with Anadarko Petroleum regarding plans for additional coal core acquisition and laboratory work to further characterize Wilcox low-rank coals. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we submitted the paper SPE 100584 for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium to be held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 15-18, 2006.

  11. Enhanced low-rank + sparsity decomposition for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    Speckle artifacts can strongly hamper quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is necessary to provide assessment of ocular disorders associated with vision loss. Here, we introduce a method for speckle reduction, which leverages from low-rank + sparsity decomposition (LRpSD) of the logarithm of intensity OCT images. In particular, we combine nonconvex regularization-based low-rank approximation of an original OCT image with a sparsity term that incorporates the speckle. State-of-the-art methods for LRpSD require a priori knowledge of a rank and approximate it with nuclear norm, which is not an accurate rank indicator. As opposed to that, the proposed method provides more accurate approximation of a rank through the use of nonconvex regularization that induces sparse approximation of singular values. Furthermore, a rank value is not required to be known a priori. This, in turn, yields an automatic and computationally more efficient method for speckle reduction, which yields the OCT image with improved contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast and edge fidelity. The source code will be available at www.mipav.net/English/research/research.html.

  12. Ultrafine grinding of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-08-01

    A study of ultrafine grinding of low-rank coals in a fluid-energy mill was undertaken. This report presents the results of the Phase I effort which included a review of the literature on ultrafine grinding, a review of theories of grinding, a combined grinding and drying experiment on Martin Lake Texas lignite, an evaluation of the energy requirements for the process, and an evaluation of the properties of the products from the grinding tests. A sample of Martin Lake Texas lignite was obtained and a series of tests were conducted in a fluid-energy mill at the Ergon, Inc., Micro-Energy Division development facility at Vicksburg, MS. The grinding fluids used were air at 116 F and steam at 225, 310, 350, 400, and 488 F as measured in the mill. The products of these tests were analyzed for volatile mattr, ash, total moisture, equilibrium moisture, heating value, density distribution, aerodynamic particle size classification, angle of repose, porosity, density, and particle size distribution. ASTM test procedures were followed where applicable. Ultimate and ash mineral analyses were also conducted on the samples. Results of the various tests are presented in detail in the report. In general, the fluid energy mill was used succssfully in simultaneous grinding and drying of the lignite. Particle size reduction to less than 10 microns on a population basis was achieved. The equilibrium moisture of the samples decreased with increasing grinding fluid temperatures. Density distribution studies showed that a significant fraction of the ash appeared in the >1.6 specific gravity particles. The energy required for the grinding/drying process increased with increasing mill temperatures. 29 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox

  14. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coals. 870.20 Section 870.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  15. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  16. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of

  17. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to

  18. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  19. Efficiency improved scalar wave low-rank extrapolation with an effective perfectly matched layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanming; Zhou, Hui; Xia, Muming

    2017-02-01

    Low-rank extrapolation is a relatively new method for seismic wave simulation. However, the low-rank method involved requires several fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) per time step, and the number of FFTs increases with the time-stepping size and complexity of the model, which leads to high computational cost at each step. To reduce the cost per time step, a more efficient low-rank extrapolation scheme is presented by splitting the original wave propagator into two parts. The first part represents the traditional pseudo-spectral operator, and is calculated by FFT directly. The residual part compensates the time-stepping error, and is approximated by low-rank decomposition. Compared with the conventional low-rank extrapolation scheme, the improved extrapolation scheme enables using a lower rank for the decomposition to attain similar approximation accuracy, which reduces the number of floating-point operations per time step, and thus reduces the total computational cost. To avoid the wraparound effect caused by FFTs, we develop an effective split perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb outgoing waves near the boundary. Numerical examples verify the accuracy of the developed low-rank extrapolation scheme and the effectiveness of the PML.

  20. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  1. Enhancing Women's Undergraduate Experience in Physics and Chemistry Through a PUI/MRSEC Collaboration Emphasizing Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Velda; Malliaras, George; Schember, Helene; Singhota, Nevjinder

    2002-04-01

    This three-year collaboration between a predominately undergraduate women's college (Simmons College) and a NSF-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (the Cornell Center for Materials Research (CCMR)) provides opportunities for physics and chemistry students to participate in materials-related research throughout their undergraduate careers, have access to sophisticated instrumentation, and gain related work experience in industrial settings. As part of the project, undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of a collaborative Simmons/Cornell research program concentrating on degradation processes in electroluminescent materials. This work is particularly interesting because an understanding and control of these processes will ultimately influence the use of these materials in various types of consumer products.

  2. Middle/High School Students in the Research Laboratory: A Summer Internship Program Emphasizing the Interdisciplinary Nature of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMiller, Tracee; Lee, Tameshia; Saroop, Ria; Green, Tyra; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an eight-week summer Young Scientist in Training (YSIT) internship program involving middle and high school students. This program exposed students to current basic research in molecular genetics, while introducing or reinforcing principles of the scientific method and demonstrating the uses of mathematics and chemistry in biology. For…

  3. The Ivory Tower and the Community: A New Approach to Emphasizing the Relevance of Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past eight years we have developed and implemented several U.C. Berkeley-based outreach programs that provide opportunities for grades nine through eleven students in the East San Francisco Bay Area to gain skills and understandings that increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future, which enhances their capacity to decide to pursue STEM careers. A common element of these programs is the opportunity they provide participants to engage in environmental science research projects that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews and specific assessment instruments indicates that these programs have consistently achieved a high degree of success in that they have: significantly increased participants' understanding of the process and nature of science; enhanced their intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. These results corroborate recent research studies that indicate a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Moreover, they support the notion that providing opportunities for students to develop personal connections with particular issues discussed, and real-world STEM experiences that make STEM more relevant and interesting can help to bring about changes in attitude, which is a key component in improving STEM learning and understanding particularly among urban youth. Overall, our work suggests that in order for a given STEM

  4. Indonesian low rank coal oxidation: The effect of H2O2 concentration and oxidation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, S. S.; Findiati, F.; Aprilia, F.

    2016-11-01

    Extraction of Indonesian low rank coals by alkaline solution has been performed to isolate the humic substances. Pretreatments of the coals by oxidation using H2O2 prior to extraction are required to have higher yield of humic substances. In the previous research, only the extraction process was considered. Therefore, the effects of reaction temperature and residence time on coal oxidation and composition of extract residues are also investigated in this research. The oxidation temperatures studied were 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C and the H2O2 concentrations studied were 5%, 15%, 20 %, and 30 %. All the oxidation variables were studied for 90 minutes. The results show that the higher the concentration of H2O2 used, the less oxidized coal produced. The same trend was obtained by using higher oxidation temperature. The effect of H2O2 concentration, oxidation temperature and reaction time to the yield of humic substances extraction have positive trends.

  5. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  6. Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: Penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2006-07-31

    In this paper, we developed numerical algorithms for computing sparse low-rank approximations of matrices, and we also provided a detailed error analysis of the proposed algorithms together with some numerical experiments. The low-rank approximations are constructed in a certain factored form with the degree of sparsity of the factors controlled by some user-specified parameters. In this paper, we cast the sparse low-rank approximation problem in the framework of penalized optimization problems. We discuss various approximation schemes for the penalized optimization problem which are more amenable to numerical computations. We also include some analysis to show the relations between the original optimization problem and the reduced one. We then develop a globally convergent discrete Newton-like iterative method for solving the approximate penalized optimization problems. We also compare the reconstruction errors of the sparse low-rank approximations computed by our new methods with those obtained using the methods in the earlier paper and several other existing methods for computing sparse low-rank approximations. Numerical examples show that the penalized methods are more robust and produce approximations with factors which have fewer columns and are sparser.

  7. Low-Rank and Sparsity Analysis Applied to Speech Enhancement Via Online Estimated Dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We propose an online estimated dictionary based single channel speech enhancement algorithm, which focuses on low rank and sparse matrix decomposition. In this proposed algorithm, a noisy speech spectral matrix is considered as the summation of low rank background noise components and an activation of the online speech dictionary, on which both low rank and sparsity constraints are imposed. This decomposition takes the advantage of local estimated dictionary high expressiveness on speech components. The local dictionary can be obtained through estimating the speech presence probability by applying Expectation Maximal algorithm, in which a generalized Gamma prior for speech magnitude spectrum is used. The evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant improvements when compared to four other speech enhancement algorithms.

  8. Low-rank and eigenface based sparse representation for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  9. Low-Rank and Eigenface Based Sparse Representation for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:25334027

  10. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar.

  11. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  12. An Algorithm for Improving Non-Local Means Operators via Low-Rank Approximation.

    PubMed

    May, Victor; Keller, Yosi; Sharon, Nir; Shkolnisky, Yoel

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for improving a non-local means (NLM) operator by computing its low-rank approximation. The low-rank operator is constructed by applying a filter to the spectrum of the original NLM operator. This results in an operator, which is less sensitive to noise while preserving important properties of the original operator. The method is efficiently implemented based on Chebyshev polynomials and is demonstrated on the application of natural images denoising. For this application, we provide a comparison of our method with other denoising methods.

  13. Proceedings of the Australian/USA workshop on low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The current commercial use of the low-rank coals in both Australia (total production of 53 million short tons in 1989) and the US (318 million tons) is predominantly in electric power generation. The few important exceptions include 2.5 million tons of Victorian brown coal used annually in the production of briquettes, 6 million tons of North Dakota lignite gasified to produce substitute natural gas, and 0.2 millions tons of Wyoming subbituminous coal used to produce formcoke for phosphorus manufacture. The large potential for increased utilization of low-rank coals as raw materials for synthetic liquid fuels and high-value-added carbons has not been realized in either Australia or the US, owing largely to energy economics dominated by low world prices for petroleum. At present, a number of initiatives affecting energy policies, markets, and technologies are underway in both countries that will help to improve the prospects for future commercial development, notably the Clean Coal Technology program in the US and the Coal Corporation of Victoria in Australia. The occasion of the 1991 Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, therefore, represented a particularly appropriate time for invited scientists and technologist from the two countries to meet to assess the status of technologies for producing liquid fuels and value-added carbon products from low-rank coals. Nine papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery based on low-rank and sparse decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoguang; Tian, Yuan; Weng, Lubin; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) based model for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images. In our model, a local image region is represented as a low-rank matrix plus spares noises in the spectral space, where the background can be explained by the low-rank matrix, and the anomalies are indicated by the sparse noises. The detection of anomalies in local image regions is formulated as a constrained LSD problem, which can be solved efficiently and robustly with a modified "Go Decomposition" (GoDec) method. To enhance the validity of this model, we adapts a "simple linear iterative clustering" (SLIC) superpixel algorithm to efficiently generate homogeneous local image regions i.e. superpixels in hyperspectral imagery, thus ensures that the background in local image regions satisfies the condition of low-rank. Experimental results on real hyperspectral data demonstrate that, compared with several known local detectors including RX detector, kernel RX detector, and SVDD detector, the proposed model can comfortably achieves better performance in satisfactory computation time.

  15. A Novel Graph Constructor for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis: Combined Low-Rank and k-Nearest Neighbor Graph.

    PubMed

    Zu, Baokai; Xia, Kewen; Pan, Yongke; Niu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis (SDA) is a semisupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm, which can easily resolve the out-of-sample problem. Relative works usually focus on the geometric relationships of data points, which are not obvious, to enhance the performance of SDA. Different from these relative works, the regularized graph construction is researched here, which is important in the graph-based semisupervised learning methods. In this paper, we propose a novel graph for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis, which is called combined low-rank and k-nearest neighbor (LRKNN) graph. In our LRKNN graph, we map the data to the LR feature space and then the kNN is adopted to satisfy the algorithmic requirements of SDA. Since the low-rank representation can capture the global structure and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm can maximally preserve the local geometrical structure of the data, the LRKNN graph can significantly improve the performance of SDA. Extensive experiments on several real-world databases show that the proposed LRKNN graph is an efficient graph constructor, which can largely outperform other commonly used baselines.

  16. A Novel Graph Constructor for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis: Combined Low-Rank and k-Nearest Neighbor Graph

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongke; Niu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis (SDA) is a semisupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm, which can easily resolve the out-of-sample problem. Relative works usually focus on the geometric relationships of data points, which are not obvious, to enhance the performance of SDA. Different from these relative works, the regularized graph construction is researched here, which is important in the graph-based semisupervised learning methods. In this paper, we propose a novel graph for Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis, which is called combined low-rank and k-nearest neighbor (LRKNN) graph. In our LRKNN graph, we map the data to the LR feature space and then the kNN is adopted to satisfy the algorithmic requirements of SDA. Since the low-rank representation can capture the global structure and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm can maximally preserve the local geometrical structure of the data, the LRKNN graph can significantly improve the performance of SDA. Extensive experiments on several real-world databases show that the proposed LRKNN graph is an efficient graph constructor, which can largely outperform other commonly used baselines. PMID:28316616

  17. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  18. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  19. Hyperspectral image denoising using the robust low-rank tensor recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Ma, Yong; Huang, Jun; Mei, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-09-01

    Denoising is an important preprocessing step to further analyze the hyperspectral image (HSI), and many denoising methods have been used for the denoising of the HSI data cube. However, the traditional denoising methods are sensitive to outliers and non-Gaussian noise. In this paper, by utilizing the underlying low-rank tensor property of the clean HSI data and the sparsity property of the outliers and non-Gaussian noise, we propose a new model based on the robust low-rank tensor recovery, which can preserve the global structure of HSI and simultaneously remove the outliers and different types of noise: Gaussian noise, impulse noise, dead lines, and so on. The proposed model can be solved by the inexact augmented Lagrangian method, and experiments on simulated and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for HSI denoising.

  20. Target detection in GPR data using joint low-rank and sparsity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Abeynayake, Canicious

    2016-05-01

    In ground penetrating radars, background clutter, which comprises the signals backscattered from the rough, uneven ground surface and the background noise, impairs the visualization of buried objects and subsurface inspections. In this paper, a clutter mitigation method is proposed for target detection. The removal of background clutter is formulated as a constrained optimization problem to obtain a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix. The low-rank matrix captures the ground surface reflections and the background noise, whereas the sparse matrix contains the target reflections. An optimization method based on split-Bregman algorithm is developed to estimate these two matrices from the input GPR data. Evaluated on real radar data, the proposed method achieves promising results in removing the background clutter and enhancing the target signature.

  1. Low-rank factorization of electron integral tensors and its application in electronic structure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2017-03-01

    In this letter, we apply reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithm to transform two-electron integral tensors to their block diagonal forms. By further applying Cholesky decomposition (CD) on each of the diagonal blocks, we are able to represent the high-dimensional two-electron integral tensors in terms of permutation matrices and low-rank Cholesky vectors. This representation facilitates low-rank factorizations of high-dimensional tensor contractions in post-Hartree-Fock calculations. Here, we discuss the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) method and the linear coupled-cluster model with doubles (L-CCD) as examples to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in representing the two-electron integrals in a compact form.

  2. Low-rank factorization of electron integral tensors and its application in electronic structure theory

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2017-01-25

    In this paper, we apply reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithm to transform two-electron integral tensors to their block diagonal forms. By further applying Cholesky decomposition (CD) on each of the diagonal blocks, we are able to represent the high-dimensional two-electron integral tensors in terms of permutation matrices and low-rank Cholesky vectors. This representation facilitates low-rank factorizations of high-dimensional tensor contractions in post-Hartree-Fock calculations. Finally, we discuss the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) method and the linear coupled-cluster model with doubles (L-CCD) as examples to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in representing the two-electron integrals in a compact form.

  3. On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M J

    2009-10-06

    The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

  4. Simultaneous Reconstruction and Segmentation of Dynamic PET via Low-Rank and Sparse Matrix Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuhang; Liu, Huafeng; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Heye; Shi, Pengcheng; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-07-01

    Although of great clinical value, accurate and robust reconstruction and segmentation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images are great challenges due to low spatial resolution and high noise. In this paper, we propose a unified framework that exploits temporal correlations and variations within image sequences based on low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. Thus, the two separate inverse problems, PET image reconstruction and segmentation, are accomplished in a simultaneous fashion. Considering low signal to noise ratio and piece-wise constant assumption of PET images, we also propose to regularize low-rank and sparse matrices with vectorial total variation norm. The resulting optimization problem is solved by augmented Lagrangian multiplier method with variable splitting. The effectiveness of proposed approach is validated on realistic Monte Carlo simulation datasets and the real patient data.

  5. Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K.

    1983-08-02

    A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid.

  6. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  7. High-Resolution Dynamic Speech Imaging with Joint Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Maojing; Zhao, Bo; Carignan, Christopher; Shosted, Ryan K.; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To enable dynamic speech imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution and full-vocal-tract spatial coverage, leveraging recent advances in sparse sampling. Methods An imaging method is developed to enable high-speed dynamic speech imaging exploiting low-rank and sparsity of the dynamic images of articulatory motion during speech. The proposed method includes: a) a novel data acquisition strategy that collects navigators with high temporal frame rate, and b) an image reconstruction method that derives temporal subspaces from navigators and reconstructs high-resolution images from sparsely sampled data with joint low-rank and sparsity constraints. Results The proposed method has been systematically evaluated and validated through several dynamic speech experiments. A nominal imaging speed of 102 frames per second (fps) was achieved for a single-slice imaging protocol with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 × 6.5 mm3. An eight-slice imaging protocol covering the entire vocal tract achieved a nominal imaging speed of 12.8 fps with the identical spatial resolution. The effectiveness of the proposed method and its practical utility was also demonstrated in a phonetic investigation. Conclusion High spatiotemporal resolution with full-vocal-tract spatial coverage can be achieved for dynamic speech imaging experiments with low-rank and sparsity constraints. PMID:24912452

  8. The application of low-rank and sparse decomposition method in the field of climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nitika; Bhaskaran, Prasad K.

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports a low-rank and sparse decomposition method that separates the mean and the variability of a climate data field. Until now, the application of this technique was limited only in areas such as image processing, web data ranking, and bioinformatics data analysis. In climate science, this method exactly separates the original data into a set of low-rank and sparse components, wherein the low-rank components depict the linearly correlated dataset (expected or mean behavior), and the sparse component represents the variation or perturbation in the dataset from its mean behavior. The study attempts to verify the efficacy of this proposed technique in the field of climatology with two examples of real world. The first example attempts this technique on the maximum wind-speed (MWS) data for the Indian Ocean (IO) region. The study brings to light a decadal reversal pattern in the MWS for the North Indian Ocean (NIO) during the months of June, July, and August (JJA). The second example deals with the sea surface temperature (SST) data for the Bay of Bengal region that exhibits a distinct pattern in the sparse component. The study highlights the importance of the proposed technique used for interpretation and visualization of climate data.

  9. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  10. Low-rank coal drying technologies current status and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Wu, Z.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their vast reserves, low-rank coals are considered undesirable because their high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Their high moisture content, greater tendency to combust spontaneously, high degree of weathering, and the dusting characteristics restrict widespread use of such coals. The price of coal sold to utilities depends upon the heating value of the coal. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals (LRC) is an important operation. Furthermore, LRC can be used cost effectively for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction processes. This article provides an overview the diverse processes both those that utilize conventional drying technologies and those that are not yet commercialized and hence in need of RD. Relative merits and limitations of the various technologies and the current state of their development are presented. Drying characteristics of low-rank coal as well as factors affecting drying characteristics of coal samples are also discussed.

  11. Constructing a Nonnegative Low-Rank and Sparse Graph With Data-Adaptive Features.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liansheng; Gao, Shenghua; Tang, Jinhui; Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Zhouchen; Ma, Yi; Yu, Nenghai

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at constructing a good graph to discover the intrinsic data structures under a semisupervised learning setting. First, we propose to build a nonnegative low-rank and sparse (referred to as NNLRS) graph for the given data representation. In particular, the weights of edges in the graph are obtained by seeking a nonnegative low-rank and sparse reconstruction coefficients matrix that represents each data sample as a linear combination of others. The so-obtained NNLRS-graph captures both the global mixture of subspaces structure (by the low-rankness) and the locally linear structure (by the sparseness) of the data, hence it is both generative and discriminative. Second, as good features are extremely important for constructing a good graph, we propose to learn the data embedding matrix and construct the graph simultaneously within one framework, which is termed as NNLRS with embedded features (referred to as NNLRS-EF). Extensive NNLRS experiments on three publicly available data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art graph construction method by a large margin for both semisupervised classification and discriminative analysis, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. Color correction with blind image restoration based on multiple images using a low-rank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that can handle the color correction of multiple photographs with blind image restoration simultaneously and automatically. We prove that the local colors of a set of images of the same scene exhibit the low-rank property locally both before and after a color-correction operation. This property allows us to correct all kinds of errors in an image under a low-rank matrix model without particular priors or assumptions. The possible errors may be caused by changes of viewpoint, large illumination variations, gross pixel corruptions, partial occlusions, etc. Furthermore, a new iterative soft-segmentation method is proposed for local color transfer using color influence maps. Due to the fact that the correct color information and the spatial information of images can be recovered using the low-rank model, more precise color correction and many other image-restoration tasks-including image denoising, image deblurring, and gray-scale image colorizing-can be performed simultaneously. Experiments have verified that our method can achieve consistent and promising results on uncontrolled real photographs acquired from the Internet and that it outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  13. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  14. Dynamic PET reconstruction using temporal patch-based low rank penalty for ROI-based brain kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Son, Young Don; Bresler, Yoram; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used to measure changes in the bio-distribution of radiopharmaceuticals within particular organs of interest over time. However, to retain sufficient temporal resolution, the number of photon counts in each time frame must be limited. Therefore, conventional reconstruction algorithms such as the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) produce noisy reconstruction images, thus degrading the quality of the extracted time activity curves (TACs). To address this issue, many advanced reconstruction algorithms have been developed using various spatio-temporal regularizations. In this paper, we extend earlier results and develop a novel temporal regularization, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected in dynamic images. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the correlation of patches can be exploited using a low-rank constraint that is insensitive to global intensity variations. The resulting optimization framework is, however, non-Lipschitz and non-convex due to the Poisson log-likelihood and low-rank penalty terms. Direct application of the conventional Poisson image deconvolution by an augmented Lagrangian (PIDAL) algorithm is, however, problematic due to its large memory requirements, which prevents its parallelization. Thus, we propose a novel optimization framework using the concave-convex procedure (CCCP) by exploiting the Legendre-Fenchel transform, which is computationally efficient and parallelizable. In computer simulation and a real in vivo experiment using a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner, we confirm that the proposed algorithm can improve image quality while also extracting more accurate region of interests (ROI) based kinetic parameters. Furthermore, we show that the total reconstruction time for HRRT PET is significantly accelerated using our GPU implementation, which makes the algorithm very practical in clinical environments.

  15. Large-scale 3D EM modeling with a Block Low-Rank multifrontal direct solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantsev, Daniil V.; Jaysaval, Piyoosh; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Amestoy, Patrick R.; Buttari, Alfredo; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves; Mary, Theo

    2017-03-01

    We put forward the idea of using a Block Low-Rank (BLR) multifrontal direct solver to efficiently solve the linear systems of equations arising from a finite-difference discretization of the frequency-domain Maxwell equations for 3D electromagnetic (EM) problems. The solver uses a low-rank representation for the off-diagonal blocks of the intermediate dense matrices arising in the multifrontal method to reduce the computational load. A numerical threshold, the so called BLR threshold, controlling the accuracy of low-rank representations was optimized by balancing errors in the computed EM fields against savings in floating point operations (flops). Simulations were carried out over large-scale 3D resistivity models representing typical scenarios for marine controlled-source EM surveys, and in particular the SEG SEAM model which contains an irregular salt body. The flop count, size of factor matrices and elapsed run time for matrix factorization are reduced dramatically by using BLR representations and can go down to, respectively, 10%, 30% and 40% of their full rank values for our largest system with N = 20.6 million unknowns. The reductions are almost independent of the number of MPI tasks and threads at least up to 90 × 10 = 900 cores. The BLR savings increase for larger systems, which reduces the factorization flop complexity from O( {{N^2}} ) for the full-rank solver to O( {{N^m}} ) with m = 1.4 - 1.6 . The BLR savings are significantly larger for deep-water environments that exclude the highly resistive air layer from the computational domain. A study in a scenario where simulations are required at multiple source locations shows that the BLR solver can become competitive in comparison to iterative solvers as an engine for 3D CSEM Gauss-Newton inversion that requires forward modelling for a few thousand right-hand sides.

  16. Robust cardiac motion estimation using ultrafast ultrasound data: a low-rank-topology-preserving approach.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Nillesen, Maartje; Ammari, Habib

    2017-03-24

    Cardiac motion estimation is an important diagnostic tool to detect heart diseases and it has been explored with modalities such as MRI and conventional ultrasound (US) sequences. US cardiac motion estimation still presents challenges because of the complex motion patterns and the presence of noise. In this work, we propose a novel approach to estimate the cardiac motion using ultrafast ultrasound data. -- Our solution is based on a variational formulation characterized by the L2-regularized class. The displacement is represented by a lattice of b-splines and we ensure robustness by applying a maximum likelihood type estimator. While this is an important part of our solution, the main highlight of this work is to combine a low-rank data representation with topology preservation. Low-rank data representation (achieved by finding the k-dominant singular values of a Casorati Matrix arranged from the data sequence) speeds up the global solution and achieves noise reduction. On the other hand, topology preservation (achieved by monitoring the Jacobian determinant) allows to radically rule out distortions while carefully controlling the size of allowed expansions and contractions. Our variational approach is carried out on a realistic dataset as well as on a simulated one. We demonstrate how our proposed variational solution deals with complex deformations through careful numerical experiments. While maintaining the accuracy of the solution, the low-rank preprocessing is shown to speed up the convergence of the variational problem. Beyond cardiac motion estimation, our approach is promising for the analysis of other organs that experience motion.

  17. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  18. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  19. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.

