Science.gov

Sample records for research emphasizing low-rank

  1. Energy and environmental (JSR) research emphasizing low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, L.L.

    1994-12-01

    The products of plastic thermal depolymerization can be used for the manufacture of new plastics or various other hydrocarbon-based products. One thermal depolymerization development effort is ongoing at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) of the University of North Dakota, under joint sponsorship of the American Plastics Council, the 3M corporation, and the Department of Energy. Thermal depolymerization process development began at the EERC with a benchscale program that ran from 9/92 to 6/93 (1). Testing was conducted in a 1-4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) unit using individual virgin resins and resin blends and was intended to determine rough operating parameters and product yields and to identify product stream components. Process variables examined included temperature and bed material, with a lesser emphasis on gas fluidization velocity and feed material mix. The following work was performed: (1) a short program to determine the suitability of using CaO in a postreactor, fixed bed for chlorine remediation, (2) thermal depolymerization of postconsumer plastics, and (3) testing of industrial (3M) products and wastes to determine their suitability as feed to a thermal depolymerization process. The involvement of DOE in the development of the plastics thermal depolymerization process has helped to facilitate the transfer of coal conversion technology to a new and growing technology area -- waste conversion. These two technology areas are complementary. The application of known coal conversion technology has accelerated the development of plastics conversion technology, and findings from the plastics depolymerization process development, such as the development of chlorine remediation techniques and procedures for measurement of organically associated chlorine, can be applied to new generations of coal conversion processes.

  2. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  4. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 7.2, Resource data evaluation. Topical report, July 1994--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Resource Data Evaluation subtask of the US Department of Energy (DOE) base program represents an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiative to promote the integration of geographic information system (GIS) technologies with other ongoing and planned EERC research in the areas of resource utilization, remediation, land use planning, and regulatory and policy assessment. Significant demand for GIS-based information already exists for energy resource evaluation, interpretation of remote sensing data, environmental assessment at the state and local levels, and use in strategic planning. The objective of this task was to determine the appropriate platform and approach upon which to develop GIS applications for optimizing resource evaluation and integrating this information with related areas of interest. Activities associated with Task 7.2, Resource Data Evaluation, were conducted primarily during the first half of the project year. These activities included tasks associated with the development and implementation of GIS databases and construction of digitized files for research pertaining to energy studies. As previously noted, database design was undertaken for two EERC projects: 1) coal occurrence in Bowman and adjacent counties in the Fort Union Coal Region of southwestern North Dakota and 2) energy resource utilization concerns for selected sites in Alaska.

  5. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 5. 8, Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization. Topical report, January--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, B.A.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1995-10-01

    The scope of work for this task was limited to the development of a general process to evaluate coal fly ash for use in applications beyond cement and concrete. Two coal fly ash samples were evaluated for appropriateness in structural fill as an example of how to use alternative classification protocol as ash use standards are developed for the industry. The goal of this project is to develop a classification system for fly ash based on parameters that relate to performance specification of engineering and construction applications. The new classification system will provide a means of evaluating the suitability of coal ash for use in certain products that currently have no reality-based standards or classifications. Recent work by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee E50 on Pollution Prevention has proposed a standard practice for use of coal ash for structural fill applications. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) coal ash researchers have worked on preparing this standard practice, and the development of criteria for the coal ash to be used in this application will facilitate the use of this standard once approved by ASTM. A preliminary flowchart for classification criteria was developed and is shown in figure 1.

  6. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  7. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  8. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  9. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  12. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  14. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 6.2. Joining of advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nowok, J.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    1995-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered an attractive material for structural applications in fossil energy systems because of its corrosion and wear resistance, high thermoconductivity, and high temperature strength. These same properties make it difficult to sinter or join SiC. Conventional sintering techniques require applying pressure and heating to temperatures near 2000{degree}C, or the use of binders with lower melting temperatures, or pressureless sintering with the aid of carbon and boron to near full density about 2100{degree}C. The sintering temperature can be reduced to 1850{degree}--2000{degree}C if SiC is sintered with the addition of small quantities of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {plus} Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, reaction sintering has been used by mixing Si and C with SiC powder and heating the mixture to 1400{degree}C to cause the Si and C to react and form SiC, which bonds the aggregate together. Work proposed for this year was to center on determining gas compositions that could be used to increase the sinterability of oxide binders and on using the binder and gas combinations to join bars of SiC, alumina, and mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2}). During the course of the year the focus was shifted to SiC joining alone, because it was felt that alumina and mullite are too prone to thermal shock for use in structural applications in fossil energy systems. Because of a thermal expansion mismatch between alumina and SiC, only SiC and mullite were investigated as joining aides for SiC. Therefore, the objectives of this work evolved into examining the sintering phenomena of SiC and mullite-derived binders at and below 1500{degree}C in various atmospheres and determining which conditions are suitable to form strong joints in monolithic SiC structures to be used at temperatures of 1000{degree}--1400{degree}C.

  15. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.

  17. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  19. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  20. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  1. Utilization of low rank coal and peat

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.J.

    1987-11-10

    A composition is described including a fuel selected from the group consisting of an oil coated low rank coal and an oil coated peat. The fuel has a moisture content of less than about 5% by weight ground to a 75% minus 200 mesh and water. The composition comprises on a weight percent basis between about 44 to about 70% coal, from about 29 to about 55% water and from about 1 to about 5% oil. The composition is described wherein the low rank coal is selected from the group consisting of sub-bituminous, lignite and brown coal. The composition is described further including a suspension stabilizing agent. The composition is described wherein the suspension stabilizing agent is selected from the group consisting of starch graft polymers, anionic surfactants, alkyl phosphates, alkyl sulfates and alkane sulfuric acids.

  2. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-04-15

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, (2) crude enzyme study using best decarboxylating organisms, (3) decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymers, and (4) characterization of biotreated coals.

  3. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  4. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  5. Capitol Hill Briefing Emphasizes the Payoffs of Long-Term Investment in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On February 14, leading scholars and private foundation presidents shared the stage at a Capitol Hill briefing, "Payoffs of Long-Term Investment in Education Research." Speakers emphasized that education research based on long-term funding has led to important payoffs for education policy and practice in areas such as early intervention, school…

  6. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

  7. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  8. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SCHULER, ALEJANDRO; LIU, VINCENT; WAN, JOE; CALLAHAN, ALISON; UDELL, MADELEINE; STARK, DAVID E.; SHAH, NIGAM H.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  9. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  10. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  11. Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches. PMID:25634552

  12. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  13. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  14. Liquefaction of low rank coals with slurry catalysts. Part III. Variable effects. [Low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    One of the most significant achievements over the last several years in development of the SRC II process was extension of its applicability to include low-rank coals. With addition of moderate amounts of pyrite, operation was trouble-free and oil yields exceeding those obtainable with higher rank feedstocks were achieved. In addition, product sulfur level was lower due to the relatively low sulfur content of the lower rank coals. The effects of run conditions with low-rank coals and added pyrite are discussed in this report. The ratio of distillate product to hydrocarbon gas produced (or hydrogen consumed) is increased by lowering the reaction temperature over the range of 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) to 420/sup 0/C (788/sup 0/F). The oil production rate is also decreased, so there is an economic tradeoff between reactor vessel size and hydrogen production requirements. Raising the temperature above 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) at 1.0 hour residence time is detrimental, resulting in increased gas make, reduced oil yield and less conversion to pyridine-soluble components. Operation and yields at 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) and 1.0 hour residence time are improved by increasing the pressure to 2250 from 1800 psig. Operation is not possible at 1600 psig. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Liquefaction of low rank coals with slurry catalysts. Part II. Comparison of catalysts. [Low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    One of the most significant achievements over the last several years in development of the SRC-II process was extension of its applicability to include low rank coals. With addition of moderate amounts of pyrite, operation was trouble free and oil yields exceeding those obtainable with higher rank feedstocks were obtained. In addition, product sulfur level was lower due to the relatively low sulfur content of the lower rank coals. Pyrite was the first catalyst tried and numerous other materials were investigated in an attempt to find a better additive. These included emulsions (Mo, Fe and Ni/Mo), ferric oxide alone and doped with Mo, iron on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and several sources of H/sub 2/S. None were found to be more effective, and on the basis of cost, pyrite is still preferred. Additive levels much lower than those used initially were found to be sufficient for smooth operation. As little as 0.6 wt % FeS/sub 2/, based on MF Belle Ayr coal, provided satisfactory operation, which makes use of low rank coals in the SRC II process even more attractive. 8 figures, 6 tables.

  16. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  17. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) estimate the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and methane production from, low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the east-central Texas region, (2) quantify uncertainty associated with these estimates, (3) conduct reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells, and (4) compare the results with those obtained from previous studies of vertical wells. To estimate the total volumes of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered in, and total volumes of methane that can be produced from, the Wilcox Group low-rank coals in east-central Texas, we used data provided by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, data obtained during this research, and results of probabilistic simulation modeling studies we conducted. For the analysis, we applied our base-case coal seam characteristics to a 2,930-mi{sup 2} (1,875,200-ac) area where Calvert Bluff coal seams range between 4,000 and 6,200 ft deep. Results of the probabilistic analysis indicate that potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor, range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we presented the paper SPE 100584 at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on May 15-18, 2006. Also, we submitted an abstract to be considered for inclusion in a special volume dedicated to CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic media, which

  18. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  19. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. In this reporting period we revised all of the economic calculations, participated in technology transfer of project results, and began working on project closeout tasks in anticipation of the project ending December 31, 2005. In this research, we conducted five separate simulation investigations, or cases. These cases are (1) CO{sub 2} sequestration base case scenarios for 4,000-ft and 6,200-ft depth coal beds in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of east-central Texas, (2) sensitivity study of the effects of well spacing on sequestration, (3) sensitivity study of the effects of injection gas composition, (4) sensitivity study of the effects of injection rate, and (5) sensitivity study of the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection/sequestration. Results show that, in most cases, revenue from coalbed methane production does not completely offset the costs of CO{sub 2} sequestration in Texas low-rank coals, indicating that CO{sub 2} injection is not economically feasible for the ranges of gas prices and carbon credits investigated. The best economic performance is obtained with flue gas (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) injection, as compared to injection of 100% CO{sub 2} and a mixture of 50% CO{sub 2} and 50% N{sub 2}. As part of technology transfer for this project, we presented results at the West Texas Geological Society Fall Symposium in October 2005 and at the COAL-SEQ Forum in November 2005.

  20. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  1. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  2. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  3. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  4. The Effects of Different Teaching, Research, and Service Emphases on Individual and Organizational Outcomes in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative emphasis that educators give to teaching, research, and service in the business discipline and 4 other academic disciplines. The authors also investigated the effects of different faculty activity emphases on faculty teaching effectiveness, research performance, service levels, job and pay satisfaction,…

  5. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  6. The Two-Semester Thesis Model: Emphasizing Research in Undergraduate Technical Communication Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julie Dyke; Bracken, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses previous arguments that call for increased emphasis on research in technical communication programs. Focusing on the value of scholarly-based research at the undergraduate level, we present New Mexico Tech's thesis model as an example of helping students develop familiarity with research skills and methods. This two-semester…

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  8. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  9. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, D.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedure followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified from the bench-and pilot-scale studies.

  11. Emphasizing the complexity of the relationship: the next decade of attachment-based psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2015-03-01

    This article focuses on the future of attachment-based psychotherapy research and begins with a brief summary of the research that has been done and then explores 8 predictions for the future. The main emphasis of these predictions is the growing complexity in our research needed to capture the mechanisms that facilitate or hinder the therapy process for patients with different attachment styles. Future researchers will focus more on the interactions between the patient and therapist within the sessions, will apply more complex statistical analyses to study the dyad, and will integrate different research methods. In addition, attachment researchers will focus studies on the changing landscape of psychotherapy and explore how attachment can inform Internet-based treatments and misperceptions of attachment based on the patients' culture. All in all, attachment researchers will start to tackle the more practical issues clinicians face, and their work has the potential to significantly improve psychotherapy treatment.

  12. A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavesley, West

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report on the use of a graduate "Special Topics" course to provide vital research and practical laboratory experience, within the context of developing a chemical process to manufacture biodiesel from algal sources. This course contained several key components that we believe are necessary skills in graduate research: 1) a…

  13. Active Learning in PhysicsTechnology and Research-based Techniques Emphasizing Interactive Lecture Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in lecture sessions. This presentation will demonstrate the use of sequences of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) that use real experiments often involving real-time data collection and display combined with student interaction to create an active learning environment in large or small lecture classes. Interactive lecture demonstrations will be done in the area of mechanics using real-time motion probes and the Visualizer. A video tape of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of a number of research studies at various institutions (including international) to measure the effectiveness of ILDs and guided inquiry conceptual laboratories will be presented.

  14. Emphasizing Spectrum Management for Sustainable Development Research and Applications in Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Stephen; Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    NASA's spaceborne Earth and Heliospheric Observatories and airborne sensors provide a plethora of measurements. These measurements are used in science research to understand the climatology of our home planet and the solar fluxes and cycle of the only star in our solar system 'Sun' which is critical driver for the retention of life on Earth. Specifically, these measurements help us to understand the water and energy cycle, the carbon cycle, weather and climate, atmospheric chemistry, solar variability, and solid Earth and interior to feed into sophisticated mathematical models to analyze and predict the Earth's behavior as an integrated system. The main thrust of this research is on improving the prediction capability in the areas of weather, long term climate and solid Earth processes, and further help the humanity and future generations in terms of societal benefits in managing natural disasters, sustainability issues and many more. This work is further linked with our contributions in the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Specifically, the data and knowledge resulting from the Earth observing systems and analytical models of the Earth can be made available for assimilation into decision support systems to serve society for disaster management. Through partnerships with national and international agencies and organizations, NASA's Science Mission Directorate's, Applied Sciences Program contributes to benchmarking practical uses of observations and predictions from Earth science remote sensing systems research. The objective is to establish innovative solutions using Earth observations and science information to provide decision support that can be adapted in applications of national and international priority. We along with the international community will continue this critical field of investigation by using our existing and future sensors from space, airborne and insitue environment. In our quest to expanding our knowledge, there will be a need

  15. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Low rank approximation in G 0 W 0 calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, MeiYue; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Liu, Fang; Da Jornada, Felipe H.; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-08-01

    The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn--Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in transport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green's function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The $G_0W_0$ approximation is a widely used technique in which the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a non-interacting Green's function ($G_0$) and a screened Coulomb interaction ($W_0$) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating $W_0$ at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cost of $G_0W_0$ calculation can be reduced by constructing a low rank approximation to the frequency dependent part of $W_0$. In particular, we examine the effect of such a low rank approximation on the accuracy of the $G_0W_0$ approximation. We also discuss how the numerical convolution of $G_0$ and $W_0$ can be evaluated efficiently and accurately by using a contour deformation technique with an appropriate choice of the contour.

  17. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  18. Nonconvex Nonsmooth Low Rank Minimization via Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canyi; Tang, Jinhui; Yan, Shuicheng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear norm is widely used as a convex surrogate of the rank function in compressive sensing for low rank matrix recovery with its applications in image recovery and signal processing. However, solving the nuclear norm-based relaxed convex problem usually leads to a suboptimal solution of the original rank minimization problem. In this paper, we propose to use a family of nonconvex surrogates of L0-norm on the singular values of a matrix to approximate the rank function. This leads to a nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. Then, we propose to solve the problem by an iteratively re-weighted nuclear norm (IRNN) algorithm. IRNN iteratively solves a weighted singular value thresholding problem, which has a closed form solution due to the special properties of the nonconvex surrogate functions. We also extend IRNN to solve the nonconvex problem with two or more blocks of variables. In theory, we prove that the IRNN decreases the objective function value monotonically, and any limit point is a stationary point. Extensive experiments on both synthesized data and real images demonstrate that IRNN enhances the low rank matrix recovery compared with the state-of-the-art convex algorithms. PMID:26841392

  19. Ion exchange and adsorption on low rank coals for liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this program are to study the application of catalysts and the catalysis of liquefaction of low rank coals. Ion exchange and adsorption techniques are being used or modified to incorporate catalytically active metals (Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) in relatively small (100-2000 ppM) quantities into coal samples. Relative oil yields are being determined by PETC and Auburn University workers as collaborators to establish the effectiveness of the catalyst incorporation techniques. It is hoped that these techniques will provide highly active forms of the catalyst in low concentrations to minimize the need for metals recovery. A two step preparation of the coal is used to (1) remove material which both limits oil conversion and prepares for the addition of exchangeable catalyst, and (2) add catalytically active material which enhances the conversion of the coal matter to the oil fraction in the processing.

  20. Denoised Wigner distribution deconvolution via low-rank matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin; Barbastathis, George

    2016-09-01

    Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) is a decades-old method for recovering phase from intensity measurements. Although the technique offers an elegant linear solution to the quadratic phase retrieval problem, it has seen limited adoption due to its high computational/memory requirements and the fact that the technique often exhibits high noise sensitivity. Here, we propose a method for noise suppression in WDD via low-rank noisy matrix completion. Our technique exploits the redundancy of an object's phase space to denoise its WDD reconstruction. We show in model calculations that our technique outperforms other WDD algorithms as well as modern iterative methods for phase retrieval such as ptychography. Our results suggest that a class of phase retrieval techniques relying on regularized direct inversion of ptychographic datasets (instead of iterative reconstruction techniques) can provide accurate quantitative phase information in the presence of high levels of noise. PMID:27607616

  1. Compressive sensing via nonlocal low-rank regularization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weisheng; Shi, Guangming; Li, Xin; Ma, Yi; Huang, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Sparsity has been widely exploited for exact reconstruction of a signal from a small number of random measurements. Recent advances have suggested that structured or group sparsity often leads to more powerful signal reconstruction techniques in various compressed sensing (CS) studies. In this paper, we propose a nonlocal low-rank regularization (NLR) approach toward exploiting structured sparsity and explore its application into CS of both photographic and MRI images. We also propose the use of a nonconvex log det ( X) as a smooth surrogate function for the rank instead of the convex nuclear norm and justify the benefit of such a strategy using extensive experiments. To further improve the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm, we have developed a fast implementation using the alternative direction multiplier method technique. Experimental results have shown that the proposed NLR-CS algorithm can significantly outperform existing state-of-the-art CS techniques for image recovery.

  2. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. Mcvay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration performance in coalbed methane reservoirs under various operational conditions. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Therefore, we interpreted and created isopleth maps of coal occurrences, and correlated individual coal seams within the coal bearing subdivisions of the Wilcox Group--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations. Preliminary modeling studies were run to determine if gravity effects would affect the performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs. Results indicated that gravity could adversely affect sweep efficiency and, thus, volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced in thick, vertically continuous coals. Preliminary modeling studies were also run to determine the effect of injection gas composition on sequestration in low-rank coalbeds. Injected gas composition was varied from pure CO{sub 2} to pure N{sub 2}, and results show that increasing N{sub 2} content degrades CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production performance. We have reached a Data Exchange Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. We are currently incorporating the Anadarko data into our work, and expect these data to greatly enhance the accuracy and value of our studies.

  3. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) determine the effects of permeability anisotropy on performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas, and (2) begin reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells. To evaluate the effects of permeability anisotropy on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds, we conducted deterministic reservoir modeling studies of 100% CO{sub 2} gas injection for the 6,200-ft depth base case (Case 1b) using the most likely values of the reservoir parameters. Simulation results show significant differences in the cumulative volumes of CH{sub 4} produced and CO{sub 2} injected due to permeability anisotropy, depending on the orientation of injection patterns relative to the orientation of permeability anisotropy. This indicates that knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of permeability anisotropy will be an important consideration in the design of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects. We continued discussions with Anadarko Petroleum regarding plans for additional coal core acquisition and laboratory work to further characterize Wilcox low-rank coals. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we submitted the paper SPE 100584 for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium to be held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 15-18, 2006.

  4. Production of hydrogen from low-rank coals: (Task 6. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, R.E.; Timpe, R.C.; Musich, M.A.; Cisney, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    The principal goal of this research project is to establish the feasibility of low-rank coal gasification for low-cost hydrogen production. This research involves a proof-of-concept and the early stages of engineering development using a continuous process unit (CPU). In parallel with this process development work, an evaluation of the relationship between the fundamental properties of low-rank coals and their reactivity under hydrogen-producing conditions is also being conducted. A 20--40 lb/hr fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) CPU was commissioned during this time period and has logged over 400 hours of operation during shakedown and operability testing. Maximum hydrogen production rates from the operability testing were over 17 SCF/lb MAF coal for both Wyodak and Velva test coals with a limestone bed, and for Martin Lake coal using 10 wt % trona, at 800{degree}C and a 2:1 steam:carbon ratio to 2:1 and increased with bed temperature over the range of 700{degree} to 800{degree}C. Agglomeration of the bed material when using trona as the catalyst was an operation problem during the CPU operability testing. The char of the low-rank coals was four to six times more reactive than that of the bituminous coal tested in the laboratory using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface analysis of the chars showed that the uniform distribution of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst decreased with increasing coal rank. 8 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Enhanced low-rank + sparsity decomposition for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    Speckle artifacts can strongly hamper quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is necessary to provide assessment of ocular disorders associated with vision loss. Here, we introduce a method for speckle reduction, which leverages from low-rank + sparsity decomposition (LRpSD) of the logarithm of intensity OCT images. In particular, we combine nonconvex regularization-based low-rank approximation of an original OCT image with a sparsity term that incorporates the speckle. State-of-the-art methods for LRpSD require a priori knowledge of a rank and approximate it with nuclear norm, which is not an accurate rank indicator. As opposed to that, the proposed method provides more accurate approximation of a rank through the use of nonconvex regularization that induces sparse approximation of singular values. Furthermore, a rank value is not required to be known a priori. This, in turn, yields an automatic and computationally more efficient method for speckle reduction, which yields the OCT image with improved contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast and edge fidelity. The source code will be available at research/research.html">www.mipav.net/English/research/research.html.

  6. Simultaneously Sparse and Low-Rank Abundance Matrix Estimation for Hyperspectral Image Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampouras, Paris V.; Themelis, Konstantinos E.; Rontogiannis, Athanasios A.; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos D.

    2016-08-01

    In a plethora of applications dealing with inverse problems, e.g. in image processing, social networks, compressive sensing, biological data processing etc., the signal of interest is known to be structured in several ways at the same time. This premise has recently guided the research to the innovative and meaningful idea of imposing multiple constraints on the parameters involved in the problem under study. For instance, when dealing with problems whose parameters form sparse and low-rank matrices, the adoption of suitably combined constraints imposing sparsity and low-rankness, is expected to yield substantially enhanced estimation results. In this paper, we address the spectral unmixing problem in hyperspectral images. Specifically, two novel unmixing algorithms are introduced, in an attempt to exploit both spatial correlation and sparse representation of pixels lying in homogeneous regions of hyperspectral images. To this end, a novel convex mixed penalty term is first defined consisting of the sum of the weighted $\\ell_1$ and the weighted nuclear norm of the abundance matrix corresponding to a small area of the image determined by a sliding square window. This penalty term is then used to regularize a conventional quadratic cost function and impose simultaneously sparsity and row-rankness on the abundance matrix. The resulting regularized cost function is minimized by a) an incremental proximal sparse and low-rank unmixing algorithm and b) an algorithm based on the alternating minimization method of multipliers (ADMM). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated in experiments conducted both on simulated and real data.

  7. Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and

  8. Broadening Diversity in the Geosciences through Teacher-Student Workshops that Emphasizes Community-Based Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napieralski, J.; Murray, K.; Luera, G.; Brown, K. Thomas; Reynolds Keefer, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) has been an example of a successful and effective model in increasing the participation of underrepresented groups in the geosciences. The program emphasizes involving middle school and at-risk high school students from Detroit area public schools along with their teachers in urban geology research projects through a series of spring and summer workshops. The workshops introduce students to the geosciences by emphasizing how geology can be used as a tool to solve community-based environmental problems in a metropolitan setting. Students work alongside their teachers and UM-D faculty on projects that include the assessment of brownfield sites, installation of groundwater monitoring wells, and evaluation of land use impact on groundwater and surface water quality. Spring workshops focused on students from three middle schools in Detroit, while the summer workshops focused more on middle school and high school teacher training, but also included a small group of middle school and high school students. Instruments used to evaluate the effectiveness of the summer workshops included the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI), Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI), and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires and focus groups demonstrate that we have not only increased student awareness of the geosciences but are motivating students to pursue career opportunities in science. Since the Institute began in 2005, we have reached over 100 middle and high school students and 75 teachers, and the Earth Science major at UM-D has tripled in size and we have quadrupled the number of minority students taking introductory geology courses during this time.

  9. Enhanced low-rank + sparsity decomposition for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    Speckle artifacts can strongly hamper quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is necessary to provide assessment of ocular disorders associated with vision loss. Here, we introduce a method for speckle reduction, which leverages from low-rank + sparsity decomposition (LRpSD) of the logarithm of intensity OCT images. In particular, we combine nonconvex regularization-based low-rank approximation of an original OCT image with a sparsity term that incorporates the speckle. State-of-the-art methods for LRpSD require a priori knowledge of a rank and approximate it with nuclear norm, which is not an accurate rank indicator. As opposed to that, the proposed method provides more accurate approximation of a rank through the use of nonconvex regularization that induces sparse approximation of singular values. Furthermore, a rank value is not required to be known a priori. This, in turn, yields an automatic and computationally more efficient method for speckle reduction, which yields the OCT image with improved contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast and edge fidelity. The source code will be available at www.mipav.net/English/research/research.html.

  10. Missing Modality Transfer Learning via Latent Low-Rank Constraint.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengming; Shao, Ming; Fu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Transfer learning is usually exploited to leverage previously well-learned source domain for evaluating the unknown target domain; however, it may fail if no target data are available in the training stage. This problem arises when the data are multi-modal. For example, the target domain is in one modality, while the source domain is in another. To overcome this, we first borrow an auxiliary database with complete modalities, then consider knowledge transfer across databases and across modalities within databases simultaneously in a unified framework. The contributions are threefold: 1) a latent factor is introduced to uncover the underlying structure of the missing modality from the known data; 2) transfer learning in two directions allows the data alignment between both modalities and databases, giving rise to a very promising recovery; and 3) an efficient solution with theoretical guarantees to the proposed latent low-rank transfer learning algorithm. Comprehensive experiments on multi-modal knowledge transfer with missing target modality verify that our method can successfully inherit knowledge from both auxiliary database and source modality, and therefore significantly improve the recognition performance even when test modality is inaccessible in the training stage.

  11. Low-rank decomposition-based anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Yang, Shiming; Kalpakis, Konstantinos; Chang, Chein-I.

    2013-05-01

    With high spectral resolution hyperspectral imaging is capable of uncovering many subtle signal sources which cannot be known a priori or visually inspected. Such signal sources generally appear as anomalies in the data. Due to high correlation among spectral bands and sparsity of anomalies, a hyperspectral image can be e decomposed into two subspaces: a background subspace specified by a matrix with low rank dimensionality and an anomaly subspace specified by a sparse matrix with high rank dimensionality. This paper develops an approach to finding such low-high rank decomposition to identify anomaly subspace. Its idea is to formulate a convex constrained optimization problem that minimizes the nuclear norm of the background subspace and little ι1 norm of the anomaly subspace subject to a decomposition of data space into background and anomaly subspaces. By virtue of such a background-anomaly decomposition the commonly used RX detector can be implemented in the sense that anomalies can be separated in the anomaly subspace specified by a sparse matrix. Experimental results demonstrate that the background-anomaly subspace decomposition can actually improve and enhance RXD performance.

  12. Liquefaction of low rank coals with slurry catalysts. Part I. Comparison of coals. [7 low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    One of the most significant achievements over the last several years in development of the SRC-II process was extension of its applicability to include low-rank coals. With addition of moderate amounts of pyrite, operation was trouble-free and oil yields exceeding those obtainable with higher rank feedstocks were obtained. In addition, product sulfur level was lower due to the relatively low sulfur content of the lower rank coals. Total oil yield generally decreased as rank decreased from high volatile C bituminous to lignite. An exception to this was the oil yield from Texas lignite, which was the highest of those from the seven coals evaluated. Oil yields from all of these coals were greater than those generally obtained from higher rank bituminous coals, however. There was no apparent correlation between rank and conversion to pyridine-soluble material. The distillate products fom these coals were similar in composition, but the hydrogen and heteroatom levels were related to those in the feed coal. 2 figures, 6 tables.

