Science.gov

Sample records for research general practice

  1. Generalizing and Skepticism: Bringing Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David A.; Ellsworth, Jacob L.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical arguments rely on examples without necessarily addressing all cases. Students should be skeptical of empirical evidence and should seek more secure arguments for generalizations, such as those that explain why a generalization is true for all cases. Generalizing on the basis of patterns in data is an important mathematical practice;…

  2. Doing qualitative research in general practice: methodological utility and engagement.

    PubMed

    Jaye, Chrystal

    2002-10-01

    General practice uses an eclectic range of research methodology. This includes increasing reliance upon qualitative research methods. There seem to be two distinct treatments of qualitative research within primary care and, in particular, within general practice research. The first is characterized by a purely utilitarian and technical focus, using a qualitative method because it is the most appropriate means of realizing the aims of the research, while the second is characterized by in-depth engagement with the philosophical and paradigmatic aspects of qualitative methodology. In-depth engagement with methodology and theory, and theory building, is an important aspect of masterate and doctoral research within social sciences such as education and anthropology, and in the discipline of nursing, but has not been a feature of qualitative research in medicine. A practical difficulty encountered within postgraduate programmes such as the one in which the author teaches is that when innovative qualitative techniques are used by GPs in their postgraduate research dissertations and theses, it is often beyond GP examiners' own knowledge and experience, yet it fails to measure up to standards established in social sciences, particularly in sociology and anthropology where in-depth reflexive engagement with the theory and philosophy of qualitative methodology is expected. This paper suggests that the value of in-depth engagement with methodology when conducting qualitative research results in creative and innovative ways of conducting research that are consonant with the nature of general practice itself, and strengthens research findings. Therefore, as teachers of research methods and supervisors of research theses, it is important to encourage students conducting qualitative research to engage fully with theoretical and methodological issues.

  3. Research in general practice: a survey of incentives and disincentives for research participation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment rates of general practitioners (GPs) to do research vary widely. This may be related to the ability of a study to incorporate incentives for GPs and minimise barriers to participation. Method A convenience sample of 30 GPs, ten each from the Sydney intervention and control groups Ageing in General Practice ‘Detection and Management of Dementia’ project (GP project) and 10 GPs who had refused participation, were recruited to determine incentives and barriers to participating in research. GPs completed the 11-item ‘Meeting the challenges of research in general practice: general practitioner questionnaire’ (GP survey) between months 15 and 24 of the GP project, and received brief qualitative interviews from a research GP to clarify responses where possible. Results The most important incentives the 30 GPs gave for participating in the project were a desire to update knowledge (endorsed by 70%), to help patients (70%), and altruism (60%). Lack of time (43%) was the main barrier. GPs also commented on excessive paperwork and an inadequate explanation of research. Conclusions While a desire to update knowledge and help patients as well as altruism were incentives, time burden was the primary barrier and was likely related to extensive paperwork. Future recruitment may be improved by minimising time burden, making studies simpler with online data entry, offering remuneration and using a GP recruiter. PMID:24427184

  4. [Renaissance of general practice].

    PubMed

    Braun, R N; Fink, W; Kamenski, G

    2002-01-01

    Special research work has taught that general practice (family medicine) is a specialization of its own. It requires specific education and vocational training. As far as universities and administrative bodies have accepted it no doctor can start practising family medicine unless he has passed a vocational training of many years duration. That fact together with a successful continued research concerning applied general practice should initiate a true renaissance of general practice.

  5. Barriers to the development of collaborative research in general practice: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, R W; Woodward, N J; Carter, Y H

    2001-01-01

    General practice-based research activity is increasing rapidly, particularly for large, collaborative, multi-centre studies. We conducted semi-structured interviews with general practitioners and other professionals at practices in the East London and the City Health Authority area, to investigate the difficulties presented by becoming involved in these studies. Interviewees' main concerns were: time constraints; team motivation; the perception that external researchers have unrealistic expectations; the need for good communications throughout and, specifically, for good feedback from these researchers. PMID:11255904

  6. Introducing undergraduate medical teaching into general practice: an action research study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andy; Robling, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Following the publication of Tomorrow's Doctors and as a result of increasing numbers of students recruited to medical school it is necessary to involve more general practitioners (family physicians) in undergraduate medical education. Students have responded positively regarding experiences in general practices with a broad spectrum of clinical conditions to be seen and greater involvement in clinical decision-making. This action research study followed a small group general practice in South Wales through the required preparation for undergraduate medical education and its first year of teaching. Preparatory work for the practice focused mainly on summarizing patient notes, setting up a practice library and arranging accommodation for the students. Members of the Primary Health Care Team (PHCT) found that having students in the practice gave them a sense of achievement and enhanced self-worth. Individuals within the practice felt more confident in their professional role and the team ethic within the practice was strengthened. Doctors' anxieties regarding the adequacy of their clinical skills proved unfounded. Patients were reported to feel more included in their care and to have enjoyed hearing their condition being discussed with the students. Students valued the one-to-one teaching, seeing common illnesses and a variety of consulting styles. It is hoped that this paper will be of value to those responsible for recruiting GP practices into undergraduate teaching. It demonstrates benefits for the primary health care team in terms of improved morale and sense of professional self-worth. Patients felt more involved in their care. Generalization from these findings is limited by only one practice having been involved. Undergraduate teaching offers advantages, particularly in terms of professional self-esteem and team morale.

  7. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, β blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practices—for example, INR results in

  8. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ian; Evans, Stephen; Rawlins, Michael D; Smeeth, Liam; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Wexler, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Background The juvenile form of Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disorder. There are no population-based estimates of either its incidence or prevalence in any population in the world. The present study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of juvenile HD in the UK and to examine the range of pharmacological treatments used in its management. Method The records of individuals under the age of 21 who had recorded diagnoses of HD were retrieved from the General Practice Research Database from 1990 through 2010. From these data estimates of incidence and prevalence were made as well as the specific treatments used in the treatment of its physical and psychological manifestations. Results 12 incident and 21 prevalent patients with juvenile HD were identified. The 21 prevalent cases included the 12 incident cases. The minimum population-based estimate of incidence is 0.70 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.22) per million patient-years. The minimum estimate of prevalence is 6.77/million (95% CI 5.60 to 8.12) per million patient-years. Patients were most frequently prescribed antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics and treatments for motor abnormalities. Conclusions In the UK, juvenile HD is an extremely rare and complex disorder. The prescribing data demonstrate that the clinical management of juvenile HD is undertaken with no formal evidence base for the efficacy or safety of the treatments used. Research into the safety and efficacy of appropriate therapies is urgently required to offset the haphazard nature of prescribing. Multinational collaboration will be necessary to enrol sufficient numbers. Exploratory studies, though, should begin now. PMID:23558730

  9. Head lice diagnosed in general practice in the West Midlands between 1993 and 2000: a survey using the General Practice Research Database.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Smith, G; Heatlie, H; Bashford, J; Ashcroft, D; Millson, D

    2003-06-01

    The potential of the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) for communicable disease surveillance was explored using head lice as an example. All diagnoses of head lice and prescriptions for parasiticidal agents from 1993 to 2000 in the West Midlands were analysed. Diagnoses reached a peak of 28.2 per 1,000 patient years at risk and total prescriptions reached a peak of 27.1 per 1,000 patient years at risk in 1997. Malathion and permethrin were prescribed most often. The proportion of further parasiticidal prescriptions issued within 30 days of the initial prescription increased to a peak of 11.5% of prescriptions in 1997. The ratio of the same:different further prescriptions changed during the study period, reaching a high of 5:1 in 2000. These trends are mirrored by the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Weekly Returns Service and Prescribing Analysis and Cost (PACT) data. Use of GPRD provides additional insights into patient data, particularly on prescribing, that would not be available from other sources.

  10. Health and treatment priorities in patients with multimorbidity: report on a workshop from the European General Practice Network meeting 'Research on multimorbidity in general practice'.

    PubMed

    Junius-Walker, Ulrike; Voigt, Isabel; Wrede, Jennifer; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Lazic, Djurdjica; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2010-03-01

    Setting health and treatment priorities is necessary when caring for multiple and complex patient issues. This is already done in the doctor-patient consultation-yet implicitly rather than explicitly. The aim of this European General Practice Network workshop was to advance a consultation approach that deals with shared priority setting. The workshop was divided into three parts: (1) how to gain a comprehensive health overview for patients with multiple problems as a basis for priority setting; (2) how to establish priorities considering patient and doctor perspectives; and (3) how to practice a communication style that achieves shared priority setting. The workshop participants preferred to gain information on patients' health status using documentations from patient records rather than conducting systematic assessments. The group emphasized that medical as well as everyday life problems need to be considered when determining priorities, a procedure that requires time and resources not readily available in daily practice. Existing skills for person-centred communication with patients should be applied in order to agree on priorities. Overall it became apparent how challenging it is to arrange and prioritize an array of health problems in a consultation with patients. Existing concepts augmented by innovative systematic methods may be the way forward.

  11. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  12. Researching Practice and Practicing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPardo, Anne

    2011-01-01

    When works of teacher scholars were recognized with major National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) research awards, and the sections and conferences instituted research initiatives of their own, many were filled with the soaring hope that a new synergy was in the making. The "Research in the Teaching of English" (RTE) Alan C. Purves Award,…

  13. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 5: Needs and implications for future research and policy.

    PubMed

    van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-12-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and highlights related needs and implications for future research and policy. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In three subsequent, articles the results for the six core competencies of the European Definition of GP/FM were presented. This article formulates the common aims for further research and appropriate research methodologies, based on the missing evidence and research gaps identified form the comprehensive literature review. In addition, implications of this research agenda for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers, research organizations, patients and policy makers are presented. The concept of six core competencies should be abandoned in favour of a model with four dimensions, including clinical, person related, community oriented and management aspects. Future research and policy should consider more the involvement and rights of patients; more attention should be given to how new treatments or technologies are effectively translated into routine patient care, in particular primary care. There is a need for a European ethics board. The promotion of GP/FM research demands a good infrastructure in each country, including access to literature and databases, appropriate funding and training possibilities.

  14. Using Propensity Scores in Educational Research: General Principles and Practical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Kurlaender, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers frequently study the impact of treatments or interventions on educational outcomes. However, when observational or quasiexperimental data are used for such investigations, selection bias can adversely impact researchers' abilities to make causal inferences about treatment effects. One way to deal with selection bias is to…

  15. Aggregation, Validation, and Generalization of Qualitative Data - Methodological and Practical Research Strategies Illustrated by the Research Process of an empirically Based Typology.

    PubMed

    Weis, Daniel; Willems, Helmut

    2016-12-12

    The article deals with the question of how aggregated data which allow for generalizable insights can be generated from single-case based qualitative investigations. Thereby, two central challenges of qualitative social research are outlined: First, researchers must ensure that the single-case data can be aggregated and condensed so that new collective structures can be detected. Second, they must apply methods and practices to allow for the generalization of the results beyond the specific study. In the following, we demonstrate how and under what conditions these challenges can be addressed in research practice. To this end, the research process of the construction of an empirically based typology is described. A qualitative study, conducted within the framework of the Luxembourg Youth Report, is used to illustrate this process. Specifically, strategies are presented which increase the likelihood of generalizability or transferability of the results, while also highlighting their limitations.

  16. Taxonomy of difficulties in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M. D.; Leclère, H.; Bordage, G.

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire combining qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compile a taxonomy of the difficulties experienced by general practitioners in their practices. Difficulties are grouped in 11 categories, ranging from clinical diagnosis to physicians' personal feelings. The taxonomy can be used as a guide for planning medical education or as a starting point for further research in general practice. PMID:8324406

  17. Involving migrants in the development of guidelines for communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations: a participatory learning and action research project

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; MacFarlane, Anne; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Bonsenge Bokanga, Jean Samuel; Manuela De Almeida Silva, Maria; Ogbebor, Florence; Mierzejewska, Aga; Nnadi, Lovina; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research was to involve migrants and other key stakeholders in a participatory dialogue to develop a guideline for enhancing communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations. In this paper, we focus on findings about the use of formal versus informal interpreters because dialogues about these issues emerged as central to the identification of recommendations for best practice. Design This qualitative case study involved a Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research methodology. Participants The sample comprised 80 stakeholders: 51 from migrant communities; 15 general practitioners (GPs) and general practice staff; 7 established migrants as peer researchers; 5 formal, trained interpreters; and 2 service planners from the national health authority. Setting Galway, Ireland. Results There was 100% consensus across stakeholder groups that while informal interpreters have uses for migrants and general practice staff, they are not considered acceptable as best practice. There was also 100% consensus that formal interpreters who are trained and working as per a professional code of practice are acceptable as best practice. Conclusions Policymakers and service planners need to work in partnership with service providers and migrants to progress the implementation of professional, trained interpreters as a routine way of working in general practice. PMID:26391628

  18. Training for general practice: a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, H S; Levin, J B

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To compare current vocational training in general practice with that ascertained by a survey in 1980; (b) to compare the training of trainees in formal training schemes with that of trainees arranging their own hospital and general practice posts. DESIGN--National questionnaire survey of United Kingdom and armed services trainees who were in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Questionnaires were distributed by course organisers. SETTING--Research project set up after an ad hoc meeting of trainees at the 1988 national trainee conference. SUBJECTS--2132 Of the 2281 trainees (93%) known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. RESULTS--1657 Trainees returned the questionnaires, representing 73% of all trainees known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Between 1980 and 1989 there were significant improvements in the trainee year, and there was also evidence of improvements in general practice study release courses. There was no evidence of improvement in other aspects of training. General practice trainees spent an average of three years in junior hospital posts, which provided very little opportunity for study related to general practice. Training received during tenure of hospital posts differed significantly between trainees in formal schemes and those arranging their own hospital posts. During the trainee year training was almost the same for those in formal schemes and those arranging their own posts. Regions varied significantly in virtually all aspects of general practice training. CONCLUSIONS--The trainee year could be improved further by enforcing the guidelines of the Joint Committee on Postgraduate Training for General Practice. The poor training in junior hospital posts reflected the low priority that training is generally given during tenure of these posts. A higher proportion of general practice trainees should be attached to vocational training schemes. More hospital trainees could attend general practice study release

  19. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  20. Negotiating Practice Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julkunen, Ilse; Uggerhoj, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of carrying out practice research in social service organizations is often matched by the complexity of teaching future social work practitioners to use and engage in practice research. To appreciate the scope of the teaching challenge, it is important to reflect on the evolving definition of practice research and issues involved in…

  1. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolic disease. Analyses of the UK General Practice Research Database and the UK Mediplus database.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R D; Lawrenson, R A; Todd, J C; Williams, T J; MacRae, K

    1999-01-01

    The results of three independent studies of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and oral contraceptives are reviewed together with two further cohort/case-control studies which we conducted using the MediPlus and General Practice Research Database (GPRD) databases. These latter studies jointly involved 395 cases and uniquely examined the association between VTE and individual combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations. The two studies yielded very similar results. Crude incidence rates for idiopathic VTE of 4.6 and 3.8 were found per 10,000 exposed woman-years (EWY), in the MediPlus and GPRD studies respectively. Incidence rates increased markedly with age, and in both databases the rates amongst users of levonorgestrel products were lower than those amongst users of desogestrel and gestodene products. A case fatality rate of 3% and a mortality rate of 10 per million EWY were estimated. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for confounding variables and different COC formulations. Both database studies indicated an excess of current smokers and women with high body mass indices amongst cases. There were significantly more cases with asthma in the GPRD study and cases who had been using their COC for less than a year. No statistically significant differences between COC formulations were found in the analyses where controls were matched to cases by practice and year of birth in both the MediPlus and GPRD studies. In the GPRD study we also ran a study where controls were matched by practice and within 5 year age bands. In this study the OR were consistently higher for the newer or 'third generation' products than when controls were matched by year of birth. However only the acne formulation/OC containing cyproterone acetate and 35 microg ethinyloestradiol yielded a significant OR of 2.3. It may be concluded that improvements in prescribing are paramount as the results strongly indicate that overweight women and those who smoke are at a greater risk of VTE. Further

  2. Educational Researchers and Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velzen, Joke H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about an…

  3. The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 3. Results: person centred care, comprehensive and holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-06-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In a second article, the results for the two core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' were presented. This article reflects on the three core competencies, which deal with person related aspects of GP/FM, i.e. 'person centred care', 'comprehensive approach' and 'holistic approach'. Though there is an important body of opinion papers and (non-systematic) reviews, all person related aspects remain poorly defined and researched. Validated instruments to measure these competencies are lacking. Concerning patient-centredness, most research examined patient and doctor preferences and experiences. Studies on comprehensiveness mostly focus on prevention/care of specific diseases. For all domains, there has been limited research conducted on its implications or outcomes.

  4. General practitioner psychological management of common emotional problems (II): A research agenda for the development of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed Central

    Cape, J; Barker, C; Buszewicz, M; Pistrang, N

    2000-01-01

    The majority of patients with common emotional or psychological problems are treated solely by general practitioners (GPs). Such treatment frequently includes some form of psychological management within the consultation, whether limited to listening and discussion or involving more specific techniques. This paper sets out a research agenda for the development of effective approaches to GP psychological management. Evidence is reviewed on three core components of all psychological treatments: establishing a positive therapeutic relationship, developing a shared understanding of the problem, and promoting change in behaviour, thoughts or emotions. The application of these components in GP psychological management is outlined and methodological issues in the development and evaluation of GP management approaches are discussed. Since the number of patients with emotional problems seen by each GP is so large, the population effects of even small improvements in psychological management would be sizeable. PMID:10897540

  5. Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris

    1994-01-01

    Comments on the articles presented in this issue with respect to their implications for classroom practices. Stresses that in this issue, the researchers describe how social context factors (such as adult viewpoints and adult-child interaction patterns) and physical context factors (such as variations in classroom space-time organization and…

  6. General practice: professional preparation for a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Collins, Nick; Litt, John; Moore, Michael; Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly

    2006-11-20

    General practice will play a key role in both prevention and management of an influenza pandemic. Australian pandemic plans acknowledge a role for general practice, but there are few published data addressing the issues that general practitioners and their practices will face in dealing with such a crisis. The outcome will revolve around preparation in three key areas: Definition of the role of general practice within a broad primary care pandemic response, and adequate preparation within general practices so they can play that role well. Planning exercises and forums must include GPs, and rehearsals must include practical experience for general practices and their staff. Local Divisions of General Practice and GP practices can advocate for this, can define their role, and can prepare by using pandemic preparedness checklists; Definition and enactment of communication strategies to facilitate transfer of useful clinical and administrative data from practices and rapid dissemination of information into the community via general practice; Resource provision, which should be centrally funded but locally distributed, with personal protective equipment, vaccines and antivirals readily available for distribution. Resources must include support for human resource management to ensure appropriate health care professionals reach areas of workforce demand. Administrative, clinical and financial resources must be available to train GPs and practices in pandemic awareness and response.