  20. Remote sensing image segmentation using local sparse structure constrained latent low rank representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yimin; Su, Nan; Zhang, Junping

    2016-09-01

    Latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) has been attached considerable attention in the field of remote sensing image segmentation, due to its effectiveness in exploring the multiple subspace structures of data. However, the increasingly heterogeneous texture information in the high spatial resolution remote sensing images, leads to more severe interference of pixels in local neighborhood, and the LatLRR fails to capture the local complex structure information. Therefore, we present a local sparse structure constrainted latent low-rank representation (LSSLatLRR) segmentation method, which explicitly imposes the local sparse structure constraint on LatLRR to capture the intrinsic local structure in manifold structure feature subspaces. The whole segmentation framework can be viewed as two stages in cascade. In the first stage, we use the local histogram transform to extract the texture local histogram features (LHOG) at each pixel, which can efficiently capture the complex and micro-texture pattern. In the second stage, a local sparse structure (LSS) formulation is established on LHOG, which aims to preserve the local intrinsic structure and enhance the relationship between pixels having similar local characteristics. Meanwhile, by integrating the LSS and the LatLRR, we can efficiently capture the local sparse and low-rank structure in the mixture of feature subspace, and we adopt the subspace segmentation method to improve the segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on the remote sensing images with different spatial resolution show that, compared with three state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.

  1. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less

  2. SAR moving target imaging using sparse and low-rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kang-Yu; Rao, Shankar

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method to image a complex scene with spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) despite the presence of multiple moving targets. Many recent methods use sparsity-based reconstruction coupled with phase error corrections of moving targets to reconstruct stationary scenes. However, these methods rely on the assumption that the scene itself is sparse and thus unfortunately cannot handle realistic SAR scenarios with complex backgrounds consisting of more than just a few point targets. Our method makes use of sparse and low-rank (SLR) matrix decomposition, an efficient method for decomposing a low-rank matrix and sparse matrix from their sum. For detecting the moving targets and reconstructing the stationary background, SLR uses a convex optimization model that penalizes the nuclear norm of the low rank background structure and the L1 norm of the sparse moving targets. We propose an L1-norm regularization reconstruction method to form the input data matrix, which is grossly corrupted by the moving targets. Each column of the input matrix is a reconstructed SAR image with measurements from a small number of azimuth angles. The use of the L1-norm regularization and a sparse transform permits us to reconstruct the scene with significantly fewer measurements so that moving targets are approximately stationary. We demonstrate our SLR-based approach using simulations adapted from the GOTCHA Volumetric SAR data set. These simulations show that SLR can accurately image multiple moving targets with different individual motions in complex scenes where methods that assume a sparse scene would fail.

  3. Low-rank spectral expansions of two electron excitations for the acceleration of quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of two-electron excitations is a fundamental but computationally expensive part of ab initio calculations of many-electron correlation. In this paper we develop a low-rank spectral expansion of two-electron excitations for accelerated electronic-structure calculations. The spectral expansion differs from previous approaches by relying upon both (i) a sum of three expansions to increase the rank reduction of the tensor and (ii) a factorization of the tensor into geminal (rank-two) tensors rather than orbital (rank-one) tensors. We combine three spectral expansions from the three distinct forms of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM), (i) the two-particle 2D, (ii) the two-hole 2Q, and the (iii) particle-hole 2G matrices, to produce a single spectral expansion with significantly accelerated convergence. While the resulting expansion is applicable to any quantum-chemistry calculation with two-particle excitation amplitudes, it is employed here in the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.253002. The low-rank parametric 2-RDM method scales quartically with the basis-set size, but like its full-rank version it can capture multi-reference correlation effects that are difficult to treat efficiently by traditional single-reference wavefunction methods. Applications are made to computing potential energy curves of HF and triplet OH+, equilibrium bond distances and frequencies, the HCN-HNC isomerization, and the energies of hydrocarbon chains. Computed 2-RDMs nearly satisfy necessary N-representability conditions. The low-rank spectral expansion has the potential to expand the applicability of the parametric 2-RDM method as well as other ab initio methods to large-scale molecular systems that are often only treatable by mean-field or density functional theories.

  4. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Brune, P.

    2013-07-01

    Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)

  5. Towards estimating cardiac motion using low-rank representation and topology preservation for ultrafast ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Ammari, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Estimation of the cardiac motion is very important in order to detect heart diseases. This work presents a cardiac motion estimation approach using ultrafast ultrasound data. We optimize a variational framework which has the benefits of combining low-rank data representation with topology preservation. We show through the analysis of experimental results that this combination offers a radical reduction in computational time and noise while ensuring preservation of the anatomical structure of the heart under complex deformations. Although in this work we use the heart as a study case, our solution is promising to analyze other organs experiencing motion.

  6. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  7. Illumination Compensation and Normalization Using Low-Rank Decomposition of Multispectral Images in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Duliu, Alexandru; Brosig, Richard; Ognawala, Saahil; Lasser, Tobias; Ziai, Mahzad; Navab, Nassir

    2015-01-01

    When attempting to recover the surface color from an image, modelling the illumination contribution per-pixel is essential. In this work we present a novel approach for illumination compensation using multispectral image data. This is done by means of a low-rank decomposition of representative spectral bands with prior knowledge of the reflectance spectra of the imaged surface. Experimental results on synthetic data, as well as on images of real lesions acquired at the university clinic, show that the proposed method significantly improves the contrast between the lesion and the background.

  8. Improvement of stability and efficiency of combustion for low rank anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Sun, X.

    1994-12-31

    A new kind of burner, bluff-body with cavity burner, which is based on the bluff-body burner is developed in this paper. The three dimension mean velocity and turbulent characteristics have been measured in the burner`s recirculation zone by using three dimension laser dynamics analysis. For a low rank anthracite, combustion test shows this burner is better than bluff-body in ignition and flame stability. 50 MW(220T/H) boiler operation show that the temperature in the flame zone is high, combustion is very stable and the efficiency is increased when this burner is used.

  9. On matrices with low-rank-plus-shift structure: Partial SVD and latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Zhang, Z.

    1998-08-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of matrices satisfying the so-called low-rank-plus-shift property in connection with the computation of their partial singular value decomposition. The application they have in mind is Latent Semantic Indexing for information retrieval where the term-document matrices generated from a text corpus approximately satisfy this property. The analysis is motivated by developing more efficient methods for computing and updating partial SVD of large term-document matrices and gaining deeper understanding of the behavior of the methods in the presence of noise.

  10. Feature transformation of neural activity with sparse and low-rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kang-Yu; Benvenuto, James; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Millin, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel application of the sparse and low-rank (SLR) decomposition method to decode cognitive states for concept activity measured using fMRI BOLD. Current decoding methods attempt to reduce the dimensionality of fMRI BOLD signals to increase classification rate, but do not address the separable issues of multiple noise sources and complexity in the underlying data. Our feature transformation method extends SLR to separate task activity from the resting state and extract concept specific cognitive state. We show a significant increase in single trial decoding of concepts from fMRI BOLD using SLR to extract task specific cognitive state.

  11. Low-Rank Decomposition Based Restoration of Compressed Images via Adaptive Noise Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Lin, Weisi; Xiong, Ruiqin; Liu, Xianming; Ma, Siwei; Gao, Wen

    2016-07-07

    Images coded at low bit rates in real-world applications usually suffer from significant compression noise, which significantly degrades the visual quality. Traditional denoising methods are not suitable for the content-dependent compression noise, which usually assume that noise is independent and with identical distribution. In this paper, we propose a unified framework of content-adaptive estimation and reduction for compression noise via low-rank decomposition of similar image patches. We first formulate the framework of compression noise reduction based upon low-rank decomposition. Compression noises are removed by soft-thresholding the singular values in singular value decomposition (SVD) of every group of similar image patches. For each group of similar patches, the thresholds are adaptively determined according to compression noise levels and singular values. We analyze the relationship of image statistical characteristics in spatial and transform domains, and estimate compression noise level for every group of similar patches from statistics in both domains jointly with quantization steps. Finally, quantization constraint is applied to estimated images to avoid over-smoothing. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method not only improves the quality of compressed images obviously for post-processing, but are also helpful for computer vision tasks as a pre-processing method.

  12. MsLRR: a unified multiscale low-rank representation for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobai; Xu, Qian; Ma, Jiayi; Jin, Hai; Zhang, Yanduo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient multiscale low-rank representation for image segmentation. Our method begins with partitioning the input images into a set of superpixels, followed by seeking the optimal superpixel-pair affinity matrix, both of which are performed at multiple scales of the input images. Since low-level superpixel features are usually corrupted by image noise, we propose to infer the low-rank refined affinity matrix. The inference is guided by two observations on natural images. First, looking into a single image, local small-size image patterns tend to recur frequently within the same semantic region, but may not appear in semantically different regions. The internal image statistics are referred to as replication prior, and we quantitatively justified it on real image databases. Second, the affinity matrices at different scales should be consistently solved, which leads to the cross-scale consistency constraint. We formulate these two purposes with one unified formulation and develop an efficient optimization procedure. The proposed representation can be used for both unsupervised or supervised image segmentation tasks. Our experiments on public data sets demonstrate the presented method can substantially improve segmentation accuracy.

  13. Performance of low-rank QR approximation of the finite element Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B

    2006-10-16

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is easily implemented on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. While an octree partitioning of the matrix may be ideal, for ease of parallel implementation we employ a partitioning based on number of processors. The rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  14. Bayesian Framework with Non-local and Low-rank Constraint for Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhonghe; Wang, Shengzhe; Huo, Jianliang; Guo, Hang; Zhao, Haibo; Mei, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Built upon the similar methodology of 'grouping and collaboratively filtering', the proposed algorithm recovers image patches from the array of similar noisy patches based on the assumption that their noise-free versions or approximation lie in a low dimensional subspace and has a low rank. Based on the analysis of the effect of noise and perturbation on the singular value, a weighted nuclear norm is defined to replace the conventional nuclear norm. Corresponding low-rank decomposition model and singular value shrinkage operator are derived. Taking into account the difference between the distribution of the signal and the noise, the weight depends not only on the standard deviation of noise, but also on the rank of the noise-free matrix and the singular value itself. Experimental results in image reconstruction tasks show that at relatively low computational cost the performance of proposed method is very close to state-of-the-art reconstruction methods BM3D and LSSC even outperforms them in restoring and preserving structure

  15. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Low-Rank and Cross-Correlation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Hang; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents cost-effective low-rank techniques for designing robust adaptive beamforming (RAB) algorithms. The proposed algorithms are based on the exploitation of the cross-correlation between the array observation data and the output of the beamformer. Firstly, we construct a general linear equation considered in large dimensions whose solution yields the steering vector mismatch. Then, we employ the idea of the full orthogonalization method (FOM), an orthogonal Krylov subspace based method, to iteratively estimate the steering vector mismatch in a reduced-dimensional subspace, resulting in the proposed orthogonal Krylov subspace projection mismatch estimation (OKSPME) method. We also devise adaptive algorithms based on stochastic gradient (SG) and conjugate gradient (CG) techniques to update the beamforming weights with low complexity and avoid any costly matrix inversion. The main advantages of the proposed low-rank and mismatch estimation techniques are their cost-effectiveness when dealing with high dimension subspaces or large sensor arrays. Simulations results show excellent performance in terms of the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the beamformer among all the compared RAB methods.

  16. Structure-based Low-Rank Model with Graph Nuclear Norm Regularization for Noise Removal.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Wu, Fei; Wei, Zhihui; Xiao, Liang; Shao, Wenze; Yue, Dong; Li, Haibo

    2016-12-15

    Nonlocal image representation methods, including group-based sparse coding and BM3D, have shown their great performance in application to low-level tasks. The nonlocal prior is extracted from each group consisting of patches with similar intensities. Grouping patches based on intensity similarity, however, gives rise to disturbance and inaccuracy in estimation of the true images. To address this problem, we propose a structure-based low-rank model with graph nuclear norm regularization. We exploit the local manifold structure inside a patch and group the patches by the distance metric of manifold structure. With the manifold structure information, a graph nuclear norm regularization is established and incorporated into a low-rank approximation model. We then prove that the graph-based regularization is equivalent to a weighted nuclear norm and the proposed model can be solved by a weighted singular-value thresholding algorithm. Extensive experiments on additive white Gaussian noise removal and mixed noise removal demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. Low-Rank Positive Semidefinite Matrix Recovery From Corrupted Rank-One Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanxin; Sun, Yue; Chi, Yuejie

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating a low-rank positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix from a set of rank-one measurements using sensing vectors composed of i.i.d. standard Gaussian entries, which are possibly corrupted by arbitrary outliers. This problem arises from applications such as phase retrieval, covariance sketching, quantum space tomography, and power spectrum estimation. We first propose a convex optimization algorithm that seeks the PSD matrix with the minimum $\\ell_1$-norm of the observation residual. The advantage of our algorithm is that it is free of parameters, therefore eliminating the need for tuning parameters and allowing easy implementations. We establish that with high probability, a low-rank PSD matrix can be exactly recovered as soon as the number of measurements is large enough, even when a fraction of the measurements are corrupted by outliers with arbitrary magnitudes. Moreover, the recovery is also stable against bounded noise. With the additional information of an upper bound of the rank of the PSD matrix, we propose another non-convex algorithm based on subgradient descent that demonstrates excellent empirical performance in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  19. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  20. Sparse and low-rank feature extraction for the classification of target's tracking capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Behnood; Gudmundsson, Karl S.

    2016-09-01

    A feature extraction-based classification method is proposed in this paper for verifying the capability of human's neck in target tracking. Here, the target moves in predefined trajectory patterns in three difficulty levels. Dataset used for each pattern is obtained from two groups of people, one with whiplash associated disorder (WAD) and asymptomatic group, who behave in both sincere and feign manner. The aim is to verify the WAD group from asymptomatic one and also to discriminate the sincere behavior from the feigned one. Sparse and low-rank feature extraction is proposed to extract the most informative feature from training samples and then each sample is classified into the group which has the highest correlation coefficient with. The classification results are improved by fusing the results of the three patterns.

  1. An integrated approach to the utilization of low rank coals and biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S.; Sen, M.; Moitra, N.

    1999-08-01

    While suggesting an integrated approach for utilization of inferior low rank coals for power in India, the importance of low temperature carbonization followed by retrieval of all value-based products has been stressed. It is further suggested that tar, obtained in the process, could be hydrogenated and fractionated in a central plant for conversion to hydrocarbons. High ash char, the principal product of pyrolysis, has been experimentally found to be amenable to beneficiation, yielding suitable fractions for power generation, briquetting, or blending. Experimental studies have shown that forest litters and agricultural wastes, containing significant proportions of spore, cuticle, and exine--considered as precursors of hydrocarbon-generating coal macerals--also yield large quantities of tar, ammonical liquor, and the principal product, char, which can be respectively utilized for the production of petroleum substitutes, value-based chemicals, and source material for blending, briquette making, and char-water slurries, opening up new avenues for fuel utilization and conservation.

  2. A dynamical low-rank approach to the chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Tobias; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2008-11-01

    Stochastic reaction kinetics have increasingly been used to study cellular systems, with applications ranging from viral replication to gene regulatory networks and to signaling pathways. The underlying evolution equation, known as the chemical master equation (CME), can rarely be solved with traditional methods due to the huge number of degrees of freedom. We present a new approach to directly solve the CME by a dynamical low-rank approximation based on the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The new approach has the capability to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom, and to turn the CME into a computationally tractable problem. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods in application to two examples of biological interest.

  3. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken; Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a "bottom-up" manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives.

  4. A Novel Riemannian Metric Based on Riemannian Structure and Scaling Information for Fixed Low-Rank Matrix Completion.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shasha; Xiong, Lin; Jiao, Licheng; Feng, Tian; Yeung, Sai-Kit

    2016-07-26

    Riemannian optimization has been widely used to deal with the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem, and Riemannian metric is a crucial factor of obtaining the search direction in Riemannian optimization. This paper proposes a new Riemannian metric via simultaneously considering the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information, which is smoothly varying and invariant along the equivalence class. The proposed metric can make a tradeoff between the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information effectively. Essentially, it can be viewed as a generalization of some existing metrics. Based on the proposed Riemanian metric, we also design a Riemannian nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, which can efficiently solve the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem. By experimenting on the fixed low-rank matrix completion, collaborative filtering, and image and video recovery, it illustrates that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods on the convergence efficiency and the numerical performance.

  5. Hydrothermal extraction and gasification of low rank coal with catalyst Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachruzzaki, Handayani, Ismi; Mursito, Anggoro Tri

    2017-01-01

    Increasing coal quality is very important in order to utilize low-rank coal. This research is attempted to increase the quality of low-rank coal using hydrothermal process with hot compressed water (HCW) at 200 °C and 3 MPa. The product from this process were solid residue and liquid filtrate with organic component. Product from gasification of the filtrate was synthetic gas. The result showed that higher water flow rate could increase organic component in the filtrate. When a catalyst was used, the extraction process was faster, the organic component in the filtrate was increased while its content was decreased in the residue. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that coal extraction using HCW was more effective with catalyst Pd/Al2O3. Increasing the process temperature will increase the amounts CO and H2 gas. In this research, highest net heating value at 800°C using K2CO3 solution and Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was 17,774.36 kJ/kg. The highest cold gas efficiency was 91.29% and the best carbon conversion was 34.78%.

  6. Data Compression for the Tomo-e Gozen Using Low-rank Matrix Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Ohsawa, Ryou

    2017-01-01

    Optical wide-field surveys with a high cadence are expected to create a new field of astronomy, so-called “movie astronomy,” in the near future. The amount of data from the observations will be huge, and hence efficient data compression will be indispensable. Here we propose a low-rank matrix approximation with sparse matrix decomposition as a promising solution to reduce the data size effectively while preserving sufficient scientific information. We apply one of the methods to the movie data obtained with the prototype model of the Tomo-e Gozen mounted on the 1.0 m Schmidt telescope of Kiso Observatory. Once full-scale observation with the Tomo-e Gozen commences, it will generate ∼30 TB of data per night. We demonstrate that the data are compressed by a factor of about 10 in size without losing transient events like optical short transient point sources and meteors. The intensity of point sources can be recovered from the compressed data. The processing runs sufficiently fast, compared with the expected data-acquisition rate in the actual observing runs.

  7. Low-rank separated representation surrogates of high-dimensional stochastic functions: Application in Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect

    Validi, AbdoulAhad

    2014-03-01

    This study introduces a non-intrusive approach in the context of low-rank separated representation to construct a surrogate of high-dimensional stochastic functions, e.g., PDEs/ODEs, in order to decrease the computational cost of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations in Bayesian inference. The surrogate model is constructed via a regularized alternative least-square regression with Tikhonov regularization using a roughening matrix computing the gradient of the solution, in conjunction with a perturbation-based error indicator to detect optimal model complexities. The model approximates a vector of a continuous solution at discrete values of a physical variable. The required number of random realizations to achieve a successful approximation linearly depends on the function dimensionality. The computational cost of the model construction is quadratic in the number of random inputs, which potentially tackles the curse of dimensionality in high-dimensional stochastic functions. Furthermore, this vector-valued separated representation-based model, in comparison to the available scalar-valued case, leads to a significant reduction in the cost of approximation by an order of magnitude equal to the vector size. The performance of the method is studied through its application to three numerical examples including a 41-dimensional elliptic PDE and a 21-dimensional cavity flow.

  8. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  9. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  10. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  11. PCLR: Phase-Constrained Low-Rank Model for Compressive Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Weifeng; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This work develops a compressive sensing approach for diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods A phase-constrained low-rank (PCLR) approach was developed using the image coherence across the DW directions for efficient compressive DW MRI, while accounting for drastic phase changes across the DW directions, possibly as a result of eddy current, and rigid and non-rigid motions. In PCLR, a low-resolution phase estimation was used for removing phase inconsistency between DW directions. In our implementation, GRAPPA was incorporated for better phase estimation while allowing higher undersampling factor. An efficient and easy-to-implement image reconstruction algorithm, consisting mainly of partial Fourier update and singular value decomposition, was developed for solving PCLR. Results The error measures based on diffusion-tensor-derived metrics and tractography indicated that PCLR, with its joint reconstruction of all DW images using the image coherence, outperformed the frame-independent reconstruction through zero-padding FFT. Furthermore, using GRAPPA for phase estimation, PCLR readily achieved a 4-fold undersampling. Conclusion The PCLR is developed and demonstrated for compressive DW MRI. A 4-fold reduction in k-space sampling could be readily achieved without substantial degradation of reconstructed images and diffusion tensor measures, making it possible to significantly reduce the data acquisition in DW MRI and/or improve spatial and angular resolutions. PMID:24327553

  12. Nonlocal image restoration with bilateral variance estimation: a low-rank approach.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weisheng; Shi, Guangming; Li, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous sparse coding (SSC) or nonlocal image representation has shown great potential in various low-level vision tasks, leading to several state-of-the-art image restoration techniques, including BM3D and LSSC. However, it still lacks a physically plausible explanation about why SSC is a better model than conventional sparse coding for the class of natural images. Meanwhile, the problem of sparsity optimization, especially when tangled with dictionary learning, is computationally difficult to solve. In this paper, we take a low-rank approach toward SSC and provide a conceptually simple interpretation from a bilateral variance estimation perspective, namely that singular-value decomposition of similar packed patches can be viewed as pooling both local and nonlocal information for estimating signal variances. Such perspective inspires us to develop a new class of image restoration algorithms called spatially adaptive iterative singular-value thresholding (SAIST). For noise data, SAIST generalizes the celebrated BayesShrink from local to nonlocal models; for incomplete data, SAIST extends previous deterministic annealing-based solution to sparsity optimization through incorporating the idea of dictionary learning. In addition to conceptual simplicity and computational efficiency, SAIST has achieved highly competent (often better) objective performance compared to several state-of-the-art methods in image denoising and completion experiments. Our subjective quality results compare favorably with those obtained by existing techniques, especially at high noise levels and with a large amount of missing data.

  13. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J.; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1 mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10 min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice.

  14. Motion adaptive patch-based low-rank approach for compressed sensing cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Huisu; Kim, Kyung Sang; Kim, Daniel; Bresler, Yoram; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    One of the technical challenges in cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to reduce the acquisition time to enable the high spatio-temporal resolution imaging of a cardiac volume within a short scan time. Recently, compressed sensing approaches have been investigated extensively for highly accelerated cine MRI by exploiting transform domain sparsity using linear transforms such as wavelets, and Fourier. However, in cardiac cine imaging, the cardiac volume changes significantly between frames, and there often exist abrupt pixel value changes along time. In order to effectively sparsify such temporal variations, it is necessary to exploit temporal redundancy along motion trajectories. This paper introduces a novel patch-based reconstruction method to exploit geometric similarities in the spatio-temporal domain. In particular, we use a low rank constraint for similar patches along motion, based on the observation that rank structures are relatively less sensitive to global intensity changes, but make it easier to capture moving edges. A Nash equilibrium formulation with relaxation is employed to guarantee convergence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm clearly reconstructs important anatomical structures in cardiac cine image and provides improved image quality compared to existing state-of-the-art methods such as k-t FOCUSS, k-t SLR, and MASTeR.

  15. Alaska low-rank coal-water fuel -- Diesel demonstration Phase 2: Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.; Benson, C.; Wilson, R.; Krier, G.; Ruckhaus, M.; Walsh, D.; Ward, C.

    1998-07-01

    The technical feasibility of producing and utilizing a premium low-rank coal-water fuel (LRCWF) made from ultra-low sulfur Alaskan subbituminous coal following hydrothermal treatment (HT) has been demonstrated in pilot plants in Australia, Japan and the US. Preliminary process economics suggest that LRCWF produced from subbituminous coal from the Beluga coal field near Anchorage, Alaska, with measured coal reserves approaching 2 billion tons, would be competitive with heavy oil priced above about $18 per barrel in Japan. Consequently, a consortium led by Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. (UCM), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Coal-Water Fuel Services (CWFS) was formed to seek funding for a commercial-scale demonstration project to be built at UAF. Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), led a team that demonstrated the feasibility of using CWFs in medium speed diesel engines. They were awarded funding in DOE's fifth and final Clean Coal Technology Program solicitation to demonstrate the technology at commercial scale in a Maryland utility. Due to reduced power demands, the utility withdrew and project developers sought a new location. ADL was familiar with the potential synergism with the proposed Alaskan LRCWF project and have joined with the Alaskan team to formulate the LRCWF-Diesel Demonstration Project to be located at UAF. Coltec Industries, Fairbanks Morse Engine Division, will provide commercial CWF diesel technology.