  13. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

  14. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hetland, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project involves two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. Activities performed during this quarter are discussed.

  15. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of

  16. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  17. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Final technical report, July 13, 1994--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low- rank coals has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: 1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and 2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project was performed during two tasks: the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. This project showed that the solvent could be recycled during the preconversion, solubilization and polishing steps of the multistep process and that lower-severity conditions can be used to successfully hydrotreat the product of the multistep process. The success of this project indicates that additional studies should be performed to evaluate the liquid-phase reactions taking place during batch tests in which the gas flow is continuous (i.e., the gas effects would be negligible). In addition, the entire multistep process (including hydrotreatment) should be evaluated during continuous unit operations. 2 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  19. Emphasizing Research (Further) in Undergraduate Technical Communication Curricula: Involving Undergraduate Students with an Academic Journal's Publication and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julie Dyke; Newmark, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents follow-up information to a previous publication regarding ways to increase emphasis on research skills in undergraduate Technical Communication curricula. We detail the ways our undergraduate program highlights research by requiring majors to complete senior thesis projects that culminate in submission to an online…

  20. Studies of low rank coal stabilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh Research Center, tested feed coal and product samples from Wyoming and Montana for thermal stability in the adiabatic oven and sealed flask apparatus. The results indicated that the products had higher thermal stabilities in comparison with the feed coals. However, both the products samples and feed coals exhibited high spontaneous combustion potentials. A report on these studies was submitted in December 1995. Experiments were also completed in the adiabatic oven to determine the rate of decrease in the heating rate of a reactive sample on exposure to pulses of moist air, and moist nitrogen. The results indicated that with each succeeding pulse, longer time were required to reach selected elevated temperatures. The results also indicated some level of synergy between water and oxygen in the heat generation reaction. The data and results were transmitted to Dr. Dennis Finseth upon completion of the experiments.

  1. Enhancing Women's Undergraduate Experience in Physics and Chemistry Through a PUI/MRSEC Collaboration Emphasizing Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Velda; Malliaras, George; Schember, Helene; Singhota, Nevjinder

    2002-04-01

    This three-year collaboration between a predominately undergraduate women's college (Simmons College) and a NSF-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (the Cornell Center for Materials Research (CCMR)) provides opportunities for physics and chemistry students to participate in materials-related research throughout their undergraduate careers, have access to sophisticated instrumentation, and gain related work experience in industrial settings. As part of the project, undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of a collaborative Simmons/Cornell research program concentrating on degradation processes in electroluminescent materials. This work is particularly interesting because an understanding and control of these processes will ultimately influence the use of these materials in various types of consumer products.

  2. Middle/high school students in the research laboratory: A summer internship program emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of biology.

    PubMed

    McMiller, Tracee; Lee, Tameshia; Saroop, Ria; Green, Tyra; Johnson, Casonya M

    2006-03-01

    We describe an eight-week summer Young Scientist in Training (YSIT) internship program involving middle and high school students. This program exposed students to current basic research in molecular genetics, while introducing or reinforcing principles of the scientific method and demonstrating the uses of mathematics and chemistry in biology. For the laboratory-based program, selected students from Baltimore City Schools working in groups of three were teamed with undergraduate research assistants at Morgan State University. Teams were assigned a project that was indirectly related to our laboratory research on the characterization of gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. At the end of the program, teams prepared posters detailing their accomplishments, and presented their findings to parents and faculty members during a mini-symposium. The posters were also submitted to the respective schools and the interns were offered a presentation of their research at local high school science fairs. PMID:21638644

  3. Low-Rank Modeling of Local k-Space Neighborhoods (LORAKS) for Constrained MRI

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Justin P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical results on low-rank matrix reconstruction have inspired significant interest in low-rank modeling of MRI images. Existing approaches have focused on higher-dimensional scenarios with data available from multiple channels, timepoints, or image contrasts. The present work demonstrates that single-channel, single-contrast, single-timepoint k-space data can also be mapped to low-rank matrices when the image has limited spatial support or slowly varying phase. Based on this, we develop a novel and flexible framework for constrained image reconstruction that uses low-rank matrix modeling of local k-space neighborhoods (LORAKS). A new regularization penalty and corresponding algorithm for promoting low-rank are also introduced. The potential of LORAKS is demonstrated with simulated and experimental data for a range of denoising and sparse-sampling applications. LORAKS is also compared against state-of-the-art methods like homodyne reconstruction, ℓ1-norm minimization, and total variation minimization, and is demonstrated to have distinct features and advantages. In addition, while calibration-based support and phase constraints are commonly used in existing methods, the LORAKS framework enables calibrationless use of these constraints. PMID:24595341

  4. Low-Rank Atlas Image Analyses in the Presence of Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niethammer, Marc; Kwitt, Roland; Singh, Nikhil; McCormick, Matt; Aylward, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    We present a common framework, for registering images to an atlas and for forming an unbiased atlas, that tolerates the presence of pathologies such as tumors and traumatic brain injury lesions. This common framework is particularly useful when a sufficient number of protocol-matched scans from healthy subjects cannot be easily acquired for atlas formation and when the pathologies in a patient cause large appearance changes. Our framework combines a low-rank-plus-sparse image decomposition technique with an iterative, diffeomorphic, group-wise image registration method. At each iteration of image registration, the decomposition technique estimates a "healthy" version of each image as its low-rank component and estimates the pathologies in each image as its sparse component. The healthy version of each image is used for the next iteration of image registration. The low-rank and sparse estimates are refined as the image registrations iteratively improve. For unbiased atlas formation, at each iteration, the average of the low-rank images from the patients is used as the atlas image for the next iteration, until convergence. Since each iteration's atlas is comprised of low-rank components, it provides a population-consistent, pathology-free appearance. Evaluations of the proposed methodology are presented using synthetic data as well as simulated and clinical tumor MRI images from the brain tumor segmentation (BRATS) challenge from MICCAI 2012.

  5. Middle/High School Students in the Research Laboratory: A Summer Internship Program Emphasizing the Interdisciplinary Nature of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMiller, Tracee; Lee, Tameshia; Saroop, Ria; Green, Tyra; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an eight-week summer Young Scientist in Training (YSIT) internship program involving middle and high school students. This program exposed students to current basic research in molecular genetics, while introducing or reinforcing principles of the scientific method and demonstrating the uses of mathematics and chemistry in biology. For…

  6. A Non-Local Low-Rank Approach to Enforce Integrability.

    PubMed

    Badri, Hicham; Yahia, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new approach to enforce integrability using recent advances in non-local methods. Our formulation consists in a sparse gradient data-fitting term to handle outliers together with a gradient-domain non-local low-rank prior. This regularization has two main advantages: 1) the low-rank prior ensures similarity between non-local gradient patches, which helps recovering high-quality clean patches from severe outliers corruption and 2) the low-rank prior efficiently reduces dense noise as it has been shown in recent image restoration works. We propose an efficient solver for the resulting optimization formulation using alternate minimization. Experiments show that the new method leads to an important improvement compared with previous optimization methods and is able to efficiently handle both outliers and dense noise mixed together. PMID:27214898

  7. Unsupervised change detection of satellite images using low rank matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shibo; Cheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2013-12-01

    Traditional unsupervised change detection methods need to generate a difference image (DI) for subsequent processing to produce a binary change map. In addition, few methods explore global structures. This Letter presents a novel unsupervised change detection approach based on low rank matrix completion. Other than generating a DI, the changed pixels are modeled as the estimated missing values for matrix completion, where the changed pixels are represented by a sparse term. A common low rank matrix is recovered by two temporal images. The changed pixels are separated out from the low rank matrix, in which the local information is introduced via graph cuts. The global and local structures are utilized in our model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed method is a new view for change detection.

  8. Image restoration via patch orientation-based low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; He, Jiazhong; Du, Minghui

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means (NLM) are two popular techniques for image restoration. Although the basic principle for applying these two techniques is the same, i.e., similar image patches are abundant in the image, previously published related algorithms use either low-rank matrix approximation or NLM because they manipulate the information of similar patches in different ways. We propose a method for image restoration by jointly using low-rank matrix approximation and NLM in a unified minimization framework. To improve the accuracy of determining similar patches, we also propose a patch similarity measurement based on curvelet transform. Extensive experiments on image deblurring and compressive sensing image recovery validate that the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both quantitative measures and visual perception.

  9. A Non-Local Low-Rank Approach to Enforce Integrability.

    PubMed

    Badri, Hicham; Yahia, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new approach to enforce integrability using recent advances in non-local methods. Our formulation consists in a sparse gradient data-fitting term to handle outliers together with a gradient-domain non-local low-rank prior. This regularization has two main advantages: 1) the low-rank prior ensures similarity between non-local gradient patches, which helps recovering high-quality clean patches from severe outliers corruption and 2) the low-rank prior efficiently reduces dense noise as it has been shown in recent image restoration works. We propose an efficient solver for the resulting optimization formulation using alternate minimization. Experiments show that the new method leads to an important improvement compared with previous optimization methods and is able to efficiently handle both outliers and dense noise mixed together.

  10. Low-Rank and Eigenface Based Sparse Representation for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:25334027

  11. The Ivory Tower and the Community: A New Approach to Emphasizing the Relevance of Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past eight years we have developed and implemented several U.C. Berkeley-based outreach programs that provide opportunities for grades nine through eleven students in the East San Francisco Bay Area to gain skills and understandings that increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future, which enhances their capacity to decide to pursue STEM careers. A common element of these programs is the opportunity they provide participants to engage in environmental science research projects that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews and specific assessment instruments indicates that these programs have consistently achieved a high degree of success in that they have: significantly increased participants' understanding of the process and nature of science; enhanced their intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. These results corroborate recent research studies that indicate a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Moreover, they support the notion that providing opportunities for students to develop personal connections with particular issues discussed, and real-world STEM experiences that make STEM more relevant and interesting can help to bring about changes in attitude, which is a key component in improving STEM learning and understanding particularly among urban youth. Overall, our work suggests that in order for a given STEM

  12. Performance of low-rank QR approximation of the finite element Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D A; Fasenfest, B J

    2006-01-12

    We are concerned with the computation of magnetic fields from known electric currents in the finite element setting. In finite element eddy current simulations it is necessary to prescribe the magnetic field (or potential, depending upon the formulation) on the conductor boundary. In situations where the magnetic field is due to a distributed current density, the Biot-Savart law can be used, eliminating the need to mesh the nonconducting regions. Computation of the Biot-Savart law can be significantly accelerated using a low-rank QR approximation. We review the low-rank QR method and report performance on selected problems.

  13. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  14. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... coals. 870.20 Section 870.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are...

  15. Accelerated MR Parameter Mapping with Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Lu, Wenmiao; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Lam, Fan; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To enable accurate MR parameter mapping with accelerated data acquisition, utilizing recent advances in constrained imaging with sparse sampling. Theory and Methods: A new constrained reconstruction method based on low-rank and sparsity constraints is proposed to accelerate MR parameter mapping. More specifically, the proposed method simultaneously imposes low-rank and joint sparse structures on contrast-weighted image sequences within a unified mathematical formulation. With a pre-estimated subspace, this formulation results in a convex optimization problem, which is solved using an efficient numerical algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers. Results: To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, two application examples were considered: i) T2 mapping of the human brain, and ii) T1 mapping of the rat brain. For each application, the proposed method was evaluated at both moderate and high acceleration levels. Additionally, the proposed method was compared with two state-of-the-art methods that only use a single low-rank or joint sparsity constraint. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve accurate parameter estimation with both moderately and highly undersampled data. Although all methods performed fairly well with moderately undersampled data, the proposed method achieved much better performance (e.g., more accurate parameter values) than the other two methods with highly undersampled data. Conclusions: Simultaneously imposing low-rank and sparsity constraints can effectively improve the accuracy of fast MR parameter mapping with sparse sampling. PMID:25163720

  16. Anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery based on low-rank and sparse decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoguang; Tian, Yuan; Weng, Lubin; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) based model for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images. In our model, a local image region is represented as a low-rank matrix plus spares noises in the spectral space, where the background can be explained by the low-rank matrix, and the anomalies are indicated by the sparse noises. The detection of anomalies in local image regions is formulated as a constrained LSD problem, which can be solved efficiently and robustly with a modified "Go Decomposition" (GoDec) method. To enhance the validity of this model, we adapts a "simple linear iterative clustering" (SLIC) superpixel algorithm to efficiently generate homogeneous local image regions i.e. superpixels in hyperspectral imagery, thus ensures that the background in local image regions satisfies the condition of low-rank. Experimental results on real hyperspectral data demonstrate that, compared with several known local detectors including RX detector, kernel RX detector, and SVDD detector, the proposed model can comfortably achieves better performance in satisfactory computation time.

  17. An Approach to Streaming Video Segmentation With Sub-Optimal Low-Rank Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenglong; Lin, Liang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Wenzhong; Tang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates how to perform robust and efficient video segmentation while suppressing the effects of data noises and/or corruptions, and an effective approach is introduced to this end. First, a general algorithm, called sub-optimal low-rank decomposition (SOLD), is proposed to pursue the low-rank representation for video segmentation. Given the data matrix formed by supervoxel features of an observed video sequence, SOLD seeks a sub-optimal solution by making the matrix rank explicitly determined. In particular, the representation coefficient matrix with the fixed rank can be decomposed into two sub-matrices of low rank, and then we iteratively optimize them with closed-form solutions. Moreover, we incorporate a discriminative replication prior into SOLD based on the observation that small-size video patterns tend to recur frequently within the same object. Second, based on SOLD, we present an efficient inference algorithm to perform streaming video segmentation in both unsupervised and interactive scenarios. More specifically, the constrained normalized-cut algorithm is adopted by incorporating the low-rank representation with other low level cues and temporal consistent constraints for spatio-temporal segmentation. Extensive experiments on two public challenging data sets VSB100 and SegTrack suggest that our approach outperforms other video segmentation approaches in both accuracy and efficiency.

  18. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  19. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hetland, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project will address two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project will be performed as two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions.

  20. Dynamic networks community detection via low rank component recovery of adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wei; Michailidis, George

    Dynamic community detection in networks has been of high interest due to its various applications. In this work, we apply low rank extraction technique on adjacency matrices to approximate the community structures. Not only can we accurately identify the phase transition time points where significant changes in the community structures occur, but also we can increase the accuracy of the core community structures recovered in the `peace' time ranges by averaging the low rank components. A systematic methodology has been proposed as how to accomplish the target. Factor model, and stochastic block model (including weighted scenario) have been tested for the robustness of our model. Besides, applications on both Kuramoto model and US Senate Roll Call data are also carried out and interesting results are obtained.

  1. On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M J

    2009-10-06

    The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

  2. Target detection in GPR data using joint low-rank and sparsity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Abeynayake, Canicious

    2016-05-01

    In ground penetrating radars, background clutter, which comprises the signals backscattered from the rough, uneven ground surface and the background noise, impairs the visualization of buried objects and subsurface inspections. In this paper, a clutter mitigation method is proposed for target detection. The removal of background clutter is formulated as a constrained optimization problem to obtain a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix. The low-rank matrix captures the ground surface reflections and the background noise, whereas the sparse matrix contains the target reflections. An optimization method based on split-Bregman algorithm is developed to estimate these two matrices from the input GPR data. Evaluated on real radar data, the proposed method achieves promising results in removing the background clutter and enhancing the target signature.

  3. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  4. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates from low-rank coal liquefaction products by Pseudomonas oleovorans and Rhodococcus ruber

    PubMed

    Fuchtenbusch; Steinbuchel

    1999-07-01

    A screening identified several bacteria that were able to use chemically heterogeneous low-rank coal liquefaction products as complex carbon sources for growth. Pseudomonas oleovorans and Rhodococcus ruber accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) amounting to 2%-8% of the cell dry weight when the cells were cultivated on these liquefaction products in the absence of any other carbon source. R. ruber accumulated, in addition to PHA, small amounts of triacylglycerols. The accumulated PHA consisted of 3-hydroxyhexanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (P. oleovorans) or 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid (R. ruber). Low-rank coal liquefaction products obtained from Trichoderma atroviride were better substrates for P. oleovorans than chemically produced fulvic acids.

  5. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-04-15

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, (2) crude enzyme study using best decarboxylating organisms, (3) decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymers, and (4) characterization of biotreated coals.

  6. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. [Veillonella alcalescens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-30

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives of this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development, (2) evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation, (3) selection of best performing culture (known cultures vs. new isolates), and (4) coal decarboxylation using activated carbon as blanks. The project began on September 12, 1990.

  7. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-30

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives of this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development, (2) evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation, (3) selection of best performing culture (known cultures vs. new isolates), and (4) coal decarboxylation using activated carbon as blanks. The project began on September 12, 1990.

  8. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  9. Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K.

    2007-03-15

    Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

  10. Low rank updated LS-SVM classifiers for fast variable selection.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Fabian; Suykens, Johan A K; De Moor, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifiers are a class of kernel methods whose solution follows from a set of linear equations. In this work we present low rank modifications to the LS-SVM classifiers that are useful for fast and efficient variable selection. The inclusion or removal of a candidate variable can be represented as a low rank modification to the kernel matrix (linear kernel) of the LS-SVM classifier. In this way, the LS-SVM solution can be updated rather than being recomputed, which improves the efficiency of the overall variable selection process. Relevant variables are selected according to a closed form of the leave-one-out (LOO) error estimator, which is obtained as a by-product of the low rank modifications. The proposed approach is applied to several benchmark data sets as well as two microarray data sets. When compared to other related algorithms used for variable selection, simulations applying our approach clearly show a lower computational complexity together with good stability on the generalization error.

  11. CONCOLOR: Constrained Non-Convex Low-Rank Model for Image Deblocking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Xiong, Ruiqin; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Yongbing; Ma, Siwei; Gao, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Due to independent and coarse quantization of transform coefficients in each block, block-based transform coding usually introduces visually annoying blocking artifacts at low bitrates, which greatly prevents further bit reduction. To alleviate the conflict between bit reduction and quality preservation, deblocking as a post-processing strategy is an attractive and promising solution without changing existing codec. In this paper, in order to reduce blocking artifacts and obtain high-quality image, image deblocking is formulated as an optimization problem within maximum a posteriori framework, and a novel algorithm for image deblocking using constrained non-convex low-rank model is proposed. The ℓ(p) (0 < p < 1) penalty function is extended on singular values of a matrix to characterize low-rank prior model rather than the nuclear norm, while the quantization constraint is explicitly transformed into the feasible solution space to constrain the non-convex low-rank optimization. Moreover, a new quantization noise model is developed, and an alternatively minimizing strategy with adaptive parameter adjustment is developed to solve the proposed optimization problem. This parameter-free advantage enables the whole algorithm more attractive and practical. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed image deblocking algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods in both the objective quality and the perceptual quality. PMID:26761774

  12. Low-rank coal drying technologies current status and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Wu, Z.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their vast reserves, low-rank coals are considered undesirable because their high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Their high moisture content, greater tendency to combust spontaneously, high degree of weathering, and the dusting characteristics restrict widespread use of such coals. The price of coal sold to utilities depends upon the heating value of the coal. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals (LRC) is an important operation. Furthermore, LRC can be used cost effectively for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction processes. This article provides an overview the diverse processes both those that utilize conventional drying technologies and those that are not yet commercialized and hence in need of RD. Relative merits and limitations of the various technologies and the current state of their development are presented. Drying characteristics of low-rank coal as well as factors affecting drying characteristics of coal samples are also discussed.

  13. High-Resolution Dynamic Speech Imaging with Joint Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Maojing; Zhao, Bo; Carignan, Christopher; Shosted, Ryan K.; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To enable dynamic speech imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution and full-vocal-tract spatial coverage, leveraging recent advances in sparse sampling. Methods An imaging method is developed to enable high-speed dynamic speech imaging exploiting low-rank and sparsity of the dynamic images of articulatory motion during speech. The proposed method includes: a) a novel data acquisition strategy that collects navigators with high temporal frame rate, and b) an image reconstruction method that derives temporal subspaces from navigators and reconstructs high-resolution images from sparsely sampled data with joint low-rank and sparsity constraints. Results The proposed method has been systematically evaluated and validated through several dynamic speech experiments. A nominal imaging speed of 102 frames per second (fps) was achieved for a single-slice imaging protocol with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 × 6.5 mm3. An eight-slice imaging protocol covering the entire vocal tract achieved a nominal imaging speed of 12.8 fps with the identical spatial resolution. The effectiveness of the proposed method and its practical utility was also demonstrated in a phonetic investigation. Conclusion High spatiotemporal resolution with full-vocal-tract spatial coverage can be achieved for dynamic speech imaging experiments with low-rank and sparsity constraints. PMID:24912452

  14. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  15. Constructing a Nonnegative Low-Rank and Sparse Graph With Data-Adaptive Features.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liansheng; Gao, Shenghua; Tang, Jinhui; Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Zhouchen; Ma, Yi; Yu, Nenghai

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at constructing a good graph to discover the intrinsic data structures under a semisupervised learning setting. First, we propose to build a nonnegative low-rank and sparse (referred to as NNLRS) graph for the given data representation. In particular, the weights of edges in the graph are obtained by seeking a nonnegative low-rank and sparse reconstruction coefficients matrix that represents each data sample as a linear combination of others. The so-obtained NNLRS-graph captures both the global mixture of subspaces structure (by the low-rankness) and the locally linear structure (by the sparseness) of the data, hence it is both generative and discriminative. Second, as good features are extremely important for constructing a good graph, we propose to learn the data embedding matrix and construct the graph simultaneously within one framework, which is termed as NNLRS with embedded features (referred to as NNLRS-EF). Extensive NNLRS experiments on three publicly available data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art graph construction method by a large margin for both semisupervised classification and discriminative analysis, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  16. Color correction with blind image restoration based on multiple images using a low-rank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that can handle the color correction of multiple photographs with blind image restoration simultaneously and automatically. We prove that the local colors of a set of images of the same scene exhibit the low-rank property locally both before and after a color-correction operation. This property allows us to correct all kinds of errors in an image under a low-rank matrix model without particular priors or assumptions. The possible errors may be caused by changes of viewpoint, large illumination variations, gross pixel corruptions, partial occlusions, etc. Furthermore, a new iterative soft-segmentation method is proposed for local color transfer using color influence maps. Due to the fact that the correct color information and the spatial information of images can be recovered using the low-rank model, more precise color correction and many other image-restoration tasks-including image denoising, image deblurring, and gray-scale image colorizing-can be performed simultaneously. Experiments have verified that our method can achieve consistent and promising results on uncontrolled real photographs acquired from the Internet and that it outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  17. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  18. Dynamic PET reconstruction using temporal patch-based low rank penalty for ROI-based brain kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Son, Young Don; Bresler, Yoram; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used to measure changes in the bio-distribution of radiopharmaceuticals within particular organs of interest over time. However, to retain sufficient temporal resolution, the number of photon counts in each time frame must be limited. Therefore, conventional reconstruction algorithms such as the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) produce noisy reconstruction images, thus degrading the quality of the extracted time activity curves (TACs). To address this issue, many advanced reconstruction algorithms have been developed using various spatio-temporal regularizations. In this paper, we extend earlier results and develop a novel temporal regularization, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected in dynamic images. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the correlation of patches can be exploited using a low-rank constraint that is insensitive to global intensity variations. The resulting optimization framework is, however, non-Lipschitz and non-convex due to the Poisson log-likelihood and low-rank penalty terms. Direct application of the conventional Poisson image deconvolution by an augmented Lagrangian (PIDAL) algorithm is, however, problematic due to its large memory requirements, which prevents its parallelization. Thus, we propose a novel optimization framework using the concave-convex procedure (CCCP) by exploiting the Legendre-Fenchel transform, which is computationally efficient and parallelizable. In computer simulation and a real in vivo experiment using a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner, we confirm that the proposed algorithm can improve image quality while also extracting more accurate region of interests (ROI) based kinetic parameters. Furthermore, we show that the total reconstruction time for HRRT PET is significantly accelerated using our GPU implementation, which makes the algorithm very practical in clinical environments.

  19. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.

  20. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less

  1. Sparse-view spectral CT reconstruction using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Li, Quanzheng

    2015-03-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) is a promising technique with the potential for improving lesion detection, tissue characterization, and material decomposition. In this paper, we are interested in kVp switching-based spectral CT that alternates distinct kVp X-ray transmissions during gantry rotation. This system can acquire multiple X-ray energy transmissions without additional radiation dose. However, only sparse views are generated for each spectral measurement; and the spectra themselves are limited in number. To address these limitations, we propose a penalized maximum likelihood method using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected at the same position in spectral images. The main advantage is that the relatively small number of materials within each patch allows us to employ the low-rank penalty that is less sensitive to intensity changes while preserving edge directions. In our optimization formulation, the cost function consists of the Poisson log-likelihood for X-ray transmission and the nonconvex patch-based low-rank penalty. Since the original cost function is difficult to minimize directly, we propose an optimization method using separable quadratic surrogate and concave convex procedure algorithms for the log-likelihood and penalty terms, which results in an alternating minimization that provides a computational advantage because each subproblem can be solved independently. We performed computer simulations and a real experiment using a kVp switching-based spectral CT with sparse-view measurements, and compared the proposed method with conventional algorithms. We confirmed that the proposed method improves spectral images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, our GPU implementation significantly reduces the computational cost.

  2. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  3. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  4. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  5. Parrallel Implementation of Fast Randomized Algorithms for Low Rank Matrix Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Andrew J.; Stalizer, Mark; Feo, John T.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the parallel performance of randomized interpolative decomposition by de- composing low rank complex-valued Gaussian random matrices larger than 100 GB. We chose a Cray XMT supercomputer as it provides an almost ideal PRAM model permitting quick investigation of parallel algorithms without obfuscation from hardware idiosyncrasies. We obtain that on non-square matrices performance scales almost linearly with runtime about 100 times faster on 128 processors. We also verify that numerically discovered error bounds still hold on matrices two orders of magnitude larger than those previously tested.

  6. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  7. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Brune, P.

    2013-07-01

    Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)

  8. Illumination Compensation and Normalization Using Low-Rank Decomposition of Multispectral Images in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Duliu, Alexandru; Brosig, Richard; Ognawala, Saahil; Lasser, Tobias; Ziai, Mahzad; Navab, Nassir

    2015-01-01

    When attempting to recover the surface color from an image, modelling the illumination contribution per-pixel is essential. In this work we present a novel approach for illumination compensation using multispectral image data. This is done by means of a low-rank decomposition of representative spectral bands with prior knowledge of the reflectance spectra of the imaged surface. Experimental results on synthetic data, as well as on images of real lesions acquired at the university clinic, show that the proposed method significantly improves the contrast between the lesion and the background.

  9. Feature transformation of neural activity with sparse and low-rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kang-Yu; Benvenuto, James; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Millin, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel application of the sparse and low-rank (SLR) decomposition method to decode cognitive states for concept activity measured using fMRI BOLD. Current decoding methods attempt to reduce the dimensionality of fMRI BOLD signals to increase classification rate, but do not address the separable issues of multiple noise sources and complexity in the underlying data. Our feature transformation method extends SLR to separate task activity from the resting state and extract concept specific cognitive state. We show a significant increase in single trial decoding of concepts from fMRI BOLD using SLR to extract task specific cognitive state.

  10. Improvement of stability and efficiency of combustion for low rank anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Sun, X.

    1994-12-31

    A new kind of burner, bluff-body with cavity burner, which is based on the bluff-body burner is developed in this paper. The three dimension mean velocity and turbulent characteristics have been measured in the burner`s recirculation zone by using three dimension laser dynamics analysis. For a low rank anthracite, combustion test shows this burner is better than bluff-body in ignition and flame stability. 50 MW(220T/H) boiler operation show that the temperature in the flame zone is high, combustion is very stable and the efficiency is increased when this burner is used.