  7. Integrating research into operational practice.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair

    2015-08-05

    Research and development can be classified into three categories: technology adoption, technology extension, and knowledge and technology creation. In general, technology adoption is embedded in operational forensic science laboratory practice but the latter two categories require partnerships with industry and/or academia both to conduct the research and implement the outcomes. In a 2012 survey, Australian and New Zealand forensic science laboratories identified a number of 'roadblocks' to undertaking research and operationalizing research outcomes. These included insufficient time and funding, a lack of in-house research experience and the absence of a tangible research culture. Allied to this is that, increasingly, forensic science research is conducted in a 'commercial in confidence' environment and the outcomes are not readily or cost-effectively available to be integrated into operational forensic science laboratories. The paper is predominantly reflective of the current situation in Australia and New Zealand.

  8. Integrating research into operational practice

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Research and development can be classified into three categories: technology adoption, technology extension, and knowledge and technology creation. In general, technology adoption is embedded in operational forensic science laboratory practice but the latter two categories require partnerships with industry and/or academia both to conduct the research and implement the outcomes. In a 2012 survey, Australian and New Zealand forensic science laboratories identified a number of ‘roadblocks’ to undertaking research and operationalizing research outcomes. These included insufficient time and funding, a lack of in-house research experience and the absence of a tangible research culture. Allied to this is that, increasingly, forensic science research is conducted in a ‘commercial in confidence’ environment and the outcomes are not readily or cost-effectively available to be integrated into operational forensic science laboratories. The paper is predominantly reflective of the current situation in Australia and New Zealand PMID:26101286

  9. Conducting randomized trials in general practice: methodological and practical issues.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, E; King, M; Lloyd, M; Bower, P; Friedli, K

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of the outcome of health services technologies is a requirement for their efficient provision in clinical practice. The most reliable evidence for treatment efficacy comes from randomized trials. Randomized trials in general practice pose particular methodological and practical difficulties. In this paper, we discuss how best to plan and manage a clinical trial in this setting. We base our discussion on our experience of conducting randomized trials to evaluate the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy in general practice. PMID:10818663

  10. [Psychotic disorders: special aspects in general practice].

    PubMed

    Kurmann, Julius

    2015-09-30

    In emergency situations the general practitioner is often the first professional contact psychotic patients have. The following article conveys basic knowledge about psychotic disorders and their clinical features typically seen in general practice.

  11. [Psychotropic drugs in general practice].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alexander

    2014-06-18

    The article presents a user-friendly overview of psychotropic drugs which are helpful for the prescription in a primary care practice. The author recommends to get familiar with just a small selection of drugs first and second line. This means to know well about their effectiveness, short-and long-term side effects, interactions with other drugs and the necessary monitoring that should be done.

  12. Techniques and Materials Used by General Dentists during Root Canal Treatment Procedures: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Eleazer, Paul D.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Reams, G.J.; Law, A.S.; Benjamin, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about which materials and techniques general dentists (GDs) use during root canal procedures. The objectives were to: (1) quantify GD’s use of specific endodontic armamentarium; (2) quantify inappropriate use; and (3) ascertain if inappropriate use is associated with dentists’ practice characteristics. Methods GDs in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network reported in a questionnaire materials and techniques they use during root canal procedures. Results 1,490 (87%) of eligible GDs participated. Most (93%; n=1,383) used sodium hypochlorite to irrigate. The most commonly used sealers were zinc oxide-eugenol (43%) and resin (40%), followed by calcium hydroxide (26%). A majority (62%; n=920) used a compaction obturation technique; 36% (n=534) used a carrier-based method. Most (96%; n=1,423) used gutta percha as a filler; 5% used paste fillers. Few used irrigants (n=46), sealers (n=4), techniques (n=49) or fillers (n=10) that investigators classified as ‘inappropriate’. Conclusions GDs use a broad range of endodontic techniques and materials, often adapting to newer technologies as they become available. Few GDs use armamentarium that the investigators classified as inappropriate. Practical Implications GDs use many types of endodontic techniques and materials, but only a very small percentage is not appropriate. PMID:26562726

  13. Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Busby, John; Schroeder, Knut; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hay, Alastair; Hollingworth, William

    2013-01-01

    Background Laboratory tests are extensively used for diagnosis and monitoring in UK primary care. Test usage by GPs, and associated costs, have grown substantially in recent years. Aim This study aimed to quantify temporal growth and geographic variation in utilisation of laboratory tests. Design and setting Retrospective cohort study using data from general practices in the UK. Method Data from the General Practice Research Database, including patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory test results, were used to estimate rates of change in utilisation between 2005 and 2009, and identify tests with greatest inter-regional variation, by fitting random-effects Poisson regression models. The study also investigated indications for test requests, using diagnoses and symptoms recorded in the 2 weeks before each test. Results Around 660 000 tests were recorded in 230 000 person-years of follow-up. Test use increased by 24.2%, from 23 872 to 29 644 tests per 10 000 person-years, between 2005 and 2009. Tests with the largest increases were faecal occult blood (121%) and C-reactive protein (86%). There was substantial geographic variation in test utilisation; GPs in some regions requested tests such as plasma viscosity and cardiac enzymes at a rate more than three times the national average. Conclusion Increases in the use of laboratory tests have substantial resource implications. Rapid increases in particular tests may be supported by evidence-based guidelines, but these are often vague about who should be tested, how often, and for how long. Substantial regional variation in test use may reflect uncertainty about diagnostic accuracy and appropriate indications for the laboratory test. There is a need for further research on the diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic impact, and effect on patient health outcomes of the most rapidly increasing and geographically variable tests. PMID:23540482

  14. Outcomes of endodontic therapy in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Susan D.; Horowitz, Allan J.; Man, Martin; Wu, Hongyu; Foran, Denise; Vena, Donald A.; Collie, Damon; Matthews, Abigail G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Craig, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors undertook a study involving members of a dental practice-based research network to determine the outcome and factors associated with success and failure of endodontic therapy. Methods Members in participating practices (practitioner-investigators [P-Is]) invited the enrollment of all patients seeking treatment in the practice who had undergone primary endodontic therapy and restoration in a permanent tooth three to five years previously. If a patient had more than one tooth so treated, the P-I selected as the index tooth the tooth treated earliest during the three- to five-year period. The authors excluded from the study any teeth that served as abutments for removable partial dentures or overdentures, third molars and teeth undergoing active orthodontic endodontic therapy. The primary outcome was retention of the index tooth. Secondary outcomes, in addition to extraction, that defined failure included clinical or radiographic evidence (or both) of periapical pathosis, endodontic retreatment or pain on percussion. Results P-Is in 64 network practices enrolled 1,312 patients with a mean (standard deviation) time to follow-up of 3.9 (0.6) years. During that period, 3.3 percent of the index teeth were extracted, 2.2 percent underwent retreatment, 3.6 percent had pain on percussion and 10.6 percent had periapical radiolucencies for a combined failure rate of 19.1 percent. The presence of preoperative periapical radiolucency with a diagnosis of either irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp was associated with failure after multivariate analysis, as were multiple canals, male sex and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that failure rates for endodontic therapy are higher than previously reported in general practices, according to results of studies based on dental insurance claims data. Clinical Implications The results of this study can help guide the practitioner in deciding the most appropriate course of therapy for

  15. The research critique. General criteria for evaluating a research report.

    PubMed

    Beck, C T

    1990-01-01

    General criteria for evaluating a research report are addressed. This outline of criteria can be used as a guide for nurses in critiquing research studies. A sample research report is summarized followed by a critique of the study. Readers have an opportunity to practice critiquing by doing their own analyses before reading the critique presented in the article.

  16. General practice fundholding: progress to date.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R D; Wilton, P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cornerstone of the National Health Service (NHS) reforms was the establishment of an internal market, which separated purchasing and providing roles. As purchasers of care, general practice fundholders were seen as a pivotal part of the 'new patient-led NHS', which was intended to lead to improved cost-containment and cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and patient choice and empowerment. AIM: To review published evidence of the extent to which these objectives may have been achieved over the past six years. METHOD: Keyword search of on-line databases (MEDLINE and Econ-lit) from 1990 to 1996, plus manual search of references within those articles identified. RESULTS: In the absence of any formal evaluation of fundholding, it is difficult to assess the overall success of this reform. However, in terms of cost-containment and cost-effectiveness, there is mixed evidence. In some areas, such as prescribing, the evidence suggests cost-savings, although the evidence is less clear on reductions or changes in referrals. There is also evidence that suggests that improvements in prescribing may have been achieved at substantial additional administration and transaction costs. With respect to quality of care, the evidence suggests that, although quality in the procedural aspects of health provision has improved, there is little evidence about how health outcomes may have been affected. In terms of patient choice and empowerment, the evidence suggests that, whilst general practitioner choice of secondary providers has improved, little progress has been made with regard to increased consumer choice. CONCLUSION: Evidence concerning the success or otherwise of general practice fundholding over the past six years is incomplete and mixed. The major deficiency concerns any effect on health outcomes that may be the result of fundholding. Until such research is conducted, the jury will have to remain out on whether fundholding has secured improved efficiency in the

  17. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  18. Linking HRD Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on linking human resource development (HRD) theory and practice. "Partnership Research: Ensuring More Useful HRD Collaborations" (Ronald L. Jacobs), which proceeds from the premise that most HRD research has limited impact on practice because research problems are usually generated devoid of a…

  19. Risk of cholestatic liver disease associated with flucloxacillin and flucloxacillin prescribing habits in the UK: Cohort study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Russmann, Stefan; Kaye, James A; Jick, Susan S; Jick, Hershel

    2005-01-01

    Aims To provide additional quantification of the risk of flucloxacillin-related liver disease and to describe time trends in flucloxacillin prescribing in the UK. Methods This was a cohort study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. We identified patients with a first-time prescription for flucloxacillin or, for comparison, oxytetracycline from 1992 to 2002 and cases who developed clinically documented cholestatic liver disease of uncertain origin after first-time use of these drugs. We also determined the annual frequency of first-time use of flucloxacillin from 1991 to 2000. Results We identified 283 097 and 131 189 first-time users of flucloxacillin and oxytetracycline, respectively. The risk of cholestatic liver disease per 100 000 first-time users was 8.5 (95% CI 5.4, 12.6) in the 1–45 days and 1.8 (95% CI 0.6, 4.1) in the 46–90 days after starting flucloxacillin, and 0.8 (95% CI 0.02, 4.3) in the 1–45 days after starting oxytetracycline. The frequency of first-time use of flucloxacillin remained stable between 1991 and 2000. Conclusions Flucloxacillin is now established as an important cause of cholestatic liver disease. Warnings about the risk have not had an impact on prescribing practices in the UK, where it remains the predominantly prescribed antistaphylococcal oral antibiotic. This situation in the UK is in sharp contrast to regulatory actions and changes in prescribing habits in Australia after identification of the risk of cholestasis associated with flucloxacillin, and to the predominant use of the alternative drug dicloxacillin in the USA. PMID:15963097

  20. The Practice of Research on Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    A major focus for research in preparation programs should be on the practice of administration. For some time, the preparation of educational administrators has been rooted in the traditional liberal arts approach--the approach of a discipline--as a model for preparing the practitioner. Emphasis has shifted to the concept of the accurate…

  1. Collaborative relationships in general practice projects.

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Adam, J

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on a national study of collaborative relationships between general practitioners and other health care providers in 20 Division of General Practice projects. It argues that health care organisations will need to collaborate with others in the future and that much can be learnt from the literature on collaborative networks in business and community organisations. Successful collaborations between general practitioners and others were found to be consistent with a model of collaboration in 'under-organised domains', where pre-existing links between organisations are weak. Lessons are identified from the study to assist future collaborative ventures involving general practitioners.

  2. Healthcare assistants in general practice: practical and conceptual issues of skill-mix change.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Sara; Dale, Jeremy

    2008-02-01

    The emergence of healthcare assistants (HCAs) in general practice raises questions about roles and responsibilities, patients' acceptance, cost-effectiveness, patient safety and delegation, training and competence, workforce development, and professional identity. There has been minimal research into the role of HCAs and their experiences, as well as those of other staff working with HCAs in general practice. Lessons may be learned from their role and evidence of their effectiveness in hospital settings. Such research highlights blurred and contested role boundaries and threats to professional identity, which have implications for teamwork, quality of patient care, and patient safety. In this paper it is argued that transferability of evidence from hospital settings to the context of general practice cannot be assumed. Drawing on the limited research in general practice, the challenges and benefits of developing the HCA role in general practice are discussed. It is suggested that in the context of changing skill-mix models, viewing roles as fluid and dynamic is more helpful and reflective of individuals' experiences than endeavouring to impose fixed role boundaries. It is concluded that HCAs can make an increasingly useful contribution to the skill mix in general practice, but that more research and evaluation are needed to inform their training and development within the general practice team.

  3. Perceptions of general practice among homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Dawson, J; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Hart, G; Brookes, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary care has an important role to play in the prevention and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that homosexual men experience a variety of problems in relation to primary care. AIM. As part of a larger study, it was decided to examine the extent to which a sample of homosexually active men experienced difficulties in general practice and whether they consulted their general practitioner for problems related to HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHOD. Homosexual men were recruited for interview in 1991-92 from a variety of sources including genitourinary clinics and homosexual organizations. RESULTS. Of 623 men registered with a general practitioner 44% had not informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation and 44% of the 77 men who were HIV antibody positive, as confirmed by the study, had not informed their general practitioner of this fact. Men who viewed their practice as unsympathetic towards homosexual men were less likely to have informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation or HIV status. The majority of men (87%) nevertheless viewed primary care as an appropriate source of HIV/AIDS advice. CONCLUSION. There is considerable scope for improvement in the acceptability of general practice to homosexual men. PMID:8179951

  4. The LUCK study: Laxative Usage in patients with GP-diagnosed Constipation in the UK, within the general population and in pregnancy. An epidemiological study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, Anna C. E.; Lee, Sally; Dalrymple, Jamie S. O.; Whorwell, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the high prevalence of constipation and its related public health implications, there is relatively little research available on the condition from large epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of general practitioner (GP)-diagnosed constipation and the prescribing trends for laxatives in the UK, within the general population and during pregnancy. Methods: A cohort study for the period from 2005 to 2009 was performed using the UK primary care database (General Practice Research Database), which contains information on over 3 million individuals. Results: The prevalence of GP-diagnosed constipation ranged from 12 per 1000 persons in 2005 (0.012 per person year) to 12.8 per 1000 in 2009 (0.013 per person year). The prevalence was almost twice as high in women as in men, and was higher in older patients. In 2005 the most commonly prescribed laxatives were lactulose (37%), senna (26%), macrogol (19%), ispaghula (6%), docusate sodium (5%), bisacodyl (4%) and glycerol suppositories (2%). By 2009, this pattern had changed: macrogol (31%), lactulose (29%), senna (22%), ispaghula (5%), docusate sodium (6%), bisacodyl (3%) and glycerol suppositories (3%). In pregnancy, lactulose accounted for 81% of laxative use in 2005, falling to 64% by 2009. In contrast, macrogol use in pregnancy rose from 13% in 2005 to 32% in 2009. Conclusions: GP-diagnosed constipation is common, accounting for a large number of consultations. Laxative prescribing trends have changed over the 5-year study period, prescriptions for macrogol becoming increasingly common and prescriptions for lactulose and senna less common. Macrogol also appears to have been replacing lactulose for treating constipation in pregnant women. PMID:22043228

  5. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  6. Studies in general practice with brotizolam

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, D.

    1983-01-01

    1 Brotizolam (0.25 mg) was compared with placebo, and in a separate study, with nitrazepam (5.0 mg) in patients being treated for insomnia in general practice. 2 Brotizolam (0.25 mg) and nitrazepam (5.0 mg) were equally effective and there was no evidence of residual effects the next day with either drug. PMID:6661386

  7. The research potential of practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jacqueline; Heyman, Bob; Bryar, Rosamund; Graffy, Jonathan; Gunnell, Caroline; Lamb, Bryony; Morris, Lana

    2002-09-01

    Little is known about the research aspirations and experiences of practice nurses. The study discussed in the present paper had three main aims: (1) to assess the level of research interest among practice nurses working in Essex and East London, UK; (2) to identify practice nurses' research priorities; and (3) to explore factors which facilitate and impede the development of practice nursing research. All practice nurses (n = 1,054) in the above areas were sent a questionnaire, and a total of 40% (n = 426) responded after two follow-up letters. Fifty-five respondents who volunteered for further participation were interviewed, either individually or in focus groups. About half (n = 207) of the survey respondents expressed an interest in undertaking research. One-third (n = 145) reported previous participation in research, and 20% (n = 85) had initiated their own research. Logistic regression showed that practice nurses educated to graduate level, and those working in practices with nurse training or participation in external research, were most likely to want to undertake research. Working in a medical training practice was found to be a negative predictor of research interest. Respondents prioritised research into long-term health problems with a high prevalence in the local population; for example, diabetes. Their reasons for wishing to engage in research included improving the service, career development, making work more interesting and reducing isolation. The main barriers identified were lack of time, lack of support from some general practitioners and poor access to higher education resources outside formal courses. The development of practice nurse research would provide a distinctive perspective on health need and service provision. It would contribute to the achievement of the national strategic objective of improving the quality of primary care, enhance the status of the profession, utilise the enthusiasm of individuals, increase job satisfaction and

  8. The new Australian after-hours general practice incentive payment mechanism: equity for rural general practice?

    PubMed

    Neil, Amanda L; Nelson, Mark; Palmer, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    In July 2015, a national scheme for after-hours incentive funding for general practices was re-introduced in Australia, 2-years after funding was transferred to regional primary health care organisations (Medicare Locals). The re-introduction was recommended in a 2014 review of after-hours primary care reflecting the "overwhelming desire" among general practice. Given the centrality of after-hours care provision in rural and remote practices identified in the review, we compare and contrast the current and historical after-hours incentive funding mechanisms focussing on fairness towards rural general practices. While there are similarities between the current and historical mechanisms, significant differences exist. The comparison is not straightforward. The major consistency is utilisation of practice standardised whole patient equivalents (SWPE) as the basis of funding, inherently favouring large urban general practices. This bias is expected to increase given a shift in focus from practices with no option but to provide 24/7 care to any practice providing 24/7 care; and an associated increased funding per SWPE. Differences primarily pertain to classification processes, in which the realities of rural service provision and recognition of regional support mechanisms are given minimal consideration. Rapid introduction of the new general practice after-hours incentive funding mechanism has led to inconsistencies and has exacerbated inherent biases, particularly inequity towards rural providers. Impact on morale and service provision in non-urban areas should be monitored.