  16. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  17. Learning Low-Rank Class-Specific Dictionary and Sparse Intra-Class Variant Dictionary for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Feng, Guo-can; Li, Xiao-xin; Cai, Jia-xin

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is challenging especially when the images from different persons are similar to each other due to variations in illumination, expression, and occlusion. If we have sufficient training images of each person which can span the facial variations of that person under testing conditions, sparse representation based classification (SRC) achieves very promising results. However, in many applications, face recognition often encounters the small sample size problem arising from the small number of available training images for each person. In this paper, we present a novel face recognition framework by utilizing low-rank and sparse error matrix decomposition, and sparse coding techniques (LRSE+SC). Firstly, the low-rank matrix recovery technique is applied to decompose the face images per class into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix. The low-rank matrix of each individual is a class-specific dictionary and it captures the discriminative feature of this individual. The sparse error matrix represents the intra-class variations, such as illumination, expression changes. Secondly, we combine the low-rank part (representative basis) of each person into a supervised dictionary and integrate all the sparse error matrix of each individual into a within-individual variant dictionary which can be applied to represent the possible variations between the testing and training images. Then these two dictionaries are used to code the query image. The within-individual variant dictionary can be shared by all the subjects and only contribute to explain the lighting conditions, expressions, and occlusions of the query image rather than discrimination. At last, a reconstruction-based scheme is adopted for face recognition. Since the within-individual dictionary is introduced, LRSE+SC can handle the problem of the corrupted training data and the situation that not all subjects have enough samples for training. Experimental results show that our method achieves the

  18. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  19. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  20. Improved Parker's method for topographic models using Chebyshev series and low rank approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Leyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    We present a new method to improve the convergence of the well-known Parker's formula for the modelling of gravity and magnetic fields caused by sources with complex topography. In the original Parker's formula, two approximations are made, which may cause considerable numerical errors and instabilities: 1) the approximation of the forward and inverse continuous Fourier transforms using their discrete counterparts, the forward and inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms; 2) the approximation of the exponential function with its Taylor series expansion. In a previous paper of ours, we have made an effort addressing the first problem by applying the Gauss-FFT method instead of the standard FFT algorithm. The new Gauss-FFT based method shows improved numerical efficiency and agrees well with space-domain analytical or hybrid analytical-numerical algorithms. However, even under the simplifying assumption of a calculation surface being a level plane above all topographic sources, the method may still fail or become inaccurate under certain circumstances. When the peaks of the topography approach the observation surface too closely, the number of terms of the Taylor series expansion needed to reach a suitable precision becomes large and slows the calculation. We show in this paper that this problem is caused by the second approximation mentioned above, and it is due to the convergence property of the Taylor series expansion that the algorithm becomes inaccurate for certain topographic models with large amplitudes. Based on this observation, we present a modified Parker's method using low rank approximation (LRA) of the exponential function in virtue of the Chebfun software system. In this way, the optimal rate of convergence is achieved. Some pre-computation is needed but will not cause significant computational overheads. Synthetic and real model tests show that the method now works well for almost any practical topographic model, provided that the assumption

  1. Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

    1993-12-31

    Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

  2. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  3. Alaska low-rank coal-water fuel diesel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Wilson, R.; Walsh, D.; Ward, C.; Willson, W.

    1997-12-31

    A Coal-Water Fuel (CWF)-Diesel Demonstration Project developed by ADLittle (ADL) and Cooper-Energy Systems (CES) was selected for funding in US Dept. of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT). The $38.3 million demonstration was originally planned for a utility in Maryland using CWF made from cleaned Ohio bituminous coal. When the host utility withdrew from the project, the sponsors sought a new location. During this time the technical feasibility of producing a premium low-rank coal-water fuel (LRCWF) from hydrothermally treated (HT) ultra-low S Alaskan subbituminous coal had been demonstrated at the pilot-scale. Since preliminary cost analyses showed Alaskan LRCWF to be competitive with Chinese bituminous CWF and oil priced at about $18 per barrel, an Alaskan consortium was seeking funding for a commercial-scale LRCWF demonstration project proposed for the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). Since the engine developers at CES were already familiar with the features of LRCWF, the projects were combined and DOE approved relocating the LRCWF-Diesel CCT Project to UAF. The combined project will feature a 6.3 MWe diesel generation set with advanced emission controls capable of operating with either LRCWF or diesel, an oil-designed boiler also modified to use LRCWF or oil, and a nominal 120 tpd LRCWF production plant. Key project objectives are to develop commercial-scale LRCWF production costs, determine derating requirements and deratings for oil-designed boilers fired with LRCWF and to operate a LRCWF-fired diesel engine long enough to establish operating and wear characteristics.

  4. CO2 Adsorption in Low-Rank Coals: Progress Toward Assessing the National Capacity to Store CO2 in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, R. W.; Burruss, R. C.; Flores, R. M.; Warwick, P. D.

    2001-05-01

    Subsurface environments for geologic storage of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuel include saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coalbeds. Of these environments, storage in petroleum reservoirs and coal beds offers a potential economic benefit of enhanced recovery of energy resources. Meaningful assessment of the volume and geographic distribution of storage sites requires quantitative estimates of geologic factors that control storage capacity. The factors that control the storage capacity of unmineable coalbeds are poorly understood. In preparation for a USGS assessment of CO2 storage capacity we have begun new measurements of CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms of low-rank coal samples from 4 basins. Initial results for 13 samples of low-rank coal beds from the Powder River Basin (9 subbituminous coals), Greater Green River Basin (1 subbituminous coal), Williston Basin (2 lignites) and the Gulf Coast (1 lignite) indicate that their adsorption capacity is up to 10 times higher than it is for CH4. These values contrast with published measurements of the CO2 adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan basin, and Gates Formation, British Columbia, that indicate about twice as much carbon dioxide as methane can be adsorbed on coals. Because CH4 adsorption isotherms are commonly measured on coals, CO2 adsorption capacity can be estimated if thecorrect relationship between the gases is known. However, use a factor to predict CO2 adsorption that is twice that of CH4 adsorption, which is common in the published literature, grossly underestimates the storage capacity of widely distributed, thick low-rank coal beds. Complete petrographic and chemical characterization of these low-rank coal samples is in progress. Significant variations in adsorption measurements among samples are depicted depending on the reporting basis used. Properties were measured on an "as received" (moist) basis but can be converted to a

  5. A parallel computer implementation of fast low-rank QR approximation of the Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D A; Fasenfest, B J; Stowell, M L

    2005-11-07

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. The matrix partitioning is determined by the number of processors, the rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  6. Simultaneously sparse and low-rank hyperspectral image recovery from coded aperture compressive measurements via convex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélvez, Tatiana C.; Rueda, Hoover F.; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    A hyperspectral image (HSI) can be described as a set of images with spatial information across different spectral bands. Compressive spectral imaging techniques (CSI) permit to capture a 3-dimensional hyperspectral scene using 2 dimensional coded and multiplexed projections. Recovering the original scene from a very few projections can be valuable in applications such as remote sensing, video surveillance and biomedical imaging. Typically, HSI exhibit high correlations both, in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Thus, exploiting these correlations allows to accurately recover the original scene from compressed measurements. Traditional approaches exploit the sparsity of the scene when represented in a proper basis. For this purpose, an optimization problem that seeks to minimize a joint l2 - l1 norm is solved to obtain the original scene. However, there exist some HSI with an important feature which does not have been widely exploited; HSI are commonly low rank, thus only a few number of spectral signatures are presented in the image. Therefore, this paper proposes an approach to recover a simultaneous sparse and low rank hyperspectral image by exploiting both features at the same time. The proposed approach solves an optimization problem that seeks to minimize the l2-norm, penalized by the l1-norm, to force the solution to be sparse, and penalized by the nuclear norm to force the solution to be low rank. Theoretical analysis along with a set of simulations over different data sets show that simultaneously exploiting low rank and sparse structures enhances the performance of the recovery algorithm and the quality of the recovered image with an average improvement of around 3 dB in terms of the peak-signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  7. Patch-based denoising method using low-rank technique and targeted database for optical coherence tomography image.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Image denoising is a crucial step before performing segmentation or feature extraction on an image, which affects the final result in image processing. In recent years, utilizing the self-similarity characteristics of the images, many patch-based image denoising methods have been proposed, but most of them, named the internal denoising methods, utilized the noisy image only where the performances are constrained by the limited information they used. We proposed a patch-based method, which uses a low-rank technique and targeted database, to denoise the optical coherence tomography (OCT) image. When selecting the similar patches for the noisy patch, our method combined internal and external denoising, utilizing the other images relevant to the noisy image, in which our targeted database is made up of these two kinds of images and is an improvement compared with the previous methods. Next, we leverage the low-rank technique to denoise the group matrix consisting of the noisy patch and the corresponding similar patches, for the fact that a clean image can be seen as a low-rank matrix and rank of the noisy image is much larger than the clean image. After the first-step denoising is accomplished, we take advantage of Gabor transform, which considered the layer characteristic of the OCT retinal images, to construct a noisy image before the second step. Experimental results demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the existing state-of-the-art methods.

  8. ℓ1/2-norm regularized nonnegative low-rank and sparse affinity graph for remote sensing image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yiming; Su, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Segmentation of real-world remote sensing images is a challenge due to the complex texture information with high heterogeneity. Thus, graph-based image segmentation methods have been attracting great attention in the field of remote sensing. However, most of the traditional graph-based approaches fail to capture the intrinsic structure of the feature space and are sensitive to noises. A ℓ-norm regularization-based graph segmentation method is proposed to segment remote sensing images. First, we use the occlusion of the random texture model (ORTM) to extract the local histogram features. Then, a ℓ-norm regularized low-rank and sparse representation (LNNLRS) is implemented to construct a ℓ-regularized nonnegative low-rank and sparse graph (LNNLRS-graph), by the union of feature subspaces. Moreover, the LNNLRS-graph has a high ability to discriminate the manifold intrinsic structure of highly homogeneous texture information. Meanwhile, the LNNLRS representation takes advantage of the low-rank and sparse characteristics to remove the noises and corrupted data. Last, we introduce the LNNLRS-graph into the graph regularization nonnegative matrix factorization to enhance the segmentation accuracy. The experimental results using remote sensing images show that when compared to five state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.

  9. Effect of pretreatment with carbonic acid on 'Hypercoal' (ash-free coal) production from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kensuke Masaki; Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Shinya Sato; Akimitsu Matsumura; Ikuo Saito

    2005-10-01

    The use of 'HyperCoal' (ash-free coal) as feedstock for gas turbines results in higher net power output with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. HyperCoal can be produced by thermal extraction from low-rank coals with industrial organic solvents in an inert atmosphere, providing raw materials. The pretreatment of low-rank coals with carbonic acid (CO{sub 2} dissolved in water - CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) produced a strong increase in HyperCoal yields at relatively lower CO{sub 2} pressures of 0.1-0.5 MPa; the thermal extraction yields at 360{sup o}C increased by 7%-15% with extraction yields of 52% and 45% obtained for Wyodak sub-bituminous coal and Beulah-Zap lignite, respectively. In the range of 320-360{sup o}C, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO) extraction yields of pretreated Wyodak coal increased significantly (by 4%-11%) over those of raw coal. The enhanced extraction yields of these low-rank coals are attributed to disruption of cation-bridging crosslinks on acid pretreatment, and the release of the hydrogen bonds by CMNO extraction. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  11. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  12. Harnessing data structure for recovery of randomly missing structural vibration responses time history: Sparse representation versus low-rank structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.

  13. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew; Orem, William; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  14. Low-rank and Sparse Matrix Decomposition for Accelerated Dynamic MRI with Separation of Background and Dynamic Components

    PubMed Central

    Otazo, Ricardo; Candès, Emmanuel; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To apply the low-rank plus sparse (L+S) matrix decomposition model to reconstruct undersampled dynamic MRI as a superposition of background and dynamic components in various problems of clinical interest. Theory and Methods The L+S model is natural to represent dynamic MRI data. Incoherence between k−t space (acquisition) and the singular vectors of L and the sparse domain of S is required to reconstruct undersampled data. Incoherence between L and S is required for robust separation of background and dynamic components. Multicoil L+S reconstruction is formulated using a convex optimization approach, where the nuclear-norm is used to enforce low-rank in L and the l1-norm to enforce sparsity in S. Feasibility of the L+S reconstruction was tested in several dynamic MRI experiments with true acceleration including cardiac perfusion, cardiac cine, time-resolved angiography, abdominal and breast perfusion using Cartesian and radial sampling. Results The L+S model increased compressibility of dynamic MRI data and thus enabled high acceleration factors. The inherent background separation improved background suppression performance compared to conventional data subtraction, which is sensitive to motion. Conclusion The high acceleration and background separation enabled by L+S promises to enhance spatial and temporal resolution and to enable background suppression without the need of subtraction or modeling. PMID:24760724

  15. Dynamic PET reconstruction using temporal patch-based low rank penalty for ROI-based brain kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsang; Son, Young Don; Bresler, Yoram; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-03-07

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used to measure changes in the bio-distribution of radiopharmaceuticals within particular organs of interest over time. However, to retain sufficient temporal resolution, the number of photon counts in each time frame must be limited. Therefore, conventional reconstruction algorithms such as the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) produce noisy reconstruction images, thus degrading the quality of the extracted time activity curves (TACs). To address this issue, many advanced reconstruction algorithms have been developed using various spatio-temporal regularizations. In this paper, we extend earlier results and develop a novel temporal regularization, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected in dynamic images. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the correlation of patches can be exploited using a low-rank constraint that is insensitive to global intensity variations. The resulting optimization framework is, however, non-Lipschitz and nonconvex due to the Poisson log-likelihood and low-rank penalty terms. Direct application of the conventional Poisson image deconvolution by an augmented Lagrangian (PIDAL) algorithm is, however, problematic due to its large memory requirements, which prevents its parallelization. Thus, we propose a novel optimization framework using the concave-convex procedure (CCCP)

  16. LOW-RANK SMOOTHING SPLINES ON COMPLEX DOMAINS. (R829095C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  18. Fast iterative solution of the Bethe-Salpeter eigenvalue problem using low-rank and QTT tensor approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Peter; Dolgov, Sergey; Khoromskaia, Venera; Khoromskij, Boris N.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose and study two approaches to approximate the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) by using structured iterative eigenvalue solvers. Both approaches are based on the reduced basis method and low-rank factorizations of the generating matrices. We also propose to represent the static screen interaction part in the BSE matrix by a small active sub-block, with a size balancing the storage for rank-structured representations of other matrix blocks. We demonstrate by various numerical tests that the combination of the diagonal plus low-rank plus reduced-block approximation exhibits higher precision with low numerical cost, providing as well a distinct two-sided error estimate for the smallest eigenvalues of the Bethe-Salpeter operator. The complexity is reduced to O (Nb2) in the size of the atomic orbitals basis set, Nb, instead of the practically intractable O (Nb6) scaling for the direct diagonalization. In the second approach, we apply the quantized-TT (QTT) tensor representation to both, the long eigenvectors and the column vectors in the rank-structured BSE matrix blocks, and combine this with the ALS-type iteration in block QTT format. The QTT-rank of the matrix entities possesses almost the same magnitude as the number of occupied orbitals in the molecular systems, No

  19. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  20. Low-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Absil, O.; Absil, P.-A.; Van Droogenbroeck, M.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space

  1. Changes in the chemical structure of low rank coal after low temperature oxidation or demineralisation by acid treatment: Analysis by FTIR and UV fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kister, J.; Guiliano, M.; Mille, G.; Dou, H.

    1987-04-01

    The studies have been conducted on low rank coal: Flambant de Provence, France, PRV=0.44 FTIR and UV synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy are used to study structural changes in low rank coal after natural oxidation or acid (HCl/HF) demineralization. The observed variations deal mainly with a decrease in aliphatic structures and an increase in the oxygenated species. A quantitative oxidation study of the effect of temperature, time, mineral matter and oxygen concentrations has been conducted by FTIR. An attempt to describe the oxygenated species by FTIR and to compare their evolution has been conducted. Various oxidation mechanisms are proposed according to the results.

  2. Reconstruction of Undersampled Big Dynamic MRI Data Using Non-Convex Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ryan Wen; Shi, Lin; Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Xiong, Naixue; Wang, Defeng

    2017-03-03

    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been extensively utilized for enhancing medical living environment visualization, however, in clinical practice it often suffers from long data acquisition times. Dynamic imaging essentially reconstructs the visual image from raw (k,t)-space measurements, commonly referred to as big data. The purpose of this work is to accelerate big medical data acquisition in dynamic MRI by developing a non-convex minimization framework. In particular, to overcome the inherent speed limitation, both non-convex low-rank and sparsity constraints were combined to accelerate the dynamic imaging. However, the non-convex constraints make the dynamic reconstruction problem difficult to directly solve through the commonly-used numerical methods. To guarantee solution efficiency and stability, a numerical algorithm based on Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) is proposed to solve the resulting non-convex optimization problem. ADMM decomposes the original complex optimization problem into several simple sub-problems. Each sub-problem has a closed-form solution or could be efficiently solved using existing numerical methods. It has been proven that the quality of images reconstructed from fewer measurements can be significantly improved using non-convex minimization. Numerous experiments have been conducted on two in vivo cardiac datasets to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art imaging methods. Experimental results illustrated that the proposed method could guarantee the superior imaging performance in terms of quantitative and visual image quality assessments.

  3. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion-Weighted Images using 4D Low-Rank and Total Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides invaluable information in white matter microstructure and is widely applied in neurological applications. However, DWI is largely limited by its relatively low spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose an image post-processing method, referred to as super-resolution reconstruction, to estimate a high spatial resolution DWI from the input low-resolution DWI, e.g., at a factor of 2. Instead of requiring specially designed DWI acquisition of multiple shifted or orthogonal scans, our method needs only a single DWI scan. To do that, we propose to model both the blurring and downsampling effects in the image degradation process where the low-resolution image is observed from the latent high-resolution image, and recover the latent high-resolution image with the help of two regularizations. The first regularization is 4-dimensional (4D) low-rank, proposed to gather self-similarity information from both the spatial domain and the diffusion domain of 4D DWI. The second regularization is total variation, proposed to depress noise and preserve local structures such as edges in the image recovery process. Extensive experiments were performed on 20 subjects, and results show that the proposed method is able to recover the fine details of white matter structures, and outperform other approaches such as interpolation methods, non-local means based upsampling, and total variation based upsampling. PMID:27845833

  4. Low-rank filter and detector for multidimensional data based on an alternative unfolding HOSVD: application to polarimetric STAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boizard, Maxime; Ginolhac, Guillaume; Pascal, Fréderic; Forster, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD), namely the alternative unfolding HOSVD (AU-HOSVD), in order to exploit the correlated information in multidimensional data. We show that the properties of the AU-HOSVD are proven to be the same as those for HOSVD: the orthogonality and the low-rank (LR) decomposition. We next derive LR filters and LR detectors based on AU-HOSVD for multidimensional data composed of one LR structure contribution. Finally, we apply our new LR filters and LR detectors in polarimetric space-time adaptive processing (STAP). In STAP, it is well known that the response of the background is correlated in time and space and has a LR structure in space-time. Therefore, our approach based on AU-HOSVD seems to be appropriate when a dimension (like polarimetry in this paper) is added. Simulations based on signal-to-interferenceplus-noise ratio (SINR) losses, probability of detection (Pd), and probability of false alarm (Pfa) show the interest of our approach: LR filters and LR detectors which can be obtained only from AU-HOSVD outperform the vectorial approach and those obtained from a single HOSVD.

  5. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  6. Reconstruction of Undersampled Big Dynamic MRI Data Using Non-Convex Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ryan Wen; Shi, Lin; Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Xiong, Naixue; Wang, Defeng

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been extensively utilized for enhancing medical living environment visualization, however, in clinical practice it often suffers from long data acquisition times. Dynamic imaging essentially reconstructs the visual image from raw (k,t)-space measurements, commonly referred to as big data. The purpose of this work is to accelerate big medical data acquisition in dynamic MRI by developing a non-convex minimization framework. In particular, to overcome the inherent speed limitation, both non-convex low-rank and sparsity constraints were combined to accelerate the dynamic imaging. However, the non-convex constraints make the dynamic reconstruction problem difficult to directly solve through the commonly-used numerical methods. To guarantee solution efficiency and stability, a numerical algorithm based on Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) is proposed to solve the resulting non-convex optimization problem. ADMM decomposes the original complex optimization problem into several simple sub-problems. Each sub-problem has a closed-form solution or could be efficiently solved using existing numerical methods. It has been proven that the quality of images reconstructed from fewer measurements can be significantly improved using non-convex minimization. Numerous experiments have been conducted on two in vivo cardiac datasets to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art imaging methods. Experimental results illustrated that the proposed method could guarantee the superior imaging performance in terms of quantitative and visual image quality assessments. PMID:28273827

  7. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  8. Motion-compensated compressed sensing for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using regional spatiotemporal sparsity and region tracking: Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Salerno, Michael; Yang, Yang; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the heart is well-suited for acceleration with compressed sensing (CS) due to its spatiotemporal sparsity; however, respiratory motion can degrade sparsity and lead to image artifacts. We sought to develop a motion-compensated CS method for this application. Methods A new method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was developed to accelerate first-pass cardiac MRI, even in the presence of respiratory motion. This method divides the images into regions, tracks the regions through time, and applies matrix low-rank sparsity to the tracked regions. BLOSM was evaluated using computer simulations and first-pass cardiac datasets from human subjects. Using rate-4 acceleration, BLOSM was compared to other CS methods such as k-t SLR that employs matrix low-rank sparsity applied to the whole image dataset, with and without motion tracking, and to k-t FOCUSS with motion estimation and compensation that employs spatial and temporal-frequency sparsity. Results BLOSM was qualitatively shown to reduce respiratory artifact compared to other methods. Quantitatively, using root mean squared error and the structural similarity index, BLOSM was superior to other methods. Conclusion BLOSM, which exploits regional low rank structure and uses region tracking for motion compensation, provides improved image quality for CS-accelerated first-pass cardiac MRI. PMID:24243528

  9. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Two long gasification tests were accomplished (66 and 72 hours of slagging operation) this quarter, and the balance of the wastewater needed for the second cooling tower (CT) test (approx. 11,000 gallons) was generated. Eleven thousand gallons of slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) wastewater were solvent extracted and ammonia stripped (AS) to nominal levels of 160 mg/1 phenol and 600 mg/1 NH/sub 3/. This wastewater is being further treated by activated sludge (AS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) processing to prepare a high quality makeup for the second CT test. Phenol mass balances indicated that > 90 pct of the phenol was stripped from the tower, indicating that previous assumptions of high levels of biodegradation were erroneous. Over 80 pct of the ammonia and about 25 pct of the methanol were also stripped. Data collected during steady state operation of the bench-scale rotating biological contractor indicate complete removal of phenolics and alcohols, and 94 pct removal of BOD. Nitrification also occurred in this unit, with over 30 pct removal of ammonia. Problems due to individual bacteria, present in the biotreated wastewater, passing through the multi-media filter and thus decreasing the carbon adsorption efficiency of the GAC system, have resulted in lower treatment rates than originally anticipated. As a result, to achieve the desired treatment, the contact time of the wastewater with the carbon in the granular activated carbon system has been increased. Since this has decreased the treatment rate, a larger carbon adsorption system has been designed and is presently being constructed.

  10. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-06-09

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  11. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  12. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  13. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  14. Study of Indonesia low rank coal utilization on modified fixed bed gasification for combined cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardianto, T.; Amalia, A. R.; Suwono, A.; Riauwindu, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gasification is a conversion process converting carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous products that have considerable amount of calorific value. One of the carbon-based solid fuel that serves as feed for gasification is coal. Gasification gaseous product is termed as syngas (synthetic gas) that is composed of several different gases. Syngas produced from gasification vary from one process to another, this is due to several factors which are: feed characteristics, operation condition, gasified fluid condition, and gasification method or technology. One of the utilization of syngas is for combined cycle power plant fuel. In order to meet the need to convert carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous fuel for combined cycle power plant, engineering adjustment for gasification was done using related software to create the syngas with characteristics of natural gas that serve as fuel for combined cycle power plant in Indonesia. Feed used for the gasification process in this paper was Indonesian Low Rank Coal and the method used to obtain syngas was Modified Fixed Bed Gasifier. From the engineering adjustment process, the yielded syngas possessed lower heating value as much as 31828.32 kJ/kg in gasification condition of 600°C, 3.5 bar, and steam to feed ratio was 1 kg/kg. Syngas characteristics obtained from the process was used as a reference for the adjustment of the fuel system modification in combined cycle power plant that will have the same capacity with the conversion of the system's fuel from natural gas to syngas.

  15. Investigation of the role of aromatic carboxylic acids in cross-linking processes in low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    In the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low-rank coals, low-temperature cross-linking reactions have been correlated with the loss of carboxyl groups and the evolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. It is not clearly understood how decarboxylation leads to cross-linking beyond the suggestion that decarboxylation could be a radical process that involves radical recombination or radical addition reactions. We have recently conducted a study of the pyrolysis of 1,2-(3,3{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (1) and 1,2-(4,4{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (2) and found that decarboxylation occurs readily between 350-425 {degrees}C with no evidence of coupling products or products representative of cross-links. We proposed that decarboxylation occurred primarily by an acid-promoted cationic pathway, and the source of acid was a second carboxylic acid. The decarboxylation of 1 and 2 was investigated in diphenyl ether and naphthalene as inert diluents. In each solvent, the rate of decarboxylation dropped by roughly a factor of 2 upon dilution from the neat liquid to ca. 0.4 mole fraction of acid, but further dilution had no effect on the rate. This could be a consequence of hydrogen bonding or an intramolecular protonation. Molecular mechanics calculations indicated that 1 and 2 can adopt an appropriate conformation for internal proton transfer from a carboxy group on one ring to the second aryl ring without a significant energy penalty. In addition, the dicarboxylic acid could internally hydrogen bond, which may further complicate the reaction mechanism. Therefore, we have conducted a study of the pyrolysis of a monocarboxybibenzyl, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-biphenyl)ethane (3), to determine if decarboxylation occurs by an ionic pathway in the absence of intramolecular pathways.

  16. Low-rank and sparse decomposition based shape model and probabilistic atlas for automatic pathological organ segmentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changfa; Cheng, Yuanzhi; Wang, Jinke; Wang, Yadong; Mori, Kensaku; Tamura, Shinichi

    2017-02-22

    One major limiting factor that prevents the accurate delineation of human organs has been the presence of severe pathology and pathology affecting organ borders. Overcoming these limitations is exactly what we are concerned in this study. We propose an automatic method for accurate and robust pathological organ segmentation from CT images. The method is grounded in the active shape model (ASM) framework. It leverages techniques from low-rank and sparse decomposition (LRSD) theory to robustly recover a subspace from grossly corrupted data. We first present a population-specific LRSD-based shape prior model, called LRSD-SM, to handle non-Gaussian gross errors caused by weak and misleading appearance cues of large lesions, complex shape variations, and poor adaptation to the finer local details in a unified framework. For the shape model initialization, we introduce a method based on patient-specific LRSD-based probabilistic atlas (PA), called LRSD-PA, to deal with large errors in atlas-to-target registration and low likelihood of the target organ. Furthermore, to make our segmentation framework more efficient and robust against local minima, we develop a hierarchical ASM search strategy. Our method is tested on the SLIVER07 database for liver segmentation competition, and ranks 3rd in all the published state-of-the-art automatic methods. Our method is also evaluated on some pathological organs (pathological liver and right lung) from 95 clinical CT scans and its results are compared with the three closely related methods. The applicability of the proposed method to segmentation of the various pathological organs (including some highly severe cases) is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentation; our segmentation algorithm can delineate organ boundaries that reach a level of accuracy comparable with those of human raters.