  11. Low-rank approach for image nonblind deconvolution with variance estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Hu, Guosheng; Wang, Yuqing; Wu, Xiaotian

    2015-11-01

    We develop a low-rank approach for image restoration by exploiting the image's nonlocal self-similarity. We assume that the matrix stacked by the vectors of nonlocal similar patches is of low rank and has sparse singular values. Based on this assumption, we propose a new image deconvolution algorithm that decouples the deblurring and denoising steps. Specifically, in the deblurring step, we involve a regularized inversion of the blur in the Fourier domain, which amplifies and colors the noise and corrupts the image information. Hence, in the denoising step, a singular-value decomposition of similar packed patches is used to efficiently remove the colored noise. Furthermore, we derive an approach to update the estimation of noise variance for setting the threshold parameter at each iteration. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many state-of-the-art deblurring algorithms such as iterative decoupled deblurring BM3D in terms of both improvement in signal-to-noise-ratio and visual perception quality.

  12. Discriminative Transfer Subspace Learning via Low-Rank and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Xiaozhao; Wu, Jian; Li, Xuelong; Zhang, David

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of unsupervised domain transfer learning in which no labels are available in the target domain. We use a transformation matrix to transfer both the source and target data to a common subspace, where each target sample can be represented by a combination of source samples such that the samples from different domains can be well interlaced. In this way, the discrepancy of the source and target domains is reduced. By imposing joint low-rank and sparse constraints on the reconstruction coefficient matrix, the global and local structures of data can be preserved. To enlarge the margins between different classes as much as possible and provide more freedom to diminish the discrepancy, a flexible linear classifier (projection) is obtained by learning a non-negative label relaxation matrix that allows the strict binary label matrix to relax into a slack variable matrix. Our method can avoid a potentially negative transfer by using a sparse matrix to model the noise and, thus, is more robust to different types of noise. We formulate our problem as a constrained low-rankness and sparsity minimization problem and solve it by the inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier method. Extensive experiments on various visual domain adaptation tasks show the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the art methods. The MATLAB code of our method will be publicly available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  13. Performance of low-rank QR approximation of the finite element Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B

    2006-10-16

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is easily implemented on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. While an octree partitioning of the matrix may be ideal, for ease of parallel implementation we employ a partitioning based on number of processors. The rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  14. Discriminative Transfer Subspace Learning via Low-Rank and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Xiaozhao; Wu, Jian; Li, Xuelong; Zhang, David

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of unsupervised domain transfer learning in which no labels are available in the target domain. We use a transformation matrix to transfer both the source and target data to a common subspace, where each target sample can be represented by a combination of source samples such that the samples from different domains can be well interlaced. In this way, the discrepancy of the source and target domains is reduced. By imposing joint low-rank and sparse constraints on the reconstruction coefficient matrix, the global and local structures of data can be preserved. To enlarge the margins between different classes as much as possible and provide more freedom to diminish the discrepancy, a flexible linear classifier (projection) is obtained by learning a non-negative label relaxation matrix that allows the strict binary label matrix to relax into a slack variable matrix. Our method can avoid a potentially negative transfer by using a sparse matrix to model the noise and, thus, is more robust to different types of noise. We formulate our problem as a constrained low-rankness and sparsity minimization problem and solve it by the inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier method. Extensive experiments on various visual domain adaptation tasks show the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the art methods. The MATLAB code of our method will be publicly available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html. PMID:26701675

  15. Shape-Constrained Sparse and Low-Rank Decomposition for Auroral Substorm Detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Han, Bing; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An auroral substorm is an important geophysical phenomenon that reflects the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Detecting substorms is of practical significance in order to prevent disruption to communication and global positioning systems. However, existing detection methods can be inaccurate or require time-consuming manual analysis and are therefore impractical for large-scale data sets. In this paper, we propose an automatic auroral substorm detection method based on a shape-constrained sparse and low-rank decomposition (SCSLD) framework. Our method automatically detects real substorm onsets in large-scale aurora sequences, which overcomes the limitations of manual detection. To reduce noise interference inherent in current SLD methods, we introduce a shape constraint to force the noise to be assigned to the low-rank part (stationary background), thus ensuring the accuracy of the sparse part (moving object) and improving the performance. Experiments conducted on aurora sequences in solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) show that the proposed SCSLD method achieves good performance for motion analysis of aurora sequences. Moreover, the obtained results are highly consistent with manual analysis, suggesting that the proposed automatic method is useful and effective in practice. PMID:25826810

  16. Robust Low-Rank Tensor Recovery With Regularized Redescending M-Estimator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuning; Feng, Yunlong; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the robust low-rank tensor recovery problems. Tensor recovery aims at reconstructing a low-rank tensor from some linear measurements, which finds applications in image processing, pattern recognition, multitask learning, and so on. In real-world applications, data might be contaminated by sparse gross errors. However, the existing approaches may not be very robust to outliers. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes approaches based on the regularized redescending M-estimators, which have been introduced in robust statistics. The robustness of the proposed approaches is achieved by the regularized redescending M-estimators. However, the nonconvexity also leads to a computational difficulty. To handle this problem, we develop algorithms based on proximal and linearized block coordinate descent methods. By explicitly deriving the Lipschitz constant of the gradient of the data-fitting risk, the descent property of the algorithms is present. Moreover, we verify that the objective functions of the proposed approaches satisfy the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, which establishes the global convergence of the algorithms. The numerical experiments on synthetic data as well as real data verify that our approaches are robust in the presence of outliers and still effective in the absence of outliers. PMID:26302521

  17. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  18. Low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition-based anomaly detection for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Li, Jialin; Lai, Yenming Mark; Li, Weiyue

    2014-01-01

    A low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition (LRaSMD) detector has been proposed to detect anomalies in hyperspectral imagery (HSI). The detector assumes background images are low-rank while anomalies are gross errors that are sparsely distributed throughout the image scene. By solving a constrained convex optimization problem, the LRaSMD detector separates the anomalies from the background. This protects the background model from corruption. An anomaly value for each pixel is calculated using the Euclidean distance, and anomalies are determined by thresholding the anomaly value. Four groups of experiments on three widely used HSI datasets are designed to completely analyze the performances of the new detector. Experimental results show that the LRaSMD detector outperforms the global Reed-Xiaoli (GRX), the orthogonal subspace projection-GRX, and the cluster-based detectors. Moreover, the results show that LRaSMD achieves equal or better detection performance than the local support vector data description detector within a shorter computational time.

  19. MEG source estimation in the presence of low-rank interference using cross-spectral metrics.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, David; Nehorai, Arye; Dogandzić, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    We estimate a source current dipole at a known location in the presence of low-rank interference using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We present a space-time processor for MEG data based on the generalized sidelobe canceler (GSC). We extend the classical vector beamformer to a matrix structure without making any assumptions on the rank of the covariance matrix of noise and interference, or constraint matrices. Furthermore, we define the cross-spectral metrics (CSM) in their most general form. The CSM method is known to approximate the performance of the matched filter for the case of unknown covariance matrix. In our case, the CSM also allows to reduce the complexity of the filtering problem without significant loss of performance in the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Our results show that good estimates of the dipole sources can be achieved by only using a few eigenvalues, namely, those corresponding to the largest CSM.

  20. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal decarboxylation. The microbial consortia will be developed using a fermentor system first under batch and then in a continuous system. The main objectives for this quarter were to develop microbial consortia that would decarboxylate coal and isolate potential anaerobic microorganisms with decarboxylating, ability from these enriched microbial consortia, to continue to compare the known cultures with reward to their ability to decarboxylate coal, and to characterize the anaerobically biotreated coal using FTIR to confirm decarboxylation of coal. Significant achievements during the period include: coal decarboxylation was possible only under anaerobic conditions. microbial consortia that can anaerobically decarboxylate coal have been developed using anaerobic vials and batch fermentor system, and loss of carboxyl groups in biotreated coal has been confirmed by FT-IR.

  1. A dynamical low-rank approach to the chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Tobias; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2008-11-01

    Stochastic reaction kinetics have increasingly been used to study cellular systems, with applications ranging from viral replication to gene regulatory networks and to signaling pathways. The underlying evolution equation, known as the chemical master equation (CME), can rarely be solved with traditional methods due to the huge number of degrees of freedom. We present a new approach to directly solve the CME by a dynamical low-rank approximation based on the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The new approach has the capability to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom, and to turn the CME into a computationally tractable problem. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods in application to two examples of biological interest.

  2. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Kuzu, H.; Peksel, A.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained by microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.

  3. RASL: robust alignment by sparse and low-rank decomposition for linearly correlated images.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yigang; Ganesh, Arvind; Wright, John; Xu, Wenli; Ma, Yi

    2012-11-01

    This paper studies the problem of simultaneously aligning a batch of linearly correlated images despite gross corruption (such as occlusion). Our method seeks an optimal set of image domain transformations such that the matrix of transformed images can be decomposed as the sum of a sparse matrix of errors and a low-rank matrix of recovered aligned images. We reduce this extremely challenging optimization problem to a sequence of convex programs that minimize the sum of l1-norm and nuclear norm of the two component matrices, which can be efficiently solved by scalable convex optimization techniques. We verify the efficacy of the proposed robust alignment algorithm with extensive experiments on both controlled and uncontrolled real data, demonstrating higher accuracy and efficiency than existing methods over a wide range of realistic misalignments and corruptions.

  4. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  5. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a “bottom-up” manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives. PMID:27597862

  6. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a “bottom-up” manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives.

  7. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken; Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a "bottom-up" manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives. PMID:27597862

  8. Motion adaptive patch-based low-rank approach for compressed sensing cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Huisu; Kim, Kyung Sang; Kim, Daniel; Bresler, Yoram; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    One of the technical challenges in cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to reduce the acquisition time to enable the high spatio-temporal resolution imaging of a cardiac volume within a short scan time. Recently, compressed sensing approaches have been investigated extensively for highly accelerated cine MRI by exploiting transform domain sparsity using linear transforms such as wavelets, and Fourier. However, in cardiac cine imaging, the cardiac volume changes significantly between frames, and there often exist abrupt pixel value changes along time. In order to effectively sparsify such temporal variations, it is necessary to exploit temporal redundancy along motion trajectories. This paper introduces a novel patch-based reconstruction method to exploit geometric similarities in the spatio-temporal domain. In particular, we use a low rank constraint for similar patches along motion, based on the observation that rank structures are relatively less sensitive to global intensity changes, but make it easier to capture moving edges. A Nash equilibrium formulation with relaxation is employed to guarantee convergence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm clearly reconstructs important anatomical structures in cardiac cine image and provides improved image quality compared to existing state-of-the-art methods such as k-t FOCUSS, k-t SLR, and MASTeR.

  9. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Anthony G; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice. PMID:27498337

  10. LRTV: MR Image Super-Resolution With Low-Rank and Total Variation Regularizations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Image super-resolution (SR) aims to recover high-resolution images from their low-resolution counterparts for improving image analysis and visualization. Interpolation methods, widely used for this purpose, often result in images with blurred edges and blocking effects. More advanced methods such as total variation (TV) retain edge sharpness during image recovery. However, these methods only utilize information from local neighborhoods, neglecting useful information from remote voxels. In this paper, we propose a novel image SR method that integrates both local and global information for effective image recovery. This is achieved by, in addition to TV, low-rank regularization that enables utilization of information throughout the image. The optimization problem can be solved effectively via alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Experiments on MR images of both adult and pediatric subjects demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the details in the recovered high-resolution images, and outperforms methods such as the nearest-neighbor interpolation, cubic interpolation, iterative back projection (IBP), non-local means (NLM), and TV-based up-sampling.

  11. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging based on compressed sensing using joint sparsity and low-rank approximation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Wang, Lihui; Chu, Chunyu; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Wanyu; Zhu, Yuemin

    2016-04-29

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely used to probe noninvasively biological tissue structures. However, DTI suffers from long acquisition times, which limit its practical and clinical applications. This paper proposes a new Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction method that employs joint sparsity and rank deficiency to reconstruct cardiac DTMR images from undersampled k-space data. Diffusion-weighted images acquired in different diffusion directions were firstly stacked as columns to form the matrix. The matrix was row sparse in the transform domain and had a low rank. These two properties were then incorporated into the CS reconstruction framework. The underlying constrained optimization problem was finally solved by the first-order fast method. Experiments were carried out on both simulation and real human cardiac DTMR images. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach had lower reconstruction errors for DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivities (MD), compared to the existing CS-DTMR image reconstruction techniques. PMID:27163322

  12. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  13. Low-rank separated representation surrogates of high-dimensional stochastic functions: Application in Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect

    Validi, AbdoulAhad

    2014-03-01

    This study introduces a non-intrusive approach in the context of low-rank separated representation to construct a surrogate of high-dimensional stochastic functions, e.g., PDEs/ODEs, in order to decrease the computational cost of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations in Bayesian inference. The surrogate model is constructed via a regularized alternative least-square regression with Tikhonov regularization using a roughening matrix computing the gradient of the solution, in conjunction with a perturbation-based error indicator to detect optimal model complexities. The model approximates a vector of a continuous solution at discrete values of a physical variable. The required number of random realizations to achieve a successful approximation linearly depends on the function dimensionality. The computational cost of the model construction is quadratic in the number of random inputs, which potentially tackles the curse of dimensionality in high-dimensional stochastic functions. Furthermore, this vector-valued separated representation-based model, in comparison to the available scalar-valued case, leads to a significant reduction in the cost of approximation by an order of magnitude equal to the vector size. The performance of the method is studied through its application to three numerical examples including a 41-dimensional elliptic PDE and a 21-dimensional cavity flow.

  14. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J.; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1 mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10 min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice.

  15. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  16. Ultra low radiation dose digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging using low rank constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Kai; Li, Yinsheng; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Wu, Yijing; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this work we developed a novel denoising algorithm for DSA image series. This algorithm takes advantage of the low rank nature of the DSA image sequences to enable a dramatic reduction in radiation and/or contrast doses in DSA imaging. Both spatial and temporal regularizers were introduced in the optimization algorithm to further reduce noise. To validate the method, in vivo animal studies were conducted with a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system using different radiation dose levels and contrast concentrations. Both conventionally processed DSA images and the DSA images generated using the novel denoising method were compared using absolute noise standard deviation and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). With the application of the novel denoising algorithm for DSA, image quality can be maintained with a radiation dose reduction by a factor of 20 and/or a factor of 2 reduction in contrast dose. Image processing is completed on a GPU within a second for a 10s DSA data acquisition.

  17. Low rank approach to computing first and higher order derivatives using automatic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J. A.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Utke, J.

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript outlines a new approach for increasing the efficiency of applying automatic differentiation (AD) to large scale computational models. By using the principles of the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM), low rank approximations of the derivatives for first and higher orders can be calculated using minimized computational resources. The output obtained from nuclear reactor calculations typically has a much smaller numerical rank compared to the number of inputs and outputs. This rank deficiency can be exploited to reduce the number of derivatives that need to be calculated using AD. The effective rank can be determined according to ESM by computing derivatives with AD at random inputs. Reduced or pseudo variables are then defined and new derivatives are calculated with respect to the pseudo variables. Two different AD packages are used: OpenAD and Rapsodia. OpenAD is used to determine the effective rank and the subspace that contains the derivatives. Rapsodia is then used to calculate derivatives with respect to the pseudo variables for the desired order. The overall approach is applied to two simple problems and to MATWS, a safety code for sodium cooled reactors. (authors)

  18. Improved Subspace Estimation for Low-Rank Model-Based Accelerated Cardiac Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hitchens, T. Kevin; Wu, Yijen L.; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Sparse sampling methods have emerged as effective tools to accelerate cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Low-rank model-based cardiac imaging uses a pre-determined temporal subspace for image reconstruction from highly under-sampled (k, t)-space data and has been demonstrated effective for high-speed cardiac MRI. The accuracy of the temporal subspace is a key factor in these methods, yet little work has been published on data acquisition strategies to improve subspace estimation. This paper investigates the use of non-Cartesian k-space trajectories to replace the Cartesian trajectories which are omnipresent but are highly sensitive to readout direction. We also propose “self-navigated” pulse sequences which collect both navigator data (for determining the temporal subspace) and imaging data after every RF pulse, allowing for even greater acceleration. We investigate subspace estimation strategies through analysis of phantom images and demonstrate in vivo cardiac imaging in rats and mice without the use of ECG or respiratory gating. The proposed methods achieved 3-D imaging of wall motion, first-pass myocardial perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement in rats at 74 frames per second (fps), as well as 2-D imaging of wall motion in mice at 97 fps. PMID:24801352

  19. Degradation of lignite (low-rank coal) by ligninolytic basidiomycetes and their manganese peroxidase system

    PubMed

    Hofrichter; Ziegenhagen; Sorge; Ullrich; Bublitz; Fritsche

    1999-07-01

    Ligninolytic basidiomycetes (wood and leaf-litter-decaying fungi) have the ability to degrade low-rank coal (lignite). Extracellular manganese peroxidase is the crucial enzyme in the depolymerization process of both coal-derived humic substances and native coal. The depolymerization of coal by Mn peroxidase is catalysed via chelated Mn(III) acting as a diffusible mediator with a high redox potential and can be enhanced in the presence of additional mediating agents (e.g. glutathione). The depolymerization process results in the formation of a complex mixture of lower-molecular-mass fulvic-acid-like compounds. Experiments using a synthetic 14C-labeled humic acid demonstrated that the Mn peroxidase-catalyzed depolymerization of humic substances was accompanied by a substantial release of carbon dioxide (17%-50% of the initially added radio-activity was released as 14CO2). Mn peroxidase was found to be a highly stable enzyme that remained active for several weeks under reaction conditions in a liquid reaction mixture and even persisted in sterile and native soil from an opencast mining area for some days.

  20. Calibrationless Parallel Imaging Reconstruction Based on Structured Low-Rank Matrix Completion

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Peter J.; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Ohliger, Michael A.; Elad, Michael; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Lustig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A calibrationless parallel imaging reconstruction method, termed simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation (SAKE), is presented. It is a data-driven, coil-by-coil reconstruction method that does not require a separate calibration step for estimating coil sensitivity information. Methods In SAKE, an under-sampled multi-channel dataset is structured into a single data matrix. Then the reconstruction is formulated as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. An iterative solution that implements a projection-onto-sets algorithm with singular value thresholding is described. Results Reconstruction results are demonstrated for retrospectively and prospectively under-sampled, multi-channel Cartesian data having no calibration signals. Additionally, non-Cartesian data reconstruction is presented. Finally, improved image quality is demonstrated by combining SAKE with wavelet-based compressed sensing. Conclusion As estimation of coil sensitivity information is not needed, the proposed method could potentially benefit MR applications where acquiring accurate calibration data is limiting or not possible at all. PMID:24248734

  1. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  2. Conflict-cost based random sampling design for parallel MRI with low rank constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan; Zhou, Yihang; Lyu, Jingyuan; Ying, Leslie

    2015-05-01

    In compressed sensing MRI, it is very important to design sampling pattern for random sampling. For example, SAKE (simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation) is a parallel MRI reconstruction method using random undersampling. It formulates image reconstruction as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. Variable density (VD) Poisson discs are typically adopted for 2D random sampling. The basic concept of Poisson disc generation is to guarantee samples are neither too close to nor too far away from each other. However, it is difficult to meet such a condition especially in the high density region. Therefore the sampling becomes inefficient. In this paper, we present an improved random sampling pattern for SAKE reconstruction. The pattern is generated based on a conflict cost with a probability model. The conflict cost measures how many dense samples already assigned are around a target location, while the probability model adopts the generalized Gaussian distribution which includes uniform and Gaussian-like distributions as special cases. Our method preferentially assigns a sample to a k-space location with the least conflict cost on the circle of the highest probability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed random pattern, we compare the performance of SAKEs using both VD Poisson discs and the proposed pattern. Experimental results for brain data show that the proposed pattern yields lower normalized mean square error (NMSE) than VD Poisson discs.

  3. Characteristics and Thermal Behaviour of Low Rank Malaysian Coals towards Liquefaction Performance via Thermogravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. A. M.; Ismail, K.; Nawawi, W. I.; Jawad, A. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Kasim, M. N.; Ani, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thermal behaviour of two low-rank Malaysian coals namely Mukah Balingian (MB) and Batu Arang (BA) were obtained under pyrolysis conditions via Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a heating rate of 20°C min-1. The thermal characteristics of the coals were investigated prior to direct liquefaction in order to determine the liquefaction performance, i.e. coal conversion and oil yield. The differential weight loss (DTG) results for both coals showed that there are three main stages evolved which consists of moisture, volatile matter and heavier hydrocarbons that correspond to temperature range of 150, 200-500 and 550-800°C, respectively. Apparently, the DTG curves of BA coal reveals a similar pattern of thermal evolution profile in comparison to that of the MB coal. However, the calculated mean reactivity of BA coal is higher than that of MB, which implied that BA would probably enhance coal conversion and oil yield in comparison to MB coal. Interestingly, results showed that under the same liquefaction conditions (i.e. at 4MPa pressure and 420°C), conversion and oil yield of both coals were well correlated with their reactivity and petrofactor value obtained.

  4. Study of the combustion of low rank coal in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.; Grimes, R.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the results of preliminary combustion tests performed with Eagle Butte Coal in a bubbling, fluidized-bed combustion system. The system was designed for the combustion of low-rank coals and industrial wastes. The work, as proposed, was aimed at not only the evaluation of co-firing of waste material with coal, but also at developing modifications to first generation bubbling bed designs to improve the combustion performance during co-firing. However, the funding for the work was redirected and the combustion tests were suspended soon after the shakedown testing was completed. Consequently, this report describes the results of the tests completed prior to the redirection of the effort and funding. A total of 33 combustion tests were performed in a 6-inch diameter fluidized-bed combustor. Oxygen concentrations were measured at two points in the system; the vent line and at the interface between the fluid bed and the freeboard. These measurements provided a measure of the amount of conversion of coal within the fluidized bed compared to the conversion in the freeboard region. Typically, 75 to 80% of the conversion occurred within the bed. Several experiments were performed in which special bed internals were placed in the bed. The internals were designed to reduce bubble size in the bed thus increasing the surface area of the bubbles and hence promoting oxygen diffusion into the emulsion phase.

  5. Identifying Subspace Gene Clusters from Microarray Data Using Low-Rank Representation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Identifying subspace gene clusters from the gene expression data is useful for discovering novel functional gene interactions. In this paper, we propose to use low-rank representation (LRR) to identify the subspace gene clusters from microarray data. LRR seeks the lowest-rank representation among all the candidates that can represent the genes as linear combinations of the bases in the dataset. The clusters can be extracted based on the block diagonal representation matrix obtained using LRR, and they can well capture the intrinsic patterns of genes with similar functions. Meanwhile, the parameter of LRR can balance the effect of noise so that the method is capable of extracting useful information from the data with high level of background noise. Compared with traditional methods, our approach can identify genes with similar functions yet without similar expression profiles. Also, it could assign one gene into different clusters. Moreover, our method is robust to the noise and can identify more biologically relevant gene clusters. When applied to three public datasets, the results show that the LRR based method is superior to existing methods for identifying subspace gene clusters. PMID:23527177

  6. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks.

    PubMed

    Barranca, Victor J; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  7. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hetland, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project is being performed as two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. Several activities were performed during this quarter. (1) A paper entitled {open_quotes}Solvent Recyclability in a Multistep Direct Liquefaction Process{close_quotes} was presented at the 1995 Coal Liquefaction and Gas Conversion Contractors{close_quote} Review Conference that was held in Pittsburgh, PA, August 29-31, 1995. (2) The Task 1 solvent recyclability tests were completed. (3) The Task 1 quality assurance/quality control checks were performed. (4) The first seven Task 2 hydrotreatability tests were completed. Analysis of the Task 1 data indicates that (1) the multistep process produces adequate quantities of excess solvent for recycle and (2) the product slates of all of the tests were fairly consistent.

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  9. Low-dose cerebral perfusion computed tomography image restoration via low-rank and total variation regularizations

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Shanli; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Yu, Gaohang; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) is an important functional imaging modality for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases and has been widely used in clinics over the past decades. However, due to the protocol of PCT imaging with repeated dynamic sequential scans, the associative radiation dose unavoidably increases as compared with that used in conventional CT examinations. Minimizing the radiation exposure in PCT examination is a major task in the CT field. In this paper, considering the rich similarity redundancy information among enhanced sequential PCT images, we propose a low-dose PCT image restoration model by incorporating the low-rank and sparse matrix characteristic of sequential PCT images. Specifically, the sequential PCT images were first stacked into a matrix (i.e., low-rank matrix), and then a non-convex spectral norm/regularization and a spatio-temporal total variation norm/regularization were then built on the low-rank matrix to describe the low rank and sparsity of the sequential PCT images, respectively. Subsequently, an improved split Bregman method was adopted to minimize the associative objective function with a reasonable convergence rate. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted using a digital phantom and clinical cerebral PCT datasets to evaluate the present method. Experimental results show that the presented method can achieve images with several noticeable advantages over the existing methods in terms of noise reduction and universal quality index. More importantly, the present method can produce more accurate kinetic enhanced details and diagnostic hemodynamic parameter maps. PMID:27440948

  10. Learning Low-Rank Class-Specific Dictionary and Sparse Intra-Class Variant Dictionary for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Feng, Guo-can; Li, Xiao-xin; Cai, Jia-xin

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is challenging especially when the images from different persons are similar to each other due to variations in illumination, expression, and occlusion. If we have sufficient training images of each person which can span the facial variations of that person under testing conditions, sparse representation based classification (SRC) achieves very promising results. However, in many applications, face recognition often encounters the small sample size problem arising from the small number of available training images for each person. In this paper, we present a novel face recognition framework by utilizing low-rank and sparse error matrix decomposition, and sparse coding techniques (LRSE+SC). Firstly, the low-rank matrix recovery technique is applied to decompose the face images per class into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix. The low-rank matrix of each individual is a class-specific dictionary and it captures the discriminative feature of this individual. The sparse error matrix represents the intra-class variations, such as illumination, expression changes. Secondly, we combine the low-rank part (representative basis) of each person into a supervised dictionary and integrate all the sparse error matrix of each individual into a within-individual variant dictionary which can be applied to represent the possible variations between the testing and training images. Then these two dictionaries are used to code the query image. The within-individual variant dictionary can be shared by all the subjects and only contribute to explain the lighting conditions, expressions, and occlusions of the query image rather than discrimination. At last, a reconstruction-based scheme is adopted for face recognition. Since the within-individual dictionary is introduced, LRSE+SC can handle the problem of the corrupted training data and the situation that not all subjects have enough samples for training. Experimental results show that our method achieves the

  11. Learning Low-Rank Class-Specific Dictionary and Sparse Intra-Class Variant Dictionary for Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Feng, Guo-Can; Li, Xiao-Xin; Cai, Jia-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is challenging especially when the images from different persons are similar to each other due to variations in illumination, expression, and occlusion. If we have sufficient training images of each person which can span the facial variations of that person under testing conditions, sparse representation based classification (SRC) achieves very promising results. However, in many applications, face recognition often encounters the small sample size problem arising from the small number of available training images for each person. In this paper, we present a novel face recognition framework by utilizing low-rank and sparse error matrix decomposition, and sparse coding techniques (LRSE+SC). Firstly, the low-rank matrix recovery technique is applied to decompose the face images per class into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix. The low-rank matrix of each individual is a class-specific dictionary and it captures the discriminative feature of this individual. The sparse error matrix represents the intra-class variations, such as illumination, expression changes. Secondly, we combine the low-rank part (representative basis) of each person into a supervised dictionary and integrate all the sparse error matrix of each individual into a within-individual variant dictionary which can be applied to represent the possible variations between the testing and training images. Then these two dictionaries are used to code the query image. The within-individual variant dictionary can be shared by all the subjects and only contribute to explain the lighting conditions, expressions, and occlusions of the query image rather than discrimination. At last, a reconstruction-based scheme is adopted for face recognition. Since the within-individual dictionary is introduced, LRSE+SC can handle the problem of the corrupted training data and the situation that not all subjects have enough samples for training. Experimental results show that our method achieves the

  12. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  13. CO{sub 2} SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. There were three main objectives for this reporting period, which related to obtaining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and modeling reservoir performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The first objective was to collect and desorb gas from 10 sidewall core coal samples from an Anadarko Petroleum Corporation well (APCL2 well) at approximately 6,200-ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. The second objective was to measure sorptive capacities of these Wilcox coal samples for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}. The final objective was to contract a service company to perform pressure transient testing in Wilcox coal beds in a shut-in well, to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal. Bulk density of the APCL2 well sidewall core samples averaged 1.332 g/cc. The 10 sidewall core samples were placed in 4 sidewall core canisters and desorbed. Total gas content of the coal (including lost gas and projected residual gas) averaged 395 scf/ton on an as-received basis. The average lost gas estimations were approximately 45% of the bulk sample total gas. Projected residual gas was 5% of in-situ gas content. Six gas samples desorbed from the sidewall cores were analyzed to determine gas composition. Average gas composition was approximately 94.3% methane, 3.0% ethane, and 0.7% propane, with traces of heavier hydrocarbon gases. Carbon dioxide averaged 1.7%. Coal from the 4 canisters was mixed to form one composite sample that was used for pure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} isotherm analyses. The composite sample was 4.53% moisture, 37.48% volatile matter, 9.86% ash, and 48.12% fixed carbon. Mean vitrinite reflectance was 0

  14. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  15. Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Maas, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of low-ash and low-sodium micronized low-rank coal (LRC) fuels for test firing in a gas-turbine combustor module is described in this report. Four subbituminous coals and one lignite were examined for their amenability to the preparation of high-quality powder and coal-water slurry fuels (CSF). The data base included the proximate, ultimate, ash composition, trace element, heating value, and free swelling index determinations and the slurry rheology for the raw coals and for the same coals after various physical separations, chemical treatments and hydrothermal processing. Eagle Butte subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin was selected for preparation of ''available-quality'' and ''improved-quality'' micronized powder and slurry fuels for the combustion tests. This coal was cleaned in a dense-medium separator for preparation of available-quality fuels. Two advanced beneficiation steps were added for preparation of improved-quality fuels. The additional steps were (1) acid treatment to remove sodium and soluble ash minerals and (2) hydrothermal processing at 330/sup 0/C to improve the heating value and the rheology of the CSF. Twenty-four hundred pounds (dry basis) of minus 30-micrometer fuel were prepared for the combustion testing. A conceptual design was developed and costed for a 650,000 tpy improved-quality micronized CSF plant fueling 100 MW of gas-turbine generating capacity. The plant would be located adjacent to a mine in northeastern Wyoming. The capital construction cost for the plant was estimated to be $86.9 million and the operating cost for the plant (including amortization) was projected to be $4.55 per million Btu (HHV), FOB plant. The operating cost could be reduced to $3.22/MBtu if the plant were scaled for 500 MW of generating capacity instead of 100 MW. 19 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  17. CO2 Adsorption in Low-Rank Coals: Progress Toward Assessing the National Capacity to Store CO2 in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, R. W.; Burruss, R. C.; Flores, R. M.; Warwick, P. D.