  9. Research to Practice Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2016-01-01

    This article describes outcomes of group discussion sessions that took place as part of the Commission on Adult Basic Education April 2016 conference in Dallas, Texas. Researchers and practitioners in adult education were the primary attendees of the conference. Session topics and points of discussion in this paper include: the challenge of the…

  10. Dependence on Hypnotic Drugs in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, John; Clift, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Of the patients in an industrial general practice 1.3% required hypnotic drugs regularly. They were predominantly in the older age groups (mean 62.7 years), with an excess of widows. Only 0.02% were severely dependent; the remainder were mildly so, though they had been taking hypnotics for long periods (mean 5.6 years). There were three main original indications for hypnotics—namely, medical (pain), psychiatric, and onset insomnia in anxious personality disorder. One-fifth of the patients first took hypnotics while in hospital. The group as a whole manifested a high degree of abnormal psychological disposition. It is suggested that many patients who take hypnotics regularly may be placebo reactors, and a more critical attitude to hypnotic prescribing is required both in hospital and in general practice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5723365

  11. Feasibility of contact surveys in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A; Mant, D

    1987-01-01

    Surveys to evaluate risk factors for disease in the general population are popular with health authorities for assessing the effectiveness of their preventive measures. A contact survey of the lifestyles of 2000 randomly selected patients aged 25-64 was conducted in five general practices over 18 months; the medical records of the patients selected were tagged, and when the patients first visited the surgery they were given a questionnaire by the receptionists, which they completed in the waiting room. Over the 18 months at least 1400 of these patients visited the practices, of whom 1106 (55%) completed a questionnaire and 20 refused to do so; 896 (81%) completed it within one year. Information on the patients who were not surveyed was obtained by sending the questionnaire by post and by audit of medical records. The population surveyed on contact with the surgeries contained a higher proportion of young women, and possibly a higher proportion of patients from social classes IIIM-V, than the other patients. No important or consistent bias towards unhealthy patients at high risk was identified in the contact survey. A one year contact survey of a random, tagged sample is feasible in estimating the risk factors in a population and may be the method of choice in general practice because of its low cost and adaptability. PMID:3120900

  12. [Dealing with diagnostic uncertainty in general practice].

    PubMed

    Wübken, Magdalena; Oswald, Jana; Schneider, Antonius

    2013-01-01

    In general, the prevalence of diseases is low in primary care. Therefore, the positive predictive value of diagnostic tests is lower than in hospitals where patients are highly selected. In addition, the patients present with milder forms of disease; and many diseases might hide behind the initial symptom(s). These facts lead to diagnostic uncertainty which is somewhat inherent to general practice. This narrative review discusses different sources of and reasons for uncertainty and strategies to deal with it in the context of the current literature. Fear of uncertainty correlates with higher diagnostic activities. The attitude towards uncertainty correlates with the choice of medical speciality by vocational trainees or medical students. An intolerance of uncertainty, which still increases as medicine is making steady progress, might partly explain the growing shortage of general practitioners. The bio-psycho-social context appears to be important to diagnostic decision-making. The effect of intuition and heuristics are investigated by cognitive psychologists. It is still unclear whether these aspects are prone to bias or useful, which might depend on the context of medical decisions. Good communication is of great importance to share uncertainty with the patients in a transparent way and to alleviate shared decision-making. Dealing with uncertainty should be seen as an important core component of general practice and needs to be investigated in more detail to improve the respective medical decisions.

  13. Relationship between practice organization and cardiovascular risk factor recording in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    van Drenth, B B; Hulscher, M E; van der Wouden, J C; Mokkink, H G; Van Weel, C; Grol, R P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research findings suggest that the level of cardiovascular risk factor recording in general practice is not yet optimal. Several studies indicate a relation between the organization of cardiovascular disease prevention at practice level and cardiovascular risk factor recording. AIM: To explore the relation between the organization of cardiovascular disease prevention and risk factor recording in general practice. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data on adherence to selected practice guidelines and on cardiovascular risk factor recording from 95 general practices. Practice guidelines were developed beforehand in a consensus procedure. Adherence was assessed by means of a questionnaire and practice observations. Risk factor recording was assessed by an audit of 50 medical records per practice. RESULTS: Factor analysis of risk factor recording revealed three dimensions explaining 76% of the variance: recording of health-related behaviour, recording of clinical parameters, and recording of medical background parameters. Adherence to the guideline 'proactively invite patients to attend for assessment of cardiovascular risk' was related to a higher recording level in all three dimensions. Practice characteristics did not show a consistent relationship to the level of risk factor recording. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the presence of a system of proactive invitation was related to the recording of cardiovascular risk factors in medical records in general practice. PMID:9624746

  14. Faculty Research and Publication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Kate; Hines, Samantha; Keenan, Teressa; Samson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Understanding faculty work practices can translate into improved library services. This study documents how education and behavioral science faculty locate, retrieve, and use information resources for research and writing and how they publish and store their research materials. The authors interviewed twelve professors using a structured interview…

  15. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  16. Engaging participants in a complex intervention trial in Australian General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, David; Harris, Mark F; Tan, Jocelyn; Christl, Bettina; Taggart, Jane; Fanaian, Mahnaz

    2008-01-01

    Background The paper examines the key issues experienced in recruiting and retaining practice involvement in a large complex intervention trial in Australian General Practice. Methods Reflective notes made by research staff and telephone interviews with staff from general practices which expressed interest, took part or withdrew from a trial of a complex general practice intervention. Results Recruitment and retention difficulties were due to factors inherent in the demands and context of general practice, the degree of engagement of primary care organisations (Divisions of General Practice), perceived benefits by practices, the design of the trial and the timing and complexity of data collection. Conclusion There needs to be clearer articulation to practices of the benefits of the research to participants and streamlining of the design and processes of data collection and intervention to fit in with their work practices. Ultimately deeper engagement may require additional funding and ongoing participation through practice research networks. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12605000788673 PMID:18700984

  17. Applying research to practice: exploring the barriers.

    PubMed

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui; Heaslip, Vanessa; Rowe, Nicholas E

    Nurses are not averse to applying research findings to their clinical practice; however, there appears to be a number of barriers to achieving this. Generally, barriers include lack of time and the need to provide more education surrounding the use of research. While these are both valid points, the authors suggest that perhaps the solution to the problem is looking at how research is 'sold' to practitioners. For example, the use of jargon in research is off-putting to many practitioners, which creates an impression that research is associated with academia, rather than a tool for practitioners. Also, there may be an unrealistic expectation of what 'using research' might mean. Research is seen as the pinnacle of evidence, and not a part of evidence-based practice. In this article, the authors propose that teaching and expectations of research should focus on the application of research to practice. Reviewing and critiquing of research should serve the purpose of helping to make decisions about its practical applications, rather than for academic use.

  18. [Therapy for urinary incontinence in general practice].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Füsgen, I

    2009-08-01

    In national and international guidelines the general practitioner plays an important role in the diagnosis and first-line therapy for urinary incontinence. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data concerning details of the management of incontinence in primary care in Germany. Therefore a series of nationwide educational events for general practitioners and gynaecologists was used to perform a survey dealing with the situation of urinary incontinence in general practice. With 2530 questionnaires filled out and returned, this is the largest European survey on this subject. General practitioners declare in 57.3 % to be often involved with urinary incontinence. They usually question elderly patients about urinary incontinence (73.7 %) or those patients with diseases carrying the risk of developing urinary incontinence (64.9 %). Based on the diagnostic options in primary care, an incontinence anamnesis and urine evaluation are performed. A sonography or micturition diary was more infrequent in primary care in this survey. General practitioners most frequent refer the patient to a specialist (76.6 %) or prescribe the incontinence-type anticholinergic drugs (59.4 %) or absorbent products (45.4 %); duloxetine (27.3 %) is less frequently prescribed. The knowledge about urinary incontinence is gained in educational events (72.2 %); the course of studies was the source of incontinence skills for general practitioners only in 35 %. In conclusion, this survey gives a realistic view on the incontinence management in primary care in Germany. The majority of general practitioners are engaged in incontinence, perform basic diagnostic features and prescribe drugs or absorbent products. The course of (university medical school) studies as a source of skills to diagnose or to treat incontinence should be improved.

  19. Management in general practice: the challenge of the new General Medical Services contract

    PubMed Central

    Checkland, Kath

    2004-01-01

    Background: Managers in general practice perform a variety of roles, from purely administrative to higher-level strategic planning. There has been little research investigating in detail how they perform these roles and the problems that they encounter. The new General Medical Services (GMS) contract contains new management challenges and it is not clear how practices will meet these. Aim: To improve understanding of the roles performed by managers in general practice and to consider the implications of this for the implementation of the new GMS contract. Design of study: In-depth qualitative case studies covering the period before and immediately after the vote in favour of the new GMS contract. Setting: Three general practices in England, chosen using purposeful sampling. Method: Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and non-participant observation, and examination of documents. Results: Understanding about what constitutes the legitimate role of managers in general practice varies both within and between practices. Those practices in the study that employed a manager to work at a strategic level with input into the direction of the organisation demonstrated significant problems with this in practice. These included lack of clarity about what the legitimate role of the manager involved, problems relating to the authority of managers in the context of a partnership, and lack of time available to them to do higher-level work. In addition, general practitioners (GPs) were not confident about their ability to manage their managers' performance. Conclusion: The new GMS contract will place significant demands on practice management. These results suggest that it cannot be assumed that simply employing a manager with high-level skills will enable these demands to be met; there must first be clarity about what the manager should be doing, and attention must be directed at questions about the legitimacy enjoyed

  20. General practice and the new renaissance.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, C

    1995-05-01

    Traditional medical education has tended to emphasise the acquisition of knowledge and analytical skills. But it is the author's belief that this system has some limitations when applied in the general practice situation. Dr Edward DeBono has described an alternative style of thinking that relies fundamentally on perceptive and creative skills; ideas that have great relevance in learning how to apply our acquired knowledge in a meaningful way to the health care of our patients. This paper describes the personal odyssey that led to this realisation.

  1. Autism: From Research to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed. PMID:21058793

  2. Opportunities for research in rural practice.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of Denis Burkitt, William Budd, Sir James MacKenzie and Will Pickles, among others, are examples of the research that can be accomplished by busy doctors in a general practice or a rural setting with a minimum of equipment. It is still possible to undertake worthwhile research in rural areas of Canada. This contention is supported by many examples of published work from northern Newfoundland and Labrador. The studies have dealt with conditions that are particularly frequent in each region, including those due to nutritional deficiency, infection, extremes of climate and genetic factors. Epidemiologic studies have compared the occurrence of disease in different geographic regions and in different races. The content of general practice and methods of health care delivery have also been investigated. It is suggested that some of these observations could have been made only in the context of rural medical practice. Images p1246-a p1246-b PMID:445268

  3. Provision of mental health care in general practice in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Tansella, M; Bellantuono, C

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the psychiatric system and of the general practice system in Italy since the psychiatric reform and the introduction of a national health service are briefly described. Research conducted in Italy confirms that a large proportion of patients seen by general practitioners have psychological disorders and that only some of those patients whose psychological problems are identified by general practitioners are referred to specialist psychiatric care. Thus, the need to identify the best model of collaboration between psychiatric services and general practice services is becoming increasingly urgent. The chances of improving links between the two services and of developing a satisfactory liaison model are probably greater in countries such as Italy where psychiatric services are highly decentralized and community-based, than in countries where the psychiatric services are hospital-based. PMID:1807308

  4. Action Research as a Practice-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Action research changes people's practices, their understandings of their practices, and the conditions under which they practice. It changes people's patterns of "saying", "doing" and "relating" to form new patterns--new ways of life. It is a meta-practice: a practice that changes other practices. It transforms the…

  5. [Midazolam sedation in the general dental practice].

    PubMed

    Bertens, J; Abraham-Inpijn, L; Meuwissen, P J

    1994-03-01

    The general dental practitioner is occasionally confronted with patients who, on the basis of psychological--and often somatic--criteria, are difficult to treat. Medicinal sedation in combination with anxiety reduction may be deemed appropriate for such patients. In the Netherlands inhalation sedation by means of a combination of oxygen and nitrous oxide is generally used. The limitations and disadvantages of this method have directed attention towards sedation by means of midazolam, a quick-acting benzodiazepine. In view of the complications which may accompany the administration of midazolam, the general practitioner working alone or in a group practice is advised against using midazolam sedation. Such use should be reserved for a dentist working in a hospital setting, who is able to consult with a physician regarding the advisability of administering midazolam. Even then, the safety of the patient requires that the practitioners have a proper insight into the physical state of the patient, work according to a protocol and in accordance with clearly defined responsibilities, and provide adequate accommodation during and after treatment.

  6. Linking research to practice: suggestions for reading a research article.

    PubMed

    Crocker, L M

    1977-01-01

    Although researchers and editorial review boards are obligated to communicate research information in readable fashion, journal readers also must assume responsibility for interpreting and evaluating research articles. The general format for reporting research results is described. In addition, seven major questions to be asked by cirtical readers are presented. These questions are designed to help readers identify the purpose of a study; assess its importance; evaluate the research design, sampling and data collecting procedures; interpret the results of data analyses; and form implications for practice.

  7. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    PubMed Central

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  8. On research in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Nanivadekar, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Clinical research implies advancing current knowledge about health care by continually developing and testing new ideas about diseases, products, procedures, and strategies. Although this trait is inherent in human nature, it needs to be encouraged, nurtured, groomed, and channelized by creating a suitable atmosphere for it, providing the necessary resources, inculcating the necessary conceptual and manual skills, and rewarding the efforts and achievements suitably. Language, logic, statistics, and psychology play an important role in acquiring and developing research capability. To be socially relevant and economically viable, clinical research will need to partner with patients and their doctors in identifying what their goals of health care are, what they value, and what they are willing to "buy" in terms of goods and services. Besides, clinical research will need to bring on one platform the sponsors, the researchers, the patients, the payers, and the regulators to ensure that they do not work at cross purposes, that the cost of developing health care measures is scaled down through innovative approaches such as large simple trials, sequential trials, early marketing conditional on post-marketing surveillance, and so on. All these will be possible if day-to-day practice is slowly and systemically transformed into the largest laboratory of clinical research, which it ought to be, by forming networks of research-oriented practices, and popularizing the use of data collection and analysis tools such as Epi Info which are in the public domain.

  9. Mentoring for nurses in general practice: national issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Heartfield, Marie; Gibson, Terri

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to identify national issues impacting on the development of a mentoring framework for nurses in general practice in Australia. The project comprised the first phase of a three-phase study commissioned by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to develop a contemporary, flexible and sustainable mentoring framework that enhances the capacity of nurses to contribute to general practice outcomes. Key stakeholders and influential informants from around Australia were brought together via a national teleconference to identify issues surrounding the development of such a framework. Outcomes focussed on major themes concerning choice, relationships, structures and resources. Here, we consider the issues and challenges identified in light of some contemporary case studies from outside the field of nursing in the hope of sparking new ideas and strategies. A case study from an Australian practice nurse is included. No research has been conducted on mentoring for nurses in general practice in Australia to date, highlighting an urgent need for new models and their evaluation.

  10. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  11. 14 CFR 61.43 - Practical tests: General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical tests: General procedures. 61.43... Practical tests: General procedures. (a) Completion of the practical test for a certificate or rating... rating sought within the approved practical test standards; (2) Demonstrating mastery of the aircraft...

  12. Dermoscopy in General Dermatology: A Practical Overview.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and

  13. Open Access to General Practice Was Associated with Burnout among General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without. In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analyses using logistic regression were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, job satisfaction, minutes per consultation, practice organisation, working hours, number of listed patients per GP, number of contacts per GP, continuing medical education- (CME-) activities, and clusters of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot establish causality, it is recommended to closely monitor possible negative consequences of open access in general practice.

  14. Catchments of general practice in different countries– a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on catchment areas of private general practices in different developed countries because healthcare reform, including primary health care, has featured prominently as an important political issue in a number of developed countries. The debates around health reform have had a significant health geographic focus. Conceptually, GP catchments describe the distribution, composition and profile of patients who access a general practitioner or a general practice (i.e. a site or facility comprising one or more general practitioners). Therefore, GP catchments provide important information into the geographic variation of access rates, utilisation of services and health outcomes by all of the population or different population groups in a defined area or aggregated area. This review highlights a wide range of diversity in the literature as to how GP catchments can be described, the indicators and measures used to frame the scale of catchments. Patient access to general practice health care services should be considered from a range of locational concepts, and not necessarily constrained by their place of residence. An analysis of catchment patterns of general practitioners should be considered as dynamic and multi-perspective. Geographic information systems provide opportunities to contribute valuable methodologies to study these relationships. However, researchers acknowledge that a conceptual framework for the analysis of GP catchments requires access to real world data. Recent studies have shown promising developments in the use of real world data, especially from studies in the UK. Understanding the catchment profiles of individual GP surgeries is important if governments are serious about patient choice being a key part of proposed primary health reforms. Future health planning should incorporate models of GP catchments as planning tools, at the micro level as well as the macro level, to assist policies on the

  15. General practice training and virtual communities of practice - a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good General Practice is essential for an effective health system. Good General Practice training is essential to sustain the workforce, however training for General Practice can be hampered by a number of pressures, including professional, structural and social isolation. General Practice trainees may be under more pressure than fully registered General Practitioners, and yet isolation can lead doctors to reduce hours and move away from rural practice. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) in business have been shown to be effective in improving knowledge sharing, thus reducing professional and structural isolation. This literature review will critically examine the current evidence relevant to virtual communities of practice in General Practice training, identify evidence-based principles that might guide their construction and suggest further avenues for research. Methods Major online databases Scopus, Psychlit and Pubmed were searched for the terms “Community of Practice” (CoP) AND (Online OR Virtual OR Electronic) AND (health OR healthcare OR medicine OR “Allied Health”). Only peer-reviewed journal articles in English were selected. A total of 76 articles were identified, with 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. There were no studies on CoP or VCoP in General Practice training. The review was structured using a framework of six themes for establishing communities of practice, derived from a key study from the business literature. This framework has been used to analyse the literature to determine whether similar themes are present in the health literature and to identify evidence in support of virtual communities of practice for General Practice training. Results The framework developed by Probst is mirrored in the health literature, albeit with some variations. In particular the roles of facilitator or moderator and leader whilst overlapping, are different. VCoPs are usually collaborations between stakeholders rather than single company

  16. Clinical placements in general practice: relationships between practice nurses and tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; McInnes, Susan

    2013-05-01

    As a practice-based discipline a key component of undergraduate nurse education is clinical practice experience. The quality of clinical experiences has a significant impact on the students' ability to function competently post graduation. The relationship between higher education institutions (HEIs) and health service placement providers impacts upon the quality of clinical placements. In Australia, the growth of primary care nursing and the shortage of acute clinical places has prompted HEIs to explore the placement of students in general practice. Given the increasing attention being paid to non-traditional clinical placements, it is timely to explore how universities are establishing relationships and models of clinical placement. This paper uses qualitative research methods to explore the perspectives of 12 Australian general practice nurses who have experience in facilitating undergraduate clinical placements about the relationships between HEIs and nurses. Findings are presented in the following three themes: (1) Appropriate preparation for placement: They don't know what primary health really means, (2) Seeking greater consultation in the organisation of clinical placements: they've got to do it one way for everyone, and (3) Uncertainty and lack of support: I had no contact with the university. Clinical placements in general practice can be an innovative strategy providing non-traditional, yet high quality, teaching and learning experiences for undergraduate nursing students. To optimise the quality of these placements, however, it is essential that HEIs provide appropriate support to the practice nurses mentoring these students.