  17. Polynomial meta-models with canonical low-rank approximations: Numerical insights and comparison to sparse polynomial chaos expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    The growing need for uncertainty analysis of complex computational models has led to an expanding use of meta-models across engineering and sciences. The efficiency of meta-modeling techniques relies on their ability to provide statistically-equivalent analytical representations based on relatively few evaluations of the original model. Polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) have proven a powerful tool for developing meta-models in a wide range of applications; the key idea thereof is to expand the model response onto a basis made of multivariate polynomials obtained as tensor products of appropriate univariate polynomials. The classical PCE approach nevertheless faces the "curse of dimensionality", namely the exponential increase of the basis size with increasing input dimension. To address this limitation, the sparse PCE technique has been proposed, in which the expansion is carried out on only a few relevant basis terms that are automatically selected by a suitable algorithm. An alternative for developing meta-models with polynomial functions in high-dimensional problems is offered by the newly emerged low-rank approximations (LRA) approach. By exploiting the tensor-product structure of the multivariate basis, LRA can provide polynomial representations in highly compressed formats. Through extensive numerical investigations, we herein first shed light on issues relating to the construction of canonical LRA with a particular greedy algorithm involving a sequential updating of the polynomial coefficients along separate dimensions. Specifically, we examine the selection of optimal rank, stopping criteria in the updating of the polynomial coefficients and error estimation. In the sequel, we confront canonical LRA to sparse PCE in structural-mechanics and heat-conduction applications based on finite-element solutions. Canonical LRA exhibit smaller errors than sparse PCE in cases when the number of available model evaluations is small with respect to the input dimension, a

  18. Polynomial meta-models with canonical low-rank approximations: Numerical insights and comparison to sparse polynomial chaos expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Konakli, Katerina Sudret, Bruno

    2016-09-15

    The growing need for uncertainty analysis of complex computational models has led to an expanding use of meta-models across engineering and sciences. The efficiency of meta-modeling techniques relies on their ability to provide statistically-equivalent analytical representations based on relatively few evaluations of the original model. Polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) have proven a powerful tool for developing meta-models in a wide range of applications; the key idea thereof is to expand the model response onto a basis made of multivariate polynomials obtained as tensor products of appropriate univariate polynomials. The classical PCE approach nevertheless faces the “curse of dimensionality”, namely the exponential increase of the basis size with increasing input dimension. To address this limitation, the sparse PCE technique has been proposed, in which the expansion is carried out on only a few relevant basis terms that are automatically selected by a suitable algorithm. An alternative for developing meta-models with polynomial functions in high-dimensional problems is offered by the newly emerged low-rank approximations (LRA) approach. By exploiting the tensor–product structure of the multivariate basis, LRA can provide polynomial representations in highly compressed formats. Through extensive numerical investigations, we herein first shed light on issues relating to the construction of canonical LRA with a particular greedy algorithm involving a sequential updating of the polynomial coefficients along separate dimensions. Specifically, we examine the selection of optimal rank, stopping criteria in the updating of the polynomial coefficients and error estimation. In the sequel, we confront canonical LRA to sparse PCE in structural-mechanics and heat-conduction applications based on finite-element solutions. Canonical LRA exhibit smaller errors than sparse PCE in cases when the number of available model evaluations is small with respect to the input

  19. Rule emphasizes quality and cost savings.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) emphasizes improving quality and efficiencies across settings in the Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) final rule for 2012. Hospitals will receive a 1% market basket increase in reimbursement. CMS announced a Medicare spending-per-beneficiary measures that will be used in the Value-Based Purchasing program and the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting program. CMS is adding new quality measures involving infection control in 2014 and 2015.

  20. Multi-stage classification method oriented to aerial image based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Cheng, Yongmei; Hao, Shuai

    2016-12-10

    Automatic classification of terrain surfaces from an aerial image is essential for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing at an unprepared site by using vision. Diverse terrain surfaces may show similar spectral properties due to the illumination and noise that easily cause poor classification performance. To address this issue, a multi-stage classification algorithm based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation is proposed. First, color moments and Gabor texture feature are extracted from training data and stacked as column vectors of a dictionary. Then we perform low-rank matrix recovery for the dictionary by using augmented Lagrange multipliers and construct a multi-stage terrain classifier. Experimental results on an aerial map database that we prepared verify the classification accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  1. Emphasizing the process of science in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Augustino, Tracy Marie

    The purpose of this project was to emphasize the process of science which is used in all aspects of life. Students in an Introductory Biology class practiced making observations, identifying patterns and asking questions based on observed patterns. The questions led to the development of multiple hypotheses with students predicting possible results. Students had opportunities to discuss their predictions with peers and the instructor. They discussed additional steps, alternative observations and questions, further exploring the process of science. To objectively evaluate the increased knowledge, students were given a pre-test and post-test that covered the points presented. Data analysis indicated that participation in unit activities successfully increased the students' understanding of the process of science.

  2. New technology emphasizes international offshore effort

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

  3. Rhytidectomy: principles and practice emphasizing safety.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bruno, Krista; Papel, Ira D

    2011-02-01

    There is an unprecedented acceptance of rhytidectomy by today's society. No longer limited to the affluent few, middle class citizens are devoting their expendable income to achieve a more youthful appearance that is natural and inconspicuous. Despite recent difficult economic times, the mindset of the working population continues to be welcoming of rhytidectomy as a way to achieve a refreshed look while expecting minimal downtime and morbidity. To achieve these results, the current literature has described an array of techniques; however, there is no consensus on a preferred method, which reflects limitations and advantages inherent to every style of face-lifting. Each individual patient will have specific needs, and it is key for the facial plastic surgeon to select a technique that can address those areas most affected by the aging process. Whichever method used, an emphasis on safety is of the utmost importance. A solid understanding of the relevant anatomy is imperative as is the awareness of how to best avoid complications. Rhytidectomy can be a challenging procedure, and although complications are fortunately rare, they can be cosmetically devastating and poorly accepted by the elective cosmetic patient. This article aims at providing a summary of the history, the anatomy, and the currently accepted methods in rhytidectomy, emphasizing principles and practices of safety.

  4. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  5. Bilingual Hispanic Children on the U.S. Mainland: A Review of Research on Their Cognitive, Linguistic, and Scholastic Development. Emphasizing Studies Involving the English- and Spanish-Language Versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lloyd M.

    A review of research on the cognitive, linguistic, and scholastic development of mainland Hispanic-American children paints a dismal overall picture. Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, 11% of the population in 1986; about 75% have Mexican ancestry. Less than half of Latin adults speak English well enough for the…

  6. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration.

  7. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  8. An advanced laboratory course that emphasizes communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Georg

    2012-10-01

    I will introduce a fourth-year laboratory course that has a strong focus on communication skills. The course is meant to give students a preview of how experimental physics is performed in an academic or industrial research lab. The design is such that the course approximates the experience of a graduate student in a research group, which I regard as an ideal learning environment. I will contrast this with the learning experience in a typical first- or second-year lab. Results from a small survey are also presented.

  9. Astronomy Courses which Emphasize Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.

    1998-12-01

    The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).

  10. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student's views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow…

  11. Fast alogorithms for Bayesian uncertainty quantification in large-scale linear inverse problems based on low-rank partial Hessian approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, Volkan; Flath, Pearl; Ghattas, Omar; Hill, Judith C; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart; Wilcox, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the uncertainty in large-scale linear statistical inverse problems with high-dimensional parameter spaces within the framework of Bayesian inference. When the noise and prior probability densities are Gaussian, the solution to the inverse problem is also Gaussian, and is thus characterized by the mean and covariance matrix of the posterior probability density. Unfortunately, explicitly computing the posterior covariance matrix requires as many forward solutions as there are parameters, and is thus prohibitive when the forward problem is expensive and the parameter dimension is large. However, for many ill-posed inverse problems, the Hessian matrix of the data misfit term has a spectrum that collapses rapidly to zero. We present a fast method for computation of an approximation to the posterior covariance that exploits the lowrank structure of the preconditioned (by the prior covariance) Hessian of the data misfit. Analysis of an infinite-dimensional model convection-diffusion problem, and numerical experiments on large-scale 3D convection-diffusion inverse problems with up to 1.5 million parameters, demonstrate that the number of forward PDE solves required for an accurate low-rank approximation is independent of the problem dimension. This permits scalable estimation of the uncertainty in large-scale ill-posed linear inverse problems at a small multiple (independent of the problem dimension) of the cost of solving the forward problem.

  12. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-01-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method. PMID:27598159

  13. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-09-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method.

  14. On-site field tests for study of low-rank western-coal fly ash. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Gooch, John P.

    1981-02-16

    The Final Report on Phase 1 of the referenced contract covers the work performed and the technical plans logistical arrangements, and recommendations developed during the period of October 1, 1980 to January 31, 1981. SoRI has prepared a detailed work plan for the project which included procedures for the selection of test sites and plans for the performance of the follow-on field tests under Phase 2 of the project. The Technical Manager authorized the first field test of the Arapahoe Unit 3 baghouse to take place in late February or early March. A detailed work plan for the Arapahoe baghouse test is included in this report. The objectives of Phase 1 were to select appropriate test sites and make the necessary plans for conducting the follow-on field tests at these sites. The planning was to include the formulation of a detailed work plan for the project and the administrative and logistical arrangements with the selected utilities. All of these objectives have been satisfied with the exception of the arrangements with the utilities which have not been completed for all utilities due to the accelerated project schedule. The primary purpose of these follow-on field tests is to investigate the emissions and control of fly ash from utility boilers burning low-rank Western coals.

  15. Articulation of extreme formant patterns for emphasized vowels.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Donna

    2002-01-01

    This study examined formant, jaw and tongue dorsum measurements from X-ray microbeam recordings of American English speakers producing emphasized vs. unemphasized words containing high-front, mid-front and low vowels. For emphasized vowels, the jaw position, regardless of vowel height, was lower, while the tongue dorsum had a more extreme articulation in the direction of the phonological specification of the vowel. For emphasized low vowels, the tongue dorsum position was lower with the acoustic consequence of F1 and F2 bunched closer together. For emphasized high and mid-front vowels, the tongue was more forward with the acoustic consequence of F1 and F2 spread more apart. These findings are interpreted within acoustic models of speech production. They also provide empirical data which have application to the C/D model hypothesis that both increased lowering of jaw and enhanced tongue gesture are consequences of a magnitude increase in the syllable pulse due to emphasis.

  16. The Construction and Development of Indicators of Learning Organization at Higher Educational Institutions Emphasizing Graduate Production and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrin, Chanwit; Sri-Amphai, Pissamai; Ruangmontri, Karn; Namwan, Tharinthorn

    2011-01-01

    The Purposes of this research were to construct and develop indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasize graduate production and social development, and to test the congruence of the structural model of the indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasizing graduate production and…

  17. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves.

  18. Role of Clinical Endoscopy in Emphasizing Endoscope Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju

    2015-01-01

    Based on the unexpected Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea, it was established that the virus can spread easily, MERS exposure in hospitals carries an extreme risk for infection as well as mortality, and the sharing of information was essential for infection control. Although the incidence of exogenous infections related to contaminated endoscopes is very low, the majority of published outbreaks have been caused by various shortcomings in reprocessing procedures, including insufficient training or awareness. Ever since the inauguration of "Clinical Endoscopy" as an English-language journal of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2011, it has published several articles on disinfection of the endoscope and its accessories. Many Science Citation Index journals have also emphasized high-level disinfection of the gastrointestinal endoscope. Many papers have been produced specifically, since the outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in 2013. The recent review papers concluded that quality control is the most important issue among all the aspects of procedural care, including the efficiency of the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit and reprocessing room. Thorough reprocessing of endoscopes using high-level disinfection and sterilization methods may be essential for reducing the risk of infection. PMID:26473114

  19. Accelerating Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Lung Tumor Tracking Based on Low-Rank Decomposition in the Spatial–Temporal Domain: A Feasibility Study Based on Simulation and Preliminary Prospective Undersampled MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Manoj; Hu, Peng; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Ennis, Daniel; Thomas, Albert; Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a low-rank decomposition method to reconstruct down-sampled k-space data for the purpose of tumor tracking. Methods and Materials: Seven retrospective lung cancer patients were included in the simulation study. The fully-sampled k-space data were first generated from existing 2-dimensional dynamic MR images and then down-sampled by 5 × -20 × before reconstruction using a Cartesian undersampling mask. Two methods, a low-rank decomposition method using combined dynamic MR images (k-t SLR based on sparsity and low-rank penalties) and a total variation (TV) method using individual dynamic MR frames, were used to reconstruct images. The tumor trajectories were derived on the basis of autosegmentation of the resultant images. To further test its feasibility, k-t SLR was used to reconstruct prospective data of a healthy subject. An undersampled balanced steady-state free precession sequence with the same undersampling mask was used to acquire the imaging data. Results: In the simulation study, higher imaging fidelity and low noise levels were achieved with the k-t SLR compared with TV. At 10 × undersampling, the k-t SLR method resulted in an average normalized mean square error <0.05, as opposed to 0.23 by using the TV reconstruction on individual frames. Less than 6% showed tracking errors >1 mm with 10 × down-sampling using k-t SLR, as opposed to 17% using TV. In the prospective study, k-t SLR substantially reduced reconstruction artifacts and retained anatomic details. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance reconstruction using k-t SLR on highly undersampled dynamic MR imaging data results in high image quality useful for tumor tracking. The k-t SLR was superior to TV by better exploiting the intrinsic anatomic coherence of the same patient. The feasibility of k-t SLR was demonstrated by prospective imaging acquisition and reconstruction.

  20. Emphasizing employability and practice in remote sensing education and training in today's China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Linzhi

    2006-10-01

    Recently, the study and application of GIS, RS and GPS and their integration have developed very quickly in China. Strong employment market demand for RS professional employees is expected and RS education or training becomes urgent. However, when the students graduate, a large amount of them will find it is difficult to gain a proper job in this field. How to change the situations is critical for sustainable development of RS education and training in China today? The problem might be improved by emphasizing employability and practice in RS education. This article has four parts. First section is introduction of current existing condition. In section II, the research will analyze problems of RS education and training in China. There are three main problems as follows. Many students are lack of employability, and their practicing training is insufficient. Students and Staff are less mobile and vocation qualification system is imperfect. Long-Term Interaction is lacking among universities, enterprises, and different areas or countries. Solutions are discussed in section III. It emphasizes promoting employability and international competition by occupation qualification system of RS. And RS education and training should be guided by employment opportunities and promoted by employment market demands. It should increase diverse laboratories and field exercise bases for practice. Finally, strengthening Long-Term Interaction of RS education conclusions should be made. The most important is to carry on the quality education centering on social sustainable development, and to emphasize employability and practice in RS education and training in China today.

  1. Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

  2. Clearinghouse: a teleradiology platform emphasizing security of data and communication.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Michael; Brinkmann, Lars; Ueckert, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Clearinghouse application platform is a web based solution for secure digital exchange of radiological images and other clinical documents among authorized researchers and physicians. It implements a sophisticated security and role model to protect privacy and to minimize the risk of eavesdropping of patient data. The Clearinghouse serves as a centralized platform for distributed, distantly located medical research and health care. It is based on Open-Source software, thus ensuring continued support, maintenance, security and last but not least continuity of the platform. The use of the Clearinghouse minimizes turnaround times by superseding comparably slow and insecure conventional communication methods otherwise used for the exchange of radiological images and clinical documents, such as standard mail and courier services. Furthermore, it alleviates the integration of distantly located expert knowledge into diagnostic routines, culminating in an increased health care quality regardless of location of patients or physicians.

  3. [Standardized training of gastrointestinal surgeons should be emphasized].

    PubMed

    Qin, Xinyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2015-02-01

    The standardized training of residents and specialists has just been initiated, and the training for gastrointestinal surgeons also should be standardized. From my personal view, the following aspects should be addressed for standardization including basic theory, medical record, teaching ward-round, the ability of clinical skills and clinical research. After the establishment of systematic standard training and assessment, the sustained development of gastrointestinal surgery may be expected.

  4. Obama Emphasizes Science and Innovation in State of the Union Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-02-01

    U.S. president Barack Obama emphasized innovation and competitiveness in his State of the Union address on 25 January. He also raised science and technology early in the hour-long speech, noting that nations like China and India are focusing on math and science education and investing in research and technology. To be competitive with those countries, “we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world,” Obama said. “The first step in winning the future is encouraging American innovation.”

  5. Gas and aerosol fluxes. [emphasizing sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques to address the global need for accurate distribution and flux determinations of both man made and natural materials which affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the heat budget of the Earth, and the depletion, of stratospheric ozone is considered. Specifically, trace gas fluxes, sea salt aerosol production, and the effect of sea surface microlayer on gas and aerosol fluxes are examined. Volatile sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and halocarbon compounds are discussed including a statement of the problem associated with each compound or group of compounds, a brief summary of current understanding, and suggestions for needed research.

  6. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  7. Combustion reactivity of low rank coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.

    1983-08-01

    For many years the CSIRO has been involved in studies on the combustion kinetics of coal chars and related materials. Early work included studies on a char produced from a Victorian brown coal. More recently, the combustion kinetics of chars produced during the flash pyrolysis of sub-bituminous coals have been determined. Data are given for the combustion reactivities of four flash pyrolysis chars. Their reactivities are compared with the results for chars produced from low and high rank coals, and petroleum coke. Reactivity is expressed as the rate of combustion of carbon per unit external surface area of the particle, with due correction being made for the effect of the mass transfer of oxygen to the particle. It has been shown that the reactivities to oxygen of chars produced from Millmerran sub-bituminous coal decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature but are similar in magnitude to the reactivities of chars derived from a brown and a bituminous coal and to the reactivities of anthracites and semi-anthracites. However, Wandoan char, also of sub-bituminous origin, exhibits about twice the reactivity of Millmerran char and about ten times the reactivity of petroleum coke. On the basis of observed activation energy values, particle size and particle density behaviour it is concluded that the combustion rates of Millmerran and Wandoan chars are controlled by the combined effects of pore diffusion and chemical reaction.

  8. A Methodology for Examining the Relative Emphases on Four Components of English in Secondary English Elective Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    This research concerned two problems: (1) the development of economical procedures that any English department could use to examine the emphases on each area of English; (2) when the procedures were used to collect data in two schools, determining from the findings whether the criticism of elective programs was warranted. The methodology used was…

  9. Food nanotechnology in the news. Coverage patterns and thematic emphases during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Choi, Doo-Hun; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2011-02-01

    For novel issues like food nanotechnology, media can play an important role in shaping the awareness and mental associations that underlie public opinion. Seeking to complement recent research exploring public opinion formation about food nanotechnology, this study tracks the evolution of U.S. newspaper coverage of food nanotechnology, identifying the descriptive and thematic traits that have characterized this coverage over time. We use a rigorous methodology to examine the levels of coverage, authorship patterns, and thematic emphases exhibited in the American journalistic narrative about this burgeoning application of nanoscience. Our findings indicate that U.S. newspaper coverage of food nanotechnology is relatively modest in terms of how often it has been covered, its thematic diversity, and the level of journalistic expertise from which it was produced. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically assess journalistic coverage of food nanotechnology.

  10. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals. Annual technical report, April 1, 1987--March 31, 1988 including quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1988: Task 5.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1988-04-01

    Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.

  11. A new process for catalytic liquefaction of low-rank coal using dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst generating in-situ with added H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.S.; Saini, A.K.; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu

    1997-12-31

    It is known that water deactivates hydrogenation catalysts under conventional coal liquefaction conditions, although the beneficial effect of hydrothermal pretreatment has been reported. However, the authors have recently found that using water and a dispersed Mo catalyst precursor together could dramatically improve coal conversion at temperatures (325--375 C) that are much lower than those used in conventional processes (400--470 C). However, adding water to catalytic reactions at 400--450 C decreased coal conversion, although water addition to the noncatalytic runs was slightly beneficial in this high temperature range. In the present work, the authors examined the effect of water in solvent-mediated runs in addition to ``dry`` tests, and explored a temperature-programmed liquefaction procedure to take advantage of the synergetic effect between water and dispersed Mo catalyst precursor at low temperatures for more efficient coal conversion. It was found that reaction using ATTM (ammonium tetrathiomolybdate) with added water at 350 C, followed by water removal and subsequent reaction at 400 C gave good coal conversion and oil yield. To understand the effect of water, model reactions of dinaphthyl ether, abbreviated as DNE, were also carried out using ATTM in the absence and presence of water. Addition of water to ATTM in the model reactions substantially enhanced DNE conversion at 350 C. The combination of 1-step and 2-step model tests revealed that at a low temperature of 350 C, the main role of water is to promote the formation of highly active Mo sulfide catalyst. The liquefaction results coupled with model tests suggest that the presence of water results in substantially higher activity of the in-situ generated MoS{sub 2} catalyst for coal conversion at 350 C. Temperature-programming may be an effective strategy for developing a better liquefaction process using dispersed catalysts. This new process appears to be more effective for conversion of low-rank

  12. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  13. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  14. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  15. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  16. Effect of Accuracy-Emphasized Instructions on Performance on an Attribute-Identification Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasilewski, Bohdan K.

    1972-01-01

    Results supported the hypotheses that the emphasis on speed: (a) has a detrimental effect on the performance, (b) is inherent in a test-like situation, and (c) can be reduced by emphasizing in the instructions to Ss the detrimental effects of speed on the achievement of solution. (Author/CB)

  17. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  18. [The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling in psychotherapeutic model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert

    2006-11-01

    The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up.

  19. REHABILITATION OF SUBACROMIAL PAIN SYNDROME EMPHASIZING SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS IN AMATEUR ATHLETES: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Katherinne F.; Monteiro, Renan L.; Lucareli, Paulo R.G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case series Background and Purpose Scapular dyskinesis has been associated with several shoulder injuries. Recent literature has suggested that a greater activation of the scapular muscles can play an important role in reducing subacromial impingement in patients with shoulder pain. Thus, the purpose of this case series was to describe a rehabilitation program that emphasizes scapular dyskinesis correction for those with clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome. Case Descriptions The four amateur athletes in this series showed clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome and scapular dyskinesis and each underwent a treatment protocol consisting of three phases. Phase 1 emphasized pain relief, scapular control, and recovery of normal range of motion (ROM), Phase 2 focused on muscular strengthening, and Phase 3 emphasized sensory motor training. Outcomes All subjects demonstrated decreased pain, improved sports performance and function, increased muscular strength for shoulder elevation and external rotation, and increased ROM for internal rotation. Improvement in serratus anterior (SA) activation was also noted. Discussion The results of this case series suggest that subjects with clinical tests positive for subacromial pain syndrome can show significant improvement with an intervention focused on scapular dyskinesis correction. SA activation can play an important role in this process given that all subjects presented with better recruitment after rehabilitation, as measured by electromyography. Levels of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27525180

  20. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  1. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    PubMed

    Harrington, Jesse R; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.

  2. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Jesse R.; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation. PMID:26046772

  3. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-05-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  4. A neural circuitry that emphasizes spinal feedback generates diverse behaviours of human locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seungmoon; Geyer, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks along the spinal cord contribute substantially to generating locomotion behaviours in humans and other legged animals. However, the neural circuitry involved in this spinal control remains unclear. We here propose a specific circuitry that emphasizes feedback integration over central pattern generation. The circuitry is based on neurophysiologically plausible muscle-reflex pathways that are organized in 10 spinal modules realizing limb functions essential to legged systems in stance and swing. These modules are combined with a supraspinal control layer that adjusts the desired foot placements and selects the leg that is to transition into swing control during double support. Using physics-based simulation, we test the proposed circuitry in a neuromuscular human model that includes neural transmission delays, musculotendon dynamics and compliant foot–ground contacts. We find that the control network is sufficient to compose steady and transitional 3-D locomotion behaviours including walking and running, acceleration and deceleration, slope and stair negotiation, turning, and deliberate obstacle avoidance. The results suggest feedback integration to be functionally more important than central pattern generation in human locomotion across behaviours. In addition, the proposed control architecture may serve as a guide in the search for the neurophysiological origin and circuitry of spinal control in humans. PMID:25920414

  5. Proteins related to the spindle and checkpoint mitotic emphasize the different pathogenesis of hypoplastic MDS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Fabiola Fernandes; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Ribeiro Junior, Howard Lopes; Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Magalhaes, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2014-02-01

    Some studies show that alterations in expression of proteins related to mitotic spindle (AURORAS KINASE A and B) and mitotic checkpoint (CDC20 and MAD2L1) are involved in chromosomal instability and tumor progression in various solid and hematologic malignancies. This study aimed to evaluate these genes in MDS patients. The cytogenetics analysis was carried out by G-banding, AURKA and AURKB amplification was performed using FISH, and AURKA, AURKB, CDC20 and MAD2L1 gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR in 61 samples of bone marrow from MDS patients. AURKA gene amplification was observed in 10% of the cases, which also showed higher expression levels than the control group (p=0.038). Patients with normo/hypercellular BM presented significantly higher expression levels than hypocellular BM patients, but normo and hypercellular BM groups did not differ. After logistic regression analysis, our results showed that HIGH expression levels were associated with increased risk of developing normo/hypercellular MDS. It also indicated that age is associated with AURKA, CDC20 and MAD2L1 HIGH expression levels. The distinct expression of hypocellular patients emphasizes the prognostic importance of cellularity to MDS. The amplification/high expression of AURKA suggests that the increased expression of this gene may be related to the pathogenesis of disease.