    2001-05-01

    Subsurface environments for geologic storage of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuel include saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coalbeds. Of these environments, storage in petroleum reservoirs and coal beds offers a potential economic benefit of enhanced recovery of energy resources. Meaningful assessment of the volume and geographic distribution of storage sites requires quantitative estimates of geologic factors that control storage capacity. The factors that control the storage capacity of unmineable coalbeds are poorly understood. In preparation for a USGS assessment of CO2 storage capacity we have begun new measurements of CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms of low-rank coal samples from 4 basins. Initial results for 13 samples of low-rank coal beds from the Powder River Basin (9 subbituminous coals), Greater Green River Basin (1 subbituminous coal), Williston Basin (2 lignites) and the Gulf Coast (1 lignite) indicate that their adsorption capacity is up to 10 times higher than it is for CH4. These values contrast with published measurements of the CO2 adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan basin, and Gates Formation, British Columbia, that indicate about twice as much carbon dioxide as methane can be adsorbed on coals. Because CH4 adsorption isotherms are commonly measured on coals, CO2 adsorption capacity can be estimated if thecorrect relationship between the gases is known. However, use a factor to predict CO2 adsorption that is twice that of CH4 adsorption, which is common in the published literature, grossly underestimates the storage capacity of widely distributed, thick low-rank coal beds. Complete petrographic and chemical characterization of these low-rank coal samples is in progress. Significant variations in adsorption measurements among samples are depicted depending on the reporting basis used. Properties were measured on an "as received" (moist) basis but can be converted to a

  18. Improving synthesis and analysis prior blind compressed sensing with low-rank constraints for dynamic MRI reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul

    2015-01-01

    In blind compressed sensing (BCS), both the sparsifying dictionary and the sparse coefficients are estimated simultaneously during signal recovery. A recent study adopted the BCS framework for recovering dynamic MRI sequences from under-sampled K-space measurements; the results were promising. Previous works in dynamic MRI reconstruction showed that, recovery accuracy can be improved by incorporating low-rank penalties into the standard compressed sensing (CS) optimization framework. Our work is motivated by these studies, and we improve upon the basic BCS framework by incorporating low-rank penalties into the optimization problem. The resulting optimization problem has not been solved before; hence we derive a Split Bregman type technique to solve the same. Experiments were carried out on real dynamic contrast enhanced MRI sequences. Results show that, with our proposed improvement, the reconstruction accuracy is better than BCS and other state-of-the-art dynamic MRI recovery algorithms.

  19. A regularized matrix factorization approach to induce structured sparse-low-rank solutions in the EEG inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Martínez, Jair; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio; Pontil, Massimiliano; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-12-01

    We consider the estimation of the Brain Electrical Sources (BES) matrix from noisy electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, commonly named as the EEG inverse problem. We propose a new method to induce neurophysiological meaningful solutions, which takes into account the smoothness, structured sparsity, and low rank of the BES matrix. The method is based on the factorization of the BES matrix as a product of a sparse coding matrix and a dense latent source matrix. The structured sparse-low-rank structure is enforced by minimizing a regularized functional that includes the ℓ 21-norm of the coding matrix and the squared Frobenius norm of the latent source matrix. We develop an alternating optimization algorithm to solve the resulting nonsmooth-nonconvex minimization problem. We analyze the convergence of the optimization procedure, and we compare, under different synthetic scenarios, the performance of our method with respect to the Group Lasso and Trace Norm regularizers when they are applied directly to the target matrix.

  20. Simultaneously sparse and low-rank hyperspectral image recovery from coded aperture compressive measurements via convex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélvez, Tatiana C.; Rueda, Hoover F.; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    A hyperspectral image (HSI) can be described as a set of images with spatial information across different spectral bands. Compressive spectral imaging techniques (CSI) permit to capture a 3-dimensional hyperspectral scene using 2 dimensional coded and multiplexed projections. Recovering the original scene from a very few projections can be valuable in applications such as remote sensing, video surveillance and biomedical imaging. Typically, HSI exhibit high correlations both, in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Thus, exploiting these correlations allows to accurately recover the original scene from compressed measurements. Traditional approaches exploit the sparsity of the scene when represented in a proper basis. For this purpose, an optimization problem that seeks to minimize a joint l2 - l1 norm is solved to obtain the original scene. However, there exist some HSI with an important feature which does not have been widely exploited; HSI are commonly low rank, thus only a few number of spectral signatures are presented in the image. Therefore, this paper proposes an approach to recover a simultaneous sparse and low rank hyperspectral image by exploiting both features at the same time. The proposed approach solves an optimization problem that seeks to minimize the l2-norm, penalized by the l1-norm, to force the solution to be sparse, and penalized by the nuclear norm to force the solution to be low rank. Theoretical analysis along with a set of simulations over different data sets show that simultaneously exploiting low rank and sparse structures enhances the performance of the recovery algorithm and the quality of the recovered image with an average improvement of around 3 dB in terms of the peak-signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  1. Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1985-March 31, 1985. [Physical and chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Maas, D.J.

    1985-04-30

    This report covers the second quarter of activity on an 18-month project to prepare low-rank coal (LRC) fuel for research applications in DOE advanced combustion technologies programs. Coals from five mines were characterized by physical and chemical cleaning and hot water drying amenability tests. Subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte Mine was selected from the five for future use as feed stock for production of bulk lots of low ash and low sodium LRC and LRC slurry fuels. The amenability tests indicated that a combination of physical and chemical cleaning would produce a fuel containing 1.36% ash, 8 ppM Na/sub 2/O and 18 ppM K/sub 2/O from the Eagle Butte coal on a dry basis. A micronized slurry loading of 57.5% coal was projected for the hot-water dried coal. 8 refs., 13 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  3. Harnessing data structure for recovery of randomly missing structural vibration responses time history: Sparse representation versus low-rank structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.

  4. Low-rank and Sparse Matrix Decomposition for Accelerated Dynamic MRI with Separation of Background and Dynamic Components

    PubMed Central

    Otazo, Ricardo; Candès, Emmanuel; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To apply the low-rank plus sparse (L+S) matrix decomposition model to reconstruct undersampled dynamic MRI as a superposition of background and dynamic components in various problems of clinical interest. Theory and Methods The L+S model is natural to represent dynamic MRI data. Incoherence between k−t space (acquisition) and the singular vectors of L and the sparse domain of S is required to reconstruct undersampled data. Incoherence between L and S is required for robust separation of background and dynamic components. Multicoil L+S reconstruction is formulated using a convex optimization approach, where the nuclear-norm is used to enforce low-rank in L and the l1-norm to enforce sparsity in S. Feasibility of the L+S reconstruction was tested in several dynamic MRI experiments with true acceleration including cardiac perfusion, cardiac cine, time-resolved angiography, abdominal and breast perfusion using Cartesian and radial sampling. Results The L+S model increased compressibility of dynamic MRI data and thus enabled high acceleration factors. The inherent background separation improved background suppression performance compared to conventional data subtraction, which is sensitive to motion. Conclusion The high acceleration and background separation enabled by L+S promises to enhance spatial and temporal resolution and to enable background suppression without the need of subtraction or modeling. PMID:24760724

  5. The study to change in the molecule structure of low rank coal by using of low temperature pyrolysis deoxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongshu, D.; Yuhui, Z.; Lihong, M.

    1999-07-01

    A series of experiments were performed on the oxygen functional group of low rank coal by use of the low temperature pyrolysis Deoxy method. The order of chemical activity of oxygen functional group in coal was obtained; also the results show the redistribution of the oxygen in the coals and a little decrease of sulfur and nitrogen. In addition to FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, accelerated surface area and porosimetry distribution were used to characterize coal pyrolyzed at various low temperatures. The results have shown that the distribution of hydrogen, carbon and porosity of the coal are also changed along with the deoxidization. It is suggested that the chemical and physical structures of the coal molecule are changed, which leads to modification of coal. The tests of coking properties of single coals and compatibility of blend before and after the low temperature pyrolysis treatment were studied. The results indicate that the low temperature pyrolysis deoxygen can improve utilization of low rank coal.

  6. LOW-RANK SMOOTHING SPLINES ON COMPLEX DOMAINS. (R829095C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  8. Improving residue-residue contact prediction via low-rank and sparse decomposition of residue correlation matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haicang; Gao, Yujuan; Deng, Minghua; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Jianwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-03-25

    Strategies for correlation analysis in protein contact prediction often encounter two challenges, namely, the indirect coupling among residues, and the background correlations mainly caused by phylogenetic biases. While various studies have been conducted on how to disentangle indirect coupling, the removal of background correlations still remains unresolved. Here, we present an approach for removing background correlations via low-rank and sparse decomposition (LRS) of a residue correlation matrix. The correlation matrix can be constructed using either local inference strategies (e.g., mutual information, or MI) or global inference strategies (e.g., direct coupling analysis, or DCA). In our approach, a correlation matrix was decomposed into two components, i.e., a low-rank component representing background correlations, and a sparse component representing true correlations. Finally the residue contacts were inferred from the sparse component of correlation matrix. We trained our LRS-based method on the PSICOV dataset, and tested it on both GREMLIN and CASP11 datasets. Our experimental results suggested that LRS significantly improves the contact prediction precision. For example, when equipped with the LRS technique, the prediction precision of MI and mfDCA increased from 0.25 to 0.67 and from 0.58 to 0.70, respectively (Top L/10 predicted contacts, sequence separation: 5 AA, dataset: GREMLIN). In addition, our LRS technique also consistently outperforms the popular denoising technique APC (average product correction), on both local (MI_LRS: 0.67 vs MI_APC: 0.34) and global measures (mfDCA_LRS: 0.70 vs mfDCA_APC: 0.67). Interestingly, we found out that when equipped with our LRS technique, local inference strategies performed in a comparable manner to that of global inference strategies, implying that the application of LRS technique narrowed down the performance gap between local and global inference strategies. Overall, our LRS technique greatly facilitates

  9. Denitrification of stack gases in the presence of low-rank coal-based carbons activated with steam

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Izquierdo; B. Rubio; M.C. Mayoral; M.T. Bona; J.M. Andres

    2007-08-15

    The effect of the steam activation of low-rank coal-based carbons under different conditions on catalytic NO reduction is examined. Oxygen surface functional groups are closely related to this catalytic activity. Because factors such as surface area make interpretation of the results difficult, it is necessary to study the role of the surface chemistry using samples with different chemical properties but of the same origin and with similar Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas. Such materials, obtained by varying steam activation conditions over the same precursor, were tested in low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} in order to study the influence of the presence of oxygen groups on the catalytic activity, avoiding as far as possible the effect of porosity. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  11. Low-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Absil, O.; Absil, P.-A.; Van Droogenbroeck, M.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space

  12. Correlated Spatio-Temporal Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Low Rank Matrix Approximation and Optimized Node Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

    2014-01-01

    The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

  13. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  14. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Two long gasification tests were accomplished (66 and 72 hours of slagging operation) this quarter, and the balance of the wastewater needed for the second cooling tower (CT) test (approx. 11,000 gallons) was generated. Eleven thousand gallons of slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) wastewater were solvent extracted and ammonia stripped (AS) to nominal levels of 160 mg/1 phenol and 600 mg/1 NH/sub 3/. This wastewater is being further treated by activated sludge (AS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) processing to prepare a high quality makeup for the second CT test. Phenol mass balances indicated that > 90 pct of the phenol was stripped from the tower, indicating that previous assumptions of high levels of biodegradation were erroneous. Over 80 pct of the ammonia and about 25 pct of the methanol were also stripped. Data collected during steady state operation of the bench-scale rotating biological contractor indicate complete removal of phenolics and alcohols, and 94 pct removal of BOD. Nitrification also occurred in this unit, with over 30 pct removal of ammonia. Problems due to individual bacteria, present in the biotreated wastewater, passing through the multi-media filter and thus decreasing the carbon adsorption efficiency of the GAC system, have resulted in lower treatment rates than originally anticipated. As a result, to achieve the desired treatment, the contact time of the wastewater with the carbon in the granular activated carbon system has been increased. Since this has decreased the treatment rate, a larger carbon adsorption system has been designed and is presently being constructed.

  15. Motion-compensated compressed sensing for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using regional spatiotemporal sparsity and region tracking: Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Salerno, Michael; Yang, Yang; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the heart is well-suited for acceleration with compressed sensing (CS) due to its spatiotemporal sparsity; however, respiratory motion can degrade sparsity and lead to image artifacts. We sought to develop a motion-compensated CS method for this application. Methods A new method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was developed to accelerate first-pass cardiac MRI, even in the presence of respiratory motion. This method divides the images into regions, tracks the regions through time, and applies matrix low-rank sparsity to the tracked regions. BLOSM was evaluated using computer simulations and first-pass cardiac datasets from human subjects. Using rate-4 acceleration, BLOSM was compared to other CS methods such as k-t SLR that employs matrix low-rank sparsity applied to the whole image dataset, with and without motion tracking, and to k-t FOCUSS with motion estimation and compensation that employs spatial and temporal-frequency sparsity. Results BLOSM was qualitatively shown to reduce respiratory artifact compared to other methods. Quantitatively, using root mean squared error and the structural similarity index, BLOSM was superior to other methods. Conclusion BLOSM, which exploits regional low rank structure and uses region tracking for motion compensation, provides improved image quality for CS-accelerated first-pass cardiac MRI. PMID:24243528

  16. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  17. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  18. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  19. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-06-09

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  20. PhyloPythiaS+: a self-training method for the rapid reconstruction of low-ranking taxonomic bins from metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Ivan; Dröge, Johannes; Schirmer, Melanie; Quince, Christopher; McHardy, Alice C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Metagenomics is an approach for characterizing environmental microbial communities in situ, it allows their functional and taxonomic characterization and to recover sequences from uncultured taxa. This is often achieved by a combination of sequence assembly and binning, where sequences are grouped into 'bins' representing taxa of the underlying microbial community. Assignment to low-ranking taxonomic bins is an important challenge for binning methods as is scalability to Gb-sized datasets generated with deep sequencing techniques. One of the best available methods for species bins recovery from deep-branching phyla is the expert-trained PhyloPythiaS package, where a human expert decides on the taxa to incorporate in the model and identifies 'training' sequences based on marker genes directly from the sample. Due to the manual effort involved, this approach does not scale to multiple metagenome samples and requires substantial expertise, which researchers who are new to the area do not have. Results. We have developed PhyloPythiaS+, a successor to our PhyloPythia(S) software. The new (+) component performs the work previously done by the human expert. PhyloPythiaS+ also includes a new k-mer counting algorithm, which accelerated the simultaneous counting of 4-6-mers used for taxonomic binning 100-fold and reduced the overall execution time of the software by a factor of three. Our software allows to analyze Gb-sized metagenomes with inexpensive hardware, and to recover species or genera-level bins with low error rates in a fully automated fashion. PhyloPythiaS+ was compared to MEGAN, taxator-tk, Kraken and the generic PhyloPythiaS model. The results showed that PhyloPythiaS+ performs especially well for samples originating from novel environments in comparison to the other methods. Availability. PhyloPythiaS+ in a virtual machine is available for installation under Windows, Unix systems or OS X on: https://github.com/algbioi/ppsp/wiki.

  1. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  2. Study of Indonesia low rank coal utilization on modified fixed bed gasification for combined cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardianto, T.; Amalia, A. R.; Suwono, A.; Riauwindu, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gasification is a conversion process converting carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous products that have considerable amount of calorific value. One of the carbon-based solid fuel that serves as feed for gasification is coal. Gasification gaseous product is termed as syngas (synthetic gas) that is composed of several different gases. Syngas produced from gasification vary from one process to another, this is due to several factors which are: feed characteristics, operation condition, gasified fluid condition, and gasification method or technology. One of the utilization of syngas is for combined cycle power plant fuel. In order to meet the need to convert carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous fuel for combined cycle power plant, engineering adjustment for gasification was done using related software to create the syngas with characteristics of natural gas that serve as fuel for combined cycle power plant in Indonesia. Feed used for the gasification process in this paper was Indonesian Low Rank Coal and the method used to obtain syngas was Modified Fixed Bed Gasifier. From the engineering adjustment process, the yielded syngas possessed lower heating value as much as 31828.32 kJ/kg in gasification condition of 600°C, 3.5 bar, and steam to feed ratio was 1 kg/kg. Syngas characteristics obtained from the process was used as a reference for the adjustment of the fuel system modification in combined cycle power plant that will have the same capacity with the conversion of the system's fuel from natural gas to syngas.

  3. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  4. Polynomial meta-models with canonical low-rank approximations: Numerical insights and comparison to sparse polynomial chaos expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    The growing need for uncertainty analysis of complex computational models has led to an expanding use of meta-models across engineering and sciences. The efficiency of meta-modeling techniques relies on their ability to provide statistically-equivalent analytical representations based on relatively few evaluations of the original model. Polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) have proven a powerful tool for developing meta-models in a wide range of applications; the key idea thereof is to expand the model response onto a basis made of multivariate polynomials obtained as tensor products of appropriate univariate polynomials. The classical PCE approach nevertheless faces the "curse of dimensionality", namely the exponential increase of the basis size with increasing input dimension. To address this limitation, the sparse PCE technique has been proposed, in which the expansion is carried out on only a few relevant basis terms that are automatically selected by a suitable algorithm. An alternative for developing meta-models with polynomial functions in high-dimensional problems is offered by the newly emerged low-rank approximations (LRA) approach. By exploiting the tensor-product structure of the multivariate basis, LRA can provide polynomial representations in highly compressed formats. Through extensive numerical investigations, we herein first shed light on issues relating to the construction of canonical LRA with a particular greedy algorithm involving a sequential updating of the polynomial coefficients along separate dimensions. Specifically, we examine the selection of optimal rank, stopping criteria in the updating of the polynomial coefficients and error estimation. In the sequel, we confront canonical LRA to sparse PCE in structural-mechanics and heat-conduction applications based on finite-element solutions. Canonical LRA exhibit smaller errors than sparse PCE in cases when the number of available model evaluations is small with respect to the input dimension, a

  5. Wet carbonization of lump-size low-rank coals by a novel non-slurry approach: Final report for the period August 1, 1984-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J.R.; Grimes, J.G.; Henry, M.P.; Janulis, J.A.; Lau, F.S.; Laurens, R.M.; Mensinger, J.D.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Roberts, M.J.

    1987-08-01

    Wet carbonization is a thermochemical process for beneficiating low-rank coals by heating the coal in the presence of water to temperatures in the range of 400/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/F. Wet carbonization produces a low-rank coal product with a higher heating value, lower equilibrium moisture content, lower sodium content, and better handling properties than the raw coal. The low moisture and high heating value of the fuel reduces transportation and handling costs. It also improves the economics of several gasification systems. In addition, combustion efficiencies are also improved, which makes them competitive with desulfurized high-rank coals. The reduction of sodium content in the low-rank coal will also reduce fouling and slagging problems in boilers. The results show that wet carbonization of lump-size low-rank coals is an effective process for significantly reducing the equilibrium moisture content (down to 11%) and sodium contents (by 80%), while increasing the calorific value of the wet-carbonized coal by as much as 16%. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of using anaerobic digestion for reducing the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the product water and for energy recovery in the form of by-product methane. The results of the anaerobic digestion experiments show that the product water is effectively treated in a two-stage system with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of 74% and a biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction of 97%. About 99% of the heavy organics (2 to 3 ring chemical compounds) are degraded during anaerobic digestion. The results from the activated sludge treatment show that further reduction in the COD and BOD to approximately 80% to 100%, respectively, is possible. 11 refs., 80 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. PhyloPythiaS+: a self-training method for the rapid reconstruction of low-ranking taxonomic bins from metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Gregor, Ivan; Dröge, Johannes; Schirmer, Melanie; Quince, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Metagenomics is an approach for characterizing environmental microbial communities in situ, it allows their functional and taxonomic characterization and to recover sequences from uncultured taxa. This is often achieved by a combination of sequence assembly and binning, where sequences are grouped into ‘bins’ representing taxa of the underlying microbial community. Assignment to low-ranking taxonomic bins is an important challenge for binning methods as is scalability to Gb-sized datasets generated with deep sequencing techniques. One of the best available methods for species bins recovery from deep-branching phyla is the expert-trained PhyloPythiaS package, where a human expert decides on the taxa to incorporate in the model and identifies ‘training’ sequences based on marker genes directly from the sample. Due to the manual effort involved, this approach does not scale to multiple metagenome samples and requires substantial expertise, which researchers who are new to the area do not have. Results. We have developed PhyloPythiaS+, a successor to our PhyloPythia(S) software. The new (+) component performs the work previously done by the human expert. PhyloPythiaS+ also includes a new k-mer counting algorithm, which accelerated the simultaneous counting of 4–6-mers used for taxonomic binning 100-fold and reduced the overall execution time of the software by a factor of three. Our software allows to analyze Gb-sized metagenomes with inexpensive hardware, and to recover species or genera-level bins with low error rates in a fully automated fashion. PhyloPythiaS+ was compared to MEGAN, taxator-tk, Kraken and the generic PhyloPythiaS model. The results showed that PhyloPythiaS+ performs especially well for samples originating from novel environments in comparison to the other methods. Availability. PhyloPythiaS+ in a virtual machine is available for installation under Windows, Unix systems or OS X on: https://github.com/algbioi/ppsp/wiki. PMID

  7. Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity?

    PubMed Central

    Kiken, Laura G.; Shook, Natalie J.

    2014-01-01

    The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts. The conditions did not differ in their proportions of positive thoughts. These results suggest that mindfulness may attenuate thoughts that emphasize negativity but not those that emphasize positivity. PMID:25284906

  8. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration.

  9. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  10. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration. PMID:21770402

  11. Bilingual Hispanic Children on the U.S. Mainland: A Review of Research on Their Cognitive, Linguistic, and Scholastic Development. Emphasizing Studies Involving the English- and Spanish-Language Versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lloyd M.

    A review of research on the cognitive, linguistic, and scholastic development of mainland Hispanic-American children paints a dismal overall picture. Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, 11% of the population in 1986; about 75% have Mexican ancestry. Less than half of Latin adults speak English well enough for the…

  12. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  13. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-04-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student’s views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow presentations in class and read their textbooks. Although individual words are understandable, the sentences appear to take the form of an unknown language. The solution utilized in this paper is to get students to approach their reading of their textbooks in the manner of the hermeneutical circle through an activity called Reflective Writing.

  14. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student's views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow…

  15. Astronomy Courses which Emphasize Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.

    1998-12-01

    The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).

  16. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-09-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method.

  17. Fast alogorithms for Bayesian uncertainty quantification in large-scale linear inverse problems based on low-rank partial Hessian approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, Volkan; Flath, Pearl; Ghattas, Omar; Hill, Judith C; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart; Wilcox, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the uncertainty in large-scale linear statistical inverse problems with high-dimensional parameter spaces within the framework of Bayesian inference. When the noise and prior probability densities are Gaussian, the solution to the inverse problem is also Gaussian, and is thus characterized by the mean and covariance matrix of the posterior probability density. Unfortunately, explicitly computing the posterior covariance matrix requires as many forward solutions as there are parameters, and is thus prohibitive when the forward problem is expensive and the parameter dimension is large. However, for many ill-posed inverse problems, the Hessian matrix of the data misfit term has a spectrum that collapses rapidly to zero. We present a fast method for computation of an approximation to the posterior covariance that exploits the lowrank structure of the preconditioned (by the prior covariance) Hessian of the data misfit. Analysis of an infinite-dimensional model convection-diffusion problem, and numerical experiments on large-scale 3D convection-diffusion inverse problems with up to 1.5 million parameters, demonstrate that the number of forward PDE solves required for an accurate low-rank approximation is independent of the problem dimension. This permits scalable estimation of the uncertainty in large-scale ill-posed linear inverse problems at a small multiple (independent of the problem dimension) of the cost of solving the forward problem.