  17. Mixed methodology approach in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Saira; Latif, Usman; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Shujaat A; Hussain, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare providers play a major role in attending to all domains of health in a population. In terms of modem healthcare delivery, better health outcomes for population can be achieved by engaging multi-disciplinary expertise. In the last decade, pharmacy profession had transformed tremendously in terms of health and pharmaceutical service provision to both patients and general population. Within this practice transformation, pharmacists, especially those in developed countries, now occupy a respectable position within the healthcare system. In contrast, services and expertise offered by pharmacists in developing countries are still underutilized, and their role as healthcare professionals is not deemed to be important either by the community or by other healthcare providers, especially doctors and nurses. In order to explore the current perspectives regarding the role of pharmacists in the context of a developing country, a systematic research is needed. Mixed methodology research should be used for evidence generation. The philosophy of mixed method research came up decades ago. This approach is widely recommended for social and human sciences research. In recent existence, many researchers have begun to recommend mixed methods research as a separate methodology or design. Many factors have brought into the evolution of mixed methods research. A combination of both forms of data can provide the most complete analysis of the issues related to the pharmacy practice research. Numbers in quantitative and words in qualitative can be enclosed together to give the better understanding of research questions. Both forms of data are necessary for pharmacy practice research especially in case of developing countries where there is a need to generate the evidence for future health policy.

  18. Operator priming and generalization of practice in adults' simple arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-04-01

    There is a renewed debate about whether educated adults solve simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 3) by direct fact retrieval or by fast, automatic counting-based procedures. Recent research testing adults' simple addition and multiplication showed that a 150-ms preview of the operator (+ or ×) facilitated addition, but not multiplication, suggesting that a general addition procedure was primed by the + sign. In Experiment 1 (n = 36), we applied this operator-priming paradigm to rule-based problems (0 + N = N, 1 × N = N, 0 × N = 0) and 1 + N problems with N ranging from 0 to 9. For the rule-based problems, we found both operator-preview facilitation and generalization of practice (e.g., practicing 0 + 3 sped up unpracticed 0 + 8), the latter being a signature of procedure use; however, we also found operator-preview facilitation for 1 + N in the absence of generalization, which implies the 1 + N problems were solved by fact retrieval but nonetheless were facilitated by an operator preview. Thus, the operator preview effect does not discriminate procedure use from fact retrieval. Experiment 2 (n = 36) investigated whether a population with advanced mathematical training-engineering and computer science students-would show generalization of practice for nonrule-based simple addition problems (e.g., 1 + 4, 4 + 7). The 0 + N problems again presented generalization, whereas no nonzero problem type did; but all nonzero problems sped up when the identical problems were retested, as predicted by item-specific fact retrieval. The results pose a strong challenge to the generality of the proposal that skilled adults' simple addition is based on fast procedural algorithms, and instead support a fact-retrieval model of fast addition performance.

  19. Thermal comfort: research and practice.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joost; Mazej, Mitja; Hensen, Jan L M

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort--the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment--is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half of the 1990s, and groups these developments around two main themes; (i) thermal comfort models and standards, and (ii) advances in computerization. Within the first theme, the PMV-model (Predicted Mean Vote), created by Fanger in the late 1960s is discussed in the light of the emergence of models of adaptive thermal comfort. The adaptive models are based on adaptive opportunities of occupants and are related to options of personal control of the indoor climate and psychology and performance. Both models have been considered in the latest round of thermal comfort standard revisions. The second theme focuses on the ever increasing role played by computerization in thermal comfort research and practice, including sophisticated multi-segmental modeling and building performance simulation, transient thermal conditions and interactions, thermal manikins.

  20. The validity of dietary assessment in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Little, P.; Barnett, J.; Margetts, B.; Kinmonth, A. L.; Gabbay, J.; Thompson, R.; Warm, D.; Warwick, H.; Wooton, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a range of dietary assessment instruments in general practice. METHODS: Using a randomised block design, brief assessment instruments and more complex conventional dietary assessment tools were compared with an accepted "relative" standard--a seven day weighed dietary record. The standard was checked using biomarkers, and by performing test-retest reliability in additional subjects (n = 29). OUTCOMES: Agreement with weighed record. Percentage agreement with weighed record, rank correlation from scatter plot, rank correlation from Bland-Altman plot. Reliability of the weighed record. SETTING: Practice nurse treatment room in a single suburban general practice. SUBJECTS: Patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (n = 61) or age/sex stratified general population group (n = 50). RESULTS: Brief self completion dietary assessment tools based on food groups caten during a week show reasonable agreement with the relative standard. For % energy from fat and saturated fat, non-starch polysaccharide, grams of fruit and vegetables and starchy foods consumed the range of agreement with the standard was: median % difference -6% to 12%, rank correlation 0.5 to 0.6. This agreement is of a similar order to the reliability of the weighed record, as good as or better than test standard agreement for more time consuming instruments, and compares favourably with research instruments validated in other settings. Under-reporting of energy intake was common (40%) and more likely if subjects were obese (body mass idex (BMI) > or = 30 60% under-reported; BMI < 30 29%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Under-reporting of absolute energy intake is common, particularly among obese patients. Simple self assessment tools based on food groups, designed for practice nurse dietary assessment, show acceptable agreement with a standard, and suggest such tools are sufficiently accurate for clinical work, research, and possibly population dietary monitoring.   PMID:10396494

  1. Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…

  2. Faculty development in general practice in Germany: experiences, evaluations, perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus; Lichte, Thomas; Von Unger, Hella; Gulich, Markus; Waechtler, Hannelore; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Wilm, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    From 1999 to 2001, the German Society of General Practice and Family Medicine (DEGAM) pioneered a faculty development programme to help general practitioners (GPs) interested in an academic career to develop their skills in teaching, primary care, quality assurance and research. The programme involves five weekend-training sessions over 18 months and applies a learner-centred approach. Participants choose the learning formats and switch between the roles of learners, teachers, chair persons and programme organizers. This article evaluates the acceptability and feasibility of the programme. Data were collected over a two-year period from the 16 participants who completed the first training programme. The evaluation involved a focus group, telephone interviews and email questionnaires. Participants appreciated the learner centred format of the programme and gained new teaching and research skills. They also learned to better assess and critically reflect on their professional work as GPs and reported improved academic 'survival skills' due to collaborative networks with colleagues. The faculty development programme proved advantageous for the personal and professional development of the participating GPs. It constitutes a promising tool for the further development of General Practice as an academic discipline that is still in the process of establishing itself at medical schools in Germany.

  3. Managing Best Practice Research Scholarship Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Best Practice Research Scholarship (BPRS) project designed for teachers which supports development of formative assessment strategies. Uses mentors to provide guidance to teacher research groups. (YDS)

  4. [Research in general medicine, role of the medical thesis].

    PubMed

    Levasseur, G; Schweyer, F X

    2003-06-01

    General practice doctors are naturally presented as being actors on the front lines of public health. The ability of general practitioners to be aware of and deal with public health questions largely depends upon their training. Perhaps one could consider the general practitioner's thesis as a preparatory analytical work within the area of their future field of practice. Do these theses serve to provide food for thought on general practice and its contribution to public health, and if not, could they? An analysis conducted within four medical schools in western France demonstrates that the work produced for general medicine identified as such only constitutes a fraction of the overall number of medical (non-university) theses (approximately 5%). Two possible explanations may be put forward. First, on the one hand, the theses highly depend on the context of the training and the work produced is a direct result of this. Second, on the other hand, the current methods of indexing notes in the university databases does not enable general medicine to be clearly seen and visibly recognised as an academic discipline. Two questions then remain: Can medical theses be considered as research? Should research in general medicine be carried out solely by general practitioners? It is vital that resources from outside the medical field be raised and mobilised for general practice research, whose themes are multi-disciplinary and not only clinical.

  5. Research Making Its Way into Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…

  6. Outcomes of implants and restorations placed in general dental practices

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, John D.; Kazimiroff, Julie; Papas, Athena; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Vena, Donald A.; Wu, Hongyu; Collie, Damon; Craig, Ronald G.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors conducted a study to determine the types, outcomes, risk factors and esthetic assessment of implants and their restorations placed in the general practices of a practice-based research network. Methods All patients who visited network practices three to five years previously and underwent placement of an implant and restoration within the practice were invited to enroll. Practitioner-investigators (P-Is) recorded the status of the implant and restoration, characteristics of the implant site and restoration, presence of peri-implant pathology and an esthetic assessment by the P-I and patient. The P-Is classified implants as failures if the original implant was missing or had been replaced, the implant was mobile or elicited pain on percussion, there was overt clinical or radiographic evidence of pathology or excessive bone loss (> 0.2 millimeter per year after an initial bone loss of 2 mm). They classified restorations as failures if they had been replaced or if there was abutment or restoration fracture. Results The authors enrolled 922 implants and patients from 87 practices, with a mean (standard deviation) follow-up of 4.2 (0.6) years. Of the 920 implants for which complete data records were available, 64 (7.0 percent) were classified as failures when excessive bone loss was excluded from the analysis. When excessive bone loss was included, 172 implants (18.7 percent) were classified as failures. According to the results of univariate analysis, a history of severe periodontitis, sites with preexisting inflammation or type IV bone, cases of immediate implant placement and placement in the incisor or canine region were associated with implant failure. According to the results of multivariate analysis, sites with preexisting inflammation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.41–3.34]) or type IV bone (OR = 1.99; 95 percent CI, 1.12–3.55) were associated with a greater risk of implant failure. Of the 908 surviving

  7. General practice nursing: who is cherishing this workforce?

    PubMed Central

    Webley-Brown, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The remodelling of the NHS requires a strong general practice nurse (GPN) workforce within general practice. The challenges facing general practice nursing are set within the current policy context and recent available evidence and illustrated by drawing upon the experience of a current GPN working in London. It is argued that there is a need to support the professional development of GPNs and nurture the next generation of potential GPNs if the current shortage of GPNs is to be addressed. PMID:28356920

  8. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  9. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  10. Assessment of management in general practice: validation of a practice visit method.

    PubMed Central

    van den Hombergh, P; Grol, R; van den Hoogen, H J; van den Bosch, W J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice management (PM) in general practice is as yet ill-defined; a systematic description of its domain, as well as a valid method to assess it, are necessary for research and assessment. AIM: To develop and validate a method to assess PM of general practitioners (GPs) and practices. METHOD: Relevant and potentially discriminating indicators were selected from a systematic framework of 2410 elements of PM to be used in an assessment method (VIP = visit instrument PM). The method was first tested in a pilot study and, after revision, was evaluated in order to select discriminating indicators and to determine validity of dimensions (factor and reliability analysis, linear regression). RESULTS: One hundred and ten GPs were assessed with the practice visit method using 249 indicators; 208 of these discriminated sufficiently at practice level or at GP level. Factor analysis resulted in 34 dimensions and in a taxonomy of PM. Dimensions and indicators showed marked variation between GPs and practices. Training practices scored higher on five dimensions; single-handed and dispensing practices scored lower on delegated tasks, but higher on accessibility and availability. CONCLUSION: A visit method to assess PM has been developed and its validity studied systematically. The taxonomy and dimensions of PM were in line with other classifications. Selection of a balanced number of useful and relevant indicators was nevertheless difficult. The dimensions could discriminate between groups of GPs and practices, establishing the value of the method for assessment. The VIP method could be an important contribution to the introduction of continuous quality improvement in the profession. PMID:10198481

  11. Laser therapy in general dental practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbar, Arun A.

    2006-02-01

    This is a clinical presentation on the use of laser therapy in a private dental practice using a 810nm diode. A wide range of conditions involving pain management, treatment and as an adjunct to procedures to enhance patient comfort and experience. This will include cases treated for TMD (Temporo mandibular dysfunction), apthous ulcers, angular chelitis, cold sores, gingival retraction, periodontal treatment and management of failing dental implants. The case presentation will include the protocols used and some long term reviews. The results have been very positive and will be shared to enable this form of treatment to be used more frequently and with confidence within dental practice.

  12. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  13. General practitioners' continuing medical education within and outside their practice.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, P. A.; Allery, L. A.; Harding, K. G.; Hayes, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    To study continuing medical education 96 out of 101 general practitioners chosen at random from the list held by a family practitioner committee were interviewed. The results provided little evidence of regular attendance at local postgraduate centre meetings, though practice based educational meetings were common. Thirty one of the general practitioners worked in practices that held one or more practice based educational meetings each month at which the doctors provided the main educational content. Performance review was undertaken in the practices of 51 of the general practitioners, and 80 of the doctors recognised its value. The general practitioners considered that the most valuable educational activities occurred within the practice, the most valued being contact with partners. They asked for increased contact with hospital doctors. The development of general practitioners' continuing medical education should be based on the content of the individual general practitioner's day to day work and entail contact with his or her professional colleagues. PMID:2504381

  14. Critical Researches on General Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, Walter; Fritzius, Robert

    1980-11-01

    Electric and electrodynamic phenomena have acquired in the course of these last years more and more importance. They include Optics, the laws of radiation and the innumerable molecular phenomena associated with the presence of charged centers, ions and electrons. Finally, with the notion of electromagnetic mass, Mechanics itself seems obliged to become a chapter of General Electrodynamics. In the form given to it by H. A. Lorentz, Maxwell's theory would thus become the turning point towards a new conception of nature, where the laws of electrodynamics, considered as primary, would contain the laws of motion as special cases and would play the fundamental role in the physical theories which, until now, have belonged to Mechanics. Under these circumstances, it is plainly desirable to have a rigorous criticism of the foundations of this theory, to give it the degree of clarity and precision that Mechanics itself reached only recently after much controversy. It is in order to ask which hypotheses are essential and can be deduced from observations, which others are logically useless or can be discarded without experience ceasing to be adequately represented, and finally, which are those which can be, and should be rejected; a question which is asked principally in regard to absolute motion.

  15. 47 CFR 76.1001 - Unfair practices generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1001 Unfair practices generally. (a) Unfair practices generally. No cable operator, satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has an attributable interest, or satellite broadcast programming...

  16. 47 CFR 76.1001 - Unfair practices generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1001 Unfair practices generally. (a) Unfair practices generally. No cable operator, satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has an attributable interest, or satellite broadcast programming...

  17. 47 CFR 76.1001 - Unfair practices generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1001 Unfair practices generally. (a) Unfair practices generally. No cable operator, satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has an attributable interest, or satellite broadcast programming...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1001 - Unfair practices generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1001 Unfair practices generally. (a) Unfair practices generally. No cable operator, satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has an attributable interest, or satellite broadcast programming...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1001 - Unfair practices generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1001 Unfair practices generally. (a) Unfair practices generally. No cable operator, satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has an attributable interest, or satellite broadcast programming...

  20. Improvisational Practices in Elementary General Music Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenhagen, Lisa M.; Whitcomb, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite historic and ongoing support for the inclusion of improvisation in the elementary general music curriculum, music educators consistently report challenges with implementation of improvisational activities in their classes. This study was designed to examine (a) the extent to which improvisational activities were occurring in the…

  1. [Euthanasia and general practice in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M

    2014-09-01

    In Belgium, the GP can perform euthanasia or be called as a consultant. He must know the laws concerning the end of life and be able to explain his rights to his patients. He will know the best practices and techniques for euthanasia. If necessary, he will call help or refer to a more competent colleague. He negotiates with the patient an advanced care planning following the evolution of its pathologies and will witness its wishes regarding end of life against other institutions and doctors.

  2. The role of the general health questionnaire in general practice consultations.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The patient self-rating questionnaire is commonly used as a research tool to identify patients with 'unrecognized' depression. There is no evidence to support its use as a clinical tool in general practice. AIM: To determine whether use of the 30-item general health questionnaire (GHQ) is a practical means of increasing identification of 'new' episodes of emotional distress among patients consulting their general practitioner (GP). METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was carried out in a Scottish new town practice with eight partners. In the waiting room, 1912 patients aged over 14 years and consulting over a 10-month period attempted to complete the GHQ. The 'clinical judgement' group posted the questionnaire into a box then attended the doctor as normal. The 'screened' group presented the questionnaire to the doctor. After the consultation, the doctor completed an assessment questionnaire. The main outcome measures were GHQ scores and doctors' assessments of mental health. RESULTS: In total, 1589 patients were eligible to participate. However, 207 patients in the screened group were excluded because the doctor did not look at the questionnaire. The clinical judgement group (59.7% patients) and the screened group (40.3%) were compared. Although the doctors' diagnoses of distress were low in the clinical judgement group (8.1%), they were significantly greater in the screened group (13.9%) where the diagnosis of depression was doubled. The percentage of patients scoring greater than or equal to 9 (GHQ+) was 21.5% and 21.0% respectively. The level of agreement between the doctors' diagnoses of distress and the questionnaires scoring GHQ+ rose from 19% in the clinical judgement group to 35% in the screened group. CONCLUSIONS: The general health questionnaire used in a practice setting increases the identification of patients with emotional distress. However, the use made of the questionnaires in the screened group raises questions of doctor and patient

  3. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Teasdale, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these safety features.