  6. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  7. "A Lifelong Aversion to Writing": What if Writing Courses Emphasized Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There has been a great deal of groundbreaking research done on motivation during the last twenty-five years, and all of it points to the importance of intrinsic motivation. This research has very significant ramifications for teachers of English. In this essay, the author engages the issue of "aversion" that Linda Brodkey raises in her essay…

  8. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  9. Successful Heliophysical Programs Emphasizing the Relation of Earth and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; McKay, G. A.

    2007-05-01

    Heliophysical is defined as the interconnectedness of the entire solar-heliospheric-planetary system. Our goals are to introduce easily accessible programs that introduce the Sun and other solar system processes to the public. The programs emphasize the impact of these processes on Earth and its inhabitants over geological time. These types of programs are important as these topics as generally taught as a secondary concept rather than an integrated approach. Space Weather is an excellent mechanism for integrating Earth and space science. Heliophysics, which includes Space Weather, is traditionally part of space science studies, but most students do not understand the effect of the Sun's atmosphere on Earth or the intense effects energetic particles can have on humans, whether traveling through space or exploring the surfaces of the Moon or Mars. Effects are not only limited to space travel and other planetary surfaces but also include effects on Earth's magnetosphere which, in turn, affect radio transmission, GPS accuracy, and on occasion spacecraft loss and terrestrial power outages. Meteoritic impacts are another topic. Impacts on planetary bodies without strong plate tectonic activities provide ample evidence of their occurrence over geological time. As an analog, impacts have also had an extensive record on Earth, but plate tectonics have been responsible for obliterating most of the evidence. We have developed effective and engaging venues for teaching heliophysics, via the internet, CD-Rom's, museum kiosks, and planetarium shows. We have organized workshops for teachers; "NASA Days" and "Sally Ride Festivals" for students, and "Sun-Earth Day" events for the public. Our goals are both to increase k-16 and public literacy on heliophysical processes and to inspire the next generation to enhance the workforce. We will be offering examples of these programs, as well as distributing CD's and DVD's of some of the creative works.

  10. Examination of two methods for statistical analysis of data with magnitude and direction emphasizing vestibular research applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    When the dependent (or response) variable response variable in an experiment has direction and magnitude, one approach that has been used for statistical analysis involves splitting magnitude and direction and applying univariate statistical techniques to the components. However, such treatment of quantities with direction and magnitude is not justifiable mathematically and can lead to incorrect conclusions about relationships among variables and, as a result, to flawed interpretations. This note discusses a problem with that practice and recommends mathematically correct procedures to be used with dependent variables that have direction and magnitude for 1) computation of mean values, 2) statistical contrasts of and confidence intervals for means, and 3) correlation methods.

  11. To improve the stability of combustion of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Bin Wei

    1995-03-01

    A new aerothermodynamic method, Bi-Flat Inlet Flow Precombustor with Control Jets, developed for flame stabilization of pulverized-coal and the improvement of the ignition condition of low grade coal is described in this paper. The BI-flat flow precombustor consists of a rectangular combustion chamber which can be installed in the location of the burner in the utility and industrial boilers to be used to advance ignition of fuel and primary air mixture and to increase combustion stability of the furnace flames. This type of precombustor simply constructs with two flattened primary air flow and control jets at the head end of the combustor. The velocity of control jets is higher than that of primary flow. A very large recirculation zone with high temperature burnt gases and high turbulent intensity as an ignition source is created in the center of combustion chamber based upon the principles of the actions of jets entraining and Coanda effect. Meanwhile, the higher velocity air layers with lower concentration of coal characteristics on preventing walls from slagging accumulation. Another very important feature is that coal particles could enter directly into the recirculation zone as their inertia and diffusion forces so that it shows a good compatibility of the flow paths of coal particles and high temperature gases. Finally, it is full of promise to be a low pollution emissions combustor since its staged flow and combustion structures.

  12. What Are Low-Ranked Graduate Programs Good for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Professors revel in reputation--and nowhere does that show more clearly than in their concern about educational pedigree. That concern takes complicated forms. The author wondered what might happen if graduate admissions were reduced to a level that would only replace retiring professors. One possible consequence of such a move would be that…

  13. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Bixel, J.C.; Heaney, W.F.; Yan, T.Y.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of passivating and cooling heated dried coal comprising: (a) heating particulate coal to a temperature between about 190 and about 230/sup 0/F to dry to the desired level: and (b) coating the resulting heated particulate coal with an aqueous emulsion of a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of petroleum resid, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, clarified slurry oil, durene, asphaltenes, coal tar and coal tar pitch.

  14. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  15. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  16. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  17. Way of Life as Emphasizing Factors in the Progression of Idiophatic Scoliosis in Adolescence Era

    PubMed Central

    Muminagic, Sahib; Bisanovic, Senaida; Mehic, Sanra; Sivic, Suad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Idiopathic scoliosis is a significant health problem which occurs in 2%–4% school kids in adolescent age. Reasons of occurrence are not quite clear, there are many theories, but probably it is multifactor disease. Among the theories that are mentioned some of them included environmental and behavioral factors. Aim: Research the impact of some environmental and behavioral factor on development and progression of idiopathic scoliosis in school kids. Methodology: Research was conducted on 421 pupil in adolescent age, where 120 pupils was from urban schools and 301 pupil from rural schools. Environmental factors and habits like the bigger osteomuscular structure mobility at kids from rural schools, longer outdoor time spending, different nutrition, alcoholism and smoking, different obligations, etc. factors which can be cause of scoliosis development. Results: In this research we assumed that different environmental and behavioral factors of school kids, which exist in rural and urban areas, can develop to different expression of scoliosis in these areas. In our research we proved that the scoliosis occurrence is more often in urban areas than in rural (Fisher’s exact test P<0.001). Conclusion: It is necessary to research all factors of lifestyle individually, which are different between the urban and rural kids. PMID:23678322

  18. Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

  19. Differential and functional interactions emphasize the multiple roles of polyamines in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogenic amines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in nature and have interested researchers because they are essential for cell division and viability, and due to a large body of their pharmacological effects on growth and development in most living cells. The genes and enzymes invo...

  20. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy.

  1. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  2. Protecting multimedia data in storage: a survey of techniques emphasizing encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Paul; Yurcik, William; Brumbaugh, Larry

    2004-12-01

    Protecting multimedia data from malicious computer users continues to grow in importance. Whether preventing unauthorized access to digital photographs, ensuring compliance with copyright regulations, or guaranteeing the integrity of a video teleconference, all multimedia applications require increased security in the presence of talented intruders. Specifically, as more and more files are preserved on disk the requirement to provide secure storage has become more important. This paper presents a survey of techniques for securely storing multimedia data, including theoretical approaches, prototype systems, and existing systems ready for employment. Due to the wide variety of potential solutions available, a prospective customer can easily become overwhelmed while researching an appropriate system for multimedia requirements. Since added security measures inevitably result in slower system performance, certain storage solutions provide a better fit for particular applications along a security/performance continuum. This paper provides an overview of the prominent characteristics of several systems to provide a foundation for selecting the most appropriate solution. Initially, the paper establishes a set of criteria for evaluating a storage solution based on confidentiality, integrity, availability, and performance. Then, using these criteria, the paper explains the relevant characteristics of select storage systems providing a comparison of the major differences. Finally, the paper examines specific applications of storage devices in the multimedia environment.

  3. Protecting multimedia data in storage: a survey of techniques emphasizing encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Paul; Yurcik, William; Brumbaugh, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Protecting multimedia data from malicious computer users continues to grow in importance. Whether preventing unauthorized access to digital photographs, ensuring compliance with copyright regulations, or guaranteeing the integrity of a video teleconference, all multimedia applications require increased security in the presence of talented intruders. Specifically, as more and more files are preserved on disk the requirement to provide secure storage has become more important. This paper presents a survey of techniques for securely storing multimedia data, including theoretical approaches, prototype systems, and existing systems ready for employment. Due to the wide variety of potential solutions available, a prospective customer can easily become overwhelmed while researching an appropriate system for multimedia requirements. Since added security measures inevitably result in slower system performance, certain storage solutions provide a better fit for particular applications along a security/performance continuum. This paper provides an overview of the prominent characteristics of several systems to provide a foundation for selecting the most appropriate solution. Initially, the paper establishes a set of criteria for evaluating a storage solution based on confidentiality, integrity, availability, and performance. Then, using these criteria, the paper explains the relevant characteristics of select storage systems providing a comparison of the major differences. Finally, the paper examines specific applications of storage devices in the multimedia environment.

  4. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  5. Factors which influence Texas biology teachers' decisions to emphasize fundamental concepts of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilica, Kimberly Lynn

    The teaching of biological evolution in public science classrooms has been mitigated by a lingering and historic climate of controversy (Skoog, 1984; Skoog, 1979). This controversy has successfully stalled attempts to bring authentic science literacy to the American public (Bybee, 1997). The first encouraging signs of the abatement of this controversy occurred during the early 1990s when several prominent science organizations promoted evolution to its appropriate status as a central and unifying concept in biology (National Science Teachers Association, 1992; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990, 1993). The organizations acknowledged that not only should biological evolution be taught, evolution should stand as one of a select group of essential concepts upon which biology curricula should be built. Bandura's Social Learning theory (Bandura, 1997; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 2000) and Helms' Model of Identity (Helms, 1998) provide the theoretical basis for this study. Both Bandura and Helms explain the actions of teachers by examining the beliefs and values that influence their decisions. The models distinguish between two types of belief systems: capacity beliefs and context beliefs (Lumpe, et al, 2000; Helms, 1998). Both belief types influence and are influenced by individual actions. In this study, the action to be described is the decision that teachers make about the degree of emphasis on evolution in the classroom. The capacity beliefs that will be examined are teachers' beliefs about their capability to teach evolution. The contextual beliefs in this study are perceptions about students' capabilities to learn evolution, the status of evolution in science, the place of evolution in the biology classroom, the influence of textbooks, time, and community/school values. This study contributes to and extends the knowledge base established by studies of evolution education by exploring the relative amount of

  6. Faculty Emphases on Alternative Course-Specific Learning Outcomes in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variability in the extent to which faculty members in the disciplinary-based academic environments of Holland's theory emphasize different student learning outcomes in their classes and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" versus "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variation in the…

  7. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  8. Effects of metal cations present naturally in coal on the fate of coal-bound nitrogen in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with different ranks: correlation between inherent Fe cations and N{sub 2} formation from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuo Ohtsuka; Zhiheng Wu

    2009-09-15

    The fate of coal-N in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with 62-81 wt % (daf) C has been studied with a quartz reactor at 1000 C under ambient pressure to examine the effects of metal cations present naturally in these coals on the partitioning of coal-N into N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, tar-N, and char-N. Nitrogen mass balances for all runs fall within the reasonable range of 100 {+-} 5%, and N{sub 2} is the predominant product for all of the coals. As the N{sub 2} yield increases, the sum of NH{sub 3}, HCN, and tar-N is unchanged significantly, whereas the char-N yield decreases almost linearly, showing that most of N{sub 2} originates from char-N. When eight kinds of inherent metals, such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe, and Ti, are determined by the conventional method and related with the N{sub 2} yield, there exists a strong, direct correlation between the Fe content and N{sub 2} formation for low-rank coals with less than 75 wt % (daf) C. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (TEM-EDAX) measurements after pyrolysis at 1000{sup o}C of a German brown coal, which provides the highest N{sub 2} yield of about 60%, reveal the existence of lamella structures because of graphitized carbon as well as nanoscale Fe particles with different sizes and shapes. The mechanism for conversion reactions of char-N to N{sub 2} is discussed in terms of the catalysis by nanoparticles of metallic Fe formed from inherent Fe cations. 34 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Computational techniques for aerodynamic simulations of multiple objects emphasizing paratrooper-aircraft separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udoewa, Victor

    Our target is to develop computational techniques for studying aerodynamic interactions between multiple objects with emphasis on studying the fluid mechanics and dynamics of an object exiting and separating from an aircraft. The object could be a paratrooper jumping out of a transport aircraft or a package of emergency aid dropped from a cargo plane. These are applications with major practical significance, and what I learn and what I develop can make a major impact on this technology area. In all these cases, the computational challenge is to predict the dynamic behavior and path of the object, so that the separation process is safe and effective. This is a very complex problem because it has an unsteady, three-dimensional nature and requires the solution of complex equations that govern the fluid dynamics of the object and the aircraft together, with their relative positions changing in time. The gravitational and aerodynamic forces acting on the object determine its dynamics and path. Sometimes those aerodynamic forces are not properly computed due to excessively thick numerical boundary layers (numerical meaning unphysical and unreal). Methods for reducing this thickness are presented here. The aerodynamic forces heavily depend on the unsteady flow field around the aircraft. The computational tools I am developing are based on the simultaneous solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations governing the airflow around the aircraft and the separating object, as well as the equations governing the motion of that object. These computational methods include suitable mesh update techniques that are essential for simulations with my core computational technique---the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation. In the research I present here, I focus on developing mesh update methods that help me perform my computations with more numerical accuracy and better computational efficiency. These methods range from remeshing tactics with

  10. Methods for DNA barcoding photosynthetic protists emphasizing the macroalgae and diatoms.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This chapter outlines the current practices used in our laboratory for routine DNA barcode analyses of the three major marine macroalgal groups, viz., brown (Phaeophyceae), red (Rhodophyta), and green (Chlorophyta) algae, as well as for the microscopic diatoms (Bacillariophyta). We start with an outline of current streamlined field protocols, which facilitate the collection of substantial (hundreds to thousands) specimens during short (days to weeks) field excursions. We present the current high-throughput DNA extraction protocols, which can, nonetheless, be easily modified for manual molecular laboratory use. We are advocating a two-marker approach for the DNA barcoding of protists with each major lineage having a designated primary and secondary barcode marker of which one is always the LSU D2/D3 (divergent domains D2/D3 of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA). We provide a listing of the primers that we currently use in our laboratory for amplification of DNA barcode markers from the groups that we study: LSU D2/D3, which we advocate as a eukaryote-wide barcode marker to facilitate broad ecological and environmental surveys (secondary barcode marker in this capacity); COI-5P (the standard DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) as the primary barcode marker for brown and red algae; rbcL-3P (the 3' region of the plastid large subunit of ribulose-l-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) as the primary barcode marker for diatoms; and tufA (plastid elongation factor Tu gene) as the primary barcode marker for chlorophytan green algae. We outline our polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methodologies, which have been streamlined for efficiency and to reduce unnecessary cleaning steps. The combined information should provide a helpful guide to those seeking to complete barcode research on these and related "protistan" groups (the term protist is not used in a phylogenetic context; it is simply a catch-all term for the bulk of

  11. Improving corrosion resistance of post-tensioned substructures emphasizing high performance grouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokker, Andrea Jeanne

    The use of post-tensioning in bridges can provide durability and structural benefits to the system while expediting the construction process. When post-tensioning is combined with precast elements, traffic interference can be greatly reduced through rapid construction. Post-tensioned concrete substructure elements such as bridge piers, hammerhead bents, and straddle bents have become more prevalent in recent years. Chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the most costly forms of corrosion each year. Coastal substructure elements are exposed to seawater by immersion or spray, and inland bridges may also be at risk due to the application of deicing salts. Corrosion protection of the post-tensioning system is vital to the integrity of the structure because loss of post-tensioning can result in catastrophic failure. Documentation for durability design of the grout, ducts, and anchorage systems is very limited. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures for post-tensioned concrete substructures by designing and testing specimens representative of typical substructure elements using state-of-the-art practices in aggressive chloride exposure environments. This was accomplished through exposure testing of twenty-seven large-scale beam specimens and ten large-scale column specimens. High performance grout for post-tensioning tendon injection was also developed through a series of fresh property tests, accelerated exposure tests, and a large-scale pumping test to simulate field conditions. A high performance fly ash grout was developed for applications with small vertical rises, and a high performance anti-bleed grout was developed for applications involving large vertical rises such as tall bridge piers. Long-term exposure testing of the beam and column specimens is ongoing, but preliminary findings indicate increased corrosion protection with increasing levels of post-tensioning, although traditional

  12. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  13. Implementation of a project-based molecular biology laboratory emphasizing protein structure-function relationships in a large introductory biology laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Treacy, Daniel J; Sankaran, Saumya M; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Saly, Danielle; Miller, Rebecca; Isaac, Stefan R; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S

    2011-01-01

    In introductory laboratory courses, many universities are turning from traditional laboratories with predictable outcomes to inquiry-inspired, project-based laboratory curricula. In these labs, students are allowed to design at least some portion of their own experiment and interpret new, undiscovered data. We have redesigned the introductory biology laboratory course at Brandeis University into a semester-long project-based laboratory that emphasizes concepts and contains an element of scientific inquiry. In this laboratory, students perform a site-directed mutagenesis experiment on the gene encoding human γD crystallin, a human eye lens protein implicated in cataracts, and assess the stability of their newly created protein with respect to wild-type crystallin. This laboratory utilizes basic techniques in molecular biology to emphasize the importance of connections between DNA and protein. This project lab has helped engage students in their own learning, has improved students' skills in critical thinking and analysis, and has promoted interest in basic research in biology.

  14. Experiences in teaching of modeling and simulation with emphasize on equation-based and acausal modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Ježek, Filip; Mateják, Marek; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jří

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces experiences of teaching modeling and simulation for graduate students in the field of biomedical engineering. We emphasize the acausal and object-oriented modeling technique and we have moved from teaching block-oriented tool MATLAB Simulink to acausal and object oriented Modelica language, which can express the structure of the system rather than a process of computation. However, block-oriented approach is allowed in Modelica language too and students have tendency to express the process of computation. Usage of the exemplar acausal domains and approach allows students to understand the modeled problems much deeper. The causality of the computation is derived automatically by the simulation tool.

  15. Effects of altered offshore food webs on coastal ecosystems emphasize the need for cross-ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Sieben, Katrin; Eklöf, Johan; Ljunggren, Lars; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Bergström, Ulf

    2011-11-01

    By mainly targeting larger predatory fish, commercial fisheries have indirectly promoted rapid increases in densities of their prey; smaller predatory fish like sprat, stickleback and gobies. This process, known as mesopredator release, has effectively transformed many marine offshore basins into mesopredator-dominated ecosystems. In this article, we discuss recent indications of trophic cascades on the Atlantic and Baltic coasts of Sweden, where increased abundances of mesopredatory fish are linked to increased nearshore production and biomass of ephemeral algae. Based on synthesis of monitoring data, we suggest that offshore exploitation of larger predatory fish has contributed to the increase in mesopredator fish also along the coasts, with indirect negative effects on important benthic habitats and coastal water quality. The results emphasize the need to rebuild offshore and coastal populations of larger predatory fish to levels where they regain their control over lower trophic levels and important links between offshore and coastal systems are restored.

  16. Clinical Management of Patients with ASXL1 Mutations and Bohring-Opitz Syndrome, Emphasizing the Need for Wilms Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Bianca; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Kramer, Nancy; Pickart, Angela; Rhead, William; Tan, Wen-Hann; Brownstein, Catherine A; Clarkson, L Kate; Dobson, Amy; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Schrier Vergano, Samantha A.; Helm, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Rachel E; Graham, John M

    2016-01-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by distinctive facial features, variable microcephaly, hypertrichosis, nevus flammeus, severe myopia, unusual posture (flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation, and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints), severe intellectual disability, and feeding issues. Nine patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have been identified as having a mutation in ASXL1. We report on eight previously unpublished patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome caused by an apparent or confirmed de novo mutation in ASXL1. Of note, two patients developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Somatic mutations in ASXL1 are associated with myeloid malignancies, and these reports emphasize the need for Wilms tumor screening in patients with ASXL1 mutations. We discuss clinical management with a focus on their feeding issues, cyclic vomiting, respiratory infections, insomnia, and tumor predisposition. Many patients are noted to have distinctive personalities (interactive, happy, and curious) and rapid hair growth; features not previously reported. PMID:25921057

  17. The Effect of Emphasizing Mathematical Structure in the Acquisition of Whole Number Computation Skills (Addition and Subtraction) By Seven- and Eight-Year Olds: A Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward; Collura, Carolyn

    This investigation sought to determine the effect of emphasizing mathematical structure in the acquisition of computational skills by seven- and eight-year-olds. The meaningful development-of-structure approach emphasized closure, commutativity, associativity, and the identity element of addition; the inverse relationship between addition and…

  18. Emphasizing appearance versus health outcomes in exercise: the influence of the instructor and participants' reasons for exercise.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Shannon E; Cox, Anne E; Amorose, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    The objectifying nature of exercise environments may prevent women from reaping psychological benefits of exercise. The present experiment manipulated self-objectification through an exercise class taught by an instructor who emphasized exercise as either a means of acquiring appearance or health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test for interactions between the class emphasis and participants' reasons for exercise (i.e., appearance, health) predicting participants' state self-objectification, state social physique anxiety, exercise class enjoyment, and future intentions of returning to a similar exercise class. Results, obtained via pre- and post-exercise questionnaires, revealed a significant interaction between class emphasis and health reasons for exercise predicting state self-objectification. Participants with lower health reasons for exercise reported greater state self-objectification in the appearance-focused class compared to those with higher health reasons for exercise. Adopting stronger health reasons for exercise may buffer exercise participants from the more objectifying aspects of the group exercise environment.

  19. A single session of open kinetic chain movements emphasizing speed improves speed of movement and modifies postural control in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gray, Vicki L; Ivanova, Tanya D; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been given to training speed of movement, even though functional activities require quick submaximal contractions. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises are considered more functional; however, the best method for training speed is not known. A single bout of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises emphasizing speed was performed to determine whether movement velocity and muscle activation would improve in a single session and whether the improvements transfer to a physiological balance task. Eleven participants <1 year post-stroke performed an arm raise task before and after a single session of fast OKC exercises. Surface electromyography (EMG) from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, peak velocity and average power were recorded during the OKC exercises. EMG from SOL, TA, BF and RF and center of pressure (COP) velocity were measured during arm raise task. At the end of the OKC exercises, velocity, power and TA, BF and RF EMG area increased. The arm acceleration and BF EMG area increased significantly during the arm raise. The improvements observed at the end of the OKC exercises transferred to the arm raise task. The improvements in balance were comparable to those previously seen after CKC exercises.

  20. New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse.

  1. The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wittenberg, T.

    2007-11-15

    Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89{+-}0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0

  2. VOXEL-LEVEL MAPPING OF TRACER KINETICS IN PET STUDIES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH EMPHASIZING TISSUE LIFE TABLES1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Muzi, Mark; Mankoff, David A.; Eary, Janet F.; Spence, Alexander M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Most radiotracers used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scanning act in a linear time-invariant fashion so that the measured time-course data are a convolution between the time course of the tracer in the arterial supply and the local tissue impulse response, known as the tissue residue function. In statistical terms the residue is a life table for the transit time of injected radiotracer atoms. The residue provides a description of the tracer kinetic information measurable by a dynamic PET scan. Decomposition of the residue function allows separation of rapid vascular kinetics from slower blood-tissue exchanges and tissue retention. For voxel-level analysis, we propose that residues be modeled by mixtures of nonparametrically derived basis residues obtained by segmentation of the full data volume. Spatial and temporal aspects of diagnostics associated with voxel-level model fitting are emphasized. Illustrative examples, some involving cancer imaging studies, are presented. Data from cerebral PET scanning with 18F fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 15O water (H2O) in normal subjects is used to evaluate the approach. Cross-validation is used to make regional comparisons between residues estimated using adaptive mixture models with more conventional compartmental modeling techniques. Simulations studies are used to theoretically examine mean square error performance and to explore the benefit of voxel-level analysis when the primary interest is a statistical summary of regional kinetics. The work highlights the contribution that multivariate analysis tools and life-table concepts can make in the recovery of local metabolic information from dynamic PET studies, particularly ones in which the assumptions of compartmental-like models, with residues that are sums of exponentials, might not be certain. PMID:25392718

  3. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-01-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and…

  4. De-Emphasizing Gender in Talk about Texts: Literature Response, Discussion, and Gender within a Classroom Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth Monica

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of 19 preservice and practicing secondary language arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course. The theoretical framework was structured around…

  5. Introducing ADN students to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, R; Smutko, P W

    1998-01-01

    Every nurse, regardless of educational preparation, should be involved in and benefit from nursing research. The research process needs to become an integral part of nursing practice. In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of nursing research in the associate degree nursing curriculum, emphasizing strategies that enable the ADN graduate to appreciate research reports and use the knowledge in the clinical practice setting.

  6. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  7. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  8. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  9. Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Estes, J.C.; Andrews, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.

  10. Homosexual parents: testing "common sense"--a literature review emphasizing the Golombok and Tasker longitudinal study of lesbians' children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P

    1999-08-01

    Counter to claims by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of Social Workers as well as numerous reviewers that children raised by homosexuals and married heterosexuals do not differ, the elaborate social-personality theory called "common sense" predicts that because "like produces like" and because psychopathy/sociopathy informs the major expressions of social deviance including homosexuality, children of homosexuals will (1) be more frequently subjected to parental instability (of residence and sexual partners) and (2) have poorer peer and adult relationships. Also, as is held to be true of their parents, homosexuals' children will be more apt to (3) become homosexual, (4) be unstable (have emotional problems and difficulty forming lasting bonds) with reduced interest in natality, and (5) be sexually precocious and promiscuous. Differences between homosexual and heterosexual comparison groups that bore on "common sense" were considered suggestive "bits" of empirical evidence. Differences that emerged within studies conducted by sympathetic researchers utilizing volunteer samples were considered bits of adverse evidence. Of 171 bits, 82 adverse and 55 nonadverse bits supported, while 34 bits fell against "common sense." From this tentative method of counting, support was found for common sense beliefs that children of homosexuals will be more apt to become homosexual and have poorer peer relationships, while weaker support was found for some of the other predictions. As assessed in this way, the empirical evidence in the literature tended to lean against claims of "no differences" between children raised by homosexuals and heterosexuals. In particular, the strongly worded official claims of there being "no differences" are overstatements. They amount to the organizations and some prominent researchers asserting that they have proven the null hypothesis, which is fundamentally impossible. It is likely that the nonsignificant

  11. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18–70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4–3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7–1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7–5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18–29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational

  12. Neoplasia and neoplasm-associated lesions in laboratory colonies of zebrafish emphasizing key influences of diet and aquaculture system design.