  18. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-01-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method. PMID:27598159

  19. Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Clutter Rejection in Real-Time IR-UWB Radar-Based Moving Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom

    2016-01-01

    The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method. PMID:27598159

  20. Emphasizing nonword decisions in word-decision performance.

    PubMed

    Piercey, C Darren

    2008-08-01

    A robust finding in the lexical decision literature is that decisions to words are made more quickly and accurately than decisions to nonwords. When instructions are presented to participants prior to an experiment, an emphasis is usually placed on identifying words. This study assessed whether instructing participants to emphasize nonword decisions would affect the performance of the speed and accuracy of identification. A total of 98 individuals took part, 49 in a Word Instruction condition and 49 in a Nonword Instruction condition. Analysis indicated changes in emphasis on words versus nonwords decreased the difference in mean reaction time between word and nonword decisions. An interesting finding is that the manipulation of instructions affected reaction times to words but not to nonwords. The analysis of accuracy yielded no significant comparisons. Further research is required to assess the importance of the finding that the manipulation of instructions affects only word decisions. PMID:18982942

  1. The Need to Emphasize the Difference between Law and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortman, Sarah

    1989-01-01

    Argues that high school journalism teachers must emphasize the difference between law and ethics, especially with regard to stories on controversial topics. Reviews several of these stories published in a high school newspaper in Columbus, Ohio. (MS)

  2. Academic Deans' Perceptions of Current and Ideal Curriculum Emphases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, David R.; O'Neil, Edward H.; Bellack, Janis P.; Musham, Catherine; Javed, Tariq

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 57 dental school deans concerning current and ideal curricular emphases in 33 topic areas identified three that were rated highly as ideals: health promotion/disease prevention; primary care; and effective patient-provider relationships/communication. The most significant barrier to reform was an already crowded curriculum. Deans…

  3. The Literature of Staff Development: Emphases and Shortcomings; [and] Community College Staff Development, an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Terry

    The key objectives of this report and bibliography are: (1) to describe the major emphases of literature related to research in the areas of inservice training in 2-year institutions, noting substantive studies, and (2) to delineate significant gaps in the present literature. Three fundamental inservice training questions are discussed: What is…

  4. The Construction and Development of Indicators of Learning Organization at Higher Educational Institutions Emphasizing Graduate Production and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrin, Chanwit; Sri-Amphai, Pissamai; Ruangmontri, Karn; Namwan, Tharinthorn

    2011-01-01

    The Purposes of this research were to construct and develop indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasize graduate production and social development, and to test the congruence of the structural model of the indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasizing graduate production and…

  5. United we stand: emphasizing commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies.

    PubMed

    Mennin, Douglas S; Ellard, Kristen K; Fresco, David M; Gross, James J

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a rich history of alleviating the suffering associated with mental disorders. Recently, there have been exciting new developments, including multicomponent approaches, incorporated alternative therapies (e.g., meditation), targeted and cost-effective technologies, and integrated biological and behavioral frameworks. These field-wide changes have led some to emphasize the differences among variants of CBT. Here, we draw attention to commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies, including shared goals, change principles, and therapeutic processes. Specifically, we offer a framework for examining common CBT characteristics that emphasizes behavioral adaptation as a unifying goal and three core change principles, namely (a) context engagement to promote adaptive imagining and enacting of new experiences; (b) attention change to promote adaptive sustaining, shifting, and broadening of attention; and (c) cognitive change to promote adaptive perspective taking on events so as to alter verbal meanings. Further, we argue that specific intervention components, including behavioral exposure/activation, attention training, acceptance/tolerance, decentering/defusion, and cognitive reframing, may be emphasized to a greater or lesser degree by different treatment packages but are still fundamentally common therapeutic processes that are present across approaches and are best understood by their relationships to these core CBT change principles. We conclude by arguing for shared methodological and design frameworks for investigating unique and common characteristics to advance a unified and strong voice for CBT in a widening, increasingly multimodal and interdisciplinary, intervention science.

  6. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  7. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves.

  8. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    PubMed

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  9. Accelerating Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Lung Tumor Tracking Based on Low-Rank Decomposition in the Spatial–Temporal Domain: A Feasibility Study Based on Simulation and Preliminary Prospective Undersampled MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Manoj; Hu, Peng; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Ennis, Daniel; Thomas, Albert; Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a low-rank decomposition method to reconstruct down-sampled k-space data for the purpose of tumor tracking. Methods and Materials: Seven retrospective lung cancer patients were included in the simulation study. The fully-sampled k-space data were first generated from existing 2-dimensional dynamic MR images and then down-sampled by 5 × -20 × before reconstruction using a Cartesian undersampling mask. Two methods, a low-rank decomposition method using combined dynamic MR images (k-t SLR based on sparsity and low-rank penalties) and a total variation (TV) method using individual dynamic MR frames, were used to reconstruct images. The tumor trajectories were derived on the basis of autosegmentation of the resultant images. To further test its feasibility, k-t SLR was used to reconstruct prospective data of a healthy subject. An undersampled balanced steady-state free precession sequence with the same undersampling mask was used to acquire the imaging data. Results: In the simulation study, higher imaging fidelity and low noise levels were achieved with the k-t SLR compared with TV. At 10 × undersampling, the k-t SLR method resulted in an average normalized mean square error <0.05, as opposed to 0.23 by using the TV reconstruction on individual frames. Less than 6% showed tracking errors >1 mm with 10 × down-sampling using k-t SLR, as opposed to 17% using TV. In the prospective study, k-t SLR substantially reduced reconstruction artifacts and retained anatomic details. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance reconstruction using k-t SLR on highly undersampled dynamic MR imaging data results in high image quality useful for tumor tracking. The k-t SLR was superior to TV by better exploiting the intrinsic anatomic coherence of the same patient. The feasibility of k-t SLR was demonstrated by prospective imaging acquisition and reconstruction.

  10. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    PubMed

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud. PMID:10351055

  11. Elective Self-Care Course Emphasizing Critical Reasoning Principles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To create, implement, and assess a self-directed online course based on 3 critical reasoning principles to develop pharmacy students’ skills in literature appraisal, content, metacognition, and assessment. Design. Students completed 3 assignments for the course: compile a literature appraisal on a healthcare topic; plan learning objectives and meta-cognitive skills for a learning module; and create a case-based online lesson with multi-structured feedback. Assessment. An online exit survey evaluated students’ perceptions regarding development of ACE (agency, collaboration, expertise) principles and preparation for competency. Students reported acquisition of ACE principles and noted improvements in their learning approaches, sense of responsibility for individual and community learning, skills, and confidence. Conclusions. An online elective course in self-care addressed practice standards for patient safety, maintenance of competency, and interprofessional education by emphasizing critical reasoning skills. PMID:22171110

  12. Role of Clinical Endoscopy in Emphasizing Endoscope Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju

    2015-01-01

    Based on the unexpected Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea, it was established that the virus can spread easily, MERS exposure in hospitals carries an extreme risk for infection as well as mortality, and the sharing of information was essential for infection control. Although the incidence of exogenous infections related to contaminated endoscopes is very low, the majority of published outbreaks have been caused by various shortcomings in reprocessing procedures, including insufficient training or awareness. Ever since the inauguration of "Clinical Endoscopy" as an English-language journal of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2011, it has published several articles on disinfection of the endoscope and its accessories. Many Science Citation Index journals have also emphasized high-level disinfection of the gastrointestinal endoscope. Many papers have been produced specifically, since the outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in 2013. The recent review papers concluded that quality control is the most important issue among all the aspects of procedural care, including the efficiency of the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit and reprocessing room. Thorough reprocessing of endoscopes using high-level disinfection and sterilization methods may be essential for reducing the risk of infection. PMID:26473114

  13. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes.

  14. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. PMID:26453053

  15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  16. Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

    Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

  17. Obama Emphasizes Science and Innovation in State of the Union Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-02-01

    U.S. president Barack Obama emphasized innovation and competitiveness in his State of the Union address on 25 January. He also raised science and technology early in the hour-long speech, noting that nations like China and India are focusing on math and science education and investing in research and technology. To be competitive with those countries, “we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world,” Obama said. “The first step in winning the future is encouraging American innovation.”

  18. Gas and aerosol fluxes. [emphasizing sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques to address the global need for accurate distribution and flux determinations of both man made and natural materials which affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the heat budget of the Earth, and the depletion, of stratospheric ozone is considered. Specifically, trace gas fluxes, sea salt aerosol production, and the effect of sea surface microlayer on gas and aerosol fluxes are examined. Volatile sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and halocarbon compounds are discussed including a statement of the problem associated with each compound or group of compounds, a brief summary of current understanding, and suggestions for needed research.

  19. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  20. Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product. Its structure is established as 2-benzyl-2-phenylglycollic acid by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. The hydroxyacid is a good example to bring home an important NMR principle: the nonequivalence of hydrogens adjacent to a stereogenic center. The formation of the alpha-hydroxy acid is a mechanistic puzzle. A stepwise mechanism can be developed applying lecture-based organic chemistry concepts. On the other hand, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4, BF3) reaction of the chalcone epoxide gives benzoylphenylacetaldehyde. The exercise can be used as a multistep organic chemistry experiment. It also gives students a research-type experience.

  1. Poster Project to Emphasize Public Health in the Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Werremeyer, Amy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference. Assessment Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills. Conclusion The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University. PMID:21451754

  2. A Methodology for Examining the Relative Emphases on Four Components of English in Secondary English Elective Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    This research concerned two problems: (1) the development of economical procedures that any English department could use to examine the emphases on each area of English; (2) when the procedures were used to collect data in two schools, determining from the findings whether the criticism of elective programs was warranted. The methodology used was…

  3. Emphases of the Major Family Therapy Models: A Family FIRO Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes 13 models of family therapy according to their special emphases on the Family FIRO (Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation) model's dimensions of inclusion, control, and intimacy. Final conceptual analysis of models indicated that four family therapy models emphasized inclusion as a primary focus, four emphasized control, and…

  4. An Investigation on Students' Personal Achievement Goals and Perceived Parents' Goal Emphases in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' personal achievement goals and their perceived parents' goal emphases in science. A total of 295 seventh-grade students completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Perceived Parent Goal Emphases Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed an interaction between perceived parents' mastery approach…

  5. Emphasizing the "Literacy" in "Scientific Literacy": A Concise Blueprint for Integrating Writing into Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Jeffrey V.; Wolf, William C.; Young, Nolan L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively integrating writing into biology classes gives students the opportunity to develop a better understanding of and engagement with course content. Yet many instructors remain reluctant to emphasize writing. Some are concerned about the time commitment writing assessment requires. Others shy away from emphasizing writing in their classes…

  6. Case studies of nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plougonven, Riwal; Hertzog, Albert; Alexander, M. Joan

    2015-02-01

    Two case studies of nonorographic gravity waves are carried out for wave events that occurred over the Southern Ocean in November 2005. Mesoscale simulations were carried out with the Weather and Research Forecast model. The simulated waves were compared to observations from superpressure balloons of the Vorcore campaign and from the High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder satellite. Satisfactory agreement is found, giving confidence in the estimations of wave parameters and amplitudes. For the amplitudes, both the model and observations provide a lower bound, for different reasons. Waves are found in the lower stratosphere with horizontal wavelengths of the order of 150-200 km in the horizontal, 5-8 km in the vertical, corresponding to intrinsic frequencies between 5 and 10 f, where f is the Coriolis parameter. Although the tropospheric flow is very different between the two cases, there are features which are common and appear significant for the gravity waves: these include intense localized updrafts associated with convection in the troposphere and a displaced polar vortex inducing strong winds in the stratosphere above the frontal region. Relative to theoretical expectations, the simulations emphasize the role of moisture. Intrinsic frequencies are significantly higher than those expected for waves produced by dry spontaneous generation from jets. To quantify the contribution of moisture, dry simulations were carried out, yielding momentum fluxes over oceanic regions that were 2.5 times weaker. Identification of the generation mechanisms in these complex flows calls for further study, and these should include moisture and a realistic stratospheric jet.

  7. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2012-11-20

    Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.

  8. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Shawn D.; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A.; Maresh, Carl M.; Volek, Jeff S.; Denegar, Craig R.; Kraemer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement. PMID:24961265

  9. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  10. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  11. Model Program for Teacher In-Service Training Emphasizing the Affective Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mel

    Realizing that most teachers are quite adequate in their own background of knowledge and skills, sensing the growing threat to students and teachers of the impersonalization and isolation in many crowded classrooms today, the In-Service Training Program Emphasizing the Affective Dimension was innovated at Wheeling High School, Illinois, during the…

  12. Tests Worth Teaching To: Constructing State-Mandated Tests that Emphasize Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that state mandated tests should emphasize critical thinking, thus mitigating the concern that such tests encourage instructional focus on rote factual learning. Conceptualizing critical thinking as argumentation provides a way to focus instruction and assessment on types of critical thinking valued in the workplace. Illustrates how this…

  13. Effectiveness of Emphasizing Reading Skills with the Language Master for Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Arkansas Education Center, Little Rock.

    The effectiveness of using the Language Master to emphasize reading skills with 10 students (ages 7 to 13 years) in a special class for the mentally retarded was evaluated. Nine behavioral objectives were formulated in the areas of improved word recognition, improved understanding of basic concepts, and improved word attack skills. The…

  14. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  15. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  16. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  17. [The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling in psychotherapeutic model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert

    2006-11-01

    The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up.

  18. REHABILITATION OF SUBACROMIAL PAIN SYNDROME EMPHASIZING SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS IN AMATEUR ATHLETES: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Katherinne F.; Monteiro, Renan L.; Lucareli, Paulo R.G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case series Background and Purpose Scapular dyskinesis has been associated with several shoulder injuries. Recent literature has suggested that a greater activation of the scapular muscles can play an important role in reducing subacromial impingement in patients with shoulder pain. Thus, the purpose of this case series was to describe a rehabilitation program that emphasizes scapular dyskinesis correction for those with clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome. Case Descriptions The four amateur athletes in this series showed clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome and scapular dyskinesis and each underwent a treatment protocol consisting of three phases. Phase 1 emphasized pain relief, scapular control, and recovery of normal range of motion (ROM), Phase 2 focused on muscular strengthening, and Phase 3 emphasized sensory motor training. Outcomes All subjects demonstrated decreased pain, improved sports performance and function, increased muscular strength for shoulder elevation and external rotation, and increased ROM for internal rotation. Improvement in serratus anterior (SA) activation was also noted. Discussion The results of this case series suggest that subjects with clinical tests positive for subacromial pain syndrome can show significant improvement with an intervention focused on scapular dyskinesis correction. SA activation can play an important role in this process given that all subjects presented with better recruitment after rehabilitation, as measured by electromyography. Levels of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27525180

  19. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  20. [The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling in psychotherapeutic model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert

    2006-11-01

    The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up. PMID:17098715

  1. Does arm swing emphasized deliberately increase the trunk stability during walking in the elderly adults?

    PubMed

    Nakakubo, Sho; Doi, Takehiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Misu, Shogo; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ono, Rei

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether trunk stability while walking changes when arm swing is deliberately altered in elderly individuals. Participants included 21 community-dwelling elderly individuals (7 men and 14 women; age, 81.8 ± 5.0 years). We measured trunk acceleration by using a wireless miniature sensor unit containing a tri-axial linear accelerometer under 3 walking conditions: normal walking (normal condition), deliberately walking without any arm swing (no swing condition), and walking with a deliberately emphasized arm swing (over swing condition). To evaluate trunk stability during walking, we calculated harmonic ratios (HRs) based on trunk tri-axial acceleration signals (anteroposterior: AP, vertical: VT, and mediolateral: ML). HR-AP and HR-VT were not significantly different across the 3 conditions, but HR-ML in the over swing condition was significantly higher than that in the other 2 conditions by generalized estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for walking speed (p<0.05). These findings indicate that trunk stability in the ML direction increased when the elderly individuals walked with a deliberately emphasized arm swing.

  2. Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint?

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Jesse R.; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation. PMID:26046772

  3. Evaluation of 16 measures of mental workload using a simulated flight task emphasizing mediational activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Rahimi, M.; Casali, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    As aircraft and other systems become more automated, a shift is occurring in human operator participation in these systems. This shift is away from manual control and toward activities that tap the higher mental functioning of human operators. Therefore, an experiment was performed in a moving-base flight simulator to assess mediational (cognitive) workload measurement. Specifically, 16 workload estimation techniques were evaluated as to their sensitivity and intrusion in a flight task emphasizing mediational behavior. Task loading, using navigation problems presented on a display, was treated as an independent variable, and workload-measure values were treated as dependent variables. Results indicate that two mediational task measures, two rating scale measures, time estimation, and two eye behavior measures were reliably sensitive to mediational loading. The time estimation measure did, however, intrude on mediational task performance. Several of the remaining measures were completely insensitive to mediational load.

  4. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-05-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  5. What Are Low-Ranked Graduate Programs Good for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Professors revel in reputation--and nowhere does that show more clearly than in their concern about educational pedigree. That concern takes complicated forms. The author wondered what might happen if graduate admissions were reduced to a level that would only replace retiring professors. One possible consequence of such a move would be that…

  6. Low-Rank Incremental Methods for Computing Dominant Singular Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Gallivan, Dr. Kyle A; Van Dooren, Dr. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Computing the singular values and vectors of a matrix is a crucial kernel in numerous scientific and industrial applications. As such, numerous methods have been proposed to handle this problem in a computationally efficient way. This paper considers a family of methods for incrementally computing the dominant SVD of a large matrix A. Specifically, we describe a unification of a number of previously disparate methods for approximating the dominant SVD via a single pass through A. We tie the behavior of these methods to that of a class of optimization-based iterative eigensolvers on A'*A. An iterative procedure is proposed which allows the computation of an accurate dominant SVD via multiple passes through A. We present an analysis of the convergence of this iteration, and provide empirical demonstration of the proposed method on both synthetic and benchmark data.

  7. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  8. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition: Stable carbons from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.K.; Kulas, R.W.; Olson, E.S.

    1996-12-31

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has been used to increase the oxidative stability of activated carbons. Activated carbons prepared from Gascoyne lignite (North Dakota) by thermal or potassium hydroxide activations were subjected to BCI, in helium at 727{degrees}C with or without benzene for a limited period of time, followed by annealing in helium at 900{degrees}C for three days. Untreated and acid-washed coal samples were used to assess the magnitude of the effect of mineral matter in the coal on the boron coating. The oxidative stability of the boron-modified carbons was determined from the decomposition curves obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis. Modification of the as-received, KOH-treated carbon yielded oxidatively stable carbons up to an initial temperature of 520{degrees}C, compared to about 350{degrees}C for the starting material. Similar results were obtained for the carbonized Gascoyne lignite. Sulfurous acid washing of the Gascoyne significantly enhanced the thermal stability (600{degrees}C) of the boron-modified carbon.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition: Stable carbons from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.K.; Kulas, R.W.; Olson, E.S.

    1996-07-01

    CVD was used to increase the oxidative stability of activated carbons. Activated carbons prepared from Gascoyne lignite (North Dakota) by thermal or KOH activation were subjected to BCl{sub 3} in He at 727 C with or without benzene for alimited period of time followed by annealing in He at 900 C for 3 days. Untreated and acid-washed coal samples were used to assess the effect of minral matter in the coal on the boron coating. The oxidative stability of the boron-modified carbons was determined from the decomposition curves obtained from TGA. Modification of the as-received, KOH-treated carbon yielded oxidatively stable carbons up to an initial temperature of 520 , compared to 350 C for the starting material. Similar results were obtained for the carbonized Gascoyne lignite. Sulfurous acid washing of the Gascoyne significantly enhanced the thermal stability (600 C) of the boron-modified carbon.

  11. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  12. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  13. Emphasizing Social Features in Information Portals: Effects on New Member Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nikhil; Butler, Brian S.; Irwin, Jeannie; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Many information portals are adding social features with hopes of enhancing the overall user experience. Invitations to join and welcome pages that highlight these social features are expected to encourage use and participation. While this approach is widespread and seems plausible, the effect of providing and highlighting social features remains to be tested. We studied the effects of emphasizing social features on users' response to invitations, their decisions to join, their willingness to provide profile information, and their engagement with the portal's social features. The results of a quasi-experiment found no significant effect of social emphasis in invitations on receivers' responsiveness. However, users receiving invitations highlighting social benefits were less likely to join the portal and provide profile information. Social emphasis in the initial welcome page for the site also was found to have a significant effect on whether individuals joined the portal, how much profile information they provided and shared, and how much they engaged with social features on the site. Unexpectedly, users who were welcomed in a social manner were less likely to join and provided less profile information; they also were less likely to engage with social features of the portal. This suggests that even in online contexts where social activity is an increasingly common feature, highlighting the presence of social features may not always be the optimal presentation strategy. PMID:23626487

  14. A neural circuitry that emphasizes spinal feedback generates diverse behaviours of human locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seungmoon; Geyer, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks along the spinal cord contribute substantially to generating locomotion behaviours in humans and other legged animals. However, the neural circuitry involved in this spinal control remains unclear. We here propose a specific circuitry that emphasizes feedback integration over central pattern generation. The circuitry is based on neurophysiologically plausible muscle-reflex pathways that are organized in 10 spinal modules realizing limb functions essential to legged systems in stance and swing. These modules are combined with a supraspinal control layer that adjusts the desired foot placements and selects the leg that is to transition into swing control during double support. Using physics-based simulation, we test the proposed circuitry in a neuromuscular human model that includes neural transmission delays, musculotendon dynamics and compliant foot–ground contacts. We find that the control network is sufficient to compose steady and transitional 3-D locomotion behaviours including walking and running, acceleration and deceleration, slope and stair negotiation, turning, and deliberate obstacle avoidance. The results suggest feedback integration to be functionally more important than central pattern generation in human locomotion across behaviours. In addition, the proposed control architecture may serve as a guide in the search for the neurophysiological origin and circuitry of spinal control in humans. PMID:25920414

  15. Neural Analyses Validate and Emphasize the Role of Progesterone Receptor in Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Caronongan, Arturo; Venturini, Barbara; Canuti, Debora; Dlay, Satnam; Naguib, Raouf N G; Sherbet, Gajanan V

    2016-04-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER) expression is routinely measured in breast cancer management, but the clinical merits of measuring progesterone receptor (PR) expression have remained controversial. Hence the major objective of this study was to assess the potential of PR as a predictor of response to endocrine therapy. We report on analyses of the relative importance of ER and PR for predicting prognosis using robust multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. Receptor determinations use immunohistochemical (IHC) methods or radioactive ligand binding assays (LBA). In view of the heterogeneity of intratumoral receptor distribution, we examined the relative merits of the IHC and LBA methods. Our analyses reveal a more significant correlation of IHC-determined PR than ER with both nodal status and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). In LBA, PR displayed higher correlation with survival and ER with nodal status. There was concordance of correlation of PR with DFS by both IHC and LBA. This study suggests a clear distinction between PR and ER, with PR displaying greater correlation than ER with disease progression and prognosis, and emphasizes the marked superiority of the IHC method over LBA. These findings may be valuable in the management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:27069179

  16. Emphasizing Social Features in Information Portals: Effects on New Member Engagement.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nikhil; Butler, Brian S; Irwin, Jeannie; Spallek, Heiko

    2011-11-01

    Many information portals are adding social features with hopes of enhancing the overall user experience. Invitations to join and welcome pages that highlight these social features are expected to encourage use and participation. While this approach is widespread and seems plausible, the effect of providing and highlighting social features remains to be tested. We studied the effects of emphasizing social features on users' response to invitations, their decisions to join, their willingness to provide profile information, and their engagement with the portal's social features. The results of a quasi-experiment found no significant effect of social emphasis in invitations on receivers' responsiveness. However, users receiving invitations highlighting social benefits were less likely to join the portal and provide profile information. Social emphasis in the initial welcome page for the site also was found to have a significant effect on whether individuals joined the portal, how much profile information they provided and shared, and how much they engaged with social features on the site. Unexpectedly, users who were welcomed in a social manner were less likely to join and provided less profile information; they also were less likely to engage with social features of the portal. This suggests that even in online contexts where social activity is an increasingly common feature, highlighting the presence of social features may not always be the optimal presentation strategy. PMID:23626487

  17. Proteins related to the spindle and checkpoint mitotic emphasize the different pathogenesis of hypoplastic MDS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Fabiola Fernandes; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Ribeiro Junior, Howard Lopes; Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Magalhaes, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2014-02-01

    Some studies show that alterations in expression of proteins related to mitotic spindle (AURORAS KINASE A and B) and mitotic checkpoint (CDC20 and MAD2L1) are involved in chromosomal instability and tumor progression in various solid and hematologic malignancies. This study aimed to evaluate these genes in MDS patients. The cytogenetics analysis was carried out by G-banding, AURKA and AURKB amplification was performed using FISH, and AURKA, AURKB, CDC20 and MAD2L1 gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR in 61 samples of bone marrow from MDS patients. AURKA gene amplification was observed in 10% of the cases, which also showed higher expression levels than the control group (p=0.038). Patients with normo/hypercellular BM presented significantly higher expression levels than hypocellular BM patients, but normo and hypercellular BM groups did not differ. After logistic regression analysis, our results showed that HIGH expression levels were associated with increased risk of developing normo/hypercellular MDS. It also indicated that age is associated with AURKA, CDC20 and MAD2L1 HIGH expression levels. The distinct expression of hypocellular patients emphasizes the prognostic importance of cellularity to MDS. The amplification/high expression of AURKA suggests that the increased expression of this gene may be related to the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:24314588

  18. Proteins related to the spindle and checkpoint mitotic emphasize the different pathogenesis of hypoplastic MDS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Fabiola Fernandes; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Ribeiro Junior, Howard Lopes; Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Magalhaes, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2014-02-01

    Some studies show that alterations in expression of proteins related to mitotic spindle (AURORAS KINASE A and B) and mitotic checkpoint (CDC20 and MAD2L1) are involved in chromosomal instability and tumor progression in various solid and hematologic malignancies. This study aimed to evaluate these genes in MDS patients. The cytogenetics analysis was carried out by G-banding, AURKA and AURKB amplification was performed using FISH, and AURKA, AURKB, CDC20 and MAD2L1 gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR in 61 samples of bone marrow from MDS patients. AURKA gene amplification was observed in 10% of the cases, which also showed higher expression levels than the control group (p=0.038). Patients with normo/hypercellular BM presented significantly higher expression levels than hypocellular BM patients, but normo and hypercellular BM groups did not differ. After logistic regression analysis, our results showed that HIGH expression levels were associated with increased risk of developing normo/hypercellular MDS. It also indicated that age is associated with AURKA, CDC20 and MAD2L1 HIGH expression levels. The distinct expression of hypocellular patients emphasizes the prognostic importance of cellularity to MDS. The amplification/high expression of AURKA suggests that the increased expression of this gene may be related to the pathogenesis of disease.

  19. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  20. "A Lifelong Aversion to Writing": What if Writing Courses Emphasized Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There has been a great deal of groundbreaking research done on motivation during the last twenty-five years, and all of it points to the importance of intrinsic motivation. This research has very significant ramifications for teachers of English. In this essay, the author engages the issue of "aversion" that Linda Brodkey raises in her essay…

  1. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  2. Designing Learning as Well as Teaching: A Research-Based Model for Instruction that Emphasizes Learner Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Many teachers of higher education wish to provide instruction that supports student learning while not always finding it easy to implement the desire. The model for a unit of instruction described here provides a mental map to overlay decisions about instructional strategies in order to assess the extent to which they align with theories of…

  3. Examination of two methods for statistical analysis of data with magnitude and direction emphasizing vestibular research applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    When the dependent (or response) variable response variable in an experiment has direction and magnitude, one approach that has been used for statistical analysis involves splitting magnitude and direction and applying univariate statistical techniques to the components. However, such treatment of quantities with direction and magnitude is not justifiable mathematically and can lead to incorrect conclusions about relationships among variables and, as a result, to flawed interpretations. This note discusses a problem with that practice and recommends mathematically correct procedures to be used with dependent variables that have direction and magnitude for 1) computation of mean values, 2) statistical contrasts of and confidence intervals for means, and 3) correlation methods.

  4. Effects of metal cations present naturally in coal on the fate of coal-bound nitrogen in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with different ranks: correlation between inherent Fe cations and N{sub 2} formation from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuo Ohtsuka; Zhiheng Wu

    2009-09-15

    The fate of coal-N in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with 62-81 wt % (daf) C has been studied with a quartz reactor at 1000 C under ambient pressure to examine the effects of metal cations present naturally in these coals on the partitioning of coal-N into N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, tar-N, and char-N. Nitrogen mass balances for all runs fall within the reasonable range of 100 {+-} 5%, and N{sub 2} is the predominant product for all of the coals. As the N{sub 2} yield increases, the sum of NH{sub 3}, HCN, and tar-N is unchanged significantly, whereas the char-N yield decreases almost linearly, showing that most of N{sub 2} originates from char-N. When eight kinds of inherent metals, such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe, and Ti, are determined by the conventional method and related with the N{sub 2} yield, there exists a strong, direct correlation between the Fe content and N{sub 2} formation for low-rank coals with less than 75 wt % (daf) C. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (TEM-EDAX) measurements after pyrolysis at 1000{sup o}C of a German brown coal, which provides the highest N{sub 2} yield of about 60%, reveal the existence of lamella structures because of graphitized carbon as well as nanoscale Fe particles with different sizes and shapes. The mechanism for conversion reactions of char-N to N{sub 2} is discussed in terms of the catalysis by nanoparticles of metallic Fe formed from inherent Fe cations. 34 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy.