  4. Teaching Research Synthesis to Advanced Practice Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Sandra; Brosnan, Christine A.; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2002-01-01

    A process for teaching research synthesis to advanced practice nurses includes two courses: a first research applications course in which students build bibliographic databases, practice statistical analysis, and develop search skills; and a second course in which they complete literature reviews or meta analyses of research on clinical practice…

  5. A Better Research-Practice Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrick, Erin; Munoz, Marco A.; Cobb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    District leaders often feel that working with researchers is not mutually beneficial. Researchers do not provide enough practical guidance, and they are often unable to present their findings in time to inform district decision making. Research-practice partnerships (RPPs) are a potential new strategy for addressing these challenges. RPPs are…

  6. Involvement of general public in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Pramesh, C. S.; Venkataramanan, R.; Suvarna, Viraj; Goel, Nishu Singh; Lakshman, S.; Venkatesh, Viji; Gupta, Vandana; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical research is crucial for any country's progress and the health of its ethnic population. This effort needs to be sustained and well supported for it to bear optimum results. The major stakeholders in medical research are the general public, patients, researchers, physicians (and medical institutions), the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and the government. Much of the pressure to perform cutting edge research in developed countries is driven by the general public; however, this has been conspicuous by its absence in India. This is largely due to misconceptions that medical research in developing countries is an experimental exercise using human beings as guinea pigs, primarily benefiting only the pharmaceutical industry and a general lack of awareness about the importance of original research within the country. This editorial addresses various issues related to public involvement in biomedical research and suggests the need for solutions and imperative remedial measures. PMID:27843788

  7. A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Training in General Practice: A Community of Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornford, Charles S.; Carrington, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Doctors training to become general practitioners (GPs) enter new "communities of practice". For instance, they initially experience various types of isolation, need new skills and knowledge and find the organisation of general practice different to hospitals. "Communities of practice" concepts help explain some of their…

  8. Patients' unvoiced agendas in general practice consultations: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Christine A; Bradley, Colin P; Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barber, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate patients' agendas before consultation and to assess which aspects of agendas are voiced in the consultation and the effects of unvoiced agendas on outcomes. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in south east England and the West Midlands. Participants 35 patients consulting 20 general practitioners in appointment and emergency surgeries. Results Patients' agendas are complex and multifarious. Only four of 35 patients voiced all their agendas in consultation. Agenda items most commonly voiced were symptoms and requests for diagnoses and prescriptions. The most common unvoiced agenda items were: worries about possible diagnosis and what the future holds; patients' ideas about what is wrong; side effects; not wanting a prescription; and information relating to social context. Agenda items that were not raised in the consultation often led to specific problem outcomes (for example, major misunderstandings), unwanted prescriptions, non-use of prescriptions, and non-adherence to treatment. In all of the 14 consultations with problem outcomes at least one of the problems was related to an unvoiced agenda item. Conclusion Patients have many needs and when these are not voiced they can not be addressed. Some of the poor outcomes in the case studies were related to unvoiced agenda items. This suggests that when patients and their needs are more fully articulated in the consultation better health care may be effected. Steps should be taken in both daily clinical practice and research to encourage the voicing of patients' agendas. PMID:10797036

  9. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  10. Preparing practicing dentists to engage in practice-based research

    PubMed Central

    DeRouen, Timothy A.; Hujoel, Philippe; Leroux, Brian; Mancl, Lloyd; Sherman, Jeffrey; Hilton, Thomas; Berg, Joel; Ferracane, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors describe an educational program designed to prepare practicing dentists to engage in practice-based research in their practices—a trend receiving more emphasis and funding from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Methods The Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT), an NIDCR-funded network of which the authors are members, developed a one-day educational program to educate practitioners in principles of good clinical research. The program has four components built around the following questions: “What is the question?”; “What are the options?”; “How do you evaluate the evidence?”; and “How do you conduct a study?” Results The intensive one-day program initially offered in early 2006, which concluded with applications of research principles to research topics of interest to practitioners, was well-received. Despite their admission that the research methodology by itself was not of great interest, the dentists recognized the importance of the background material in equipping them to conduct quality studies in their practices. Conclusions Dentists interested in participating in practice-based research view training in research methodology as helpful to becoming better practitioner-investigators. The PRECEDENT training program seemed to reinforce their interest. Practice Implications As dentistry evolves to become more evidence-based, more and more of the evidence will come from practice-based research. This training program prepares practicing dentists to become engaged in this trend. PMID:18310739

  11. Verbal prescribing in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mark; Neil Jenkings, K; Wilson, Rob; Purves, Ian

    2006-09-01

    This paper looks at aspects of doctor-patient communication and focuses on how prescribing decisions fit into the consultation within the context of the use (and non-use) of a technological clinical decision support system (CDSS) in the UK. Analysis of 6 simulated consultations filmed as part of the evaluation of a CDSS system indicated that the general practitioners (GPs) used their computers for a short time during consultations. The data showed that doctors' utterances, occurring at an early stage of the consultations, signalled the prescribing decision and eventual outcome of the consultation. The concept of 'verbal prescriptions' is used to describe these utterances of the GPs, and facilitates an understanding of how prescribing decisions are routinely achieved. Prescribing decisions can occur in the relatively early stages of the consultation, and both prior to and independently of the CDSS. Consequently, we suggest that the pattern of GP decision-making needs to be taken into account in CDSS design. However, this is not just an issue for CDSS design and implementation, as the verbal prescription phenomenon may impact upon patient involvement in decision-making, and even the appropriate use of evidence based medicine.

  12. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives.

  13. Practices, patients and (im)perfect data - feasibility of a randomised controlled clinical drug trial in German general practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomised controlled clinical (drug) trials supply high quality evidence for therapeutic strategies in primary care. Until now, experience with drug trials in German general practice has been sparse. In 2007/2008, the authors conducted an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial (HWI-01) to assess the clinical equivalence of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, we report the feasibility of this trial in German general practices and the implementation of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) in mainly inexperienced general practices. Methods This report is based on the experience of the HWI-01 study conducted in 29 German general practices. Feasibility was defined by 1) successful practice recruitment, 2) sufficient patient recruitment, 3) complete and accurate data collection and 4) appropriate protection of patient safety. Results The final practice recruitment rate was 18%. In these practices, 79 of 195 screened UTI patients were enrolled. Recruitment differed strongly between practices (range 0-12, mean 2.8 patients per practice) and was below the recruitment goal of approximately 100 patients. As anticipated, practice nurses became the key figures in the screening und recruitment of patients. Clinical trial demands, in particular for completing symptom questionnaires, documentation of source data and reporting of adverse events, did not agree well with GPs' documentation habits and required support from study nurses. In many cases, GPs and practice staff seemed to be overwhelmed by the amount of information and regulations. No sudden unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) were observed during the trial. Conclusions To enable drug trials in general practice, it is necessary to adapt the setup of clinical research infrastructure to the needs of GPs and their practice

  14. URBAN STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (BMP) RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on urban best management practice research conducted by the Urban Watershed Research Branch. The presentation to Region 3 started with Branch history, discussed results of recent projects, identified mechanisms for collaboration between ORD and Regions and discussed ...

  15. Supervision--growing and building a sustainable general practice supervisor system.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer S; Anderson, Katrina J; Mara, Paul R; Stevenson, Alexander D

    2011-06-06

    This article explores various models and ideas for future sustainable general practice vocational training supervision in Australia. The general practitioner supervisor in the clinical practice setting is currently central to training the future general practice workforce. Finding ways to recruit, retain and motivate both new and experienced GP teachers is discussed, as is the creation of career paths for such teachers. Some of the newer methods of practice-based teaching are considered for further development, including vertically integrated teaching, e-learning, wave consulting and teaching on the run, teaching teams and remote teaching. Approaches to supporting and resourcing teaching and the required infrastructure are also considered. Further research into sustaining the practice-based general practice supervision model will be required.

  16. Position Paper: Dental General Practice Residency Programs: Financing and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Paul W.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of changeable economic issues that can affect dental general practice residency program planning includes costs and resource allocation, maximizing efficiency and productivity, ambulatory and inpatient revenue sources, management functions, faculty as practitioners, faculty appointments, and marketing. (MSE)

  17. [MODERN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY MASTERING PRACTICAL SKILLS OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS].

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.

  18. Australian and overseas models of general practice training.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard B; Morgan, Simon

    2011-06-06

    General practice training in Australia continues to evolve. It is now the responsibility of an independent organisation, is delivered by regional training providers, and comprises a structured training program. Overseas, general practice varies in its importance to health care systems, and training models differ considerably. In some cases training is mandatory, in others voluntary, but the aim is always similar--to improve the quality of care delivered to the large majority of populations that access health care through primary care. We review the current status of vocational general practice training in Australia, compare it with selected training programs in international contexts, and describe how the local model is well placed to address future challenges. Challenges include changes in population demographics, increasing comorbidity, increasing costs of technology-based health care, increasing globalisation of health, and workforce shortages. Although general practice training in Australia is strong, it can improve further by learning from other training programs to meet these challengers.

  19. P-12 Engineering Education Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tamara; Richards, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Advances in Engineering Education" explores recent developments in P-12 Engineering Education. It includes papers devoted to research and practice, and reports some of the most exciting work in the field today. In our Call of Papers, we solicited two types of papers: Research papers and Practice papers. The former…

  20. Locum doctors in general practice: motivation and experiences.

    PubMed Central

    McKevitt, C; Morgan, M; Hudson, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of dissatisfaction with locum doctors' performance, but little is known about doctors who work as locums in general practice or about their experiences of this work. AIM: To describe the motivations and experiences of doctors providing locum cover in general practices. METHOD: A postal questionnaire survey distributed to locums through organizations such as locum groups, commercial agencies, and general practices. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 111 doctors currently working as locums in general practice. Four main reasons for working as a locum GP were: as a short-term option while between posts, to gain experience of different practices before commitment to one practice, to balance work and family or other commitments, to continue part-time work after retirement. One-quarter of responders intended to continue working as a locum indefinitely. The drawbacks of locum work included frustration with low status, lack of security, and difficulty accessing structured training and education. CONCLUSION: Locum doctors in general practice are a heterogeneous group that includes those who have chosen this type of work. The doctors who intend to continue as locums indefinitely represent a useful resource in primary care whose ability to provide short-term cover could be maximized. The need to control the quality of 'freelance' doctors should not overshadow the need to control the quality of their working environments. PMID:10621983

  1. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  2. Perspectives on Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina, Ed.; Squire, James R., Ed.

    Providing a foundation in which researchers may build future research and theory and in which teachers may design more effective classroom practice, this book presents 12 essays that bring together the contributions of researchers and teacher-scholars to present the significant theory and research related to the writing process. The book is…

  3. Adolescent Literacy Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetton, Tamara L., Ed.; Dole, Janice A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses the role of literacy instruction in enhancing content area learning and fostering student motivation and success well beyond the primary grades. The unique literacy needs of middle school and secondary students are thoroughly examined and effective practices and interventions identified. Reviewing the breadth of current…

  4. Norfolk general practice: a comparison of rural and urban doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Richard M.G.

    1988-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was sent to all Norfolk practitioners, allowing a comparison to be made between rural general practice and urban practice in Norwich and Great Yarmouth. However, when Norfolk town and country doctors were compared, little difference was found in their personal or practice characteristics. In respect of their workload rural doctors, as expected, carried out more procedures overall but, somewhat surprisingly, did not make more home visits. Both sets of doctors had similar views on their present and future role in general practice. When Norfolk doctors collectively were compared with general practitioners nationally their service appeared to be of a high standard. The only uncertainty surrounded the effects of the greater clustering of Norfolk surgeries, together with the levels of home visiting and their attendant effects on patient accessibility. PMID:3255815

  5. How to choose a new partner in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    King, J; Whitfield, M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To provide a guide to choosing a new partner in general practice by using psychometric assessments. DESIGN--A descriptive account of the experience of one practice. SETTING--A general practice in Bristol. RESULTS--The partners found that using a psychologist to assess both themselves and the candidates facilitated the selection process. During the pre-interview stage the partners learnt about the dynamics of the practice and their own personalities. The examination of the candidates by an outside assessor as well as the partners gave a sense of security and a certainty that mistakes were unlikely to be made. CONCLUSION--More practices should consider adopting a selection process using psychometric assessments when appointing a new partner. PMID:2271828

  6. Strategic directions for developing the Australian general practice nurse role in cardiovascular disease management.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Patricia M; Yallop, Julie; Griffiths, Rhonda; Daly, John

    2007-08-01

    Practice nursing is an integral component of British and New Zealand primary care, but in Australia it remains an emerging specialty. Despite an increased focus on the Australian practice nurse role, there has been limited strategic role development, particularly relating to national health priority areas. This paper reports the third stage of a Project exploring the Australian practice nurse role in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This stage involved a consensus development conference, undertaken to identify strategic, priority recommendations for practice nurse role development. 1. Practice nurses have an important role in developing systems and processes for CVD management; 2. A change in the culture of general practice is necessary to promote acceptance of nurse-led CVD management; 3. Future research needs to evaluate specific models of care, incorporating outcome measures sensitive to nursing interventions; 4. Considerable challenges exist in conducting research in general practice; and 5. Changes in funding models are necessary for widespread practice nurse role development. The shifting of funding models provides evidence to support interdisciplinary practice in Australian general practice. The time is ripe, therefore, to engage in prospective and strategic planning to inform development of the practice nurse role.

  7. Intervention Research and Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.

    2003-01-01

    Getting research-based instructional practices into the hands of professionals who teach students with learning disabilities is one of the most significant challenges for educators. This paper describes some of the major factors accounting for the gaps that exist between the special education research and classroom practice and presents four major…

  8. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    PubMed

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  9. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research.

  10. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  11. Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hille, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Bringing research into educational practice is necessary but does not happen automatically. The Transfercenter for Neuroscience and Learning, at the University of Ulm in Germany, is set up to transfer (neuro)scientific knowledge into educational practice. In doing so we have learned why this does not happen automatically, and have tried to make…

  12. Children's Emergent Literacy: From Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancy, David F., Ed.

    Noting that renaming common folk practices as "emergent literacy" practices legitimizes these unacknowledged ways of learning to read and write, this book highlights the importance of out-of-school literacy experiences and the value of real literature and real writing. It stresses a reciprocal relationship between basic research on the…

  13. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  14. Academic research: policies and practice.

    PubMed

    Bertha, S L

    1996-04-01

    The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 allowed universities in the US to own and manage inventions obtained using federal funds. This Act laid the foundation for university technology transfer activities in most major research universities of the country. Consequently, the interaction between universities and industry has increased, and so has the sophistication in university intellectual property management. UIC's model for managing its intellectual property is efficient and successful, and is the one increasingly used by university technology transfer offices. The model deals with all aspects of UIC's intellectual property: disclosure, protection, marketing, negotiating and licensing, as well as intellectual property provisions in UIC's research agreements, material transfer agreements, option agreements, licensing agreements and others. In a pioneer effort, UIC has developed a policy on contracts for collecting natural product samples for drug discovery which includes royalty sharing and other important provisions. Accompanying this policy we have also drafted a standard contractual agreement for collectors.

  15. Transition of Research into Medical Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  16. General practice and ethnicity: an experimental study of doctoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    when working within a demanding environment. In general practice, the quality of the relationship between doctor and patient is an essential component of the effective management of chronic illness. Our research highlights the complexity of ethnic discrimination in general practice, and the need for further studies. PMID:24884670

  17. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  18. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  19. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your ‘cluster’ of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development. PMID:28250821

  20. Childbirth across cultures: research and practice.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Beverley

    2012-12-01

    Countries and cultures differ in their approach to childbirth, as well as in their research practices. This paper examines 10 surveys of women's reports of their labor and birth in seven countries spanning North America and Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Similarities and differences in practice are highlighted, and the methodological difficulties of conducting research in cross-cultural settings are examined. This paper discusses innovative and culturally unique perinatal practices that are not revealed by such surveys and stresses the importance of sharing such ideas globally.

  1. Practice-based research: the role of HUSK in knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Julkunen, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Practice research involves curiosity about practice. It is about challenging complex practices through a critical and co-productive examination of concrete practices and how ideas are created, adopted, and spread. By involving the relational complexities within practice and by strengthening the relational and organizational linkage between research and practice, the relevance of research may transcend the process of generalizing and disseminating research findings. In this analysis, the author uses the theoretical approach of actor relations to analyze the HUSK projects in their efforts to develop new forms of collaboration between research, practice, education, and service users to build knowledge about improving the quality of social services.

  2. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  3. Generalized Chernoff Fusion Approximation for Practical Distributed Data Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Generalized Chernoff Fusion Approximation for Practical Distributed Data Fusion William J. Farrell III R&D Department Adaptive Methods , Inc...independence or modify legacy systems with pedigree tagging techniques . Leveraging the well- known Covariance Intersection algorithm, its generalization...Adaptive Methods , Inc.,Centreville, VA , , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  4. Is the cold chain for vaccines maintained in general practice?

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, E A; Booy, R; Stirzaker, L; Wilkes, S; Battersby, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the cold chain for vaccines and compliance with the local code of practice for storage. DESIGN--In a random sample of general practices orders for live vaccines (oral polio and measles, mumps, and rubella) were accompanied by a cold chain monitor which was activated on leaving the supplying pharmacy. The monitors were read at specified intervals and when all vaccines in the order had been used. Structured interview was used to check compliance with the local code of practice on storage. SETTING--West Berkshire and Aylesbury Vale district health authorities. SUBJECTS--16 (25%) general practices in West Berkshire, and 13 (50%) in Aylesbury Vale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Compliance with code of practice. Changes in the cold chain monitor. RESULTS--For six key requirements within the code of practice compliance varied from 70% to 0%. Only 16 of 29 practices had a named person responsible for vaccine storage and only four were aware of the local code of practice. Vaccine was stored for longer and more breaks in the cold chain occurred in West Berkshire than in Aylesbury Vale. The potency of some vaccines in 10 of 26 orders became suspect before use. CONCLUSIONS--Knowledge of appropriate management of the cold chain in two districts was poor. Breaks in the chain were more frequent and compromised potency more likely when vaccine had been stored for more than eight weeks. Problems in maintaining the cold chain indicate the need for continuing audit, which should become a prerequisite for payments to general practitioners for immunisation. PMID:8369691

  5. [The Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guidelines, "Examination of the neonate": response from the perspective of general practice medicine].