    PubMed

    Spitsbergen, Jan M; Buhler, Donald R; Peterson, Tracy S

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, the zebrafish has emerged as a leading model for mechanistic cancer research because of its sophisticated genetic and genomic resources, its tractability for tissue targeting of transgene expression, its efficiency for forward genetic approaches to cancer model development, and its cost effectiveness for enhancer and suppressor screens once a cancer model is established. However, in contrast with other laboratory animal species widely used as cancer models, much basic cancer biology information is lacking in zebrafish. As yet, data are not published regarding dietary influences on neoplasm incidences in zebrafish. Little information is available regarding spontaneous tumor incidences or histologic types in wild-type lines of zebrafish. So far, a comprehensive database documenting the full spectrum of neoplasia in various organ systems and tissues is not available for zebrafish as it is for other intensely studied laboratory animal species. This article confirms that, as in other species, diet and husbandry can profoundly influence tumor incidences and histologic spectra in zebrafish. We show that in many laboratory colonies wild-type lines of zebrafish exhibit elevated neoplasm incidences and neoplasm-associated lesions such as heptocyte megalocytosis. We present experimental evidence showing that certain diet and water management regimens can result in high incidences of neoplasia and neoplasm-associated lesions. We document the wide array of benign and malignant neoplasms affecting nearly every organ, tissue, and cell type in zebrafish, in some cases as a spontaneous aging change, and in other cases due to carcinogen treatment or genetic manipulation.

  13. Neoplasia and Neoplasm Associated Lesions in Laboratory Colonies of Zebrafish Emphasizing Key Influences of Diet and Aquaculture System Design

    PubMed Central

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Buhler, Donald R.; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade the zebrafish has emerged as a leading model for mechanistic cancer research due to its sophisticated genetic and genomic resources, its tractability for tissue targeting of transgene expression, its efficiency for forward genetic approaches to cancer model development, and its cost-effectiveness for enhancer and suppressor screens once a cancer model is established. However, in contrast to other laboratory animal species widely used as cancer models, much basic cancer biology information is lacking in zebrafish. As yet data are not published regarding dietary influences on neoplasm incidences in zebrafish. Little information is available regarding spontaneous tumor incidences or histologic types in wild-type (wt) lines of zebrafish. So far a comprehensive database documenting the full spectrum of neoplasia in various organ systems and tissues in not available for zebrafish as it is for other intensely studied laboratory animal species. This manuscript confirms that as in other species diet and husbandry can profoundly influence tumor incidences and histologic spectra in zebrafish. We show that in many laboratory colonies wt lines of zebrafish exhibit elevated neoplasm incidences and neoplasm associated lesions such as heptocyte megalocytosis. We present experimental evidence showing that certain diet and water management regimens can result in high incidences of neoplasia and neoplasm associated lesions. We document the wide array of benign and malignant neoplasms affecting nearly every organ, tissue and cell type in zebrafish, in some cases as a spontaneous aging change, and in other cases due to carcinogen treatment or genetic manipulation. PMID:23382343

  14. Emphasizing the process of the scientific method in the physical science classroom through altered techniques and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmachtenberger, Trevor

    High school science requires students to use the scientific method when solving problems. The ability to solve problems in this way is a valuable and necessary skill for the classroom and life experiences. The goal of this study was to fully incorporate scientific thinking and methodology into the current curriculum. The hypothesis for this study was: a gradual release of responsibility from instructor to student will show an improvement in the ability of students to solve critical thinking problems, an integral part of the scientific method. This project was implemented over the period of one semester, 18 weeks and covered eight units of study. The research reported here focused on three particular units: Motion, Heat Energy, and Wave Energy. Students in a Physical Science class participated in making observations, identifying patterns, and asking questions based on the observed patterns, which led to student developed hypotheses and protocols, including data collection and analysis. Students participated in their own scientific practices, which, in turn, led to a sense of ownership and also a more thorough understanding of the scientific method and its practices as measured by lab activity accuracy and improvement in formative scores. Pre-test and post-test results indicated an improvement in students' ability to use scientific methodology.

  15. "Do good and talk about it". A CHRISTUS health study emphasizes the importance of telling our stories to the public.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Donna; Wei, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    In a time of public scrutiny, it is paramount that Catholic health care organizations examine their commitments to their communities and effectively communicate community benefit activities to stakeholders-employees, physicians, patients, and the public. CHRISTUS Academy, a leadership development program at CHRISTUS Health, Irving, TX, conducted two studies regarding community benefit. The first researched community benefit practices at more than 20 highly respected, tax-exempt CHA- and VHA-member organizations, comparing them with the practices of about 40 publicly traded, for-profit organizations. The primary conclusion was that community benefit is not just about measuring the numbers-it is also about "telling the story." Unlike the for-profit organizations, tax-exempt health care organizations tend to struggle with adequately measuring and reporting their community contributions. In a second study, the academy surveyed CHRISTUS Health's employees and physicians regarding their knowledge of the system's commitment vis-à-vis identifying and meeting community needs. The vast majority said the system is important to the community and is actively involved in understanding and meeting the needs of the community. However, they also ranked the system lower in terms of working with other community organizations, being a leader in community health, and being known for sponsoring volunteer activities. These lower rankings indicate that the community benefit activities are not well publicized or known within the organization. Catholic health organizations must take an active approach in communicating their work to the public, the media, and each other. In doing so, they fulfill an integral part their mission.

  16. Changes in Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics across the Transition to Middle School: Examining the Effects of Perceived Teacher and Parent Goal Emphases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Jeanne M.; Cortina, Kai S.; Turner, Julianne C.; Midgley, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of change in teacher goal emphases on students' efficacy beliefs in mathematics across the transition to middle school. The sample (N = 929) included primarily White (65%) and Black (27%) students, and approximately one third received free or reduced-fee lunch. Analyses grouped children by cross-classification of…

  17. Planetary magnetism. [emphasizing dynamo theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D.

    1974-01-01

    The origin and maintenance of planetary magnetic fields are discussed. The discussion is not limited to dynamo theories, although these are almost universally favored. Thermoelectric currents are found to be a possible alternative for Jupiter. Two energy sources for dynamos are considered: convection and precessionally induced fluid flow. The earth is the most favorable planet for precessionally driven dynamo, although Neptune is a possibility. Jupiter is likely to have a convectionally driven dynamo, as may Saturn, but the relevant properties of Saturn are not yet well known. Conclusions for each planet are given.

  18. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Salesi, Mohsen; Koushki, Maryam; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokines play an important role in modulating the muscle’s metabolic and immunological responses to exercise. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated changes in the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-15 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as markers of inflammation, in athlete and non-athlete young men following eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) emphasized resistance exercise (RE). Patients and Methods: This study recruited 28 young males, 14 athletes and 14 non-athletes. Subjects completed two bouts of ECC and CON emphasized RE five days apart. Each bout included seven exercises that emphasized all major muscle groups with weight loads of 70% - 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for CON RE and 90% - 100% of 1RM for ECC RE. We analyzed subjects’ blood samples before and immediately after each bout of exercise to determine cytokine and hs-CRP serum levels according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between IL-15 serum levels before and after ECC and CON RE in non-athletes (P = 0.03). In athletes, IL-15 serum level only increased after ECC RE (P = 0.01), which was noted to be the highest degree of change in IL-15 levels in all subjects. For athletes, the hs-CRP levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The serum levels of both TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly down-regulated after ECC RE in non-athletes. Conclusions: These results indicated that fitness level and RE could modulate circulating levels of IL-15 and suggest the potential anti-inflammatory effects of IL-15 during RE. PMID:26448857

  19. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality.

  20. Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H.

    2006-03-15

    Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

  1. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  2. Limited-angle reverse helical cone-beam CT for pipeline with low rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong; Zeng, Li

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, tomographic imaging of pipeline in service by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is studied. With the developed scanning strategy and image model, the quality of reconstructed image is improved. First, a limited-angle reverse helical scanning strategy based on C-arm computed tomography (C-arm CT) is developed for the projection data acquisition of pipeline in service. Then, an image model which considering the resemblance among slices of pipeline is developed. Finally, split Bregman method based algorithm is implemented in solving the model aforementioned. Preliminary results of simulation experiments show that the projection data acquisition strategy and reconstruction method are efficient and feasible, and our method is superior to Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART).

  3. Release of inorganic constituents during rapid pyrolysis of Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, G.; Riley, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    It has been shown that the mineral matter contained in Victorian brown coal is released to some extent during rapid pyrolysis. The fate of four inorganic species: sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron, has been investigated. As expected, sodium is released from the coal during heating. However, the divalent species calcium, magnesium and iron, are all released during pyrolysis, with losses of between 35 and 40% where the total mass loss from the coal reaches at least 70%. A mechanism has been postulated for the loss: these elements are believed to be retained within the large molecular weight tar fraction which makes up between 30 and 40% of the mass loss from the coal during rapid pyrolysis.

  4. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  5. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, April-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-07-01

    The lignite used for Phase I of the project was a Texas lignite from the Martin Lake mine obtained from the stockpile for the Martin Lake Power Plant of the Texas Utilities Generating Company. The power requirements for the fluid-energy mill were determined from the measured steam (or air) temperatures, pressures and pressure drops and the lignite flow rate. The instrument locations for the tests are shown on Figure 1. All of the instruments were connected to a microcomputer via an analog input interface board. Data were recorded on disks periodically throughout the tests. Appropriate calibration procedures were followed to assure that reliable data were being obtained. The combined grinding/drying tests were conducted in Vicksbuth, MS at Ergon, Inc.'s fluid-energy-mill facility. both steam and air were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were run with the following temperatures maintained inside the pulverizer: 310/sup 0/F, 350/sup 0/F, 400/sup 0/F, 488/sup 0/F. The materials from the grinding/drying tests have been analyzed. Tests included particle size distribution, density distribution, proximate and ultimate analyses, ash mineral analyses, electron microscope pictures, angle of repose and equilibrium moisture tests. These data have been correlated with the drying temperatures. The pulverized material was separated into different particle size groups with an air classifier. The samples from these tests were used to determine if one particle range had a higher ash content than the others. Very little difference in ash content was noted. Fluids at 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 specific gravities were used in a centrifuge to separate the ultrafine lignite into different density groups.

  6. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, January-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-04-01

    The specific goals for Phase I of this project were to: (1) select a friable Texas lignite for Phase I investigation. (2) In three separate tests, micropulverize the lignite in a fluid-energy mill utilizing steam as the drying agent and carrier media to produce at three levels of moisture content. (3) Measure the power requirements to micropulverize the lignite at each level of product moisture. (4) Measure the product size distribution, ash content as a function of particle size, particle shape, angle of repose and moisture reabsorption. (5) Submit a technical report on the test lignite. Preliminary results are reported.

  7. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Barton

    2009-03-05

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass ended up in the solid waste collected in the external cyclone. The volatiles were almost all removed in the gasifier. While the average gas heating value of the collected gas products was 50 BTUs/scf or less, addition a of the second gas exit for combustion gases would increase that value by a factor of two or three. Other changes to the current design such as shortening the gasifier body and draft tube would lead to lower air use and shorter heating times. There was no evidence of steam reforming at the current operating temperature. Likewise there was no indication of significant tar production. Reconfiguration of the gasifier at the on farm site may yet yield more significant results that would better qualify this gasifier for small scale biomass operations.

  8. Exact Low-Rank Matrix Completion from Sparsely Corrupted Entries via Adaptive Outlier Pursuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    Recognition. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadephia, PA, 2007. 1 [10] M Fazel, H Hindi , and S P Boyd. A rank minimization heuristic with...Riemannian approach. In 28th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), 2011. 2 [20] Benjamin Recht, Maryam Fazel, and Pablo A. Parrilo

  9. Cooperative Non-Line-of-Sight Localization Using Low-rank + Sparse Matrix Decomposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    manifold learning where the measurement process can induce large bias errors in some fraction of the distance measurements due to physical effects...manifold learning where the measurement process can induce large bias errors in some fraction of the distance measurements due to physical effects like...analysis, manifold learning etc. In sensor networks, the locations of different sensor nodes need to be estimated, given the distance measurements

  10. A Study of Recognition of the Lesser Achievements of Low Ranking Enlisted Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    BIBLIOGRAPHY Applewhite, Philip B. OrKanizatior^l T ^W^, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey: Prentice HailTnc., 1965, gxewooa Backstrom , Charles H. and Gerald D...DOCUMENTATION PAGE "l. REPORT NUMBER 2, GOVT ACCESSION NO. READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORg COMPLETING FORM T . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4...Jhe ^f6 klnd of thin8 t ^s observed in grouns of and intimacy by their common external danger, and who ToLll^lTher throughout a lifetlme L l This

  11. Low rank factorization of the Coulomb integrals for periodic coupled cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Felix; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Grüneis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We study a tensor hypercontraction decomposition of the Coulomb integrals of periodic systems where the integrals are factorized into a contraction of six matrices of which only two are distinct. We find that the Coulomb integrals can be well approximated in this form already with small matrices compared to the number of real space grid points. The cost of computing the matrices scales as O (N4) using a regularized form of the alternating least squares algorithm. The studied factorization of the Coulomb integrals can be exploited to reduce the scaling of the computational cost of expensive tensor contractions appearing in the amplitude equations of coupled cluster methods with respect to system size. We apply the developed methodologies to calculate the adsorption energy of a single water molecule on a hexagonal boron nitride monolayer in a plane wave basis set and periodic boundary conditions.

  12. Research strategies for addressing uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Brekke, Levi D.; Averyt, Kristen; Jardine, Angela; Welling, Leigh; Garfin, Gregg; Jardine, Angela; Merideth, Robert; Black, Mary; LeRoy, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Research Strategies for Addressing Uncertainties builds on descriptions of research needs presented elsewhere in the book; describes current research efforts and the challenges and opportunities to reduce the uncertainties of climate change; explores ways to improve the understanding of changes in climate and hydrology; and emphasizes the use of research to inform decision making.

  13. Advocates for Radical Change: Two Research Odysseys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, M. Ann

    1983-01-01

    Research in sport sociology is discussed, especially those studies emphasizing the relationship between sports and class domination. The need for research that pays attention to the power relationships between men and women is pointed out. (PP)

  14. Amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis and umbilical cord entrapment: A case report emphasizing the value of evaluation of umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Chandra, Tushar; Rajeswari, Kathiah; Devi, Thangammal Kandasamy Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a rare congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts by fibrous amniotic bands in utero. The congenital anomalies seen in this syndrome vary widely and defects may be isolated or multiple and do not follow a specific pattern. Asymmetric distribution of defects is the hallmark of this syndrome. The diagnosis is difficult to make on ultrasound and relies on identification of amniotic bands. We report a case of amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis diagnosed on routine antenatal ultrasound scan in the second offspring of a recently diagnosed diabetic mother. The associated features were entrapment of umbilical cord, caudal adhesions and lower limb anomalies. Medical termination of pregnancy was done and all the fetal anomalies as well as umbilical cord abnormalities were confirmed. The importance of meticulous scanning to evaluate for amniotic bands and the umbilical cord in addition to the fetal structures is emphasized. PMID:25926929

  15. A case of tricuspid valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis which emphasizes the shift between the poverty of clinical symptoms and the severity of cardiac damages.

    PubMed

    Molet, Lucie; Revest, Matthieu; Fournet, Maxime; Donal, Erwan; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Minet, Jacques; Le Bars, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    Infectious endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis is an uncommon event, accounting for less than 2% of all cases of infectious endocarditis. The infection of the tricuspid valve as it is reported here is extremely rare. We report the case of a tricuspid endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis in a 56 year-old man who was admitted to hospital with pelvic and scapular pain. The diagnosis was established through positive blood cultures and echographic detection of a large tricuspid vegetation. Despite efficient antibiotic therapy, valve replacement was required. The clinical course of Cardiobacterium endocarditis is usually subacute, and the diagnosis may therefore be delayed. This case emphasizes the shift between the poverty of clinical symptoms and severity of cardiac damages, what we could call the Cardiobacterium paradox.

  16. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A.; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  17. Fire Research at the National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, G.W.

    This discussion of fire research emphasizes test procedures and architectural element performance. Measurement and simulation of fire conditions establish "fire load" specifications, structural influences, and corridor surface lining data. Topics studied include--(1) fire endurance of building elements, (2) material flammability, (3)…

  18. Structural mechanics research at the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The contributions of NASA's Langley Research Center in areas of structural mechanics were traced from its NACA origins in 1917 to the present. The developments in structural mechanics technology since 1940 were emphasized. A brief review of some current research topics were discussed as well as anticipated near-term research projects.

  19. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  20. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University…

  1. Genealogy and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how genealogy can be used as a method for critical education research. As Foucault emphasized, genealogy is a method for identifying the way in which the individuals are subjectified through discourse. The genealogical analysis in the article defines two mayor tendencies in contemporary Danish pedagogy:…

  2. Time Management Problem in Science Course in Secondary School 5th-8th Grades in Turkey: Units Emphasized Less and the Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2016-01-01

    This study is carried out to reveal which units teachers who encounter problems about falling behind the science course curriculum in secondary school in the 5th grade through the 8th grade prefer to focus on less and the reasons for their preferences. Survey model was used in the research study. Total 302 science teachers from 28 different cities…

  3. A Comparison of Western Business Instruction in China with U.S. Instruction: A Case Study of Perceived Program Emphases and Satisfaction Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla G.; Borgia, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This research presents a case study of a joint business degree program between an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB-I) accredited business school in the United States and a Chinese PhD granting partner university. The case investigates the impact of a U.S.-based curriculum, taught by U.S. instructors and…

  4. Research Internships: Students as Participants in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerter, James D.

    1980-01-01

    A research internship program for undergraduate college students is described. The program, which emphasizes "hands on" experiences for women students, is evaluated by the use of a follow-up study of the graduates. (SA)

  5. Researcher-Portraitists: An Exploration of Aesthetics and Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Leah Schoenberg; Reybold, L. Earle; Kidd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we critique the use of portraiture as a qualitative research method, emphasizing the relationship between the fundamental aspects of portraiture and the recurring themes of research quality associated with alternative qualitative inquiry. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a study of culturally responsive practices of three…

  6. Aeroacoustic research: An Army perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, H. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    A short perspective of the Army aeroacoustic research program is presented that emphasizes rotary wing, aerodynamically generated noise. Exciting breakthroughs in experimental techniques and facilities are reviewed which are helping build a detailed understanding of helicopter external noise. Army and joint Army/NASA supported research programs in acoustics which promise to reduce the noise of future helicopters without severe performance penalties are included.

  7. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  8. State Of The Art: The Current Status of Theory and Research in Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gerald R.

    1978-01-01

    Details four alternative perspectives for conceptualizing the interpersonal communication process, emphasizing their implications for the theorist and researcher of interpersonal communication. (Author)

  9. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  10. Statistics used in current nursing research.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Kathleen; Boerst, Connie J; Tabb, Wil

    2007-02-01

    Undergraduate nursing research courses should emphasize the statistics most commonly used in the nursing literature to strengthen students' and beginning researchers' understanding of them. To determine the most commonly used statistics, we reviewed all quantitative research articles published in 13 nursing journals in 2000. The findings supported Beitz's categorization of kinds of statistics. Ten primary statistics used in 80% of nursing research published in 2000 were identified. We recommend that the appropriate use of those top 10 statistics be emphasized in undergraduate nursing education and that the nursing profession continue to advocate for the use of methods (e.g., power analysis, odds ratio) that may contribute to the advancement of nursing research.

  11. Alzheimer's disease: An overview of amyloid beta dependent pathogenesis and its therapeutic implications along with in silico approaches emphasizing the role of natural products.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2016-02-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in brain with subsequent formation of neuritic plaques leading to dementia. A number of therapeutic strategies targeted against Aβ depositions have been rigorously explored which provided successful results corresponding to the existing symptomatic treatments. However, at the same time, several failures corresponding to the disease altering therapies and drugs have also been observed due to potential drawbacks in understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, development of drug candidates and subsequent designing of clinical trials. Preclinical research, along with experimental and clinical studies, is continuously providing novel information which may reveal multi-target directed ligands and combination therapies for targeting Aβ. Thus, in view of the estimated increase in the number of AD patients globally, the present review attempts to summarize the available evidence dealing with various therapeutic approaches targeting Aβ, focusing specifically on pharmaceutical compounds under various stages of clinical trials. Furthermore, in view of a number of computational advances having significant impact in the field of computer aided drug design, we have also presented results of analysis of natural compounds as potential therapeutic molecules in preventing Aβ plaque formation using in silico approaches.

  12. Cranial Morphology of the Late Oligocene Patagonian Notohippid Rhynchippus equinus Ameghino, 1897 (Mammalia, Notoungulata) with Emphases in Basicranial and Auditory Region.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gastón; Dozo, María Teresa; Gelfo, Javier N; Marani, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    provides potentially informative data for future research involving other representatives of the order.

  13. Cranial Morphology of the Late Oligocene Patagonian Notohippid Rhynchippus equinus Ameghino, 1897 (Mammalia, Notoungulata) with Emphases in Basicranial and Auditory Region

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Gastón; Dozo, María Teresa; Gelfo, Javier N.; Marani, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    and provides potentially informative data for future research involving other representatives of the order. PMID:27232883

  14. Analysis of snowpack accumulation and the melting process of wet snow using a heat balance approach that emphasizes the role of underground heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshisuke; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Ogura, Akira; Yoshida, Masashi

    2015-03-01

    Snowpack accumulation and melting, including the role of the heat flux underground, were investigated by employing the bulk transfer method and setting roughness lengths of ZO = ZT = 0.005 m and ZT = 0.007 m. Heat balance data were recorded for a period of 4 years, from the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2013, at a forest experiment station in the Hokuriku region, which lies along the Japan Sea. The findings of the research are as follows: (1) The observed temporal changes in the snowpack depth were well reproduced by our model using observed and estimated densities. (2) The importance and roles of the heat balance components were clarified. The total heat input during the 4 years was 252.2 MJ/m2 on average; 41.4% was provided by net radiation (Rn), 37.8% by sensible heat flux (H), and 13.2% by underground heat flux (G). The total output was 120.7 MJ/m2, of which 56.2% was accounted for by Rn and 31.1% by latent heat flux (lE). (3) Of the total heat input, 45.2% was released as freezing energy from the surface side and 2.6% was released from the bottom. (4) In the very cold season (December-February), the total input energy was 115.8 MJ/m2 on average; 75.0% was supplied by the surface and the remaining 25.0% from underground. In an anomalous year, 40.8% of the energy was supplied from underground.

  15. Doing and Using Educational Research: Collaborative Approaches in Changing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests that, while continuing to critically address abiding issues concerning the nature and purposes of mass education, educational research needs to embrace new contexts and emphases as we move deeper into the 21st century. These contexts and emphases--in particular those related to globalization in its various forms, and to rapid…

  16. The Role of Research in Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, P. J.; Aston, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents four educational experiments reflecting Jerome Bruner's theories on iconic and enactive representation to emphasize the need for more research on how children learn. Advocates greater institutional cooperation among schools, teachers, and researchers to improve research implementation and reduce problems of school disruption and…

  17. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  18. Of What Value to Kodaly is Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caylor, Florence B.

    This paper indicates the need for continuing research in music education and emphasizes the relevance of developmental and educational research to the Kodaly program of music instruction. While music research based on Piaget's and Skinner's work has been done, interest in measures of musical aptitude has declined. Music educators especially need…

  19. Economics of Education: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1996-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of research areas in educational economics and outlines key topics deserving more research attention. Emphasizes documenting the unit cost of education at different schooling levels and curriculum types, along with learning and earning schooling outcomes. Topics needing further research include the screening hypothesis,…

  20. Psychological Androgyny: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1987-01-01

    Presents a critical review which provides an overview of basic assumptions, measures, research topics, and research results in the androgyny literature. Notes that research on developmental perspectives emphasizes the importance of focusing on how individuals systematically maintain and modify their perceptions and experiences as men and women…

  1. Postdoctoral Researchers: Roles, Functions and Career Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns with postdoctoral research training and employment outcomes are growing at an international level. Recent studies of postdoctoral and other contract researchers in various countries emphasize common issues associated with these appointments, including the absence of any systematic definition of postdoctoral research positions, lack of…

  2. To authorize the National Science Foundation to award grants for implementing or expanding research-based reforms in master's and doctoral level STEM education that emphasize preparation for diverse careers in the STEM workforce.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Giffords, Gabrielle [D-AZ-8

    2010-03-25

    04/30/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. NASA supported research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate programs in aerospace sciences are discussed. An interdisciplinary approach to aerospace science education is emphasized. Various research programs and scientific publications that are a direct result of NASA grants are listed.