  6. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy. PMID:12597516

  7. Emphasizing Malleability in the Biology of Depression: Durable Effects on Perceived Agency and Prognostic Pessimism

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Matthew S.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Biological attributions for depression, which are currently ascendant, can lead to prognostic pessimism—the perception that symptoms are relatively immutable and unlikely to abate (Kvaale, Haslam, & Gottdiener, 2013; Lebowitz, Ahn, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2013). Among symptomatic individuals, this may have important clinical ramifications, as reduced confidence in one’s own ability to overcome depression carries the risk of becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy. Previous research (Lebowitz, Ahn, et al., 2013) has demonstrated that educational interventions teaching symptomatic individuals about how the effects of genetic and neurobiological factors involved in depression are malleable and can be modified by experiences and environmental factors can reduce prognostic pessimism. While previous research demonstrated such effects only in the immediate term, the present research extends these findings by testing whether such benefits persist six weeks after the intervention. Indeed, among individuals who initially considered biological factors to play a major role in influencing their levels of depression, exposure to malleability-focused psychoeducation reduced levels of depression-related prognostic pessimism and stronger belief in their ability to regulate their moods. Critically, this benefit persisted six weeks after the intervention. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26112398

  8. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  9. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  10. Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edwin L; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  11. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  12. An Experimental Investigation of a Linguistic Approach to Vocabulary Development Which Emphasizes Structural Analysis: Prefixes, Suffixes and Root Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, Arthur Louis

    Four grade 6 classes in the Auburn Public Schools, Washington, were involved in a sequence of 30-minute lessons (8 weeks) developed by the experimenter to ascertain the effectiveness of direct systematic vocabulary instruction emphasizing prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Some elements of sentence structure, mnemonic devices, and etymology were…

  13. Fitness Promotion for Adolescent Girls: The Impact and Effectiveness of Promotional Material which Emphasizes the Slim Ideal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Susan M.; Kemeny, Lidia

    1989-01-01

    Looked at techniques for promoting fitness participation among adolescent girls, in particular those which emphasize the slim ideal. Relative effectiveness of posters using different models (slim, average, overweight) and different messages (slimness, activity, health) was tested using 627 female high school students. Found slim model to be most…

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: emphasizing the risk of undertreatment.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Ferdinand C A; Klop, W M C; Relyveld, Germaine N; Crijns, Marianne B; Balm, A J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2016-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. It occurs predominantly in the head and neck area and often behaves aggressively. In this single-institution retrospective observational cohort study, we describe the results of a treatment strategy that we developed over the past decades. Endpoints of this study were local, regional and distant control, disease-specific survival and overall survival. In total 47 patients with head and neck MCC, diagnosed in the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (NKI-AvL) between 1984 and 2012, were included in this study. Local tumor control was 82 % (95 % CI 71-95 %) at 5 years. Regional lymph node metastases were found at the moment of diagnosis in 13 cases (28 %). In the group of patients who were initially cN0, the 5-year regional control was 80 % (68-95 %). The 5-year metastasis-free interval probability was 80 % (68-94 %). The disease-specific survival (DSS) at 5 years was 70 % (56-86 %). An overall survival of 54 % (40-72 %) was found at 5-year follow-up and of 37 % (23-59 %) at 10-year follow-up. Univariable Cox regression analysis of many clinical and pathological variables did not identify any predictors for DSS. The MCC has a high propensity for locoregional and distant spread in the head and neck region. Undertreatment, especially of the lymph nodes in the neck, is a serious problem as regional (micro)metastasis are common even in T1 tumors. Future research will have to elucidate the role of the sentinel lymph node procedure versus the elective selective node dissection and standardized elective local and regional radiotherapy in the head and neck area.

  15. GENOMIC INSIGHTS INTO EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG HETEROKONT LINEAGES EMPHASIZING THE PHAEOPHYCEAE(1).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Naomi; Calhoun, Samantha; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Braun, Edward L

    2008-02-01

    Heterokonts comprise a large and diverse group of organisms unified by the heterokont biflagellate condition. Monophyly of many of these lineages is well established, but evolutionary relationships among the various lineages remain elusive. Among these lineages, the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are a monophyletic, taxonomically diverse, and ecologically critical group common to marine environments. Despite their biological and scientific importance, consensus regarding brown algal phylogeny and taxonomic relationships is missing. Our long-term research goal is to produce a well-resolved taxon-rich phylogeny of the class to assess evolutionary patterns and taxonomic relationships among brown algal lineages and their relationship to other closely related heterokont groups. To accomplish this goal and augment existing loci for phaeophycean-wide systematic studies, we generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from several major brown algal lineages and from the heterokont lineage representing the closest sister group to brown algae. To date, we have successfully constructed cDNA libraries for two lineages (Choristocarpus tenellus Zanardini and Schizocladia ischiensis E. C. Henry, Okuda et H. Kawai) and in the library test phase obtained up to 1,600 ESTs per organism. Annotation results showed a gene discovery rate of 45%-50% for each library revealing 500-700 unique genes from each organism. We have identified several potential genes for phylogenetic inference and used these loci for preliminary molecular clock analyses. Our molecular clock analysis suggests that the basal divergence in brown algae occurred around the time of the pennate-centric diatom divergence. Here we report this analysis and other uses of ESTs in brown algal phylogenomics and the utility of these data for resolving the phylogeny of this group.

  16. Methods for DNA barcoding photosynthetic protists emphasizing the macroalgae and diatoms.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This chapter outlines the current practices used in our laboratory for routine DNA barcode analyses of the three major marine macroalgal groups, viz., brown (Phaeophyceae), red (Rhodophyta), and green (Chlorophyta) algae, as well as for the microscopic diatoms (Bacillariophyta). We start with an outline of current streamlined field protocols, which facilitate the collection of substantial (hundreds to thousands) specimens during short (days to weeks) field excursions. We present the current high-throughput DNA extraction protocols, which can, nonetheless, be easily modified for manual molecular laboratory use. We are advocating a two-marker approach for the DNA barcoding of protists with each major lineage having a designated primary and secondary barcode marker of which one is always the LSU D2/D3 (divergent domains D2/D3 of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA). We provide a listing of the primers that we currently use in our laboratory for amplification of DNA barcode markers from the groups that we study: LSU D2/D3, which we advocate as a eukaryote-wide barcode marker to facilitate broad ecological and environmental surveys (secondary barcode marker in this capacity); COI-5P (the standard DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) as the primary barcode marker for brown and red algae; rbcL-3P (the 3' region of the plastid large subunit of ribulose-l-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) as the primary barcode marker for diatoms; and tufA (plastid elongation factor Tu gene) as the primary barcode marker for chlorophytan green algae. We outline our polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methodologies, which have been streamlined for efficiency and to reduce unnecessary cleaning steps. The combined information should provide a helpful guide to those seeking to complete barcode research on these and related "protistan" groups (the term protist is not used in a phylogenetic context; it is simply a catch-all term for the bulk of

  17. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  18. Clinical Management of Patients with ASXL1 Mutations and Bohring-Opitz Syndrome, Emphasizing the Need for Wilms Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Bianca; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Kramer, Nancy; Pickart, Angela; Rhead, William; Tan, Wen-Hann; Brownstein, Catherine A; Clarkson, L Kate; Dobson, Amy; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Schrier Vergano, Samantha A.; Helm, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Rachel E; Graham, John M

    2016-01-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by distinctive facial features, variable microcephaly, hypertrichosis, nevus flammeus, severe myopia, unusual posture (flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation, and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints), severe intellectual disability, and feeding issues. Nine patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have been identified as having a mutation in ASXL1. We report on eight previously unpublished patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome caused by an apparent or confirmed de novo mutation in ASXL1. Of note, two patients developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Somatic mutations in ASXL1 are associated with myeloid malignancies, and these reports emphasize the need for Wilms tumor screening in patients with ASXL1 mutations. We discuss clinical management with a focus on their feeding issues, cyclic vomiting, respiratory infections, insomnia, and tumor predisposition. Many patients are noted to have distinctive personalities (interactive, happy, and curious) and rapid hair growth; features not previously reported. PMID:25921057

  19. The Effect of Emphasizing Mathematical Structure in the Acquisition of Whole Number Computation Skills (Addition and Subtraction) By Seven- and Eight-Year Olds: A Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward; Collura, Carolyn

    This investigation sought to determine the effect of emphasizing mathematical structure in the acquisition of computational skills by seven- and eight-year-olds. The meaningful development-of-structure approach emphasized closure, commutativity, associativity, and the identity element of addition; the inverse relationship between addition and…

  20. New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse.

  1. A single session of open kinetic chain movements emphasizing speed improves speed of movement and modifies postural control in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gray, Vicki L; Ivanova, Tanya D; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been given to training speed of movement, even though functional activities require quick submaximal contractions. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises are considered more functional; however, the best method for training speed is not known. A single bout of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises emphasizing speed was performed to determine whether movement velocity and muscle activation would improve in a single session and whether the improvements transfer to a physiological balance task. Eleven participants <1 year post-stroke performed an arm raise task before and after a single session of fast OKC exercises. Surface electromyography (EMG) from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, peak velocity and average power were recorded during the OKC exercises. EMG from SOL, TA, BF and RF and center of pressure (COP) velocity were measured during arm raise task. At the end of the OKC exercises, velocity, power and TA, BF and RF EMG area increased. The arm acceleration and BF EMG area increased significantly during the arm raise. The improvements observed at the end of the OKC exercises transferred to the arm raise task. The improvements in balance were comparable to those previously seen after CKC exercises. PMID:26863374

  2. [Chronic disease and health condition prevention in childhood: emphases from the 13th Symposium of Preventive Pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Batinica, Maja; Grgurić, Josip; Jadrijević-Cvrlje, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases in childhood have become an important priority, especially in developed countries, because of higher prevalence, relatively and absolutely. Besides that, inappropriate procedures a chronically ill child can result in child's growth and development disorder. According to literature data, 15-20% of children have chronic disease with the impact on their physical, mental and emotional status. Disease prevention strategies are described at the primary, secondary and tertiary level: how to avoid occurrence of disease, how to diagnose and treat existent disease in early stages, before it causes significant morbidity, and finally how to reduce negative impact of existent disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications - how to improve quality of life of children with chronic diseases. The new term of quaternary prevention describes methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system. In this paper the authors present recent attitudes about chronic diseases prevention modalities in childhood, which, at the beggining of the 21st century, have become more intriguing and represent a new challenge for pediatric health care. Thus, from preventive standpoint, the following chronic illnesses are discussed: asthma, malignant diseases, autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, tuberculosis, diabetes type 1, congenital heart diseases, arterial hypertension, celiac disease, and eating disorders. These emphases are from the 13th Preventive Pediatrics Symposium, which took place in Skrad, June 2nd, 2012. Further activities are planned with the aim of continuation of health care furtherance for children with other chronic illnesses.

  3. Fitness promotion for adolescent girls: the impact and effectiveness of promotional material which emphasizes the slim ideal.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S M; Kemeny, L

    1989-01-01

    This study looks at techniques for promoting fitness participation among adolescent girls, in particular those which emphasize the "slim ideal." Various promotional posters were designed which systematically used different models (slim, average, and overweight) and different messages (slimness, activity, and health). The relative effectiveness of these posters was tested using a probability sample of 627 female high school students. The slim model was found to be the most effective poster, while slimness was the least effective of the messages. Demographic and self- and body-image factors had relatively little effect on the ratings of the posters. Focus group interviews conducted with the student sample indicated that they were concerned about their body weight, and that they associated slimness with fitness. However, the slimness message was not thought to encourage participation in fitness because overt emphasis on body image may lead to self-consciousness and fear of social rejection. The idea that participation would lead to a slim physique was also thought to be unrealistic. The students were more critical of the slimness message than of the slim model in the posters. Overall, the data indicate that promoting fitness through messages relating fitness to slimness is not an effective approach with adolescent girls. The use of very slim models in promotional material may be effective, but this approach may not be desirable because it reinforces the dominant cultural stereotype of the "ideal" slim female form.

  4. A single session of open kinetic chain movements emphasizing speed improves speed of movement and modifies postural control in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gray, Vicki L; Ivanova, Tanya D; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been given to training speed of movement, even though functional activities require quick submaximal contractions. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises are considered more functional; however, the best method for training speed is not known. A single bout of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises emphasizing speed was performed to determine whether movement velocity and muscle activation would improve in a single session and whether the improvements transfer to a physiological balance task. Eleven participants <1 year post-stroke performed an arm raise task before and after a single session of fast OKC exercises. Surface electromyography (EMG) from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, peak velocity and average power were recorded during the OKC exercises. EMG from SOL, TA, BF and RF and center of pressure (COP) velocity were measured during arm raise task. At the end of the OKC exercises, velocity, power and TA, BF and RF EMG area increased. The arm acceleration and BF EMG area increased significantly during the arm raise. The improvements observed at the end of the OKC exercises transferred to the arm raise task. The improvements in balance were comparable to those previously seen after CKC exercises.

  5. New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse. PMID:21183445

  6. Emphasizing appearance versus health outcomes in exercise: the influence of the instructor and participants' reasons for exercise.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Shannon E; Cox, Anne E; Amorose, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    The objectifying nature of exercise environments may prevent women from reaping psychological benefits of exercise. The present experiment manipulated self-objectification through an exercise class taught by an instructor who emphasized exercise as either a means of acquiring appearance or health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test for interactions between the class emphasis and participants' reasons for exercise (i.e., appearance, health) predicting participants' state self-objectification, state social physique anxiety, exercise class enjoyment, and future intentions of returning to a similar exercise class. Results, obtained via pre- and post-exercise questionnaires, revealed a significant interaction between class emphasis and health reasons for exercise predicting state self-objectification. Participants with lower health reasons for exercise reported greater state self-objectification in the appearance-focused class compared to those with higher health reasons for exercise. Adopting stronger health reasons for exercise may buffer exercise participants from the more objectifying aspects of the group exercise environment. PMID:24439531

  7. Prekindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning. Emphasizing the Importance of the Visual Arts in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2005

    2005-01-01

    What should children learn during the preschool years? In "Eager to Learn: Education Our Preschoolers," the National Research Council responds by saying children will learn language, mathematics, and science. And these "privileged domains" do seem to dominate its curriculum. Nevertheless, the National Research Council does not mean to imply that…

  8. [Chronic disease and health condition prevention in childhood--2nd part: emphases from the 14th Symposium of Preventive Pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Batinica, Maja; Grgurić, Josip; Jadrijević-Cvrlje, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Chronically ill children nowdays in developed countries are more prevalent than before, and thanks to modern therapeutic modalities more children are surviving into adulthood. Increased survival cannot be assumed to be associated with increased quality of life. With the chronically ill child holistic approach is important, which incorporates not only realisation of the highest possible standards in diagnostics and treatment, but also special care for disease prevention. All this is very important in so called integrative approach in the care of a chronically ill child, with the aim of achieving as high as possible quality of life and complete social integration. At the 14th Preventive Pediatrics Symposium, which took place in Skrad, June 1' 2013, from preventive standpoint, the following chronic childhood illnesses were discussed: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--ADHD, migraine, thyroid gland diseases, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, chronic renal disease, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and chronic otitis media with effusion. It is emphasized that talking about a disease prevention, there are three levels of it--primary, second- ary and tertiary prevention: how to avoid occurrence of disease, how to diagnose and treat existent disease in early stages, before it causes significant morbidity, and finally how to reduce the negative impact of existent disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications--how to improve quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Quaternary prevention describes methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions of the health system. An important process is also transition of care from child-oriented to adult-oriented care. Adults with chronic health conditions should continue to be evaluated periodically for possible late consequences of their childhood illness and previ- ous medical treatments. PMID

  9. Low resolution structural characterization of the Hsp70-interacting protein - Hip - from Leishmania braziliensis emphasizes its high asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Dores-Silva, P R; Silva, E R; Gomes, F E R; Silva, K P; Barbosa, L R S; Borges, J C

    2012-04-15

    The Hsp70 is an essential molecular chaperone in protein metabolism since it acts as a pivot with other molecular chaperone families. Several co-chaperones act as regulators of the Hsp70 action cycle, as for instance Hip (Hsp70-interacting protein). Hip is a tetratricopeptide repeat protein (TPR) that interacts with the ATPase domain in the Hsp70-ADP state, stabilizing it and preventing substrate dissociation. Molecular chaperones from protozoans, which can cause some neglected diseases, are poorly studied in terms of structure and function. Here, we investigated the structural features of Hip from the protozoa Leishmania braziliensis (LbHip), one of the causative agents of the leishmaniasis disease. LbHip was heterologously expressed and purified in the folded state, as attested by circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence emission techniques. LbHip forms an elongated dimer, as observed by analytical gel filtration chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). With the SAXS data a low resolution model was reconstructed, which shed light on the structure of this protein, emphasizing its elongated shape and suggesting its domain organization. We also investigated the chemical-induced unfolding behavior of LbHip and two transitions were observed. The first transition was related to the unfolding of the TPR domain of each protomer and the second transition of the dimer dissociation. Altogether, LbHip presents a similar structure to mammalian Hip, despite their low level of conservation, suggesting that this class of eukaryotic protein may use a similar mechanism of action. PMID:22387434

  10. The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wittenberg, T.

    2007-11-15

    Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89{+-}0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0

  11. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  12. Introducing ADN students to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, R; Smutko, P W

    1998-01-01

    Every nurse, regardless of educational preparation, should be involved in and benefit from nursing research. The research process needs to become an integral part of nursing practice. In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of nursing research in the associate degree nursing curriculum, emphasizing strategies that enable the ADN graduate to appreciate research reports and use the knowledge in the clinical practice setting.

  13. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  14. Graduate Education and Federal Support of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Herman

    1975-01-01

    The change in the philosophy underlying federal support of university research is examined. Mission-oriented research in contrast to basic research is defined. The impact of mission-oriented research upon universities and university education is emphasized. (DE)

  15. De-Emphasizing Gender in Talk about Texts: Literature Response, Discussion, and Gender within a Classroom Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth Monica

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of 19 preservice and practicing secondary language arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course. The theoretical framework was structured around…

  16. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-01-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and…

  17. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  18. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  19. Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Estes, J.C.; Andrews, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.

  20. Homosexual parents: testing "common sense"--a literature review emphasizing the Golombok and Tasker longitudinal study of lesbians' children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P

    1999-08-01

    Counter to claims by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of Social Workers as well as numerous reviewers that children raised by homosexuals and married heterosexuals do not differ, the elaborate social-personality theory called "common sense" predicts that because "like produces like" and because psychopathy/sociopathy informs the major expressions of social deviance including homosexuality, children of homosexuals will (1) be more frequently subjected to parental instability (of residence and sexual partners) and (2) have poorer peer and adult relationships. Also, as is held to be true of their parents, homosexuals' children will be more apt to (3) become homosexual, (4) be unstable (have emotional problems and difficulty forming lasting bonds) with reduced interest in natality, and (5) be sexually precocious and promiscuous. Differences between homosexual and heterosexual comparison groups that bore on "common sense" were considered suggestive "bits" of empirical evidence. Differences that emerged within studies conducted by sympathetic researchers utilizing volunteer samples were considered bits of adverse evidence. Of 171 bits, 82 adverse and 55 nonadverse bits supported, while 34 bits fell against "common sense." From this tentative method of counting, support was found for common sense beliefs that children of homosexuals will be more apt to become homosexual and have poorer peer relationships, while weaker support was found for some of the other predictions. As assessed in this way, the empirical evidence in the literature tended to lean against claims of "no differences" between children raised by homosexuals and heterosexuals. In particular, the strongly worded official claims of there being "no differences" are overstatements. They amount to the organizations and some prominent researchers asserting that they have proven the null hypothesis, which is fundamentally impossible. It is likely that the nonsignificant

  1. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  2. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18–70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4–3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7–1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7–5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18–29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational

  3. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  4. Emphasizing the process of the scientific method in the physical science classroom through altered techniques and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmachtenberger, Trevor

    High school science requires students to use the scientific method when solving problems. The ability to solve problems in this way is a valuable and necessary skill for the classroom and life experiences. The goal of this study was to fully incorporate scientific thinking and methodology into the current curriculum. The hypothesis for this study was: a gradual release of responsibility from instructor to student will show an improvement in the ability of students to solve critical thinking problems, an integral part of the scientific method. This project was implemented over the period of one semester, 18 weeks and covered eight units of study. The research reported here focused on three particular units: Motion, Heat Energy, and Wave Energy. Students in a Physical Science class participated in making observations, identifying patterns, and asking questions based on the observed patterns, which led to student developed hypotheses and protocols, including data collection and analysis. Students participated in their own scientific practices, which, in turn, led to a sense of ownership and also a more thorough understanding of the scientific method and its practices as measured by lab activity accuracy and improvement in formative scores. Pre-test and post-test results indicated an improvement in students' ability to use scientific methodology.

  5. Changes in Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics across the Transition to Middle School: Examining the Effects of Perceived Teacher and Parent Goal Emphases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Jeanne M.; Cortina, Kai S.; Turner, Julianne C.; Midgley, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of change in teacher goal emphases on students' efficacy beliefs in mathematics across the transition to middle school. The sample (N = 929) included primarily White (65%) and Black (27%) students, and approximately one third received free or reduced-fee lunch. Analyses grouped children by cross-classification of…

  6. "Do good and talk about it". A CHRISTUS health study emphasizes the importance of telling our stories to the public.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Donna; Wei, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    In a time of public scrutiny, it is paramount that Catholic health care organizations examine their commitments to their communities and effectively communicate community benefit activities to stakeholders-employees, physicians, patients, and the public. CHRISTUS Academy, a leadership development program at CHRISTUS Health, Irving, TX, conducted two studies regarding community benefit. The first researched community benefit practices at more than 20 highly respected, tax-exempt CHA- and VHA-member organizations, comparing them with the practices of about 40 publicly traded, for-profit organizations. The primary conclusion was that community benefit is not just about measuring the numbers-it is also about "telling the story." Unlike the for-profit organizations, tax-exempt health care organizations tend to struggle with adequately measuring and reporting their community contributions. In a second study, the academy surveyed CHRISTUS Health's employees and physicians regarding their knowledge of the system's commitment vis-à-vis identifying and meeting community needs. The vast majority said the system is important to the community and is actively involved in understanding and meeting the needs of the community. However, they also ranked the system lower in terms of working with other community organizations, being a leader in community health, and being known for sponsoring volunteer activities. These lower rankings indicate that the community benefit activities are not well publicized or known within the organization. Catholic health organizations must take an active approach in communicating their work to the public, the media, and each other. In doing so, they fulfill an integral part their mission.

  7. Efficient Generation of Cavitation Bubbles in Gel Phantom by Ultrasound Exposure with Negative-Followed by Positive-Peak-Pressure-Emphasized Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Asai, Ayumu; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    Cavitation bubbles have much potential for emphasizing therapeutic treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, histotripsy, and sonodynamic therapy. Their highly efficient as well as controlled generation is important to utilize them effectively as well as safely. However, producing negative pressure over the cavitation threshold by focused ultrasound is difficult because of the nonlinear propagation combined with the focal phase shift. We have suggested a dual-frequency ultrasound exposure method, in which N- and P-waves emphasizing either the peak negative or positive pressure, respectively, are synthesized by superimposing the second harmonic onto the fundamental frequency. In this study, high-speed camera observation demonstrated that the exposure with N-waves immediately followed by P-waves could generate cavitation bubbles most efficiently in gel phantom. Furthermore, the measured negative and positive pressure distributions of the N- and P-wave fields, respectively, agreed well with the optically observed distributions of cavitation inception and cavitation cloud growth.

  8. Planetary magnetism. [emphasizing dynamo theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D.

    1974-01-01

    The origin and maintenance of planetary magnetic fields are discussed. The discussion is not limited to dynamo theories, although these are almost universally favored. Thermoelectric currents are found to be a possible alternative for Jupiter. Two energy sources for dynamos are considered: convection and precessionally induced fluid flow. The earth is the most favorable planet for precessionally driven dynamo, although Neptune is a possibility. Jupiter is likely to have a convectionally driven dynamo, as may Saturn, but the relevant properties of Saturn are not yet well known. Conclusions for each planet are given.

  9. CMS emphasizes quality patient care.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The Inpatient Prospective Payment System proposed rule for fiscal 2015 continues the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' move toward basing reimbursement on quality of care, not quantity. The rule also asks for public input on the two-midnight rule and a policy to address short-stay patients. CMS is implementing the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program, which penalizes hospitals that perform poorly. The agency proposes to add two safety measures to value-based purchasing in the future. PMID:24946382

  10. Public Administration Research: Work in PAR, 1940-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Robert A.; Ferris, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the research literature appearing in Public Administration Review between the years 1940 and 1984. Analyzes trends in (1) research approach, (2) research design, (3) substantive topic, (4) level of government emphasized, and (5) researcher characteristics. (CH)

  11. Sparse Geologic Dictionaries for Flexible and Low-Rank Subsurface Flow Model Calibration: Field Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaninezhad, M. R. M.; Jafarpour, B.

    2014-12-01

    Inference of spatially distributed reservoir and aquifer properties from scattered and spatially limited data poses a poorly constrained nonlinear inverse problem that can have many solutions. In particular, the uncertainty in the geologic continuity model can remarkably degrade the quality of fluid displacement predictions, hence, the efficiency of resource development plans. For model calibration, instead of estimating aquifer properties for each grid cell in the model, the sparse representation of the aquifer properties is estimated from nonlinear production data. The resulting calibration problem can be solved using recent developments in sparse signal processing, widely known as compressed sensing. This novel formulation leads to a sparse data inversion technique that effectively searches for relevant geologic patterns that can explain the available spatiotemporal data. We recently introduced a new model calibration framework by using sparse geologic dictionaries that are constructed from uncertain prior geologic models. Here, we first demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sparse geologic dictionaries for flexible and robust model calibration under prior geologic uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in using limited nonlinear production data to identify a consistent geologic scenario from a number of candidate scenarios, which is usually a challenging problem in geostatistical reservoir characterization. We then evaluate the feasibility of adopting this framework for field application. In particular, we present subsurface field model calibration applications in which sparse geologic dictionaries are learned from uncertain prior information on large-scale reservoir property descriptions. We consider two large-scale field case studies, the Brugges and the Norne field examples. We discuss the construction of geologic dictionaries for large-scale problems and present reduced-order methods to speed up the computational aspect of the algorithm for field applications. Our results show that sparse geologic dictionaries offer a promising approach for field-scale data integration applications where the trade-offs between model dimensionality, computation speed, and geologic model plausibility should be reconciled effectively.

  12. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-12-31

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  13. Surface compositions of carbon sorbents exposed to simulated low-rank coal flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes

    2005-06-01

    Bench-scale testing of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) sorption on selected activated carbon sorbents was conducted to develop a better understanding of the interaction among the sorbent, flue gas constituents, and Hg{sup 0}. The results of the fixed-bed testing under simulated lignite combustion flue gas composition for activated carbons showed some initial breakthrough followed by increased mercury (Hg) capture for up to {approximately}4.8 hr. After breakthrough, the Hg in the effluent stream was primarily in an oxidized form ({gt}90%). Aliquots of selected activated carbons were exposed to simulated flue gas containing Hg{sup 0} vapor for varying time intervals to explore surface chemistry changes as the initial breakthrough, Hg capture, and oxidation occurred. The samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine changes in the abundance and forms of sulfur, chlorine, oxygen, and nitrogen moieties as a result of interactions of flue gas components on the activated carbon surface during the sorption process. The data are best explained by a competition between the bound hydrogen chloride (HCl) and increasing sulfur (S(VI)) for a basic carbon binding site. Because loss of HCl is also coincident with Hg breakthrough or loss of the divalent Hg ion (Hg{sup 2+}), the competition of Hg{sup 2+} with S(VI) on the basic carbon site is also implied. Thus, the role of the acid gases in Hg capture and release can be explained. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Limited-angle reverse helical cone-beam CT for pipeline with low rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong; Zeng, Li

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, tomographic imaging of pipeline in service by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is studied. With the developed scanning strategy and image model, the quality of reconstructed image is improved. First, a limited-angle reverse helical scanning strategy based on C-arm computed tomography (C-arm CT) is developed for the projection data acquisition of pipeline in service. Then, an image model which considering the resemblance among slices of pipeline is developed. Finally, split Bregman method based algorithm is implemented in solving the model aforementioned. Preliminary results of simulation experiments show that the projection data acquisition strategy and reconstruction method are efficient and feasible, and our method is superior to Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART).