    PubMed

    Springer, M P

    2002-11-09

    With the publication of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Examination of the neonate', a discussion which has lasted several decades has been brought to an end. Up to now a second neonatal examination by the general practitioner on the third, fourth or fifth day after a midwife-assisted birth was recommended. The arguments in support of this recommendation were based on the following: (a) the limited expertise of midwives in the past, (b) the experience that general practitioners had in examining children, although this experience was not specifically related to the defects for which neonates should be checked, and (c) the government bodies' wish to restrict the number of hospital deliveries by giving greater structure to the organisation of midwife care, which in practice, did not lead to large changes. Based on three studies, the practice guideline recommends that a second examination is of no added value.

  6. STS: Adding Value To Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Kumar and Chubin-edited collection, "Science, Technology, and Society: A Sourcebook on Research and Practice". Presents an outline of the 12 chapters that examine STS trends, curriculum, teaching, learning, mentoring, advocacy, public policy, and issues for further research. (Author/WRM)

  7. Practical Research: Planning and Design. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leedy, Paul D.; Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis

    This book is a broad-spectrum guide, suitable for all courses in basic research. It guides the student from problem selection to completed research report with practical suggestions based on a solid theoretical framework and learning procedure. As a do-it-yourself guide, it is useful for students who are left to their own resources in executing…

  8. Educational Research as a Practical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a philosophical contribution to recent debates about the assessment of quality in educational research. It shows how criticisms of the quality of educational research--pointing to its failure to meet epistemic criteria of rigour and practical criteria of relevance--are an inevitable manifestation of the flawed assumption that…

  9. Doing Developmental Research: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striano, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing practical issues rarely covered in methods texts, this user-friendly, jargon-free book helps students and beginning researchers plan infant and child development studies and get them done. The author provides step-by-step guidance for getting involved in a developmental laboratory and crafting effective research questions and proposals.…

  10. Efficiency in mental health practice and research.

    PubMed

    Lagomasino, Isabel T; Zatzick, Douglas F; Chambers, David A

    2010-01-01

    Limited financial resources, escalating mental health-related costs and opportunities for capitalizing on advances in health information technologies have brought the theme of efficiency to the forefront of mental health services research and clinical practice. In this introductory article to the journal series stemming from the 20th NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference, we first delineate the need for a new focus on efficiency in both research and clinical practice. Second, we provide preliminary definitions of efficiency for the field and discuss issues related to measurement. Finally, we explore the interface between efficiency in mental health services research and practice and the NIMH strategic objectives of developing improved interventions for diverse populations and enhancing the public health impact of research. Case examples illustrate how perspectives from dissemination and implementation research may be used to maximize efficiencies in the development and implementation of new service delivery models. Allowing findings from the dissemination and implementation field to permeate and inform clinical practice and research may facilitate more efficient development of interventions and enhance the public health impact of research.

  11. Educational Research and Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley, Martyn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Combining classic articles that have been key markers in recent debates with new and influential material, this book addresses the problems involved in educational research and the issues surrounding its contribution to policymaking and practice. The authors examine the diverse approaches within qualitative research and address some of the key…

  12. A Practical School Public Relations Research Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in communication technology have created many new tools for school communicators--as well as increasing complexities for their programs. As a result, solid school communication research programs offering practical research insights for planning, tracking, and assessing school communication efforts are more important than ever. Still, many…

  13. NASA general aviation research overview - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.; Westfall, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of general aviation are reviewed which resulted from NASA's steadily improving communication with the industry and user community, both on a formal level and through more direct involvement in the research activities. Several NASA programs are examined whose aim is to provide new technologies across the board for improvements in safety, efficiency, and reduction of the impact of general aviation on the environment. The use of the results of some NASA programs in designing new aircraft is demonstrated. A list of technical reports generated by the NASA program is given in an appendix.

  14. Practice Characteristics of Graduates of Postdoctoral General Dentistry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatlin, Lonny J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 391 dentists completing a postdoctoral general dentistry program and 369 not participating in such a program revealed 75% of program participants were trained in civilian programs and the remainder in either military or Veterans Administration training programs. Employment patterns, treatment settings, and patterns of practice or…

  15. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: General Office Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of four courses within the General Office Practice program: Filing, Business Correspondence,…

  16. Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part II. Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    The basics of balanced general anesthesia developed since 1956 and the update on existing practices of intravenous induction anesthetics and inhalational anesthetics are discussed. Some of the progressive anesthetics discussed are propofol instead of barbiturate such as thiopental or methohexital, inhalational anesthetic halothane,…

  17. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE VOLUME 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is Volume 1 of a three volume series that provides guidance on the selection and design of stormwater management Best Management Practices (BMPs). This first volume provides general considerations associated with the selection and design of BMPs.
    Volume I provi...

  18. [Modular training in practical medicine: electronic evaluation of student education in general practice].

    PubMed

    Himmel, W; Kühne, I; Chenot, J-F; Scheer, N; Primas, I; Sigle, J

    2004-07-01

    Effective from spring 2004, new regulations for undergraduate medical education in Germany require a two-week practical training in general practice. Similar to other forms of medical education, this practical training should be regularly evaluated by students. With regard to special conditions of the training, we preferred a web based evaluation. Since adequate models were not available, we designed, implemented and tested an electronic way of evaluation. The following aspects turned out to be of special importance: teamwork, time, data protection and cost. Meanwhile, the evaluation is established and still accessible as demo-version for visitors of the home page. This electronic evaluation of medical training in general practice is highly appropriate for a timely evaluation allowing us to obtain a comparison between students' expectations and actual experience as well as a continuous supervision and to provide feedback to the participating practices. This is an important step for quality assurance of medical education in practices inside and outside the university.

  19. Patients' assessment of out of hours care in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bollam, Mary J; McCarthy, Mark; Modell, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 177 patients drawn from 13 north London practices were interviewed shortly after they had sought help from their practice outside normal surgery hours. Patients were asked to describe the process and outcome of their out of hours call, to comment on specific aspects of the consultation, and to access their overall satisfaction with the encounter. Parents seeking consultations for children were least satisfied with the consultation; those aged over 60 responded most positively. Visits from general practitioners were more acceptable than visits from deputising doctors for patients aged under 60, but for patients aged over 60 visits from general practitioners and deputising doctors were equally acceptable. Monitoring of patients' views of out of hours consultations is feasible, and the findings of this study suggest that practices should regularly review the organisation of their out of hours care and discuss strategies for minimising conflict in out of hours calls—particularly those concerning children. PMID:3130934

  20. Professional Practices in Undergraduate Research Programs

    PubMed Central

    Seeling, Joni M.; Choudhary, Madhusudan

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate research experience (URE) is an important avenue within a college trajectory in which students enhance their critical thinking, learn about the scientific process, and develop the knowledge and values that will guide their future scientific and professional careers. Individual institutions, programs, departments, and faculty administer undergraduate research differently, but each should adhere to a common set of guidelines which govern the research mentoring process. Adherence to standard practices will enhance the research experience for both students and mentors. This article examines standards and guidelines for professional practices involving undergraduate research and scholarship, and will discuss lapses and limitations that students and faculty frequently confront. The growth, support, and proper management of undergraduate research programs (URPs) at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) is important for maintaining a talented pool of young scientists, as students benefit greatly from direct interactions with faculty mentors that predominate at PUIs. PMID:27158305

  1. Professional Practices in Undergraduate Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Seeling, Joni M; Choudhary, Madhusudan

    2016-05-01

    The undergraduate research experience (URE) is an important avenue within a college trajectory in which students enhance their critical thinking, learn about the scientific process, and develop the knowledge and values that will guide their future scientific and professional careers. Individual institutions, programs, departments, and faculty administer undergraduate research differently, but each should adhere to a common set of guidelines which govern the research mentoring process. Adherence to standard practices will enhance the research experience for both students and mentors. This article examines standards and guidelines for professional practices involving undergraduate research and scholarship, and will discuss lapses and limitations that students and faculty frequently confront. The growth, support, and proper management of undergraduate research programs (URPs) at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) is important for maintaining a talented pool of young scientists, as students benefit greatly from direct interactions with faculty mentors that predominate at PUIs.

  2. Independent learning among general practice trainees: an initial survey.

    PubMed

    Bligh, J G

    1992-11-01

    Self-directed learning is a natural way for adults to learn. Vocational training for general practice is a preparation for unsupervised clinical work that will be supported, in the main, by continuing medical education. This study uses the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale to investigate factors influencing readiness for such learning among a sample of general practice trainees. Three principal factors emerged from analysis: enjoyment and enthusiasm for learning; a positive self-concept as a learner and a factor suggesting the possibility of a 'reproducing' orientation to learning. These factors may reflect approaches to learning in general rather than these adopted for professional learning, but offer helpful pointers for the development of both vocational training and of continuing medical education.

  3. NASA Research on General Aviation Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion systems are key factors in the design and performance of general aviation airplanes. NASA research programs that are intended to support improvements in these engines are described. Reciprocating engines are by far the most numerous powerplants in the aviation fleet; near-term efforts are being made to lower their fuel consumption and emissions. Longer-term work includes advanced alternatives, such as rotary and lightweight diesel engines. Work is underway on improved turbofans and turboprops.

  4. Advancing general practice nursing in Australia: roles and responsibilities of primary healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Lane, Riki; Halcomb, Elizabeth; McKenna, Lisa; Zwar, Nicholas; Naccarella, Lucio; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Russell, Grant

    2016-04-21

    Objectives Given increased numbers and enhanced responsibilities of Australian general practice nurses, we aimed to delineate appropriate roles for primary health care organisations (PHCOs) to support this workforce.Methods A two-round online Delphi consensus process was undertaken between January and June 2012, informed by literature review and key informant interviews. Participants were purposively selected and included decision makers from government and professional organisations, educators, researchers and clinicians from five Australian states and territoriesResults Of 56 invited respondents, 35 (62%) and 31 (55%) responded to the first and second invitation respectively. Participants reached consensus on five key roles for PHCOs in optimising nursing in general practice: (1) matching workforce size and skills to population needs; (2) facilitating leadership opportunities; (3) providing education and educational access; (4) facilitating integration of general practice with other primary care services to support interdisciplinary care; and (5) promoting advanced nursing roles. National concerns, such as limited opportunities for postgraduate education and career progression, were deemed best addressed by national nursing organisations, universities and peak bodies.Conclusions Advancement of nursing in general practice requires system-level support from a range of organisations. PHCOs play a significant role in education and leadership development for nurses and linking national nursing organisations with general practices.What is known about the topic? The role of nurses in Australian general practice has grown in the last decade, yet they face limited career pathways and opportunities for career advancement. Some nations have forged interprofessional primary care teams that use nurses' skills to the full extent of their scope of practice. PHCOs have played important roles in the development of general practice nursing in Australia and internationally

  5. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influenza, is essential. AIM: To assess the organizational factors in Dutch general practice, which were associated with the influenza vaccination rate in 1994. METHOD: A retrospective questionnaire study was undertaken in 1586 of the 4758 Dutch general practices, which were randomly selected. A total of 1251 (79%) practices returned a questionnaire. The items verified were practice profile, urbanization, delegation index, use of computer-based patient records, influenza vaccination characteristics and influenza vaccination rate. RESULTS: No differences were found with regard to the percentage of single-handed practices (65%), practices situated in urban area (38%), practices with a pharmacy (12%), patients insured by the National Health Service (59%) and use of computer-based patient records (57%) when compared with national statistics. The mean overall influenza vaccination rate was 9.0% (SD 4.0%). Using a logistic regression analysis, a high vaccination rate (> or = 9%) was associated with the use of personal reminders (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 1.3-2.2), monitoring patient compliance (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.4), marking risk patients in computer-based patient records (OR 1.3, 1.0-1.6), a small number of patients per full-time practice assistant (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9), urban areas (OR 1.6, 1.3-2.1) and single-handed practices (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9). CONCLUSION: Improvement of vaccination rates in high-risk patients may be achievable by promoting the use of personal reminders and computer-based patient records, as well as monitoring patient compliance. In addition, the role of practice assistants with regard to preventive activities should be developed further. Practices situated in rural areas and

  6. Receptionists' experiences of occupational violence in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Parker; Joyce, Terry; Adams, Jon; Goode, Susan; Cotter, Georgina

    2009-01-01

    Background The significance of occupational violence in general practice is well established, but research has focused almost exclusively on the experiences of GPs. Only limited research has examined the role of general practice receptionists despite their acknowledged vulnerability to violent patient behaviour. No qualitative research has explored this problem. Aim To explore the experiences of general practice receptionists regarding occupational violence and the effects of violence on their psychological and emotional wellbeing and on their work satisfaction and performance. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting Constituent practices of an Australian network of research general practices. Practices were located in a range of socioeconomic settings. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice receptionists. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to thematic analysis employing a process of constant comparison in which data collection and analysis were cumulative and concurrent. Qualitative written responses from a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study performed concurrently with the qualitative study were similarly analysed. Results Nineteen interviews were conducted and 12 written responses were received. Violence was found to be a common, sometimes pervasive, experience of many receptionists. Verbal abuse, both ‘across the counter’ and telephone abuse, was the most prominent form of violence, although other violence, including assault and threats with guns, was reported. Experiences of violence could have marked emotional and psychological effects and could adversely affect job satisfaction, performance, and commitment. Conclusion It is apparent that occupational violence is a whole-of-practice problem and strategies for GP and staff safety will need to take a whole-of-practice approach. PMID:22751233

  7. Cluster randomized trials for pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Gums, Tyler; Carter, Barry; Foster, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are now the gold standard in health services research, including pharmacy-based interventions. Studies of behaviour, epidemiology, lifestyle modifications, educational programs, and health care models are utilizing the strengths of cluster randomized analyses. Methodology The key property of CRTs is the unit of randomization (clusters), which may be different from the unit of analysis (individual). Subject sample size and, ideally, the number of clusters is determined by the relationship of between-cluster and within-cluster variability. The correlation among participants recruited from the same cluster is known as the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Generally, having more clusters with smaller ICC values will lead to smaller sample sizes. When selecting clusters, stratification before randomization may be useful in decreasing imbalances between study arms. Participant recruitment methods can differ from other types of randomized trials, as blinding a behavioural intervention cannot always be done. When to use CRTs can yield results that are relevant for making "real world" decisions. CRTs are often used in non-therapeutic intervention studies (e.g. change in practice guidelines). The advantages of CRT design in pharmacy research have been avoiding contamination and the generalizability of the results. A large CRT that studied physician-pharmacist collaborative management of hypertension is used in this manuscript as a CRT example. The trial, entitled Collaboration Among Pharmacists and physicians To Improve Outcomes Now (CAPTION), was implemented in primary care offices in the United States for hypertensive patients. Limitations CRT design limitations include the need for a large number of clusters, high costs, increased training, increased monitoring, and statistical complexity.

  8. [Research and professional practice in speech therapy].

    PubMed

    Monfort, Isabelle; Monfort, Marc; Juárez-Sánchez, Adoración

    2014-02-24

    The relationship between research and clinical practice is discussed based on the request of this last on new therapeutic perspectives and empirical confirmations of their decisions. Two examples of a clear and justified relation between theoretical research data and the later development of an intervention program illustrate the achievements and disappointments of these relationships. From this analysis, the proposal of evidence-based practice is discussed, the requirements involved and the difficulties in its practical application, especially in the intervention in aspects such as semantics and pragmatics. It finally points out the lack of research on an item that is considered crucial to the effectiveness of therapy: the characteristics and skills of the therapist.

  9. Sex differences among recipients of benzodiazepines in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed Central

    van der Waals, F W; Mohrs, J; Foets, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse sex differences among recipients of benzodiazepines in Dutch general practice. DESIGN--Study of consultations and associated interventions as recorded in the Dutch national survey of general practice. SETTING--Practices of 45 general practitioners monitored during 1 April to 30 June 1987. SUBJECTS--61,249 patients (29,035 (47.4%) men in the age groups 19-44, 45-64, and 65 years and over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Symptoms among recipients of repeat as well as new benzodiazepine prescriptions stratified by sex and age. RESULTS--Prescriptions for benzodiazepines were found to be significantly more common among women than among men, (a) after correcting for the sex distribution of the total patient population, and (b) in the two oldest age groups after correcting for the number of consultations. Of all prescriptions for benzodiazepines, 89% (6055/6777) were repeats and 70% (4759/6777) requests. Only 9% (439/4759) of these were authorized by the general practitioner, the rest being issued by the general practitioner's assistant after he or she had referred to the diagnosis in the patient's record. In contrast, only three (1%) of the 492 first time recipients of benzodiazepines had requested a prescription and were not seen by the general practitioner. Women (43/96; 45%) aged 45-64 years received their first prescription for benzodiazepines almost twice as often as men (15/63; 24%) without symptoms or a diagnosis being an indication (female to male relative risk 1.88 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.08)). CONCLUSIONS--The sex difference among first time recipients of benzodiazepines seems to be due to general practitioners being less stringent when prescribing this drug for women. The difference continues in repeat prescriptions, physicians failing to check adequately the need for these. PMID:8104066

  10. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  11. Soviet Psycho-educational Research on Learning Disabilities: Implications for American Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    The implications of Soviet psychoeducational research on learning disabilities (LD) and its relevance to American research and practice are discussed. The first section provides an overview of the general perspective of Soviet special education, with particular reference to LD and its relationship to Soviet psychology and philosophy. The second…

  12. Toward ethical research practice with deaf participants.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jenny L; Jones, Gabrielle; Hanumantha, Shilpa

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have been critical of what they consider unethical conduct by researchers whose studies focus on members of the Deaf or signing communities. This is the first empirical study that investigates ethical concerns and recommendations from the perspective of three stakeholder groups (Deaf research participants, researchers, and Deaf studies experts). We analyzed focus group discussions using strategies from grounded theory and community-based participatory research. The themes we identified highlight the need for the broader scientific research community to include linguistically and culturally sensitive research procedures that more adequately protect the rights of Deaf research participants, as well as other marginalized groups. We address the need to increase the number of Deaf scientists and reconsider collaboration practices between Deaf and hearing researchers.