  4. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  5. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  6. An Electronics Course Emphasizing Circuit Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Haven E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one-quarter introductory electronics course in which the students use a variety of inexpensive integrated circuits to design and construct a large number of useful circuits. Presents the subject matter of the course in three parts: linear circuits, digital circuits, and more complex circuits. (GS)

  7. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  8. Fulbright Emphasizes Diversity among Its Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The Fulbright Program is one of the most successful fellowship programs around. About 1,500 students and 1,300 scholars from the United States and abroad are studying and working on Fulbrights this academic year. But the U.S. State Department, which oversees the program, has been concerned in recent years about the lack of diversity among American…

  9. Designing Writing Exercises to Emphasize Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this presentation, the author stresses the importance of writing exercises to educate students in certain disciplines. The objective is to make the students become personally involved so that their educational experience is more geared towards a learning paradigm instead of a teaching paradigm. In addition to accumulating a wealth of knowledge the students also refine and expand their writing skills and abilities. One should be pragmatic in one's approach. In other words, the instructor should have a clear understanding of the skills the students need to develop. It is important to define the target and implementation mode while designing writing exercises. Effective learning can thus be combined with enthusiasm in classroom instructional development. It is extremely important that all undergraduate engineering students are provided with an adequate understanding and thorough background of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. At present, undergraduate students at Miami University of Ohio do not acquire any knowledge pertaining to this particular topic. The author proposes that a topic based on NEPA be introduced in the Fluid Mechanics Course at a Junior Level. The author believes that there is an absolute and urgent need for introducing the students to the fact that various documents such as EA (Environmental Assessment), EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), FONSI (Finding Of No Significant Impact), are an essential part of present-day workplace environment. In this presentation the author talks about introducing NEPA in the classroom. More than a decade ago Harvard University Professor Dr. Howard Gardner suggested the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Dr. Gardner proposed that eight different Intelligences accounted for the development of human potential (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 2000). Leading scholars in the area of Cognitive Science and Educational Methodologies also agree and have concluded that it is essential that students need to be taught in a learning environment that enables them to acquire real-world problem-solving skills (Saxe, 1988; Senge, 1990; Sims, 1995). Educators should not allow the students to wonder whether they have been learning anything that would actually serve them in the workplace, upon graduation. (Barr and Tagg, 1995). Howard Gardner's list of Eight Intelligences is given below. 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") 2. Logical intelligence ("number smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") The author has tried to examine students' learning development, behavior and exploration using some of the above eight Intelligences. In this presentation, he provides data he has collected while teaching certain selected courses (Narayanan, 2007). References Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic,1983 Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993. Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000. Barr, R. B., and Tagg, J. (1995, November/December). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, 13-24. Narayanan, Mysore (2007). Assessment of Perceptual Modality Styles. Proceedings of ASEE 2007 Annual Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.

  10. Gifted Education: Changing Conceptions, Emphases and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dona J.; Dai, David Yun

    2014-01-01

    Gifted education is leading an interdisciplinary paradigm shift moving education out of its historic role of entrenching systemic inequities. It is a crucible for pioneering investigations of optimal human development and provides a vehicle for increasing social equity. We review changing conceptions of intelligence, motivation and creativity, and…

  11. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  12. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  13. Emphasize the Nontechnical Aspects of Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that employers consider the nontechnical aspects of office work to be as important as work competence, the author lists 12 nontechnical qualities that business teachers should place greater emphasis on, such as new terminology, new devices, communication skills, decision making, personal and professional characteristics, responsibility,…

  14. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  15. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  16. A survey of metallurgical research on several actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1993-11-01

    A Los Alamos perspective on metallurgical research on neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium is presented. Alloying behaviors of these metals are discussed. Metal fabrication technologies, principally for plutonium, are emphasized.

  17. Exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure for the recovery of multi-slice breast MRIs with reduced sampling error.

    PubMed

    Yin, X X; Ng, B W-H; Ramamohanarao, K; Baghai-Wadji, A; Abbott, D

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that, magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with sparsity representation in a transformed domain, e.g. spatial finite-differences (FD), or discrete cosine transform (DCT), can be restored from undersampled k-space via applying current compressive sampling theory. The paper presents a model-based method for the restoration of MRIs. The reduced-order model, in which a full-system-response is projected onto a subspace of lower dimensionality, has been used to accelerate image reconstruction by reducing the size of the involved linear system. In this paper, the singular value threshold (SVT) technique is applied as a denoising scheme to reduce and select the model order of the inverse Fourier transform image, and to restore multi-slice breast MRIs that have been compressively sampled in k-space. The restored MRIs with SVT for denoising show reduced sampling errors compared to the direct MRI restoration methods via spatial FD, or DCT. Compressive sampling is a technique for finding sparse solutions to underdetermined linear systems. The sparsity that is implicit in MRIs is to explore the solution to MRI reconstruction after transformation from significantly undersampled k-space. The challenge, however, is that, since some incoherent artifacts result from the random undersampling, noise-like interference is added to the image with sparse representation. These recovery algorithms in the literature are not capable of fully removing the artifacts. It is necessary to introduce a denoising procedure to improve the quality of image recovery. This paper applies a singular value threshold algorithm to reduce the model order of image basis functions, which allows further improvement of the quality of image reconstruction with removal of noise artifacts. The principle of the denoising scheme is to reconstruct the sparse MRI matrices optimally with a lower rank via selecting smaller number of dominant singular values. The singular value threshold algorithm is performed by minimizing the nuclear norm of difference between the sampled image and the recovered image. It has been illustrated that this algorithm improves the ability of previous image reconstruction algorithms to remove noise artifacts while significantly improving the quality of MRI recovery.

  18. Self-Navigated Low-Rank MRI for MPIO-Labeled Immune Cell Imaging of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Wu, Yijen L.; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles can magnetically label immune cells in circulation; the accumulation of labeled cells can then be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This has enormous potential for imaging inflammatory responses in the heart, but it has been difficult to do in vivo using conventional free-breathing, ungated cardiac imaging. Subspace imaging with temporal navigation and sparse sampling of (k, t)-space has previously been used to accelerate several cardiac imaging applications, conventionally alternating between acquiring navigator data and sparse data every other TR. Here we describe a more efficient self-navigated pulse sequence to acquire both navigator and sparse (k, t)-space data in the space of a single TR, doubling imaging speed to approach 100 frames per second (fps). We show the feasibility of using the resulting method to assess myocardial inflammation in a pre-clinical rodent ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) model using micron-sized paramagnetic iron oxide (MPIO) particles to label immune cells in situ. PMID:25570261

  19. Effects of pyrolysis conditions and ion-exchangeable cations on the thermal decomposition of a Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sathe, C.; Pang, Y.; Li, C.Z.

    1998-12-31

    A Loy Yang brown coal sample was acid-washed and ion-exchanged with Na and Ca to prepare the H-form, Na-form and Ca-form coal samples. These coal samples were pyrolyzed in a wire-mesh reactor where the extraparticle secondary reactions of the evolved volatiles were minimized. The ion-exchanged coal samples were found to give very different tar yields from those of the raw coal samples. The tar yields from the pyrolysis of the raw and H-form coal samples were observed to be very sensitive to changes in heating rate and the tar yields at 600 C were found to increase much more than the corresponding increases in the total volatile yields as the heating rate was increased from 1 to 1,000 K/s. In contrast, the tar yields from the Ca-form and Na-form coal samples showed little heating rate sensitivity. The heating rate sensitivity of pyrolysis yields is believed to be at least partly related to the presence of carboxyl/carboxylate groups and other bulky substitution groups in the coal as well as the rapid pressure buildup within the particles. Re-exchanging Na in the Na-form coal sample and Ca in the Ca-form coal sample with H confirmed the effects of Na and Ca, but also suggested that the irreversible structural changes taking place during ion-exchange should also be considered to evaluate the effects of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis. The major roles of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis are thought to be associated with the transformation of the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species. Some Ca was volatilized during pyrolysis, even at temperatures as low as 600 C.

  20. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Andrew; Goyal, Amit; McCabe, Kevin; Gangwal, Santosh

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  1. Integrating flotation to improve the performance of an HMC circuit treating a low-rank fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, H.; Polat, M.

    2005-11-01

    One reason that heavy media cyclone (HMC) circuits suffer from the inadvertent loss of magnetite and fine coal is the presence of nonmagnetic material in the magnetic separator feed. In this study, flotation was applied to the undersize fractions of the HMC drain-and-rinse screens to minimize these problems. These fractions, which contain 17.9% nonmagnetic material, are currently sent to magnetic separators and the nonmagnetic portion from the separators contains 39.1% ash. Applying flotation resulted in a clean coal product with an ash content of 8.7% and a calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg. The refuse from flotation, which will be sent to the magnetic separators, contains 7.7% nonmagnetics.

  2. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-08-25

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  3. Development of Action Research in China: Review and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Katrina Yan

    2011-01-01

    Action research in China during late 1970s and 1980s was influenced by positivist scientific research, believing the purpose of doing action research is to explore the general law of education. It was carried out through educational experimentations emphasizing the control of the experimental conditions. Starting from 1990s, action research in…

  4. Studying Teacher Preparation: The Questions That Drive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Maria Villegas, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of "research as historically situated social practice," which emphasizes that researchers' interests, commitments, and social experiences…

  5. An Integrative Model for Teaching Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    This paper presents a model which illustrates the cyclical and interactive nature of the basic elements of the research design process. Rather than presenting each research design component in isolation, the model emphasizes their interrelationships. A brief discussion is presented on each of the following components of the model: (1) the "words"…

  6. Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    This book, designed for novice researchers, provides a step-by-step guide to the development of a research project. It emphasizes learning how to do qualitative work and provides specific examples from real studies. The chapters are: (1) "Deciding To Do a Qualitative Study"; (2) "Designing Qualitative Studies"; (3) "Collecting Qualitative Data";…

  7. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research for the Study of Health Management Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Woike, Mary; Tokars, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation on vehicle integrated propulsion research results and planning. This research emphasizes the testing of advanced health management sensors and diagnostics in an aircraft engine that is operated through multiple baseline and fault conditions.

  8. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  9. Mendelian genetics: Paradigm, conjecture, or research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos's methodology of competing research programs are applied to a historical episode in biology. Each of these three models offers a different explanatory system for the development, neglect, and eventual acceptance of Mendel's paradigm of inheritance. The authors conclude that both rational and nonrational criteria play an important role during times of crisis in science, when different research programs compete for acceptance. It is suggested that Kuhn's model, emphasizing the nonrational basis of science, and Popper's model, emphasizing the rational basis of science, can be used fruitfully in high school science courses.

  10. Exploratory coprocessing research

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Tse, D.S.; Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-11-02

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) study the scope of hydrothermal pretreatment of coal on subsequent conversion, (2) identify and study the chemical or physical causes of this effect, and (3) attempt to elucidate the chemistry responsible for any coal-resid synergisms. This project is divided into three tasks. This quarter we concentrated on Tasks 1 and 2. Task 1: Scope of aqueous pretreatment. Task 2: Chemistry of Pretreatment. Also during this quarter we investigated other means of pretreating low rank coal to enhance conversions. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  12. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to enable students to think clearly and critically about the scientific process of research. The author emphasizes that the ability to think clearly about research methods, reason through complex problems, and evaluate published research are important in today's changing educational landscape. Students using this book will…

  13. Participatory Research in an Arts Integration Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Kathryn M.; Judd-Glossy, Laura; Ihorn, Shasta

    2012-01-01

    Drama for Schools (DFS) is an arts integration professional development program rooted in critical pedagogy and constructivism that emphasizes partnerships between school districts and a major research university. As a part of the research initiative embedded in this professional development program, DFS began an Arts integration Research Teacher…

  14. American Research Universities: Their Role in Undergraduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L.

    The nature of U.S. research universities, which emphasize both graduate education and research, is discussed. Three elements that account for their character and unity are: a commitment to academic values, distinguished faculties, and considerable resource bases and resource flows. Research universities have been classified by different criteria,…

  15. Contemporary Genetics for Gender Researchers: Not Your Grandma's Genetics Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Rachel H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary…

  16. Programmatic research to increase the effectiveness of health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Palmgreen, Philip C; Donohew, Lewis

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews a long program of research designed to investigate ways to increase the effectiveness of televised antidrug public service announcements. The review highlights the importance of audience targeting (adolescent and young adult high sensation seekers) and message design (message sensation value) in campaign research. It also emphasizes the role of theory and evaluation in programmatic research.

  17. Suggested drilling research tasks for the Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    A brief summary discussion of drilling, drilling research and the role of the government in drilling research is presented. Specific research and development areas recommended for federal consideration are listed. The technical nature of the identified tasks is emphasized. The Appendices present the factual basis for the discussion and recommendations. Numerous references are noted in the Appendices.

  18. Techniques in teaching statistics : linking research production and research use.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Moyano, I .; Smith, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of closing the 'research-practice gap,' the authors extend evidence-based principles to statistics instruction in social science graduate education. The authors employ a Delphi method to survey experienced statistics instructors to identify teaching techniques to overcome the challenges inherent in teaching statistics to students enrolled in practitioner-oriented master's degree programs. Among the teaching techniques identi?ed as essential are using real-life examples, requiring data collection exercises, and emphasizing interpretation rather than results. Building on existing research, preliminary interviews, and the ?ndings from the study, the authors develop a model describing antecedents to the strength of the link between research and practice.

  19. Advances in Writing Research, Volume One: Children's Early Writing Development. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Marcia, Ed.

    Recent research on children learning to write, coming from a mix of disciplines (English education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and rhetoric), is described in this volume. The introduction, by Marcia Farr, emphasizes how the research contributes to understanding (1) of research methodology and theoretical frameworks, and (2) of…

  20. Too Much Emphasis on Research? An Empirical Examination of the Relationship between Research and Teaching in Multitasking Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Hee-Je; Kim, Do Han

    2015-01-01

    While the public is concerned that emphasizing research performance among university faculty results in inadequate attention to undergraduate teaching, research on the relationship between research and teaching in higher education has failed to confirm or deny the validity of this concern. To empirically test this popular concern, we examined how…

  1. Overview of safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft safety is reviewed by first establishing a perspective of air transportation accidents as a function of calendar year, geographic area, and phase of flight, and then by describing the threats to safety and NASA research underway in the three representative areas of engine operational problems, meteorological phenomena, and fire. Engine rotor burst protection, aircraft nacelle fire extinguishment, the aircraft-weather interface, severe weather wind shears and turbulence, clear air turbulence, and lightning are among the topics covered. Fire impact management through fire resistant materials technology development is emphasized.

  2. The complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism as a philosophical perspective for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Todres, L; Wheeler, S

    2001-02-01

    The focus of this paper draws on the thinking of Husserl, Dilthey and Heidegger to identify elements of the phenomenological movement that can provide focus and direction for qualitative research in nursing. The authors interpret this tradition in two ways: emphasizing the possible complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism, and demonstrating how these emphases ask for grounding, reflexivity and humanization in qualitative research. The paper shows that the themes of grounding, reflexivity and humanization are particularly important for nursing research.

  3. Computer-Mediated Communication in Education: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Keller, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The field of research on computer-mediated communication (CMC) in education is a relatively new research area. A summary of the latest research is useful to show what methodologies and research topics have been emphasized in order to be better prepared for the future by uncovering areas where there is a lack of research. The study examines…

  4. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-06-12

    Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

  5. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) preparation of low-rank coals; application of liquefaction processes to low-rank coals; (2) slagging fixed-bed gasification; (3) atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coal; (4) ash fouling and combustion modification for low-rank coal; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization and disposal; and (9) exploratory research.

  6. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept. [Quarterly report], May 24--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Derbyshire, F.J.; Kimber, G.; Anderson, R.K.; Carter, S.D.; Peluso, M.

    1995-11-08

    CONSOL Inc., the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), and LDP Associates are conducting a three-year research program to explore the technical and economic feasibility of a novel direct coal liquefaction concept. The purpose of this research program is to explore a new approach to direct coal liquefaction in which the primary coal dissolution step is effected by chemical rather than thermal cleavage of bonds in the coal. This is done at a temperature which is significantly lower than that typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. Reaction at this low temperature results in high conversion of the coal to a solubilized form, with little hydrocarbon gas make, and avoids the thermally induced retrograde reactions which are unavoidable in conventional thermal processes. In addition, for low-rank coals, a substantial portion of the oxygen in the coal is removed as CO and CO{sub 2} during the dissolution. The higher selectivity to liquid products and rejection of oxygen as carbon oxides should result in improved hydrogen utilization. The basis of the novel concept is the discovery made by CONSOL R&D that certain hydride transfer agents are very active for coal dissolution at temperatures in the range of 350{degree}C. Because of the exploratory nature of the research, the project is divided into sequential tasks that are designed to first evaluate key elements of the process is presented for the following tasks: management plan; evaluation of process steps; engineering and economic study and reporting.

  7. AAC Interventions for Autism: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Debora R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six studies from 1980 to 2007 involving the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by individuals with autism were reviewed. The majority of the studies used single-subject research designs and emphasized language production skills. Many investigations were held in artificial language learning settings, and a few involved…

  8. Some Issues in Compensatory Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukat, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    Examines some of the discussion provoked by recent research in compensatory education strategies in Europe and the U.S. emphasizing the complexity and relativity of 'socio-cultural handicaps' and arguing for an individual rather than for a social class oriented approach to compensatory education. (Author/JM)

  9. Logic in Educational Research and Policy Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlikov, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes S. Bauer's article on the use of achievement tests to judge school quality to demonstrate the importance of logic, philosophy (especially conceptual analysis), and insights based on anecdotal evidence for educational research and policy making. Emphasizes the place for logical reasoning and anecdotal evidence in the empirical enterprise…

  10. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  11. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water…

  12. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts

  13. Energy research strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Research and development is an essential element of economic prosperity and a traditional source of strength for the U.S. economy. During the past two decades, the way of introducing technological developments into the national economy has changed steadily. Previously, industry did most long-term technology development and some basic research with private funding. Today, the Nation`s industry relies mostly on federally-funded research to provide the knowledge base that leads to new technologies and economic growth. In the 1980s, U.S. firms lost major technology markets to foreign competition. In response, many firms increased emphasis on technology development for near term payoff while decreasing long term research for new technology. The purpose of the Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to provide basic research and technology development that triggers and drives economic development and helps maintain U.S. world leadership in science. We do so through programs of basic and applied research that support the Department`s energy, environmental and national defense missions and that provide the foundation for technical advancement. We do so by emphasizing research that maintains our world leadership in science, mathematics, and engineering and through partnerships with universities, National Laboratories, and industries across the Nation.

  14. Balancing Program and Research Integrity in Community Drug Abuse Prevention: Project STAR Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Mary Ann; And Others

    1986-01-01

    An ongoing multiple community drug abuse prevention project is used to illustrate the process of community-based programming. Program support, quality control, and accommodation of both program and research objectives are emphasized. (Author/MT)

  15. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  16. Research possibilities for organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    In this article, we identify research possibilities for organizational cognitive neuroscience that emerge from the papers in this special issue. We emphasize the intriguing finding that the papers share a common theme-the use of cognitive neuroscience to investigate the role of emotions in organizational behavior; this suggests a research agenda in its own right. We conclude the article by stressing that there is much yet to discover about how the mind works, especially in organizational settings.

  17. Stimulating Partnership between Research and Practice: Insights from Evaluations of the Canadian Strategic Grant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Simon, Marielle

    To enhance the relevance and usefulness of social-science research, large-scale research grant-allocation policies are emphasizing, if not requiring, the formation of research partnerships between researchers and members of the community of practice. The emergence of a revisionist conception of traditional dissemination and utilization of…

  18. Instructional Materials in Australian Education. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Articles on Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    This report on a master's project begins with a review of the research literature on instructional materials in Australia which emphasizes Australian research and how it compares with a similar body of research published by American scholars. It is noted that the intent of this comparison is to identify where research in Australia can be applied…

  19. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  20. Sensory Aids Research Project - Clarke School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Arthur

    Described is a program of research into sensory aids for the deaf, emphasizing research on factors involved in the effective use of sensory aids rather than evaluation of particular devices. Aspects of the program are the development of a programed testing and training unit, the control of fundamental voice frequency using visual feedback, and…

  1. Annotated Bibliography of Research in Adult Education 1983-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Brunswick Dept. of Education, Fredericton (Canada).

    Research studies conducted in Canada are emphasized in this annotated bibliography of adult education research conducted from 1983-1988, although a few studies from the United States and England are included. The entries, arranged in alphabetical order by author's last name, are in English and, occasionally, French. (CML)

  2. Teacher Education Research: The Outside and the Inside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that teacher education research has not yet found a distinctive place in the lexicon of educational research, discussing the influence of policymakers. After presenting an informative model of educational renewal that emphasizes medical education, the paper discusses lessons learned from the saga of medical education and asks whether it…

  3. The Research System in the 1980's. Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, John M., Ed.

    U.S. research institutions are undergoing significant changes from patterns established in the decade following World War II. Declining undergraduate enrollments are predicted to lead to "steady-state" universities; federal policy is emphasizing industry-university research cooperation and calling for a decreased federal role in the…

  4. Even High School Students Can Do Real Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of teaching library skills to high school students focuses on a six-stage model of a process approach to teaching library research that is based on Kuhlthau's research. Incorporating library skills throughout the curriculum is encouraged, the need for teacher/librarian partnerships is emphasized, and the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of…

  5. Strengthening Undergraduate Social Work Research: Models and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Linda S.; Avant, Freddie

    2008-01-01

    There is debate in the social work education community regarding the structure and depth of undergraduate research. This article emphasizes the importance of a commitment to undergraduate research in social work education. Because generalist practice is the first level of professional practice, students in baccalaureate programs need to be…

  6. "Hands-On" Undergraduate Research Opportunities in the Life Sciences: Preparing the Next Generation of Biological Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Denson, Nida; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of scholars have publicly criticized large research universities for failing to provide undergraduate students with the skills and abilities needed to succeed both in life and in the workforce. At the heart of this criticism is the concern that research institutions have de-emphasized teaching by increasing the size…

  7. [Participant research in reference to historical and dialectical materialism: a contribution to nursing research].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M A

    1991-07-01

    Based upon the studies of Castellanos e Salum (1988) and Egry et al (1991), the author makes a theoretical approach of the participant research as an strategy related to the dialectical and historical materialism, emphasizing its in two main lines: - the dialectical method of exposition and the process of becoming aware.

  8. Linking Educational Research and Educational Policy via Policy-Relevant Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter; LaRocque, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a research model that emphasizes policy concerns throughout the problem formulation, data collection, and interpretation processes. Describes the model's germinal study, its characteristics (assumption of complexity, maximization of causal inquiry, usefulness for policy makers), and its relationship to public policy making and other forms…

  9. Magnet School Student Outcomes: What the Research Says. Research Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This research brief outlines six major studies of magnet school student outcomes. Magnet schools are programs with special themes or emphases designed to attract families from a variety of different backgrounds. They were originally established to promote voluntary racial integration in urban districts. The studies are located within a much…

  10. Doing Case Study Research: A Practical Guide for Beginning Researchers. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Algozzine, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting recent knowledge and developments in the field, this very practical, easy-to-use guide emphasizes learning how to do case study research--from the first step of deciding whether a case study is the way to go to the last step of verifying and confirming findings before disseminating them. The authors show students how to determine an…

  11. Integrative emphases on intimate, intrinsic propensity/ pathological processes–causes of self recovery limits and also, subtle related targets for neuroprotection/ pleiotropicity/ multimodal actions, by accessible therapeutic approaches–in spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Haras, M; Mureşanu, D; Giuglea, C; Chendreanu, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: The last two decades have come up with some important progresses in the genetic, immune, histochemical and bio (nano)–technological domains, that have provided new insight into cellular/ molecular mechanisms, occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) – including in spinal cord – injuries. Methods: In previous works, emerging from our theoretical and practical endeavors in the field, we have thoroughly described the principal intimate propensity and the pathophysiological processes – representing intrinsic limitations for self–recovery after SCI, and, at the same time, subtle targets for neuroprotection/ recovery – and reviewed the main related worldwide–published reports. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the connections between such main aspects and some feasible integrative solutions, including the ones for clinical practice. Results: Consequently, we stress upon some therapeutic suggestions regarding this subject matter by systematizing the most up to date and efficient ones – obviously, within major limits, according to the very low capacities of CNS/ spinal cord (SC) to post–injury self preserve and recover. Moreover, we also talk about accessible drugs, respectively those being already in clinical use (but at present, mainly used to treat other conditions, including the neurological ones) and hence, with relatively well known, determined effects and/or respectively, restrictions. Discussions: The recent advances in the knowledge on the basic components of the afore mentioned CNS/ SC propensity for self destroying and inefficient endogenous repair mechanisms in the actual new context, will hopefully be, from now on, more effectively correlated with revolutionary – mostly still experimental – treatments, especially by using stem cells within tissue engineering, including, if needed, more advanced/ courageous approaches, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Conclusions: This paper contains the scientific

  12. Insights gained from aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Casada, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, D.L.; Gunther, W.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Jacobus, M.J.; Jarrell, D.B.; Kryter, R.C.; Magelby, H.L.; Murphy, G.A.; Subudhi, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has implemented hardware-oriented engineering research programs to identify and resolve technical issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) in operating nuclear power plants. This report provides a summary of those research results which have been compiled and published in NUREGS and related technical reports. The systems, components and structures that have been studied are organized by alphabetical order. The research results summary on the SSCs is followed by an assessment guide to emphasize inspection techniques which may be useful for detecting aging degradation in nuclear power plants. This report will be updated periodically to reflect new research results on these or other SSCs.

  13. Research Visibility: Manpower Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    Thirteen research reviews in this issue pertain to manpower research organized under these topics: (1) Manpower and Youth, treating youth unemployment and the youth labor market, (2) Manpower Needs, including an analysis of manpower research since World War II, health manpower planning, the shortage of skilled and technical workers, a projection…

  14. Research and development of models and instruments to define, measure, and improve shared information processing within government oversight agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Plans to study is at the very forefront of information systems and management research. The first phase of the research objective is exploratory. Exploratory research is longitudinal. During this phase of research, we form objectives, construct qualitative models, emphasize defining relationships and comparisons, make observations to draw implications, corroborate findings, and define directions. The second and third phases are confirmatory. Confirmatory research is cross-sectional. Through confirmatory research we form hypotheses, construct quantitative models, emphasize measurement and evaluation, set up and run experiments, verify results, and draw conclusions. This annual performance report describes the previous years' research efforts and the plan for the upcoming year.

  15. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  16. Vulnerability in research: a developmental perspective on research risk.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R A

    1990-02-01

    Assessing potential risks to children who participate in developmental research is a challenging task because children are a heterogeneous population, varying in developmental competencies and in background characteristics. This essay offers a developmental perspective on research risk, emphasizing that children's vulnerability to research risk changes in complex ways: some risks decrease with increasing age, some increase as the child matures, others change in a curvilinear fashion, while some remain essentially stable with development. Because vulnerability in research does not simply decline linearly with age, assessments of research risk must entail multidimensional considerations that vary over developmental time. In a similar manner, individual characteristics of children at any age (e.g., maltreatment, at-risk status, etc.) may also heighten their vulnerability to certain risks which require special consideration by researchers. Finally, this discussion of developmental vulnerability and the principles underlying research ethics suggests that in addition to the conventional risk/benefit analysis, researchers are in an optimal position to establish and maintain standards of decent treatment of children in research that safeguard their rights as research participants. Suggestions for fostering this process in the research community are outlined.