  15. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Barton

    2009-03-05

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass ended up in the solid waste collected in the external cyclone. The volatiles were almost all removed in the gasifier. While the average gas heating value of the collected gas products was 50 BTUs/scf or less, addition a of the second gas exit for combustion gases would increase that value by a factor of two or three. Other changes to the current design such as shortening the gasifier body and draft tube would lead to lower air use and shorter heating times. There was no evidence of steam reforming at the current operating temperature. Likewise there was no indication of significant tar production. Reconfiguration of the gasifier at the on farm site may yet yield more significant results that would better qualify this gasifier for small scale biomass operations.

  16. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  17. Removing sparse noise from hyperspectral images with sparse and low-rank penalties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Aggarwal, Hemant Kumar; Majumdar, Angshul

    2016-03-01

    In diffraction grating, at times, there are defective pixels on the focal plane array; this results in horizontal lines of corrupted pixels in some channels. Since only a few such pixels exist, the corruption/noise is sparse. Studies on sparse noise removal from hyperspectral noise are parsimonious. To remove such sparse noise, a prior work exploited the interband spectral correlation along with intraband spatial redundancy to yield a sparse representation in transform domains. We improve upon the prior technique. The intraband spatial redundancy is modeled as a sparse set of transform coefficients and the interband spectral correlation is modeled as a rank deficient matrix. The resulting optimization problem is solved using the split Bregman technique. Comparative experimental results show that our proposed approach is better than the previous one.

  18. Surface compositions of carbon sorbents exposed to simulated low-rank coal flue gases.

    PubMed

    Olson, Edwin S; Crocker, Charlene R; Benson, Steven A; Pavlish, John H; Holmes, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bench-scale testing of elemental mercury (Hg0) sorption on selected activated carbon sorbents was conducted to develop a better understanding of the interaction among the sorbent, flue gas constituents, and Hg0. The results of the fixed-bed testing under simulated lignite combustion flue gas composition for activated carbons showed some initial breakthrough followed by increased mercury (Hg) capture for up to approximately 4.8 hr. After breakthrough, the Hg in the effluent stream was primarily in an oxidized form (>90%). Aliquots of selected activated carbons were exposed to simulated flue gas containing Hg0 vapor for varying time intervals to explore surface chemistry changes as the initial breakthrough, Hg capture, and oxidation occurred. The samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine changes in the abundance and forms of sulfur, chlorine, oxygen, and nitrogen moieties as a result of interactions of flue gas components on the activated carbon surface during the sorption process. The data are best explained by a competition between the bound hydrogen chloride (HCl) and increasing sulfur [S(VI)] for a basic carbon binding site. Because loss of HCl is also coincident with Hg breakthrough or loss of the divalent Hg ion (Hg2+), the competition of Hg2+ with S(VI) on the basic carbon site is also implied. Thus, the role of the acid gases in Hg capture and release can be explained.

  19. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation in low-rank coal liquefaction systems using novel organometallic catalyst precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, S.R.; Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-12-31

    Oxygen functionalities, especially phenols, are undesirable components of coal derived liquids. Removal of these compounds from the products of coal liquefaction is required. A beneficial alternative would be the removal of these functionalities, or the prevention of their formation, during the liquefaction process. Organometallic precursors of Co, Ni and Mo have been studied as catalysts. To ascertain the hydrodeoxygenation properties of these catalysts under liquefaction conditions, model compounds were investigated. Anthrone, Dibutylmethyl phenol, dinaphthyl ether and xanthene were studied to provide a comparison of conversions of deoxygenated products. Studies of the deoxygenating abilities of these catalyst precursors in coal liquefaction systems have also been performed. Improvements in conversion and product quality are observed. Both these factors are dependent on the coal used.

  1. Physical Properties of Low-Rank Coal Samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagin, P. N.; Zoback, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the mechanical properties of coal samples from the Powder River Basin (Wyoming, USA) by conducting laboratory experiments. We present results from laboratory measurements of adsorption, static and dynamic elastic moduli, and permeability as a function of effective stress, pore pressure, and gas species. Notably, we observe that CO2 adsorption causes the static bulk modulus to decrease by a factor of two, while simultaneously causing the dynamic bulk modulus to increase by several percent. Permeability of both intact and powdered samples decreases by approximately an order of magnitude in the presence of CO2, which is consistent with observations of adsorption-related swelling of the coal matrix. Interestingly, CO2 appears to change the constitutive behavior of coal; helium saturated samples exhibit elastic behavior, while CO2 saturated samples exhibit viscous, anelastic behavior, as evidenced by creep strain observations.

  2. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... published in the Federal Register. You may obtain copies from the ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West... one of these equations: ER06NO97.003 (2) EM equals excess moisture percentage. TM equals total...

  3. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... published in the Federal Register. You may obtain copies from the ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West... one of these equations: ER06NO97.003 (2) EM equals excess moisture percentage. TM equals total...

  4. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... published in the Federal Register. You may obtain copies from the ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West... one of these equations: ER06NO97.003 (2) EM equals excess moisture percentage. TM equals total...

  5. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... published in the Federal Register. You may obtain copies from the ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West... one of these equations: ER06NO97.003 (2) EM equals excess moisture percentage. TM equals total...

  6. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Salesi, Mohsen; Koushki, Maryam; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokines play an important role in modulating the muscle’s metabolic and immunological responses to exercise. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated changes in the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-15 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as markers of inflammation, in athlete and non-athlete young men following eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) emphasized resistance exercise (RE). Patients and Methods: This study recruited 28 young males, 14 athletes and 14 non-athletes. Subjects completed two bouts of ECC and CON emphasized RE five days apart. Each bout included seven exercises that emphasized all major muscle groups with weight loads of 70% - 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for CON RE and 90% - 100% of 1RM for ECC RE. We analyzed subjects’ blood samples before and immediately after each bout of exercise to determine cytokine and hs-CRP serum levels according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between IL-15 serum levels before and after ECC and CON RE in non-athletes (P = 0.03). In athletes, IL-15 serum level only increased after ECC RE (P = 0.01), which was noted to be the highest degree of change in IL-15 levels in all subjects. For athletes, the hs-CRP levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The serum levels of both TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly down-regulated after ECC RE in non-athletes. Conclusions: These results indicated that fitness level and RE could modulate circulating levels of IL-15 and suggest the potential anti-inflammatory effects of IL-15 during RE. PMID:26448857

  7. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality.

  8. Fire Research at the National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, G.W.

    This discussion of fire research emphasizes test procedures and architectural element performance. Measurement and simulation of fire conditions establish "fire load" specifications, structural influences, and corridor surface lining data. Topics studied include--(1) fire endurance of building elements, (2) material flammability, (3) material…

  9. Amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis and umbilical cord entrapment: A case report emphasizing the value of evaluation of umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Chandra, Tushar; Rajeswari, Kathiah; Devi, Thangammal Kandasamy Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a rare congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts by fibrous amniotic bands in utero. The congenital anomalies seen in this syndrome vary widely and defects may be isolated or multiple and do not follow a specific pattern. Asymmetric distribution of defects is the hallmark of this syndrome. The diagnosis is difficult to make on ultrasound and relies on identification of amniotic bands. We report a case of amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis diagnosed on routine antenatal ultrasound scan in the second offspring of a recently diagnosed diabetic mother. The associated features were entrapment of umbilical cord, caudal adhesions and lower limb anomalies. Medical termination of pregnancy was done and all the fetal anomalies as well as umbilical cord abnormalities were confirmed. The importance of meticulous scanning to evaluate for amniotic bands and the umbilical cord in addition to the fetal structures is emphasized. PMID:25926929

  10. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A.; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  11. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce's disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.

  12. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce's disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  13. Structural mechanics research at the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The contributions of NASA's Langley Research Center in areas of structural mechanics were traced from its NACA origins in 1917 to the present. The developments in structural mechanics technology since 1940 were emphasized. A brief review of some current research topics were discussed as well as anticipated near-term research projects.

  14. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  15. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"…

  16. Melorheostosis of the Foot: A Case Report of A rare entity with a Review of Multimodality Imaging Emphasizing the Importance of Conventional Radiography in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Gulia; Shashikant, Juvekar; Ajay, Puri; Subhash, Desai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Melorheostosis is a benign bone dysplasia affecting predominantly the appendicular skeleton and adjoining soft tissues. The diagnosis can be established on plain radiographs alone and advanced imaging modalities can be avoided. We hereby report a rare case of melorheostosis affecting the foot with a review of the role of various imaging modalities in diagnosis of this rare bone dysplasia. Case Report: We present the case of a 29 years old man who was diagnosed with melorheostosis affecting his left foot. The patient presented to the outpatient department of our tertiary care referral hospital with complains of pain in the left ankle and foot with imaging and evaluation done at a primary center. The radiograph revealed an irregular, longitudinal extraosseous hyperostosis along the body of the calcaneum and the metacarpals which was consistent with the classical radiological description of melorheostosis. The CT, MRI and bone scan findings corroborated our primary diagnosis. Conclusion: The purpose of this case report is to review the features of this rare disorder affecting the foot, on multiple imaging modalities and emphasizing the role of conventional radiology in its diagnosis. PMID:27299136

  17. Research: Hyperactivity, Placement Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A diet that emphasizes the elimination of food containing artificial coloring and flavoring from meals served to hyperactive children has met with success in preliminary studies; college placement centers are advised to shift their emphasis from job research and counseling. (Author/MLF)

  18. Genealogy and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how genealogy can be used as a method for critical education research. As Foucault emphasized, genealogy is a method for identifying the way in which the individuals are subjectified through discourse. The genealogical analysis in the article defines two mayor tendencies in contemporary Danish pedagogy:…

  19. Researcher-Portraitists: An Exploration of Aesthetics and Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Leah Schoenberg; Reybold, L. Earle; Kidd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we critique the use of portraiture as a qualitative research method, emphasizing the relationship between the fundamental aspects of portraiture and the recurring themes of research quality associated with alternative qualitative inquiry. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a study of culturally responsive practices of three…

  20. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  1. Teaching Research as a Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anita S.

    Teaching college freshman composition students how to write a research paper can be used as a way of emphasizing reading and comprehension skills as well as helping them learn to test the conclusions of other research. Research work should require more than an introduction to the Dewey Decimal System and the tools of the research room, it should…

  2. The Foundations and Evolution of Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2008-01-01

    What is institutional research (IR)? One of the most widely definition of the institutional research is by Joe Saupe, who emphasized institutional research as a set of activities that support institutional planning, policy formation, and decision making. Institutional researchers and IR functions are embedded in the offices of strategic planning,…

  3. A Comparison of Western Business Instruction in China with U.S. Instruction: A Case Study of Perceived Program Emphases and Satisfaction Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla G.; Borgia, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This research presents a case study of a joint business degree program between an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB-I) accredited business school in the United States and a Chinese PhD granting partner university. The case investigates the impact of a U.S.-based curriculum, taught by U.S. instructors and…

  4. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  5. Refining the Pole-and-Collar Method of Restraint: Emphasizing the Use of Positive Training Techniques with Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research. PMID:24411781

  6. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  7. Human Aggression: Current Theories and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    The literature on human aggression is large and diverse. Some of it is theory-driven, but much of it dwells on solving social problems rather than on building general models and research paradigms. This paper examines some of the research programs and theoretical emphases in aggression research and presents theory convergences to see how these…

  8. Postdoctoral Researchers: Roles, Functions and Career Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns with postdoctoral research training and employment outcomes are growing at an international level. Recent studies of postdoctoral and other contract researchers in various countries emphasize common issues associated with these appointments, including the absence of any systematic definition of postdoctoral research positions, lack of…

  9. Alzheimer's disease: An overview of amyloid beta dependent pathogenesis and its therapeutic implications along with in silico approaches emphasizing the role of natural products.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2016-02-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in brain with subsequent formation of neuritic plaques leading to dementia. A number of therapeutic strategies targeted against Aβ depositions have been rigorously explored which provided successful results corresponding to the existing symptomatic treatments. However, at the same time, several failures corresponding to the disease altering therapies and drugs have also been observed due to potential drawbacks in understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, development of drug candidates and subsequent designing of clinical trials. Preclinical research, along with experimental and clinical studies, is continuously providing novel information which may reveal multi-target directed ligands and combination therapies for targeting Aβ. Thus, in view of the estimated increase in the number of AD patients globally, the present review attempts to summarize the available evidence dealing with various therapeutic approaches targeting Aβ, focusing specifically on pharmaceutical compounds under various stages of clinical trials. Furthermore, in view of a number of computational advances having significant impact in the field of computer aided drug design, we have also presented results of analysis of natural compounds as potential therapeutic molecules in preventing Aβ plaque formation using in silico approaches.

  10. Alzheimer's disease: An overview of amyloid beta dependent pathogenesis and its therapeutic implications along with in silico approaches emphasizing the role of natural products.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2016-02-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in brain with subsequent formation of neuritic plaques leading to dementia. A number of therapeutic strategies targeted against Aβ depositions have been rigorously explored which provided successful results corresponding to the existing symptomatic treatments. However, at the same time, several failures corresponding to the disease altering therapies and drugs have also been observed due to potential drawbacks in understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, development of drug candidates and subsequent designing of clinical trials. Preclinical research, along with experimental and clinical studies, is continuously providing novel information which may reveal multi-target directed ligands and combination therapies for targeting Aβ. Thus, in view of the estimated increase in the number of AD patients globally, the present review attempts to summarize the available evidence dealing with various therapeutic approaches targeting Aβ, focusing specifically on pharmaceutical compounds under various stages of clinical trials. Furthermore, in view of a number of computational advances having significant impact in the field of computer aided drug design, we have also presented results of analysis of natural compounds as potential therapeutic molecules in preventing Aβ plaque formation using in silico approaches. PMID:26810552

  11. NASA supported research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate programs in aerospace sciences are discussed. An interdisciplinary approach to aerospace science education is emphasized. Various research programs and scientific publications that are a direct result of NASA grants are listed.

  12. Cranial Morphology of the Late Oligocene Patagonian Notohippid Rhynchippus equinus Ameghino, 1897 (Mammalia, Notoungulata) with Emphases in Basicranial and Auditory Region.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gastón; Dozo, María Teresa; Gelfo, Javier N; Marani, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    provides potentially informative data for future research involving other representatives of the order.

  13. Cranial Morphology of the Late Oligocene Patagonian Notohippid Rhynchippus equinus Ameghino, 1897 (Mammalia, Notoungulata) with Emphases in Basicranial and Auditory Region

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Gastón; Dozo, María Teresa; Gelfo, Javier N.; Marani, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    and provides potentially informative data for future research involving other representatives of the order. PMID:27232883

  14. Cranial Morphology of the Late Oligocene Patagonian Notohippid Rhynchippus equinus Ameghino, 1897 (Mammalia, Notoungulata) with Emphases in Basicranial and Auditory Region.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gastón; Dozo, María Teresa; Gelfo, Javier N; Marani, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    provides potentially informative data for future research involving other representatives of the order. PMID:27232883

  15. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  16. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  17. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  18. Complexity Science and Educational Action Research: Toward a Pragmatics of Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent; Sumara, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors extend Phelps & Hase's (2002) explorations of the theoretical and methodological connections of complexity theory and action research by emphasizing complexity science as the study of learning systems. By emphasizing the importance of "complexity thinking", an argument is made for conceptualizing action research as a…

  19. To authorize the National Science Foundation to award grants for implementing or expanding research-based reforms in master's and doctoral level STEM education that emphasize preparation for diverse careers in the STEM workforce.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Giffords, Gabrielle [D-AZ-8

    2010-03-25

    04/30/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  1. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  2. Exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure for the recovery of multi-slice breast MRIs with reduced sampling error.

    PubMed

    Yin, X X; Ng, B W-H; Ramamohanarao, K; Baghai-Wadji, A; Abbott, D

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that, magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with sparsity representation in a transformed domain, e.g. spatial finite-differences (FD), or discrete cosine transform (DCT), can be restored from undersampled k-space via applying current compressive sampling theory. The paper presents a model-based method for the restoration of MRIs. The reduced-order model, in which a full-system-response is projected onto a subspace of lower dimensionality, has been used to accelerate image reconstruction by reducing the size of the involved linear system. In this paper, the singular value threshold (SVT) technique is applied as a denoising scheme to reduce and select the model order of the inverse Fourier transform image, and to restore multi-slice breast MRIs that have been compressively sampled in k-space. The restored MRIs with SVT for denoising show reduced sampling errors compared to the direct MRI restoration methods via spatial FD, or DCT. Compressive sampling is a technique for finding sparse solutions to underdetermined linear systems. The sparsity that is implicit in MRIs is to explore the solution to MRI reconstruction after transformation from significantly undersampled k-space. The challenge, however, is that, since some incoherent artifacts result from the random undersampling, noise-like interference is added to the image with sparse representation. These recovery algorithms in the literature are not capable of fully removing the artifacts. It is necessary to introduce a denoising procedure to improve the quality of image recovery. This paper applies a singular value threshold algorithm to reduce the model order of image basis functions, which allows further improvement of the quality of image reconstruction with removal of noise artifacts. The principle of the denoising scheme is to reconstruct the sparse MRI matrices optimally with a lower rank via selecting smaller number of dominant singular values. The singular value threshold algorithm is performed by minimizing the nuclear norm of difference between the sampled image and the recovered image. It has been illustrated that this algorithm improves the ability of previous image reconstruction algorithms to remove noise artifacts while significantly improving the quality of MRI recovery. PMID:22644257

  3. Integrating flotation to improve the performance of an HMC circuit treating a low-rank fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, H.; Polat, M.

    2005-11-01

    One reason that heavy media cyclone (HMC) circuits suffer from the inadvertent loss of magnetite and fine coal is the presence of nonmagnetic material in the magnetic separator feed. In this study, flotation was applied to the undersize fractions of the HMC drain-and-rinse screens to minimize these problems. These fractions, which contain 17.9% nonmagnetic material, are currently sent to magnetic separators and the nonmagnetic portion from the separators contains 39.1% ash. Applying flotation resulted in a clean coal product with an ash content of 8.7% and a calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg. The refuse from flotation, which will be sent to the magnetic separators, contains 7.7% nonmagnetics.

  4. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Andrew; Goyal, Amit; McCabe, Kevin; Gangwal, Santosh

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  5. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  6. Reading Interests vs. Reading Preferences: Using the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Katherine L.

    1983-01-01

    Notes that the terms "interest" and "preference" are often used interchangeably in reading research. Points out that both the sources and uses of data are clearer when the differences in the two terms are emphasized. (FL)

  7. A survey of metallurgical research on several actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1993-11-01

    A Los Alamos perspective on metallurgical research on neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium is presented. Alloying behaviors of these metals are discussed. Metal fabrication technologies, principally for plutonium, are emphasized.

  8. Gifted Education: Changing Conceptions, Emphases and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dona J.; Dai, David Yun

    2014-01-01

    Gifted education is leading an interdisciplinary paradigm shift moving education out of its historic role of entrenching systemic inequities. It is a crucible for pioneering investigations of optimal human development and provides a vehicle for increasing social equity. We review changing conceptions of intelligence, motivation and creativity, and…

  9. Designing Writing Exercises to Emphasize Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this presentation, the author stresses the importance of writing exercises to educate students in certain disciplines. The objective is to make the students become personally involved so that their educational experience is more geared towards a learning paradigm instead of a teaching paradigm. In addition to accumulating a wealth of knowledge the students also refine and expand their writing skills and abilities. One should be pragmatic in one's approach. In other words, the instructor should have a clear understanding of the skills the students need to develop. It is important to define the target and implementation mode while designing writing exercises. Effective learning can thus be combined with enthusiasm in classroom instructional development. It is extremely important that all undergraduate engineering students are provided with an adequate understanding and thorough background of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. At present, undergraduate students at Miami University of Ohio do not acquire any knowledge pertaining to this particular topic. The author proposes that a topic based on NEPA be introduced in the Fluid Mechanics Course at a Junior Level. The author believes that there is an absolute and urgent need for introducing the students to the fact that various documents such as EA (Environmental Assessment), EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), FONSI (Finding Of No Significant Impact), are an essential part of present-day workplace environment. In this presentation the author talks about introducing NEPA in the classroom. More than a decade ago Harvard University Professor Dr. Howard Gardner suggested the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Dr. Gardner proposed that eight different Intelligences accounted for the development of human potential (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 2000). Leading scholars in the area of Cognitive Science and Educational Methodologies also agree and have concluded that it is essential that students need to be taught in a learning environment that enables them to acquire real-world problem-solving skills (Saxe, 1988; Senge, 1990; Sims, 1995). Educators should not allow the students to wonder whether they have been learning anything that would actually serve them in the workplace, upon graduation. (Barr and Tagg, 1995). Howard Gardner's list of Eight Intelligences is given below. 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") 2. Logical intelligence ("number smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") The author has tried to examine students' learning development, behavior and exploration using some of the above eight Intelligences. In this presentation, he provides data he has collected while teaching certain selected courses (Narayanan, 2007). References Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic,1983 Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993. Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000. Barr, R. B., and Tagg, J. (1995, November/December). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, 13-24. Narayanan, Mysore (2007). Assessment of Perceptual Modality Styles. Proceedings of ASEE 2007 Annual Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.

  10. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  11. Themes to Emphasize in the Geography Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    There are major themes in geography, which all teachers should incorporate into the social studies. These themes assist students to organize information and relate relevant ideas. Teachers need to study and experiment with using a set of structural ideas to facilitate student learning. Otherwise, learning may comprise of isolated facts, concepts,…

  12. An Electronics Course Emphasizing Circuit Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Haven E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one-quarter introductory electronics course in which the students use a variety of inexpensive integrated circuits to design and construct a large number of useful circuits. Presents the subject matter of the course in three parts: linear circuits, digital circuits, and more complex circuits. (GS)

  13. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  14. Emphasizing history in communicating scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Communication to the public of the reality of anthropogenic climate change has been less successful than many expect. The scientists themselves, the media, special interest groups, or the complexity of modern society are often blamed. However a look at past scientific paradigm shifts, in particular the Copernican revolution and the discovery of relativity, shows close parallels with the modern situation. Common aspects include the gradual formation of a scientific consensus in advance of the public; a politically partisan backlash against the new theory that, paradoxically, occurs after the arrival of conclusive supporting evidence; the prevalence of convincing but invalid pseudo-scientific counterarguments; the general failure of "debates" to increase public acceptance of the scientists' position; and, in the case of the heliocentric solar system, a very long time scale to final public acceptance (> 100 years). Greater emphasis on the lessons from such historical parallels, and on the success so far of consensus predictions of global warming made up to and including the first IPCC report in 1990, might be one useful way of enhancing the public's trust in science and scientists and thereby accelerate acceptance of uncomfortable scientific findings.

  15. Fulbright Emphasizes Diversity among Its Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The Fulbright Program is one of the most successful fellowship programs around. About 1,500 students and 1,300 scholars from the United States and abroad are studying and working on Fulbrights this academic year. But the U.S. State Department, which oversees the program, has been concerned in recent years about the lack of diversity among American…

  16. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  17. [Infantile autism, psychoanalytic research and scientific status].

    PubMed

    Golse, B

    1993-01-01

    After emphasizing the very modern aspect of psychoanalytic epistemology, the author shows how psychoanalytical research applied to the issue of infantile autism concentrates the maximum of difficulties and is therefore vulnerable to critics from the "hard" sciences. Some tentative answers are proposed in reference to the narrative sciences. The author then suggests various tracks for the psychoanalytical research in the field of infantile autism.

  18. Basic Research in Information Science in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambaud, S.; Le Coadic, Y. F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the goals of French academic research policy in the field of information science, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Areas of research highlighted include communication, telecommunications, co-word analysis in scientific and technical documents, media, and statistical methods for the study of social sciences. (LRW)

  19. The Student-Faculty Gerontological Research Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; Wilson, Cindy C.

    1988-01-01

    Examines faculty/student relationship in required research projects in aging. Discusses joint research project undertaken by Social Work and Health Sciences faculty and students at one university. Presents implications of experience for integration of faculty and student efforts, emphasizing teamwork rather than free student labor. (Author/NB)

  20. Conducting Naturalistic Research on Teaching: Some Procedural Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunoff, William J.; Ward, Beatrice A.

    1980-01-01

    Defines naturalistic research as research that occurs in a field setting and that emphasizes hypothesis generation rather than hypothesis testing. Discusses essential characteristics and requirements of such research, the utilization of quantitative and qualitative data, establishment of validity of research procedures and data generated, and the…

  1. Research Training at the John F. Kennedy Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Warren, Steven F.

    1996-01-01

    The Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University emphasizes research on mental retardation and human development; there is a parallel commitment to research training for undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral candidates. This article reviews the history of the Kennedy Center's research training,…

  2. Studying Teacher Preparation: The Questions That Drive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Maria Villegas, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of "research as historically situated social practice," which emphasizes that researchers' interests, commitments, and social experiences…

  3. Development of Action Research in China: Review and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Katrina Yan

    2011-01-01

    Action research in China during late 1970s and 1980s was influenced by positivist scientific research, believing the purpose of doing action research is to explore the general law of education. It was carried out through educational experimentations emphasizing the control of the experimental conditions. Starting from 1990s, action research in…

  4. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  5. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research for the Study of Health Management Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Woike, Mary; Tokars, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation on vehicle integrated propulsion research results and planning. This research emphasizes the testing of advanced health management sensors and diagnostics in an aircraft engine that is operated through multiple baseline and fault conditions.

  6. Perspectives on research reactor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Brian; Dolan, Thomas J.; Laraia, Michele; Ritchie, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The current state of research reactors around the world is summarized using information from the Research Reactor Database. Some current trends of research reactors in advanced and developing countries are described. The need for strategic planning is emphasized, and elements of a typical strategic plan are presented. The problems of reactor lifetime extension, nuclear fuel cycle issues, and decommissioning are briefly discussed. It is concluded that research reactors will continue to be vital elements of the nuclear infrastructures in many countries, and that the IAEA can help countries solve their problems of utilization, safety, lifetime extension, fuel cycle, and decommissioning.

  7. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  8. Programmatic research to increase the effectiveness of health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Palmgreen, Philip C; Donohew, Lewis

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews a long program of research designed to investigate ways to increase the effectiveness of televised antidrug public service announcements. The review highlights the importance of audience targeting (adolescent and young adult high sensation seekers) and message design (message sensation value) in campaign research. It also emphasizes the role of theory and evaluation in programmatic research.

  9. Environmental Design: Research and Practice, Volumes One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, William J., Ed.

    One hundred and fifty papers deal with the current range of concerns in the emergent field of environmental design research and emphasize the relating of research to practice. The papers focus on (1) original research in the social and behavioral sciences with direct relevance to environmental design, planning, and management; and (2) new methods…

  10. Contemporary Genetics for Gender Researchers: Not Your Grandma's Genetics Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Rachel H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary…

  11. Suggested drilling research tasks for the Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    A brief summary discussion of drilling, drilling research and the role of the government in drilling research is presented. Specific research and development areas recommended for federal consideration are listed. The technical nature of the identified tasks is emphasized. The Appendices present the factual basis for the discussion and recommendations. Numerous references are noted in the Appendices.