  13. Newer antidepressants: a comparison of tolerability in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, F R; Dunn, N R; Martin, R M; Pearce, G L; Freemantle, S N; Mann, R D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of antidepressants have been released on the United Kingdom market in recent years, and these are being prescribed more frequently in general practice. Clinical trials suggest that such agents have similar efficacy and the choice of drug is probably based on tolerability, toxicity in overdose, and cost. AIM: To compare the tolerability and safety profile of six, newly marketed antidepressants used in general practice. METHOD: Studies have been conducted for six antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, moclobemide, venlafaxine, and nefazodone, using the technique of prescription-event monitoring. Patients were identified using incident dispensed prescription data. Questionnaires were sent to patients' general practitioners six months after the date of first prescription. Questionnaires asked for date of birth, sex, indication for prescribing each drug, and all events entered in the patients' records after the date of first prescription. RESULTS: Each cohort exceeded 10,000 patients. Nausea/vomiting was the most frequently reported event for all drugs. The difference in incidence rates for drowsiness/sedation, male sexual dysfunction, and hypertension is shown. Mortality data are also reported. CONCLUSION: Frequently reported events were similar for all six drugs but there were clinically and statistically significant differences for less frequently reported events. The adjusted mortality rate was identical between the six drugs. This study provides valuable comparative data for six, widely used antidepressants in general practice. PMID:10818655

  14. Ethics, Practice, and Research in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Buehler, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies—an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291

  15. Communications with research participants and communities: foundations for best practices.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Rebecca T

    2004-11-01

    Communities and research participants increasingly feel that they have rights to be equal partners with researchers and to have access to the results of studies to which they have contributed. Concurrently, research sponsors have become aware of legal liabilities, societal repercussions, and credibility impacts of ignoring research communication responsibilities. However, issues related to research communications are rarely discussed at professional meetings or taught in academic programs. As a result, individual investigators may not be clear about their duties to communicate the results of their research. It is important to address this gap between expectations and abilities, because researchers' lack of communication fosters a climate of distrust in science and implies disinterest or disrespect for participants and communities. Ethical, legal, and professional frameworks and practices were reviewed to develop insights about principles, guidelines, and means that can be used to promote best practices. A review of general research guidance and specific requests for proposals revealed sponsors' communication priorities. While there are barriers to research communication, there is an increasing awareness among sponsors and investigators that effective and responsive communication is not a cheap or uniform add-on to a project or proposal. Communications must be tailored to the project considering all potential stakeholders, and resources need to be allocated specifically for communication activities within projects. Researchers, sponsors, professional societies and academia all have opportunities to improve principles, policies, frameworks, guidelines and strategies to foster "best practice" communication of research results.

  16. Researcher Practice: Embedding Creative Practice within Doctoral Research in Industrial Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the potential for a researcher to use their own creative practice as a method of data collection. Much of the published material in this field focuses on more theoretical positions, with limited use being made of specific PhDs that illustrate the context in which practice was undertaken by the researcher. It explores…

  17. Laparoscopic entry: a review of Canadian general surgical practice

    PubMed Central

    Compeau, Christopher; McLeod, Natalie T.; Ternamian, Artin

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery has gained popularity over open conventional surgery as it offers benefits to both patients and health care practitioners. Although the overall risk of complications during laparoscopic surgery is recognized to be lower than during laparotomy, inadvertent serious complications still occur. Creation of the pneumoperitoneum and placement of laparoscopic ports remain a critical first step during endoscopic surgery. It is estimated that up to 50% of laparoscopic complications are entry-related, and most injury-related litigations are trocar-related. We sought to evaluate the current practice of laparoscopic entry among Canadian general surgeons. Methods We conducted a national survey to identify general surgeon preferences for laparoscopic entry. Specifically, we sought to survey surgeons using the membership database from the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS) with regards to entry methods, access instruments, port insertion sites and patient safety profiles. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used as a representative general surgical procedure. Results The survey was completed by 248 of 1000 (24.8%) registered members of CAGS. Respondents included both community and academic surgeons, with and without formal laparoscopic fellowship training. The demographic profile of respondents was consistent nationally. A substantial proportion of general surgeons (> 80%) prefer the open primary entry technique, use the Hasson trocar and cannula and favour the periumbilical port site, irrespective of patient weight or history of peritoneal adhesions. One-third of surgeons surveyed use Veress needle insufflation in their surgical practices. More than 50% of respondents witnessed complications related to primary laparoscopic trocar insertion. Conclusion General surgeons in Canada use the open primary entry technique, with the Hasson trocar and cannula applied periumbilically to establish a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery. This

  18. Welfare to work: the role of general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, F M; Ford, J; Dowrick, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the potential effects of the government's Welfare to Work policy on general practitioner (GP) working patterns, and aims to explore the relationship between unemployment, ill health, and GP sickness certification. Social security and employment policy initiatives are discussed in relation to the literature on the relationship between unemployment and ill health, sociological and psychological perspectives on work and unemployment, medicalisation of unemployment, adjudication of fitness for work, re-employment and health, and treatment of barriers to employment. The authors postulate that Welfare to Work policy may depend for its success on the crucial role of general practice in sickness certification. PMID:10962795

  19. General practice--a post-modern specialty?

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, N; Rowland, S

    1997-01-01

    The 'modern' view of the world is based on the premise that we can discover the essential truth of the world using scientific method. The assumption is made that knowledge so acquired has been 'uncontaminated' by the mind of the investigator. Post-modern theory, however, is concerned with the process of knowing and how our minds are part of the process, i.e. our perceptions of reality and the relationships between different concepts are important influences on our ways of knowing. The values of post-modern theory are those of uncertainty, many different voices and experiences of reality and multifaceted descriptions of truth. These values are closer to our experience of general practice than the 'modern' values of scientific rationalism and should be reflected in a new curriculum for general practice. PMID:9167325

  20. The epidemiology of prescribing in an urban general practice

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The total prescribing in an urban general practice was recorded over a six-month period and classified according to the length of time that drugs were continued. The number of patients receiving any prescription rose with age, as did the total number of items per patient prescribed for; while the continued items rose with age, the number of items prescribed once only per patient remained constant in all age groups. The bulk of the total prescribing was for the elderly and this was mainly for continued items. The classification also shows that certain drug groups are liable to be continued whereas others are virtually always prescribed once only. The implications of these findings for self-audit of prescribing and the care of the elderly in general practice are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7452600

  1. Dental therapists in general dental practices: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Heffley, Dennis R; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    Dental access disparities are well documented and have been recognized as a national problem. Their major cause is the lack of reasonable Medicaid reimbursement rates for the underserved. Specifically, Medicaid reimbursement rates for children average 40 percent below market rates. In addition, most state Medicaid programs do not cover adults. To address these issues, advocates of better oral health for the underserved are considering support for a new allied provider--a dental therapist--capable of providing services at a lower cost per service and in low-income and rural areas. Using a standard economic analysis, this study estimated the potential cost, price, utilization, and dentist's income effects of dental therapists employed in general dental practices. The analysis is based on national general dental practice data and the broadest scope of responsibility for dental therapists that their advocates have advanced, including the ability to provide restorations and extractions to adults and children, training for three years, and minimum supervision. Assuming dental therapists provide restorative, extraction, and pulpal services to patients of all ages and dental hygienists continue to deliver all hygiene services, the mean reduction in a general practice costs ranges between 1.57 and 2.36 percent. For dental therapists treating children only, the range is 0.31 to 0.47 percent. The effects on price and utilization are even smaller. In addition, the effects on most dentists' gross income, hours of work, and net income are negative. The estimated economic impact of dental therapists in the United States on private dental practice is very limited; therefore, the demand for dental therapists by private practices also would probably be very limited.

  2. Prosthodontics in a general practice program of advanced dental education.

    PubMed

    Plekavich, E J

    1976-01-01

    The problems involved in teaching prosthodontics in a general practice program outwardly appear to be due to the lack of sufficient basic prosthodontic training dispensed by the dental schools. This lack of sufficient training is not the fault of dental school faculties. The students are not learning what they are taught. What they need is more repetition, which means more time. The problems are not insurmountable. We just must find the route.

  3. Patients' knowledge of heart disease in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Philip; Garraway, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Interviews with 400 consecutive patients attending a general practice sought their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack, what action they would take for such an event, and their understanding of the predisposing factors contributing to heart disease. The survey revealed poor recognition of the relevant signs and symptoms of an acute heart attack and lack of knowledge of some of the main predisposing factors associated with heart disease. PMID:618352

  4. General aviation energy-conservation research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of nonturbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (1) reduced SFC's; (2) improved fuels tolerance; and (3) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques, and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose total fuel costs are as much as 30% lower than today's conventional engines.

  5. Cultural Reflexivity in Health Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This “misrecognition,” which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice. PMID:25905833

  6. Dollars, debts and duties: lessons from funding Australian general practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A.; Veale, Bronwyn

    2000-09-01

    This study investigated changes in resource allocation and activities of Australian Divisions of General Practice associated with new funding procedures which link monies to nominated outcomes. The study involved analysis of annual reports and strategic plans, and semistructured telephone interviews with key personnel from 27 divisions of general practice. The main outcome measures were: number of activities in various nominated health areas; total and median expenditure per activity in each area; and methods of resource allocation. Despite a modest increase in funding to the total general practice divisions program over the two year period, expenditure decreased in the National Health Priority Areas of mental health, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, injuries and cancer. There was increased expenditure in the priority area of immunisation, which received dedicated funding. There was greatly increased expenditure in the areas of information technology and services to GPs (including continuing medical education, professional development and workforce issues). The ease of defining and measuring outcomes influenced the choice of activities. In 1996, activities were linked to formal needs analyses in approximately 20 per cent of cases. The most frequent driving force for projects was enthusiastic GPs. In 1998, resource allocation decisions were more explicitly linked to formal needs analyses; however, the standard of the needs analyses varied widely between divisions. Changes in funding procedures which use nominated outcomes as the major accountability mechanism may produce unexpected, and unintended results, including significantly decreased expenditure in areas with outcomes which are hard to define and measure but which are important for health improvement.

  7. NASA research on general aviation power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Research activities within NASA to support general aviation industry in improving propulsion engines are described. Near-term objectives include improvements of gasoline piston engines to achieve fuel savings and reduce emissions well below EPA levels. To meet the longer term goals, advanced combustion research has been considered as essential in obtaining further improvements in BSFC (break specific fuel consumption). Modifications of an aircraft rotary engine were tested and it was found that by increasing the compression ratio and other refinements the BSFC was improved by 15%. The applicability of available large turbofan engine technology to small engines in order to obtain significant reductions in noise and pollutant emissions is being tested. Studies have been conducted at exploring the possibility of achieving high improvements in cost and performance for turboprop engines of less than 1000 horsepower.

  8. An ethnographic exploration of influences on prescribing in general practice: why is there variation in prescribing practices?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescribing is a core activity for general practitioners, yet significant variation in the quality of prescribing has been reported. This suggests there may be room for improvement in the application of the current best research evidence. There has been substantial investment in technologies and interventions to address this issue, but effect sizes so far have been small to moderate. This suggests that prescribing is a decision-making process that is not sufficiently understood. By understanding more about prescribing processes and the implementation of research evidence, variation may more easily be understood and more effective interventions proposed. Methods An ethnographic study in three Scottish general practices with diverse organizational characteristics. Practices were ranked by their performance against Audit Scotland prescribing quality indicators, incorporating established best research evidence. Two practices of high prescribing quality and one practice of low prescribing quality were recruited. Participant observation, formal and informal interviews, and a review of practice documentation were employed. Results Practices ranked as high prescribing quality consistently made and applied macro and micro prescribing decisions, whereas the low-ranking practice only made micro prescribing decisions. Macro prescribing decisions were collective, policy decisions made considering research evidence in light of the average patient, one disease, condition, or drug. Micro prescribing decisions were made in consultation with the patient considering their views, preferences, circumstances and other conditions (if necessary). Although micro prescribing can operate independently, the implementation of evidence-based, quality prescribing was attributable to an interdependent relationship. Macro prescribing policy enabled prescribing decisions to be based on scientific evidence and applied consistently where possible. Ultimately, this influenced prescribing

  9. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  10. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schafer, William D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 14 of volume 6 of "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation": (1) "Seven Myths about Literacy in the United States" (Jeff McQuillan); (2) "Implementing Performance Assessment in the Classroom" (Amy Brualdi); (3) "Some Evaluation Questions" (William Shadish); (4) "Item Banking" (Lawrence Rudner); (5)…

  11. Encouraging Gender Analysis in Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Few resources for practical teaching or fieldwork exercises exist which address gender in geographical contexts. This paper adds to teaching and fieldwork resources by describing an experience with designing and implementing a "gender intervention" for a large-scale, multi-university, bilingual research project that brought together a group of…

  12. Practical Engagements and Co-Created Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer Lyn; Seibold, David R.

    2008-01-01

    In this essay we foreground the value of engaging meaningfully with practitioners in our work. We review research by scholars whose work cuts across topics and contexts to gain insight into the power and practice of human communication as it shapes the world in which we live-highlighting work that is at its best because of its co-creation with…

  13. Embodied Experience in Educational Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this article is to make an educational analysis of Merleau-Ponty's theory of experience in order to see what it implicates for educational practice as well as educational research. In this way, we can attain an understanding what embodied experience might mean both in schools and other educational settings and in researching…

  14. Kindergarten Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Violet B., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two 1999 issues of a biannually-published journal featuring research studies, theoretical essays, and classroom practice articles about the development and education of kindergarten children as well as occasional articles concerning preschool and the early primary grades. The spring 1999 issue contains the…

  15. Best Practice Research Scholarships: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John; Salisbury, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The Best Practice Research Scholarship programme (BPRS) was one of a series of initiatives designed by the English Department for Educational Studies (DfES) between 2000 and 2003, to support teachers' continuing professional development. Each year, around 1,000 Scholarships of up to 3,000 British pounds each, were awarded to serving classroom…

  16. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schafer, William D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23 through 26 published in the electronic journal "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation" in 2001: (23) "Effects of Removing the Time Limit on First and Second Language Intelligence Test Performance" (Jennifer Mullane and Stuart J. McKelvie); (24) "Consequences of (Mis)use of the Texas Assessment of…

  17. Kindergarten Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Violet B., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two 2000 issues of a biannually-published journal featuring research studies, theoretical essays, and classroom practice articles about the development and education of kindergarten children as well as occasional articles concerning preschool and the early primary grades. The spring 2000 issue contains the…

  18. Contemporary Play Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.; Gerard Kaduson, Heidi, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This highly practical book presents current developments in play therapy, including innovative applications for particular problems and populations. Contributors first discuss the latest ideas and techniques emerging from object-relations, experiential, dynamic, and narrative perspectives. Next, research evaluating the effectiveness of play…

  19. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schafer, William D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of papers published in the electronic journal "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation" during 2000-2001: (1) "Advantages of Hierarchical Linear Modeling" (Jason W. Osborne); (2) "Prediction in Multiple Regression" (Jason W. Osborne); (3) Scoring Rubrics: What, When, and How?"…

  20. Implications of Brain Research for Educational Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guckes, Lucille; Elkins, Robert

    Recent brain research demonstrates that the left hemisphere of the brain processes information in a linear, organized way. The right hemisphere processes the same information as a whole, with a focus on nonverbal, spatial components. Current educational practice is inordinately skewed to develop only the left hemisphere of the brain. Data from…

  1. Making Connections between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; McMaken, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening connections between research and practice is an important goal in education. Making the connection has both a supply side and a demand side but the demand is often ignored in education. The authors offer six hypotheses about why this situation occurs.

  2. Leadership Practices and School Choice. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Xiu; Goldring, Ellen; Penaloza, Roberto V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger study on school choice, researchers at the National Center on School Choice examined variation in leadership practices across school types, relying on a convenience matched sample of schools that included charter, magnet, private, and traditional public schools. A total of 284 schools agreed to participate in the study--116…

  3. Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Herrett, Emily; Gallagher, Arlene M; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet; Mathur, Rohini; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an ongoing primary care database of anonymised medical records from general practitioners, with coverage of over 11.3 million patients from 674 practices in the UK. With 4.4 million active (alive, currently registered) patients meeting quality criteria, approximately 6.9% of the UK population are included and patients are broadly representative of the UK general population in terms of age, sex and ethnicity. General practitioners are the gatekeepers of primary care and specialist referrals in the UK. The CPRD primary care database is therefore a rich source of health data for research, including data on demographics, symptoms, tests, diagnoses, therapies, health-related behaviours and referrals to secondary care. For over half of patients, linkage with datasets from secondary care, disease-specific cohorts and mortality records enhance the range of data available for research. The CPRD is very widely used internationally for epidemiological research and has been used to produce over 1000 research studies, published in peer-reviewed journals across a broad range of health outcomes. However, researchers must be aware of the complexity of routinely collected electronic health records, including ways to manage variable completeness, misclassification and development of disease definitions for research. PMID:26050254

  4. Epidemiology of Patient Harms in New Zealand: Protocol of a General Practice Records Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Sharon; Wallis, Katharine A; Eggleton, Kyle S; Cunningham, Wayne K; Williamson, Martyn I; Lillis, Steven; McMenamin, Andrew W; Tilyard, Murray W; Reith, David M; Samaranayaka, Ari; Hall, Jason E

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowing where and why harm occurs in general practice will assist patients, doctors, and others in making informed decisions about the risks and benefits of treatment options. Research to date has been unable to verify the safety of primary health care and epidemiological research about patient harms in general practice is now a top priority for advancing health systems safety. Objective We aim to study the incidence, distribution, severity, and preventability of the harms patients experience due to their health care, from the whole-of-health-system lens afforded by electronic general practice patient records. Methods “Harm” is defined as disease, injury, disability, suffering, and death, arising from the health system. The study design is a stratified, 2-level cluster, retrospective records review study. Both general practices and patients will be randomly selected so that the study’s results will apply nationally, after weighting. Stratification by practice size and rurality will allow comparisons between 6 study groups (large, medium-sized, small; urban and rural practices). Records of equal numbers of patients from each study group will be included in the study because there may be systematic differences in patient harms in different types of practices. Eight general practitioner investigators will review 3 years of electronic general practice health records (consultation notes, prescriptions, investigations, referrals, and summaries of hospital care) from 9000 patients registered in 60 general practices. Double-blinded reviews will check the concordance of reviewers’ assessments. Study data will comprise demographic data of all 9000 patients and reviewers’ assessments of whether patients experienced harm arising from health care. Where patient harm is identified, their types, preventability, severity, and outcomes will be coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) 18.0. Results We have recruited practices and

  5. Tooth wear: prevalence and associated factors in general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Pashova, Hristina; Packard, J.D.; Zhou, Lingmei; Hilton, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tooth wear and to investigate factors associated with tooth wear in patients from general practices in the Northwest United States. Methods Data on the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases during the previous year were collected in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (n = 1530) visiting general dentists from the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT) (n = 80). Prevalence ratios (PRs) of moderate to severe occlusal and incisal tooth wear by patient characteristics were estimated using cluster-adjusted multiple binomial regression for adults (18+ years) and children/adolescents (3–17 years). Results For adults, the mean number of teeth with wear facets was 5.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.6–6.2] and 51% of the adults had four or more teeth with wear. Participants 45–64 and 65+ years old were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.1–1.6) and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1–1.8) times as likely to have 4+ teeth with moderate to severe wear facets as participants 18–44 years old. Adult males had a 20% (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1–1.4) higher prevalence of wear than adult females. Adults who were using, or had ever used occlusal splints had higher prevalence of tooth wear compared to those who never used such appliances (PR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.5). Adults with any periodontal bone loss also had a 20% higher prevalence of wear than adults without periodontal disease (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0–1.4). For children/adolescents, the mean number of teeth with moderate to severe wear facets was 1.6 (95% CI = 0.9–2.6) and 31% of the children had one or more teeth with wear facets. The adjusted prevalence ratio of tooth wear (1+ teeth with wear facets) for boys was 1.6 times as high (95% CI = 1.1–2.4) as compared with girls. The prevalence of wear for children 12+ years old was 50% (PR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3–0.8) lower than that of children <12 years old. Angle’s class II was associated

  6. The general practice formulary — its role in rational therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Green, Philip E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a project in which a voluntary preferred prescribing list (general practice formulary), analogous to those already in use in some hospitals, was created, implemented and monitored. Cooperation between a pharmacist with knowledge of drug information, access to specialist advice and back-up in the form of evaluated information from drug information centres and a group of five general practitioners and their trainees was necessary. The formulary was well accepted with between 68.2% and 89.6% compliance in therapeutic classes corresponding to the recent National Health Service restricted groups. This method enhances the critical appraisal of prescribing rationale, takes into account the needs of doctors and patients, and reduces costs. Such work highlights the value and scope of interdisciplinary liaison between pharmacists, general practitioners and clinical pharmacologists and it could prove beneficial on a national scale. PMID:4093901

  7. Editorial: A Note on Good Research Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-07-01

    Good scientific practice and research misconduct have been concerns of mine for more than a decade (Dooley and Kerch, 2000) and in my role as an editor of the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, I feel it is time to speak up and at the very least share my concerns and suggestions as they relate to the integrity of the research published in this journal. Rather than wait to write an editorial on good research practices in response to a major incident, I thought it might be best to be proactive and address some of the trends we see in submissions to this peer reviewed journal and to offer some suggestions for improvement improving the level of scholarship in some – but by no means all – of the papers submitted.