  17. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  18. Fundamental combustion and diagnostics research at Sandia. Progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gusinow, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    The combustion research emphasizes basic research into fundamental problems associated with combustion. The overall program addresses detailed chemistry of combustion, fundamental processes associated with laminar and turbulent flames, development of research techniques specifically applicable to combustion environments, and operation of the user-oriented Combustion Research Facility. The first section of this report contains activities in Combustion Research, the second section contains activities in Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy, and the third section contains activities in Diagnostics Research.

  19. Embedding Research in a Field-Based Module through Peer Review and Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Dawn T.

    2011-01-01

    A case study is presented of embedding research in a final year undergraduate, field-based, physical geography module. The approach is holistic, whereby research-based learning activities simulate the full life cycle of research from inception through to peer review and publication. The learning, teaching and assessment strategy emphasizes the…

  20. Undergraduate Students' Development of Social, Cultural, and Human Capital in a Networked Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for…

  1. Reciprocal Engagement: The Process of Pedagogical Innovation among Faculty at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Universities: very high research activity (RU/VH) faculty often emphasize research compared with teaching or service in their work. However, some faculty still intentionally endeavor to be excellent teachers by innovating pedagogy to enhance student learning. This qualitative study focused on developing a theory to describe the process…

  2. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  3. Remarriage and Stepfamily Research in the 1980s: Increased Interest in an Old Family Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that nearly all existing empirical work on stepfamilies has been published in 1980s. Describes demographic context for this work and surveys research on stepchildren, remarriage, and stepfamily functioning. Identifies problems in extant research and suggests areas for future research. Emphasizes explicit and implicit theories that guided…

  4. Validity of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S): evidence for the three-factor structure emphasizing active and passive forms of fear of failure.

    PubMed

    Schmalt, Heinz-Dieter

    2005-04-01

    My primary objective in this research was to examine diverse validity aspects of a short form of the Achievement-Motive Grid (AMG-S; Schmalt, 1999). The AMG is a picture-based measure that combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, the motive gets aroused by presenting a set of pictured achievement situations. Similar to a questionnaire, the motive is measured with a set of statements representing characteristic components of the achievement motive. Quite in line with the original version, factor analyses of the AMG-S all recommend the adoption of a 3-factor solution in which 1 hope-of-success (HS) and 2 fear-of-failure (FF) concepts are differentiated. The HS and passive FF factor (FFp) are based on positive and negative efficacy evaluations, respectively. The active FF factor (FFa) describes anticipations of impending failure. FFp is clearly a "withdrawal" factor, whereas FFa is clearly an "invigoration" factor. In the construct validity section of this research, I focus on classical and recent elaborations of approach and avoidance motivation in which I show that HS, FFp, and FFa play a substantial role in a motive-goals-outcomes framework of achievement motivation.

  5. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  6. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-08-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  7. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  8. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  9. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief.

  10. Annual Research Briefs: 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the 1995 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR). In 1995 CTR continued its concentration on the development and application of large-eddy simulation to complex flows, development of novel modeling concepts for engineering computations in the Reynolds averaged framework, and turbulent combustion. In large-eddy simulation, a number of numerical and experimental issues have surfaced which are being addressed. The first group of reports in this volume are on large-eddy simulation. A key finding in this area was the revelation of possibly significant numerical errors that may overwhelm the effects of the subgrid-scale model. We also commissioned a new experiment to support the LES validation studies. The remaining articles in this report are concerned with Reynolds averaged modeling, studies of turbulence physics and flow generated sound, combustion, and simulation techniques. Fundamental studies of turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations which started at CTR will continue to be emphasized. These studies and their counterparts carried out during the summer programs have had a noticeable impact on combustion research world wide.

  11. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  12. Commentary: When Worlds Collide: Research and Know-Nothingism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Emphasizes need for continued high-level fundamental bio-medical research as opposed to the current edict to curb National Institute of Health-sponsored pre-doctoral and post-doctoral training and fellowship programs as well as the career development awards. (EB)

  13. Dust cyclone research in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to meet the demand for ever more efficient dust cyclones continues after some eighty years. Recent trends emphasize design optimization through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and testing design subtleties not modeled by semi-empirical equations. Improvements to current best available ...

  14. A guide to research in NASA history, 7th edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, A.

    1984-01-01

    A guide to resources available for research in NASA history is presented. NASA Headquarters and the Washington area are emphasized, but some information is included on the NASA centers scattered across the country. A brief NASA-oriented introduction is provided.

  15. Issues in Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Greg, Ed.; Gilligan, Robbie, Ed.

    This book assesses the current state of foster care in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the pressures which have shaped it, and the challenges it faces. Emphasizing the importance of fostering within a coherent child care policy, the contributors examine the latest research into key areas of foster care, and explore how practice can be improved.…

  16. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  17. Narrative Inquiry: A Spiritual and Liberating Approach to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Elizabeth McIsaac

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies various research characteristics of narrative inquiry including its holistic and creative approach and its emphases on experience, relationships and participation, subjectivity and consciousness-raising, commitment and resistance, ethical action, and claiming voice and power. The author suggests that these characteristics…

  18. Teaching Research Methodology and Writing in the Emerald City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry D.

    The major goal of graduate education in speech communication is to advance knowledge about human communication through research and by training minds. Graduate education differs from undergraduate education because it emphasizes not only what we know, but how we come to know. Often, however, graduate education is just seen as being an extension of…

  19. Leadership: Improving Its Effectiveness. Research Action Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This brief summarizes the major findings of significant research studies dealing with different leadership behaviors and strategies for increasing leadership effectiveness. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness emphasizes that a leader's effectiveness is determined by how well his leadership style fits the specific…

  20. Crashdynamics with DYNA3D: Capabilities and research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whirley, Robert G.; Engelmann, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the explicit nonlinear finite element analysis code DYNA3D to crashworthiness problems is discussed. Emphasized in the first part of this work are the most important capabilities of an explicit code for crashworthiness analyses. The areas with significant research promise for the computational simulation of crash events are then addressed.

  1. The Internet Handbook for Writers, Researchers, and Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Mary; Stilborne, Linda; McAdams, Melinda; Hyatt, Laurel

    This books provides a basic introduction to the World Wide Web, e-mail, and other Internet functions, emphasizing the research and writing processes. It includes an in-depth look at search techniques, strategies for organizing information, online services, news services, writing help, and writing for an online environment, and covers such related…

  2. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  3. Public Speaking and Library Research: A Textbook's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Laura A.

    A close examination of nine popular speech textbooks was conducted to determine how adequately and accurately they covered researching in the library and its importance in the speechmaking process for the student. Results indicated that the texts did not emphasize critical thinking skills; they also contained an inappropriate emphasis on online…

  4. Reflections on 20 Years of Research on Violence and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue reflecting on what people have learned about violence and trauma over the past 20 years and where we need to go in the next 10 years. The author emphasizes the importance of learning to communicate in order to form effective community partnerships. Evidence-based research is noted as a methodological…

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

  6. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  7. Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research-Active Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Slack, Catherine; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-02-01

    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, relations between research stakeholders were perceived to be somewhat fragile, making it difficult for stakeholders to achieve consensus about the social value of research, as well as on ways to maximize value. Interventions to negotiate a shared perspective on the social value of research would appear to be warranted, and the findings of this study suggest some focus areas for such intervention.

  8. Research Results Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    A Highly Efficient Route for Selective Phenol Hydrogenation to Cyclohexanone A Novel Mechanism Employed by KSHV to Maintain the Latent Infection was Revealed Breakthrough in the Synthesis of Interconnected NW/NT and NT/NW/NT Heterojunctions with Branched Topology GABA Transporter-1 Activity Modulates Hippocampal Theta Oscillation and Theta Burst Stimulation-Induced Long-Term Potentiation Meta-analysis of Vitamin D, Calcium and the Prevention of Breast Cancer New Findings on the Origin of TrpRS PKCd Regulates Cortical Radial Migration by Stabilizing the Cdk5 Activator P35 PKU Research Team Publishes Papers on Inhalation Exposure to Pollutant and Cancer Risk Progress of the Research on Arbitrarily Elliptical Invisibility Cloaks An Advance in Complete Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures

  9. Prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM): a divide-and-conquer matrix decomposition model with low-rank coherence and sparse variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.

    2012-10-01

    4D spatiotemporal images can be naturally divided into the background component, which is temporally coherent, and the motion component, which is spatially sparse, up to the proper basis. And this divide-and-conquer decomposition is an effective sparse representation of 4D images for the purpose of image reconstruction. Based on this prior fact, we introduce Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM): the temporal coherence of the background component is enforced by the rank regularization and the spatial sparsity of the motion component is promoted by the sparsity regularization. In particular, the framelet based PRISM with the multi-resolution and multi-filtered structure will be utilized for image reconstruction. The superior performance of PRISM will be demonstrated with a few new medical imaging applications, including 4D cone beam CT, spiral MRI, and fused MRI-CT multi-modality.

  10. Pyrolysis of coal model compounds containing aromatic carboxylic acids: The role of carboxylic acids in cross-linking reactions in low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-06-01

    The pyrolysis of 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2(4-biphenyl)ethane (1) diluted in 10-fold excess of naphthalene has been studied at 400 {degrees}C to investigate whether decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids can lead to cross-linked products. The dominant mechanism for decarboxylation was found to be an acid-promoted ionic pathway that does not lead to cross-linking. However, a small amount of cross-linked products (i.e. naphthalene grafted onto decarboxylated 1) were formed. The yields of the cross-linked products were found to be decreased in the presence of a hydrogen donor solvent, tetralin, suggesting that these products were formed by a free-radical pathway. The mechanism for the formation of cross-linked products was proposed to occur from the formation and decomposition of anhydrides of 1 during pyrolysis.

  11. Effects of Adsorbed Gases on the Physical and Transport Properties of Low-Rank Coal, PRB, WY: Implications for Carbon Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zoback, M. D.; Hagin, P. N.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is injected into unminable coalbeds, it has the potential to enhance the amount of methane production (ECBM) and to geologically sequester CO2 as an adsorbed phase. In this study we study the effects of adsorption of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, on the mechanical and flow properties of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) on both intact and crushed samples. The coal samples were vacuum dried before each test, then saturated by each test gas at a series of either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress until steady state was reached. Thus, the amount of adsorption can be measured as a function of pore pressure Permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Preliminary results show that the adsorption of CO2 is twice as large as CH4, and almost four times that of N2. Hysteresis is observed among pure component adsorption and desorption isotherms which are characterized Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Permeability decreases with increasing effective stress for He, CH4 and CO2. At constant effective stress, permeability decreases when the saturating gas changes from He to CH4 and CO2. Hysteresis of permeability with increasing and decreasing effective stress is not observed in crushed samples. The coal swells when CH4 displaces He and swells more when CO2 displaces He. Viscoplastic creep behavior is observed in the presence of CH4 and CO2 with both intact and crushed samples, which may affect maintaining permeability for long-term CO2 injection. Adsorption Isotherm of Crushed Coal Sample, WY Permeability as a function of effective stress with different gas saturation

  12. Research design.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-10-01

    The development of a good research design permits us to obtain the best research data possible. From the experimental question to the research hypothesis and data collection variables, we can begin to consider the optimal research design. Details pertaining to the selection of the research design are considered within and very much in relation with the knowledge of the researcher and the support of his research group.

  13. Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research.

  14. Democratizing Educational Research or Why Is Our Nation Still at Risk after Ten Years of Educational Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radebaugh, Byron F.

    1994-01-01

    Explores why Office of Educational Research and Improvement and educational research in general has low status and remote connection to educational reform. Educators should reexamine assumption that such research is sole domain of experts, give increased attention to Wirth's democratic sociotechnical model, emphasize development of values uniting…

  15. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  16. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  17. Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, D.

    2003-12-01

    This paper gives a brief review of superconducting electronics in research and industry. Examples will show how science benefits from the development and how superconducting devices have found their way into industry and to some commercial products. Impact in terms of enabling new research in other fields (e.g. radio astronomy, medicine), in industry (certification, safety, metrology, etc) and in terms of market will be addressed. From the examples, two fields will be emphasized: superconducting detectors for astronomy and the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) employed for different applications.

  18. Breaking the Culture of Silence in Checkmating HIV/AIDS as a Teacher-Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, O.

    2010-01-01

    In my investigation I set out to break the HIV/AIDS culture of silence and emphasize the role of the teacher as a researcher and critical change agent in an HIV/AIDS challenged society. My work demonstrates how teachers could play such a role by encouraging learners' participation in sport. The sport, I focussed on in my action research project…

  19. Assigning Inquiry: How Handouts for Research Assignments Guide Today's College Students. Project Information Literacy Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    A report of findings from a content analysis of 191 course-related research assignment handouts distributed to undergraduates on 28 college campuses across the U.S., as part of Project Information Literacy. A majority of handouts in the sample emphasized standards about the mechanics of compiling college research papers, more so than guiding…

  20. Creating a Visual Arts Research Agenda toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, Reston, VA. Commission on Research in Art Education.

    This document consists of the recommendations of a commission charged to identify and formulate a set of initial recommendations that would provide leadership, guidance, and direction for a specific research agenda in visual arts education. The paper emphasizes that research efforts should be directed at all levels of art education, from preschool…

  1. The Confucian View of the Relationship between Knowledge and Action and Its Relevance to Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ching-tien

    2014-01-01

    There are marked similarities between Confucian ideas about the relationship between action, knowledge and learning, and contemporary educational thinking about action research. Examples can be seen in the relationship between action and research. First, Confucius emphasized the importance of "action" which was different from…

  2. Demand for Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Physiology Research by Undergraduate Students in Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clase, Kari L.; Hein, Patrick W.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Physiology as a discipline is uniquely positioned to engage undergraduate students in interdisciplinary research in response to the 2006-2011 National Science Foundation Strategic Plan call for innovative transformational research, which emphasizes multidisciplinary projects. To prepare undergraduates for careers that cross disciplinary…

  3. The Competitive Funding of University Research: The Case of Finnish Science Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammi, Timo

    2009-01-01

    The present European higher education policy and research policy can be characterized as emphasizing external financing of universities, competition between and within universities, and the need for a more practical and economically profitable output from research and education. A theoretical framework of analysing the impacts of this new…

  4. Traveling beyond Dangerous Private and Universal Discourses: Radioactivity of Radical Hermeneutics and Objectivism in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author explores several definitions of reading and evaluating educational research texts without finding deep private meanings or developing objective, scientific, and instrumental norms for evaluating quality of educational research studies. Among these descriptions, the author emphasizes Gadamer's weak poststructural model…

  5. Strategic Faculty Hiring in Two Public Research Universities: Pursuing Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines innovations in strategic faculty hiring emphasizing interdisciplinarity at two major public research universities in the USA. The research investigated how and why the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison chose to pursue interdisciplinary faculty recruitment, how it was structured, and how it…

  6. Social Science Research in the U.S. Mexican Community: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Jose B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses Chicano social scientists' needs identified by Mario Barrera: to use methodological strategies and theoretical models emphasizing researcher's close contact with the people; to research the nature of social and political control systems as applicable to the Chicano community; to define the relations between social scientists and the…

  7. Optics education through the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.; Croft, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Optics plays a large role in the National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education program by emphasizing optics and optical technology in preparation for an authentic research experience for teachers at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The goals and methodology of incorporating optics in this program will be discussed.

  8. Using Microbial Genome Annotation as a Foundation for Collaborative Student Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kelynne E.; Richardson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    We used the Integrated Microbial Genomes Annotation Collaboration Toolkit as a framework to incorporate microbial genomics research into a microbiology and biochemistry course in a way that promoted student learning of bioinformatics and research skills and emphasized teamwork and collaboration as evidenced through multiple assessment mechanisms.…

  9. Research Roadmaps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These Roadmaps identify scientific gaps that inform the National Research Programs in the development of their Strategic Research Action Plans. EPA expects to use this approach to integrate existing research efforts and to identify needed work.

  10. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-20

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  11. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  12. Tidal waves within the thermosphere. [emphasizing wave dissipation and diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volland, H.; Mayr, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The eigenfunctions of the atmosphere (the Hough functions within the lower atmosphere below about 100 km) change their structure and their propagation characteristics within the thermosphere due to dissipation effects such as heat conduction, viscosity, and ion drag. Wave dissipation can be parameterized to a first-order approximation by a complex frequency, the imaginary term of which simulates an effective ion drag force. It is shown how the equivalent depth, the attenuation, and the vertical wavelength of the predominant symmetric diurnal tidal modes change with height as functions of effective ion drag. The boundary conditions of tidal waves are discussed, and asymptotic solutions for the wave parameters like pressure, density, temperature, and wind generated by a heat input proportional to the mean pressure are given. Finally, diffusion effects upon the minor constituents within the thermosphere are described.

  13. Emphasizing language and visualization in teaching linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2013-06-01

    Linear algebra with its rich theoretical nature is a first step towards advanced mathematical thinking for many undergraduate students. In this paper, we consider the teaching approach of an experienced mathematician as he attempts to engage his students with the key ideas embedded in a second-year course in linear algebra. We describe his approach in both lectures and tutorials, and how he employed visualization and an emphasis on language to encourage conceptual thinking. We use Tall's framework of three worlds of mathematical thinking to reflect on the effect of these activities in students' learning. An analysis of students' attitudes to the course and their test and examination results help to answer questions about the value of such an approach, suggesting ways forward in teaching linear algebra.

  14. Persuading Investors: Emphasizing Communication in a Finance Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yest, Michael T.; Grant, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a unique project to faculty seeking an interdisciplinary activity that exposes students to the necessary art of persuasive communication in the field of finance. Specifically, we have designed a multi-stage simulation in which undergraduate business students apply both finance and communication skills, specifically…

  15. New Kronig-Penney Equation Emphasizing the Band Edge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However,…

  16. Using Ethnic Art to Emphasize Laws of Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bapat, Madhuri

    2009-01-01

    The Kolam (Rangolee) art (Fig. 1) from Southern India and Sona drawings (Fig. 2) from Africa show the similarity of lines going around the dots. Kolam is usually drawn, with paste made up of rice powder, on the floor in front of a house. Typically girls draw these in India on occasions such as welcoming the spring season, weddings, or birthdays.…

  17. Using Ethnic Art to Emphasize Laws of Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Madhuri

    2009-11-01

    The Kolam (Rangolee) art (Fig. 1) from Southern India and Sona drawings (Fig. 2) from Africa show the similarity of lines going around the dots. Kolam is usually drawn, with paste made up of rice powder, on the floor in front of a house. Typically girls draw these in India on occasions such as welcoming the spring season, weddings, or birthdays. Sona drawings are drawn in the sand using fingers. Typically young boys in Africa were taught to draw these as they went through puberty. They used to impress their masters by drawing these designs quickly in sand and erasing them afterwards. So Europeans never learned these designs. Due to slavery this art or knowledge has disappeared.

  18. Adapting Entry-Level Engineering Courses to Emphasize Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Rockaway, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Louisville recently developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve undergraduate instruction across all disciplines as part of its ongoing accreditation requirements. Central elements of the plan are emphasis on critical thinking; integration of critical thinking throughout the curriculum; service learning for…

  19. Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

  20. The Artist Residency Program in Eastern Oregon: Emphasizing the Rural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Doug

    During a 1979-1980 pilot project, 13 nine-week residencies by professional artists were sponsored in 10 eastern Oregon school districts with Eastern Oregon State College serving as liaison, the Northwest Area Foundation of St. Paul (Minnesota) contributing $33,500, and participating school districts adding a total of $8,000 in funding. This low…

  1. Virginia's Academic and Career Plan Emphasizes Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2010-01-01

    To have a meaningful, fulfilling career in the 21st century workplace, students need technical and academic skills as well as the ability to think and work collaboratively with others. Career education must begin in middle school or earlier to allow students time to develop the aptitudes, skills and attitudes necessary to develop an awareness of…

  2. McCain Emphasizes School Choice, Accountability, but Lacks Specifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Buried deep within the campaign Web site of Senator John McCain, the Arizona Republican explains the principles that define his K-12 agenda: choice, accountability, and teacher quality. But his 25-year congressional record and statements in his current campaign do give a glimpse of what Senator McCain--better known for his views on defense and…

  3. Rationale and Suggestions for Emphasizing Afrocentricity in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeman, Bob

    Public schools are facing the largest crisis in American educational history. More and more minority students are attending public schools, and traditional methods of instruction are failing to meet their needs. The back-to-basics and belt-tightening movements within public schooling are part of a last-ditch effort to support an elitist education…

  4. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  5. Unique Prison School District Emphasizes Vo-Ed Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, William E.; Whitson, Charles M.

    1975-01-01

    The first school district in the nation established within the confines of a State adult penal institution offers hands-on vocational training to 17,000 inmates (approximately half participate) in 32 subjects, 880 class hours each. Placement service, problem-solving rap groups, and human relations workshops for instructors help keep recidivism…

  6. Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: emphasizing the potassium controversy.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Karen; Heaney, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate-containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

  7. HAI prevention emphasized in 2009 National Patient Safety Goals.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    * Having an infection control program already in place does no ensure compliance with new NPSGs. * Patient involvement, education are critical components in preventing HAIs. * New requirements mean more levels of documentation.

  8. Refashioning the Practicum by Emphasizing Attending and Reflective Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oprandy, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In their 1970 guidelines for teacher-preparation programs (TPPs), TESOL's founders promoted practicum experiences that include "systematic directed observation, supervised teaching practice and progressive teaching responsibilities." TPPs with field experiences as centerpieces of their programs have been more effective in meeting the…

  9. Marathon North Brae development will emphasize condensate yield

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Marathon Oil UK Ltd. is developing the North Brae field at an estimated cost of $2.5 billion in what will be the first exploitation of a gas condensate dense phase reservoir in the UK sector of the North Sea. The project will feature gas recycling to maximize recovery of liquids and ultimately dry gas. The planned Brae B platform will be the largest gas processing facility ever to be installed offshore. The design, cost, and construction of the offshore platforms are described.

  10. Emphasizing Sustainable Health and Wellness in a Health Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is the most visible recent global movement addressing the effect of human activities on the environment. Because of its effect on human health and well-being, it is imperative that the health education discipline begin to consider this topic as one of the important content areas. This paper provides a model for the…

  11. Emphasizing Mineral Chemistry in an Analytical Chemistry Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an analytical chemistry unit in the second year of the chemistry degree course at Curtin University that was designed to reflect the numerous employment opportunities for chemistry graduates in the mineral processing industries and private analytical laboratories. Presents the lecture syllabus, the laboratory course description, and…

  12. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  13. Journal Club Format Emphasizing Techniques of Critical Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, James R., Jr.; Winkel, Craig E.

    1982-01-01

    The journal club format offers the resident a unique opportunity to develop specific skills in reading, comprehending, and evaluating medical literature. A course designed for residents in obstetrics and gynecology at the Letterman Army Medical Center and at the University of Cincinnati is described. (MLW)

  14. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  15. Emphasizing Language and Visualization in Teaching Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra with its rich theoretical nature is a first step towards advanced mathematical thinking for many undergraduate students. In this paper, we consider the teaching approach of an experienced mathematician as he attempts to engage his students with the key ideas embedded in a second-year course in linear algebra. We describe his…

  16. White House Science Fair Emphasizes Importance of STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    "I have a confession to make," U.S. president Barack Obama told the audience of young inventors and their mentors at a 27 May White House Science Fair ceremony in the East Room of the White House. "When I was growing up, my science fair projects were not as successful as the ones here." Recalling that during one of his experiments, "a bunch of mice escaped in my grandmother's apartment," Obama joked, "These experiments did not take me straight to the White House."

  17. Emphasizing Cultural Competence in Evaluation: A Process-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botcheva, Luba; Shih, Johanna; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process-oriented approach to culturally competent evaluation, focusing on a case study of an evaluation of an HIV/AIDS educational program in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. We suggest that cultural competency in evaluation is not a function of a static set of prescribed steps but is achieved via ongoing reflection, correction, and…

  18. U.S. dental students' attitudes toward research and science: impact of research experience.

    PubMed

    Holman, Shaina Devi; Wietecha, Mateusz S; Gullard, Angela; Peterson, Jon M B

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to provide a first nationwide assessment of dental students' attitudes toward the importance of research and its integration into the dental curriculum. For this purpose, the American Association for Dental Research National Student Research Group developed an online survey that was distributed to 89 percent of U.S. dental students in May 2012. The survey consisted of twenty-one Likert-type items divided into three groups: importance of research in dentistry, barriers to research involvement, and exposure to research in the dental curriculum. There were 733 responses (3.9 percent response rate), including students in all stages of education representing fifty-eight out of sixty-one dental schools. Age and race/ethnic distributions corresponded with U.S. dental school enrollees. Results showed that 63 percent of respondents had conducted research before matriculation, and of the 34 percent that participated in research during dental school, only 27 percent were newcomers. Respondents strongly agreed that scientific research enabled their progress in dentistry. Inadequate time in the curriculum was an obstacle they perceived to research involvement during dental school. Respondents agreed that dental curricula emphasize evidence-based practices but may be inadequately teaching biostatistics and research methodologies. Students with research experience tended to have stronger positive opinions about the importance of research in dental education. Efforts to foster research in schools have been well received by students, but several issues remain for enriching dental education through greater involvement of students in research.

  19. Leadership Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplun, Irina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore recent research in the field of leadership as related to education and to link such research to a possible research project. This research project would focus on increasing standardized test scores in California schools focusing on the elementary school level through focusing on increasing reading competency and…

  20. Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.

    This report presents highlights of the research activities of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). The ACER is a national independent research body that specializes in collecting and interpreting information to shape strategic decision making. In addition to being a national center for educational policy research and advice,…