  12. Rethinking Texts: Narrative and the Construction of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A.; Colyar, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitative research texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…

  13. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to enable students to think clearly and critically about the scientific process of research. The author emphasizes that the ability to think clearly about research methods, reason through complex problems, and evaluate published research are important in today's changing educational landscape. Students using this book will…

  14. Participatory Research in an Arts Integration Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Kathryn M.; Judd-Glossy, Laura; Ihorn, Shasta

    2012-01-01

    Drama for Schools (DFS) is an arts integration professional development program rooted in critical pedagogy and constructivism that emphasizes partnerships between school districts and a major research university. As a part of the research initiative embedded in this professional development program, DFS began an Arts integration Research Teacher…

  15. Techniques in teaching statistics : linking research production and research use.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Moyano, I .; Smith, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of closing the 'research-practice gap,' the authors extend evidence-based principles to statistics instruction in social science graduate education. The authors employ a Delphi method to survey experienced statistics instructors to identify teaching techniques to overcome the challenges inherent in teaching statistics to students enrolled in practitioner-oriented master's degree programs. Among the teaching techniques identi?ed as essential are using real-life examples, requiring data collection exercises, and emphasizing interpretation rather than results. Building on existing research, preliminary interviews, and the ?ndings from the study, the authors develop a model describing antecedents to the strength of the link between research and practice.

  16. Advances in Writing Research, Volume One: Children's Early Writing Development. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Marcia, Ed.

    Recent research on children learning to write, coming from a mix of disciplines (English education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and rhetoric), is described in this volume. The introduction, by Marcia Farr, emphasizes how the research contributes to understanding (1) of research methodology and theoretical frameworks, and (2) of…

  17. Too Much Emphasis on Research? An Empirical Examination of the Relationship between Research and Teaching in Multitasking Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Hee-Je; Kim, Do Han

    2015-01-01

    While the public is concerned that emphasizing research performance among university faculty results in inadequate attention to undergraduate teaching, research on the relationship between research and teaching in higher education has failed to confirm or deny the validity of this concern. To empirically test this popular concern, we examined how…

  18. Prospects for research on semiconductor materials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert W., Jr.; Zavada, John M.; Spielvogel, Bernard F.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop, Prospects for Research on Semiconductor Materials Surfaces, was held at the Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C. on November 12, 1986. It was sponsored by ARO and organized by Robert Shaw, John Zavada, and Bernard Spielvogel. The workshop emphasized experiments to probe surface chemistry of semiconductor materials with the eventual goal of improved devices. Participants came from university, industrial, and Army laboratories and discussed current basic research activities, identified neglected research areas with high potential payoff, and developed specific research recommendations. This report provides the summary notes of the workshop.

  19. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) preparation of low-rank coals; application of liquefaction processes to low-rank coals; (2) slagging fixed-bed gasification; (3) atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coal; (4) ash fouling and combustion modification for low-rank coal; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization and disposal; and (9) exploratory research.

  20. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts

  1. Child Abuse: From Research to Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay

    Reviewed is research on the etiology and treatment of child abuse, specifically on three basic theoretical models: A psychiatric model emphasizing the individual abuser's role; a sociological model stressing the impact of social factors; and a model which focuses on the child's role in stimulating his own maltreatment. The second part of the paper…

  2. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  3. Positivistic Educational Administration Research, Theory, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    Logical positivism, or logical empiricism, emphasizes rationality, especially preferring the verification of facts over speculation. This report clearly places traditional research methodology in education in the arena of logical positivism. Since reality is seen as ordered and objective, assumptions are made about people and the gathering of…

  4. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water resources…

  5. Goal-Oriented Research: An Institution's Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Richard R.

    1978-01-01

    The University of Toledo has applied a systems approach to the design of an academic program evaluation model. The systems approach seems to be the most appropriate because it emphasizes the whole system instead of component systems. Selected evaluation models are reviewed, Toledo's research paradigm is described, and the function of a university…

  6. Energy research strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Research and development is an essential element of economic prosperity and a traditional source of strength for the U.S. economy. During the past two decades, the way of introducing technological developments into the national economy has changed steadily. Previously, industry did most long-term technology development and some basic research with private funding. Today, the Nation`s industry relies mostly on federally-funded research to provide the knowledge base that leads to new technologies and economic growth. In the 1980s, U.S. firms lost major technology markets to foreign competition. In response, many firms increased emphasis on technology development for near term payoff while decreasing long term research for new technology. The purpose of the Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to provide basic research and technology development that triggers and drives economic development and helps maintain U.S. world leadership in science. We do so through programs of basic and applied research that support the Department`s energy, environmental and national defense missions and that provide the foundation for technical advancement. We do so by emphasizing research that maintains our world leadership in science, mathematics, and engineering and through partnerships with universities, National Laboratories, and industries across the Nation.

  7. Project for Minorities and Women in Research. Final Report of a Model to Increase Participation of Minorities and Women in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Theresa H.

    A 3-year project was established at the University of Texas at Austin to enhance the educational research skills of minorities and women. The project emphasized four areas: (1) support of participants' research efforts through financial aid for research activities, training seminars, opportunities to engage in research projects, access to support…

  8. Marine biosurfaces research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  9. Contradictory results in interferon research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several reports on immunologically related interferon research, both in the areas of basic science and clinical research, are briefly reviewed, and it is noted that in many cases the results obtained are contradictory. It is argued, however, that the contradictory results are not surprising since interferon is a biological response modifier and has been known to produce opposite results even when the same interferon prepartion is used. It is emphasized that dosage, timing, route, and other experimental conditions are essential factors in planning immunological studies with interferon. Careful planning of future experiments with interferon should be required to prevent the possible generation of effects that are opposite to those expected.

  10. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  11. What Is "Research" in Adult Education? Issues in Methodological Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David C.

    The range of methodological choices appropriate to adult education research is surveyed in this study. The most central consideration is the conflict between emphases on quantitative techniques and various approaches to researchable areas which are not grounded in positivistic/empirical designs. Skills, talents, defects, and ideologies reflected…

  12. The Research System in the 1980's. Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, John M., Ed.

    U.S. research institutions are undergoing significant changes from patterns established in the decade following World War II. Declining undergraduate enrollments are predicted to lead to "steady-state" universities; federal policy is emphasizing industry-university research cooperation and calling for a decreased federal role in the direct support…

  13. Fostering Reading through Intrinsic Motivation: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Marilyn Z.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a two-year action research study conducted at a high school that transformed reluctant students into lifelong readers by emphasizing intrinsic motivation as opposed to programs that use rewards to motivate students to read. Explains how to design an action research question. (LRW)

  14. Strengthening Undergraduate Social Work Research: Models and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Linda S.; Avant, Freddie

    2008-01-01

    There is debate in the social work education community regarding the structure and depth of undergraduate research. This article emphasizes the importance of a commitment to undergraduate research in social work education. Because generalist practice is the first level of professional practice, students in baccalaureate programs need to be…

  15. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  16. Sensory Aids Research Project - Clarke School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Arthur

    Described is a program of research into sensory aids for the deaf, emphasizing research on factors involved in the effective use of sensory aids rather than evaluation of particular devices. Aspects of the program are the development of a programed testing and training unit, the control of fundamental voice frequency using visual feedback, and…

  17. Stimulating Partnership between Research and Practice: Insights from Evaluations of the Canadian Strategic Grant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Simon, Marielle

    To enhance the relevance and usefulness of social-science research, large-scale research grant-allocation policies are emphasizing, if not requiring, the formation of research partnerships between researchers and members of the community of practice. The emergence of a revisionist conception of traditional dissemination and utilization of…

  18. Measuring Hard-to-Measure Student Competencies: A Research and Development Plan. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Hamilton, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to prepare students for college, careers, and civic engagement have traditionally emphasized academic skills, but a growing body of research suggests that interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies, such as communication and resilience, are important predictors of postsecondary success and citizenship. One of the major challenges in…

  19. Research Visibility: Manpower Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    Thirteen research reviews in this issue pertain to manpower research organized under these topics: (1) Manpower and Youth, treating youth unemployment and the youth labor market, (2) Manpower Needs, including an analysis of manpower research since World War II, health manpower planning, the shortage of skilled and technical workers, a projection…

  20. "Hands-On" Undergraduate Research Opportunities in the Life Sciences: Preparing the Next Generation of Biological Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Denson, Nida; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of scholars have publicly criticized large research universities for failing to provide undergraduate students with the skills and abilities needed to succeed both in life and in the workforce. At the heart of this criticism is the concern that research institutions have de-emphasized teaching by increasing the size…

  1. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  2. Insights gained from aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Casada, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, D.L.; Gunther, W.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Jacobus, M.J.; Jarrell, D.B.; Kryter, R.C.; Magelby, H.L.; Murphy, G.A.; Subudhi, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has implemented hardware-oriented engineering research programs to identify and resolve technical issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) in operating nuclear power plants. This report provides a summary of those research results which have been compiled and published in NUREGS and related technical reports. The systems, components and structures that have been studied are organized by alphabetical order. The research results summary on the SSCs is followed by an assessment guide to emphasize inspection techniques which may be useful for detecting aging degradation in nuclear power plants. This report will be updated periodically to reflect new research results on these or other SSCs.

  3. Morphological heterogeneity of oral salivary gland carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 41 cases with long term follow-up emphasizing the overlapping spectrum of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stephan; Müller, Maximilian; Ettl, Tobias; Stockmann, Philipp; Zenk, Johannes; Agaimy, Abbas

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed 41 oral salivary gland carcinomas from consecutive 290 salivary gland carcinoma database (14%) with emphasis on the histological spectrum and clinical outcome of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). The cohort included 14 ACCs, 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), 8 PLGAs, 3 adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified and 2 acinic cell carcinomas. Mean age was 48, 58 and 61 yrs for ACC, MEC and PLGA, respectively. Eight patients (19.5%) died of tumor at a mean interval of 66.5 months. ACC and PLGA showed similar mean age, gender distribution, predominant palatal localization, nodal metastasis, perineural invasion and MIB-1 index. However, ACC tended to show higher tumor stage and residual tumor (R1/R2) more frequently than PLGA, but this was statistically not significant. ACC and PLGA showed overlapping architectural patterns. However, ACCs displayed well organized basal-luminal differentiation, highlighted by CK5/CK7 immunostaining. In contrast, PLGA showed a disorganized histological and immunohistological pattern. C-Kit expression (CD117) was common in ACC, generally mirroring that of CK7 and virtually lacking in PLGA. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a similar clinical course for ACC and PLGA with 5 years survivals of 87% and 80%, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed on all 290 salivary carcinomas confirmed the specificity of the translocation t (11; 19) for MEC and its absence in all other carcinomas including ACC and PLGA. Our results emphasize the diversity of oral salivary gland carcinomas and the overlapping clinicopathological features of ACC and PLGA.

  4. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  5. Research priorities in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Geocadin, R G; Bleck, T P; Koroshetz, W J; Robertson, C S; Zaidat, O O; LeRoux, P D; Wijman, C A C; Suarez, J I

    2012-02-01

    This summary of the last session of the First Neurocritical Care Research Conference reviews the discussions about research priorities in neurocritical care. The first presentation reviewed current projects funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health and potential models to follow including an independent Neurocritical Care Network or the creation of such a network with the goal of collaborating with already existing ones. Experienced neurointensivists then presented their views on the most common and important research questions that need to be answered and investigated in the field. Finally, utility of clinical registries was discussed emphasizing their importance as hypothesis generators. During the group discussion, interests in comparative effectiveness research, the use of physiological endpoints from monitoring and alternate trial design were expressed.

  6. Research priorities in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Geocadin, R G; Bleck, T P; Koroshetz, W J; Robertson, C S; Zaidat, O O; LeRoux, P D; Wijman, C A C; Suarez, J I

    2012-02-01

    This summary of the last session of the First Neurocritical Care Research Conference reviews the discussions about research priorities in neurocritical care. The first presentation reviewed current projects funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health and potential models to follow including an independent Neurocritical Care Network or the creation of such a network with the goal of collaborating with already existing ones. Experienced neurointensivists then presented their views on the most common and important research questions that need to be answered and investigated in the field. Finally, utility of clinical registries was discussed emphasizing their importance as hypothesis generators. During the group discussion, interests in comparative effectiveness research, the use of physiological endpoints from monitoring and alternate trial design were expressed. PMID:21792752

  7. Fundamental combustion and diagnostics research at Sandia. Progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gusinow, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    The combustion research emphasizes basic research into fundamental problems associated with combustion. The overall program addresses detailed chemistry of combustion, fundamental processes associated with laminar and turbulent flames, development of research techniques specifically applicable to combustion environments, and operation of the user-oriented Combustion Research Facility. The first section of this report contains activities in Combustion Research, the second section contains activities in Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy, and the third section contains activities in Diagnostics Research.

  8. Research in Secondary English, 1912-2011: Historical Continuities and Discontinuities in the NCTE Imprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Jory; Burns, Leslie David

    2011-01-01

    This study identified historical continuities and discontinuities across a century of secondary research published in "English Journal" (1912-1966) and "Research in the Teaching of English" (1967-2011). It highlights considerable methodological continuity across six decades of "English Journal" and some shifts in research emphases that tended to…

  9. Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Parenting: Research through the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes research from the 1980s on topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Emphasizes research about antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior because they are key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Notes advances in data and methods and highlights research gaps.…

  10. Research Training Fellowship Program (Formerly Military Medicine and Allied Sciences Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washington, DC.

    This document provides an outline of the Research Training Fellowship Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Emphasizing the scientific foundations of military medicine, the course aims at preparing medical corps officers for careers in laboratory research or clinical investigation and teaching. The intent is to give officers who…

  11. Reciprocal Engagement: The Process of Pedagogical Innovation among Faculty at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Universities: very high research activity (RU/VH) faculty often emphasize research compared with teaching or service in their work. However, some faculty still intentionally endeavor to be excellent teachers by innovating pedagogy to enhance student learning. This qualitative study focused on developing a theory to describe the process…

  12. Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health…

  13. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  14. Remarriage and Stepfamily Research in the 1980s: Increased Interest in an Old Family Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that nearly all existing empirical work on stepfamilies has been published in 1980s. Describes demographic context for this work and surveys research on stepchildren, remarriage, and stepfamily functioning. Identifies problems in extant research and suggests areas for future research. Emphasizes explicit and implicit theories that guided…

  15. Embedding Research in a Field-Based Module through Peer Review and Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Dawn T.

    2011-01-01

    A case study is presented of embedding research in a final year undergraduate, field-based, physical geography module. The approach is holistic, whereby research-based learning activities simulate the full life cycle of research from inception through to peer review and publication. The learning, teaching and assessment strategy emphasizes the…

  16. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    Research News - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis ... Email Home Research Research News & Progress Research News Research News Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Read ...

  17. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  18. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  19. Biostatistical collaboration in medical research.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, J H

    1990-03-01

    There has been an explosive growth in the development of statistical methodology over the past several decades. Research in both medicine and public health, in which the involvement of biostatisticians has increased dramatically during this period, has been both a beneficiary of this new methodology as well as a source of new problems. The contributions of statistical methodology in design, implementation, and analysis as they relate to the role that biostatistics and biostatisticians now play in the field of medical research are addressed. We comment on: (1) the acceptance by the medical community that biostatistical concepts are an integral part of sound medical research; (2) the sometimes unrealistic expectations placed on biostatistics and biostatisticians given limited resources and/or limited control; (3) some controversies among biostatisticians; and (4) the need for emphasizing the design and implementation phases of medical investigations.

  20. NASA's rotorcraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.; Miller, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available icing technology to support the needs and requirements of industry for all weather aircraft designs. While a majority of the technology being developed is viewed to be generic (i.e., appropriate to all vehicle classes), vehicle specific emphasis is being placed on the helicopter due to its unique icing problems. In particular, some of the considerations for rotorcraft icing are indicated. The NASA icing research program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: ice protection concepts and icing simulation (analytical and experimental). The NASA research efforts related to rotorcraft icing in these two technology areas will be reviewed.

  1. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  2. Mackenzie's puzzle--the cornerstone of teaching and research in general practice.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, J C

    1997-10-01

    The new-found popularity of generalism as a political force has emphasized the need to clarify the essential philosophy that underpins its practice, teaching, and research. Drawing on the example of Sir James Mackenzie, the author seeks to clarify certain essential issues that need to be emphasized if we are to promote and develop general practice as a distinct academic discipline. Dissatisfaction, uncertainty about our role, and continuing contact with real people seems to be essential to continuing creativity.

  3. Annual Research Briefs: 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the 1995 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR). In 1995 CTR continued its concentration on the development and application of large-eddy simulation to complex flows, development of novel modeling concepts for engineering computations in the Reynolds averaged framework, and turbulent combustion. In large-eddy simulation, a number of numerical and experimental issues have surfaced which are being addressed. The first group of reports in this volume are on large-eddy simulation. A key finding in this area was the revelation of possibly significant numerical errors that may overwhelm the effects of the subgrid-scale model. We also commissioned a new experiment to support the LES validation studies. The remaining articles in this report are concerned with Reynolds averaged modeling, studies of turbulence physics and flow generated sound, combustion, and simulation techniques. Fundamental studies of turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations which started at CTR will continue to be emphasized. These studies and their counterparts carried out during the summer programs have had a noticeable impact on combustion research world wide.

  4. RESEARCH TO SUPPORT RESTORATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief programmatic overview will be presented to highlight research and technical support efforts underway at the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division in Ada, Oklahoma. Details from a case study will be presented to emphasize the technical challenges encountered du...

  5. A guide to research in NASA history, 7th edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, A.

    1984-01-01

    A guide to resources available for research in NASA history is presented. NASA Headquarters and the Washington area are emphasized, but some information is included on the NASA centers scattered across the country. A brief NASA-oriented introduction is provided.

  6. Dust cyclone research in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to meet the demand for ever more efficient dust cyclones continues after some eighty years. Recent trends emphasize design optimization through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and testing design subtleties not modeled by semi-empirical equations. Improvements to current best available ...

  7. Students as Action Research Partners: A New Zealand Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Emily; Bishop, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Student voice has long been emphasized as a key component of developmentally responsive middle level education. For decades, researchers and educators alike have urged consideration of students' perspectives in the design of curriculum to improve learning opportunities. The purpose of this article is to present a New Zealand example of a…

  8. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  9. The Internet Handbook for Writers, Researchers, and Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Mary; Stilborne, Linda; McAdams, Melinda; Hyatt, Laurel

    This books provides a basic introduction to the World Wide Web, e-mail, and other Internet functions, emphasizing the research and writing processes. It includes an in-depth look at search techniques, strategies for organizing information, online services, news services, writing help, and writing for an online environment, and covers such related…

  10. Criteria Used for Qualitative Research in the Refereeing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaruba, Karen E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the standards used in refereeing scholarly journal articles to judge qualitative research methods. Examination of reviewers' critiques of 57 manuscripts submitted to the "Review of Higher Education" revealed 7 themes that reviewers focused on, and also found reviewers emphasized good writing and clear articulation of all…

  11. Parental Employment and Family Life: Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; Parcel, Toby L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines recent research regarding how parents' employment experiences affect their own well-being, their marital relationships, and the interaction patterns in their families, with consequences for children. Emphasizes contributions of these theoretical approaches: new home economics, work-family role conflict perspectives, and work socialization…

  12. Issues in Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Greg, Ed.; Gilligan, Robbie, Ed.

    This book assesses the current state of foster care in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the pressures which have shaped it, and the challenges it faces. Emphasizing the importance of fostering within a coherent child care policy, the contributors examine the latest research into key areas of foster care, and explore how practice can be improved.…

  13. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  14. International News Communication Research: A Meta-Analytic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    A survey of "Journalism Quarterly,""Gazette,""Public Opinion Quarterly,""Journal of Broadcasting," and "Journal of Communication" reveals that the early research on international news flow or coverage emphasized two aspects of news: (1) how the United States was portrayed in the media of other nations, and (2) what the effect of American society…

  15. Leadership: Improving Its Effectiveness. Research Action Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This brief summarizes the major findings of significant research studies dealing with different leadership behaviors and strategies for increasing leadership effectiveness. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness emphasizes that a leader's effectiveness is determined by how well his leadership style fits the specific…

  16. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  17. The Real/Ideal Research Project: Fostering Students' Emotional Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The Real/Ideal Research Project is comprised of three components, ordered in purposeful succession, designed to emphasize the interconnectedness of emotion, reason, and action. In the first component, students compose a personal narrative focused on a specific inequity they (have) experience(d) or witnessed. Here, students are encouraged to…

  18. A Critique of the Learning Concept in Political Socialization Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas J.; Scioli, Frank P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The omission of the learning concept has resulted from a methodological approach which emphasizes what people have learned and not how they learned. A specific research strategy based upon operant learning theory principles as applied to the acquisition of verbal behavior is suggested. (Author)

  19. Teaching Research Methodology and Writing in the Emerald City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry D.

    The major goal of graduate education in speech communication is to advance knowledge about human communication through research and by training minds. Graduate education differs from undergraduate education because it emphasizes not only what we know, but how we come to know. Often, however, graduate education is just seen as being an extension of…

  20. Teacher-Researcher Collaboration as a Human Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; DeWater, Lezlie Salvatore; Kawasaki, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors focus on a multiyear teacher-researcher collaboration. They analyze the collaboration as oriented toward "phronesis," or wise action used to solve practical problems. The three practical problems they emphasize in this chapter are: (1) How did they use their work together to improve teaching and learning? (2) How did…

  1. Commentary: When Worlds Collide: Research and Know-Nothingism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Emphasizes need for continued high-level fundamental bio-medical research as opposed to the current edict to curb National Institute of Health-sponsored pre-doctoral and post-doctoral training and fellowship programs as well as the career development awards. (EB)

  2. Malaria Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malaria > Research Malaria Understanding Research NIAID Role Basic Biology Prevention and Control Strategies Strategic Partnerships and Research ... the malaria parasite. Related Links Global Research​ Vector Biology International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) ...

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

  4. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  5. Role of health research in support of EPA's regulatory programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, L.

    1990-06-01

    The document highlights the ongoing role of environmental health research in support of the Environmental Protection Agency's regulatory programs. It summarizes the key legislation, emphasizing the uses of health research, and identifies the most important research needs for each program office. The document shows the key role played by environmental health research in EPA's regulatory activities and points out that certain research needs are common across all the programs.

  6. Research Results Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    A Highly Efficient Route for Selective Phenol Hydrogenation to Cyclohexanone A Novel Mechanism Employed by KSHV to Maintain the Latent Infection was Revealed Breakthrough in the Synthesis of Interconnected NW/NT and NT/NW/NT Heterojunctions with Branched Topology GABA Transporter-1 Activity Modulates Hippocampal Theta Oscillation and Theta Burst Stimulation-Induced Long-Term Potentiation Meta-analysis of Vitamin D, Calcium and the Prevention of Breast Cancer New Findings on the Origin of TrpRS PKCd Regulates Cortical Radial Migration by Stabilizing the Cdk5 Activator P35 PKU Research Team Publishes Papers on Inhalation Exposure to Pollutant and Cancer Risk Progress of the Research on Arbitrarily Elliptical Invisibility Cloaks An Advance in Complete Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures

  7. Research design.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-10-01

    The development of a good research design permits us to obtain the best research data possible. From the experimental question to the research hypothesis and data collection variables, we can begin to consider the optimal research design. Details pertaining to the selection of the research design are considered within and very much in relation with the knowledge of the researcher and the support of his research group.

  8. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief. PMID:15601505

  9. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief.

  10. Prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM): a divide-and-conquer matrix decomposition model with low-rank coherence and sparse variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.

    2012-10-01

    4D spatiotemporal images can be naturally divided into the background component, which is temporally coherent, and the motion component, which is spatially sparse, up to the proper basis. And this divide-and-conquer decomposition is an effective sparse representation of 4D images for the purpose of image reconstruction. Based on this prior fact, we introduce Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM): the temporal coherence of the background component is enforced by the rank regularization and the spatial sparsity of the motion component is promoted by the sparsity regularization. In particular, the framelet based PRISM with the multi-resolution and multi-filtered structure will be utilized for image reconstruction. The superior performance of PRISM will be demonstrated with a few new medical imaging applications, including 4D cone beam CT, spiral MRI, and fused MRI-CT multi-modality.

  11. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. PMID:20153633

  12. Effects of Adsorbed Gases on the Physical and Transport Properties of Low-Rank Coal, PRB, WY: Implications for Carbon Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zoback, M. D.; Hagin, P. N.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is injected into unminable coalbeds, it has the potential to enhance the amount of methane production (ECBM) and to geologically sequester CO2 as an adsorbed phase. In this study we study the effects of adsorption of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, on the mechanical and flow properties of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) on both intact and crushed samples. The coal samples were vacuum dried before each test, then saturated by each test gas at a series of either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress until steady state was reached. Thus, the amount of adsorption can be measured as a function of pore pressure Permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Preliminary results show that the adsorption of CO2 is twice as large as CH4, and almost four times that of N2. Hysteresis is observed among pure component adsorption and desorption isotherms which are characterized Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Permeability decreases with increasing effective stress for He, CH4 and CO2. At constant effective stress, permeability decreases when the saturating gas changes from He to CH4 and CO2. Hysteresis of permeability with increasing and decreasing effective stress is not observed in crushed samples. The coal swells when CH4 displaces He and swells more when CO2 displaces He. Viscoplastic creep behavior is observed in the presence of CH4 and CO2 with both intact and crushed samples, which may affect maintaining permeability for long-term CO2 injection. Adsorption Isotherm of Crushed Coal Sample, WY Permeability as a function of effective stress with different gas saturation

  13. Views of Translational Research from a Somewhat Translational Scientist

    PubMed Central

    Talman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    This review arose from a talk entitled “Identifying Targets” and given by the author at EB2011 at the invitation of the American Federation for Medical Research (AFMR). The presentation was part of the AFMR workshop entitled “Keys for Translation: Science and Strategy” and focused on identifying clinically relevant targets as a result of observations made during basic scientific studies. The review emphasizes that targets do not have to be the aim that drives basic discovery, but communication between the basic scientist and clinical investigators may aid recognition of such targets and their translation to clinical applications. Using one line of investigator-initiated research from his own laboratory as an example, the author emphasizes that basic discovery must be hypothesis driven and allowed to follow its logical sequence. Finding treatments, while always an aim of biomedical research, may arise as a result of basic studies that were not originally aimed at a target of translational research. PMID:22781556

  14. Research on Sustainable Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruehan, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    The international steel community is faced with the challenge of developing processes that will make steel production more sustainable in the future. Specifically, processes that produce less CO2 and less net waste materials and emissions and that consume less energy are required. This article outlines where energy consumption and CO2 emissions are high and can be reduced. Reductions can be achieved by incremental improvements to existing processes or by a “break-through innovative process”; both strategies are examined. Since most of the energy consumption and CO2 generation occur in ironmaking, research in this area is emphasized. Research on controlling the cohesive zone in the blast furnace, improving the final stages of reduction in direct reduction processes, the use of biomass, and other innovative processes for ironmaking are reviewed. In oxygen steelmaking, improved postcombustion (PC) to allow for more scrap melting is examined. Postcombustion and slag foaming in the electric arc furnace (EAF) in order to reduce energy is reviewed.

  15. Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research.

  16. Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research. PMID:23228721

  17. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  18. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  19. Progress In Indium Phosphide Solar Cell Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.

    1989-11-01

    Following a short history of the previous terrestrial program, progress is reviewed, emphasizing the use of InP solar cells in space. State-of-the-art cells have been processed by open and closed tube diffusion, OMCVD and ion-implantation and DC magnetron sputtering. Air mass zero total area efficiencies near 19% were achieved and computer modelling studies indicate that efficiencies over 21% are feasible. Radiation effects studies in both the laboratory and space are described and a comparision made between the radiation resistance of InP, GaAs and Si. Computer modelling studies are described emphasizing the behavior of InP concentrator cells at high concentration and elevated temperature with applica-tion to both the Cassegranian and SLATS concentrator systems. Pro-duction cells are discussed including their intended use to power a spacecraft scheduled for launch in 1990. Several potentially fruit-ful areas are suggested for future research.

  20. Changing Relations between Universities and Research Policy and Industry: Catalyst or Deterrent to Unity of Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Henry

    European institutions of higher education must let changing economic conditions play a bigger role in their decisions about what research to emphasize. As costs escalate, constraints on government spending force a shift of funding priorities toward research of more strategic value to industry. There are many ways that universities and industry…