  8. Patients’ Views Concerning Research on Medical Practices: Implications for Consent

    PubMed Central

    Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Bollinger, Juli M.; Brelsford, Kathleen M.; Crayton, Travis J.; Topazian, Rachel J.; Kass, Nancy E.; Beskow, Laura M.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and pragmatic clinical trials commonly test interventions that are in routine use and pose minimal incremental risk or burdens to patients who participate in this research. The objective of this study was to elicit the range of patients’ views and opinions regarding a variety of different types of research on usual medical practices, especially notification and authorization for them. Methods We conducted twelve focus groups with adults in five U.S. cities—six focus groups addressing CER (“CER groups”) and six groups addressing research involving hospital operations and clinician interventions (“Operations groups”). Participants discussed hypothetical research studies and potential methods of notifying patients and obtaining their authorization to participate. Group discussions were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify patients’ views related to research on standard medical practice. Results A total of ninety six people participated. Twelve key themes emerged from participants’ discussions of the hypothetical research studies; these themes were then grouped into four general categories: clinical care; notification and authorization; communication; and conduct and design of research. The desire to be actively notified and asked was more prominent with regard to CER studies than with regard to Operations studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that effective policy and guidance will involve balancing different patients’ interests and potentially different sets of interests for different types of research studies on usual medical practices. PMID:27800531

  9. Research to Practice: Implementing Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385

  10. Methadone maintenance in general practice: patients, workload, and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P.; Watson, R.; Ralston, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess recruitment to and work-load associated with methadone maintenance clinics in general practice; to investigate the characteristics of patients and outcomes associated with treatment. DESIGN--Study of case notes. SETTING--Methadone maintenance clinics run jointly by general practitioners and drug counsellors in two practices in Glasgow. PARTICIPANTS--46 injecting drug users receiving methadone maintenance during an 18 month period, 31 of whom were recruited to clinic based methadone maintenance treatment and 15 of whom were already receiving methadone maintenance treatment from the general practitioners. Mean (SD) age of patients entering treatment was 29.6 (5.5) years; 29 were male. They had been injecting opiates for a mean 9.9 (5.1) years, and most had a concurrent history of benzodiazepine misuse. Average reported daily intake of heroin was approximately 0.75 g. Participants in treatment had high levels of preexisting morbidity, and most stated that they committed crime daily. RESULTS--2232 patient weeks of treatment were studied. Mean duration of treatment during the study period was 50.7 (21.1) weeks and retention in treatment at 26 weeks was 83%. No evidence of illicit opiate use was obtained at an average of 78% of patients' consultations where methadone had been prescribed in the previous week; for opiate injection the corresponding figure was 86%. CONCLUSIONS--Providing methadone maintenance in general practice is feasible. Although costs are considerable, the reduction in drug use, especially of intravenous opiates, is encouraging. Attending clinics also allows this population, in which morbidity is considerable, to receive other health care. PMID:8086989

  11. Ad hoc supervision of general practice registrars as a 'community of practice': analysis, interpretation and re-presentation.

    PubMed

    Clement, T; Brown, J; Morrison, J; Nestel, D

    2016-05-01

    General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also provide an opportunity for learning and teaching. Wenger's (Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) social theory of learning ('communities of practice') guided a secondary analysis of audio-recordings of ad hoc encounters. Data from one encounter is re-presented as an extended sequence to maintain congruence with the theoretical perspective and enhance vicariousness. An interpretive commentary communicates key features of Wenger's theory and highlights the researchers' interpretations. We argue that one encounter can reveal universal understandings of clinical supervision and that the process of naturalistic generalisation allows readers to transfer others' experiences to their own contexts. The paper raises significant analytic, interpretive, and representational issues. We highlight that report writing is an important, but infrequently discussed, part of research design. We discuss the challenges of supporting the learning and teaching that arises from adopting a socio-cultural lens and argue that such a perspective importantly captures the complex range of issues that work-based practitioners have to grapple with. This offers a challenge to how we research and seek to influence work-based learning and teaching in health care settings.

  12. Authorizing psychiatric research: principles, practices and problems.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siow Ann; Huxtable, Richard; Campbell, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric research is advancing rapidly, with studies revealing new investigative tools and technologies that are aimed at improving the treatment and care of patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the ethical framework in which such research is conducted is not as well developed as we might expect. In this paper we argue that more thought needs to be given to the principles that underpin research in psychiatry and to the problems associated with putting those principles into practice. In particular, we comment on some of the difficulties posed by the twin imperatives of ensuring that we respect the autonomy and interests of the research subject and, at the same time, enable potentially beneficial psychiatric research to flourish. We do not purport to offer a blueprint for the future; we do, however, seek to advance the debate by identifying some of the key questions to which better answers are required.

  13. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  14. Moving research knowledge into dental hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J; Edgington, Eunice M; Clovis, Joanne B

    2008-01-01

    Dental hygiene, as an emerging profession, needs to increase the number of intervention studies that identify improvements in oral health outcomes for clients. Historically, dental hygiene studies have typically been atheoretical, but the use of theoretical frameworks to guide these studies will increase their meaningfulness. Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations has been used to study research utilization across many disciplines, and may offer insights to the study of research use in dental hygiene. Research use is an important component of evidence-based practice (EBP), and diffusion of research knowledge is an important process in implementing EBP. The purpose of this paper is to use diffusion of innovations theory to examine knowledge movement in dental hygiene, specifically through the example of the preventive practice of oral cancer screening by dental hygienists, considered as an innovation. Diffusion is considered to be the process by which an innovation moves through communication channels over time among a social network. We suggest diffusion theory holds promise for the study of knowledge movement in dental hygiene, but there are limitations including access to and understanding research studies as innovations. Nevertheless, using a theoretical framework such as Rogers' diffusion of innovations will strengthen the quality of intervention research in dental hygiene, and subsequently, health outcomes for clients.

  15. Continuing medical education for general practitioners: a practice format

    PubMed Central

    VanNieuwenborg, Lena; Goossens, Martine; De Lepeleire, Jan; Schoenmakers, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our current knowledge-based society and the many actualisations within the medical profession require a great responsibility of physicians to continuously develop and refine their skills. In this article, we reflect on some recent findings in the field of continuing education for professional doctors (continuing medical education, CME). Second, we describe the development of a CME from the Academic Center for General Practice (ACHG) of the KU Leuven. Methods First, we performed a literature study and we used unpublished data of a need assessment performed (2013) in a selected group of general practitioners. Second, we describe the development of a proposal to establish a CME programme for general practitioners. Results CME should go beyond the sheer acquisition of knowledge, and also seek changes in practice, attitudes and behaviours of physicians. The continuing education offerings are subject to the goals of the organising institution, but even more to the needs and desires of the end user. Conclusions Integrated education is crucial to meet the conditions for efficient and effective continuing education. The ACHG KU Leuven decided to offer a postgraduate programme consisting of a combination of teaching methods: online courses (self-study), contact courses (traditional method) and a materials database. PMID:26850504

  16. Misunderstandings in prescribing decisions in general practice: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barry, Christine A; Barber, Nick; Bradley, Colin P

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe misunderstandings between patients and doctors associated with prescribing decisions in general practice. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in the West Midlands and south east England. Participants 20 general practitioners and 35 consulting patients. Main outcome measures Misunderstandings between patients and doctors that have potential or actual adverse consequences for taking medicine. Results 14 categories of misunderstanding were identified relating to patient information unknown to the doctor, doctor information unknown to the patient, conflicting information, disagreement about attribution of side effects, failure of communication about doctor's decision, and relationship factors. All the misunderstandings were associated with lack of patients' participation in the consultation in terms of the voicing of expectations and preferences or the voicing of responses to doctors' decisions and actions. They were all associated with potential or actual adverse outcomes such as non-adherence to treatment. Many were based on inaccurate guesses and assumptions. In particular doctors seemed unaware of the relevance of patients' ideas about medicines for successful prescribing. Conclusions Patients' participation in the consultation and the adverse consequences of lack of participation are important. The authors are developing an educational intervention that builds on these findings. PMID:10678863

  17. Data Management Practices for Collaborative Research

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Charles P.; Burchinal, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The success of research in the field of maternal–infant health, or in any scientific field, relies on the adoption of best practices for data and knowledge management. Prior work by our group and others has identified evidence-based solutions to many of the data management challenges that exist, including cost–effective practices for ensuring high-quality data entry and proper construction and maintenance of data standards and ontologies. Quality assurance practices for data entry and processing are necessary to ensure that data are not denigrated during processing, but the use of these practices has not been widely adopted in the fields of psychology and biology. Furthermore, collaborative research is becoming more common. Collaborative research often involves multiple laboratories, different scientific disciplines, numerous data sources, large data sets, and data sets from public and commercial sources. These factors present new challenges for data and knowledge management. Data security and privacy concerns are increased as data may be accessed by investigators affiliated with different institutions. Collaborative groups must address the challenges associated with federating data access between the data-collecting sites and a centralized data management site. The merging of ontologies between different data sets can become formidable, especially in fields with evolving ontologies. The increased use of automated data acquisition can yield more data, but it can also increase the risk of introducing error or systematic biases into data. In addition, the integration of data collected from different assay types often requires the development of new tools to analyze the data. All of these challenges act to increase the costs and time spent on data management for a given project, and they increase the likelihood of decreasing the quality of the data. In this paper, we review these issues and discuss theoretical and practical approaches for addressing these issues

  18. Targeting asthma care in general practice using a morbidity index.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K. P.; Charlton, I. H.; Middleton, M.; Preece, W. J.; Hill, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate a morbidity index as a postal surveillance tool in defining previously diagnosed asthmatic patients needing extra education or management; to determine the accuracy of a computerised asthma register in general practice. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey of asthmatic patients identified from a computer register. Questionnaire comprised three morbidity questions, two questions about current asthma status, and one about treatments. SETTING--Urban general practice of 8400 patients linked to academic unit. SUBJECTS--853 asthmatic patients of all ages. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers of patients with low, medium, and high morbidity; associations of these groups with age, asthma status, and drugs taken. RESULTS--Two mailings yielded 621 replies (73%); 28 patients (5%) had moved away, leaving 593 for analysis. Attempts were subsequently made to contact 20% sample of non-respondents. 234 respondents (40%) were in the "low morbidity" group, 149 (25%) in the "medium morbidity" group, and 210 (35%) in the "high morbidity" category. 53% of patients perceiving themselves as currently asthmatic (193/362) were in the high morbidity group, but 7% (11/153) who said they were no longer asthmatic and 8% (6/78) who did not believe they had ever been asthmatic were also in that group. High morbidity was also found in 10% (18/185) of those on no treatment, 38% (59/154) of those on bronchodilators alone, and 54% (119/220) of those on inhaled corticosteroids. 25 patients (4%) were wrongly identified as asthmatic; when combined with returns marked "gone away" this gave a disease register accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSIONS--This exercise identified subgroups of previously diagnosed asthmatic patients with high morbidity in general practice who might benefit from extra education and management and revealed some misclassification on the asthma disease register. PMID:1611335

  19. Topic selection in undergraduate medical education and relevance to general practice.

    PubMed

    Haagedoorn, E M; de Vries, J

    1998-01-01

    Most patients who have possibly malignant diseases are first seen by physicians not specifically trained in oncology. The cancer education that undergraduate medical students receive is frequently dominated by basic science topics, detailed staging data, pharmacology of cancer drugs, and treatment protocols. This is not in accordance with the needs in general practice. In pre-course information and correspondence with reference to the International Summer School "Oncology for Medical Students," held in Groningen, The Netherlands, it is emphasized that the Summer School focuses on cancer care in general practice. As part of the education program participants are required to prepare abstracts and posters on oncologic topics in general health care in their own countries. Despite the emphasis on cancer care in general practice and despite suggestions for topics, some students have first sent in abstracts describing basic sciences research projects. Evidently during their medical training the relevancy of cancer education to the reality of daily practice had not been taught or had already been lost. In teaching undergraduate medical students, it should be realized that the vast majority will choose non-oncology disciplines. Thus, cancer education of these students should focus mainly on clinical cancer issues that are relevant in general practice.

  20. Musculoskeletal clinic in general practice: study of one year's referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Davies, P; Pietroni, P

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A musculoskeletal clinic, staffed by a general practitioner trained in osteopathy, medical acupuncture and intralesional injections, was set up in an inner London general practice in 1987. AIM. A retrospective study was undertaken of one year's referrals to the clinic in 1989-90 to determine how general practitioners were using the clinic in terms of problems referred; consultation patterns of patients attending the clinic and 12 months after initially being seen; and how access to the clinic influenced referrals to relevant hospital departments. METHOD. Day sheets were studied which recorded information on demographic characteristics of patients referred to the clinic and their problems, diagnoses made, duration of symptoms, number and range of treatments given, and recurrence of problems. Use of secondary referral sources was also examined. RESULTS. During the study year 154 of 3264 practice patients were referred to the musculoskeletal clinic, and attended a mean of 3.5 times each. Of all the attenders 64% were women and 52% were 30-54 years old. Eighty one patients (53%) presented with neck, back or sciatic pain. A specific traumatic, inflammatory or other pathological process could be ascribed to only 19% of patients. Regarding treatment, 88% of patients received osteopathic manual treatment or acupuncture, or a combination of these treatments and 4% received intralesional injections. Nine patients from the clinic (6%) were referred to an orthopaedic specialist during the year, two with acute back pain. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists by the practice as a whole were not significantly lower than the national average, although the practice made fewer referrals to physiotherapy and rheumatology departments than national figures would have predicted. Seventeen patients (11%) returned to the clinic with a recurrence of their main complaint within a year of their initial appointment; second courses of treatment were usually brief. CONCLUSION. The

  1. Response to intravenous midazolam sedation in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Ellis, S

    1996-06-08

    The object of this study was to grade the response of patients undergoing a variety of dental procedures with the aid of intravenous midazolam sedation in general dental practice and to explore any relationships between the patients preoperative anxiety assessment and the clinician's assessment of co-operation whilst under sedation. One hundred consecutive patients aged between 18 and 58 years (mean 32 years; sd 10 years) and in ASA Class I or II were prospectively studied. Results showed that despite attempts to grade patient's behaviour it was not possible to reliably predict patient's responses under intravenous sedation. In addition to these findings, the great individual variation in sensitivity to midazolam was confirmed.

  2. [The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline 'Eczema'].

    PubMed

    de Vries, Corlien J H; de Witt-de Jong, Anne W F; Dirven-Meijer, Pauline C; Burgers, Jako S; Opstelten, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline 'Eczema' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of common types of eczema: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, acro-vesicular eczema, nummular eczema, hypostatic eczema, and asteatotic eczema. Age is an important factor when determining the type of eczema. According to the guideline, patient history and physical examination are sufficient in the diagnosis of eczema; additional investigations are rarely indicated. Moisturizing the skin with neutral emollients is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with eczema. If treatment with glucocorticoids is indicated, it is recommended that patients should start with short-term twice daily application, decreasing to once daily application. The guideline advises not to treat eczema patients with tar preparations. General practitioners are also advised not to prescribe calcineurin inhibitors. How work may affect eczema, or how eczema may affect work, should be considered in adult patients.

  3. [Cannabis use: what to do in general practice?].

    PubMed

    Benard, Victoire; Rolland, Benjamin; Messaadi, Nassir; Petit, Aymeric; Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use is now more frequent than alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking among young people (15-34years), whereas it may induce numerous medical aftermaths. Identifying and assessing cannabis use in general practice have become a current public health issue. The two steps of screening consist in spotting risky use of cannabis, and then in checking criteria for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Risky use requires a "brief intervention" by the general practitioner (GP). In case of CUD, the new DSM-5 criteria allow measuring the severity of the subsequent disorder, and listing the medical and social consequences. Using these criteria can help the GP to decide when the patient should be referred to an addiction-specialized unit. The GP has also to spot the different physical and psychiatric complications of cannabis use, in order to coordinate care between the different specialists.

  4. Medical student experience of London general practice teaching attachments.

    PubMed

    Schamroth, A J; Haines, A P; Gallivan, S

    1990-07-01

    Forty-eight students kept a log diary of activities during their central London general practice teaching attachments associated with the Department of Primary Health Care of University College and Middlesex School of Medicine. The students each saw on average 96 patients per week, of whom 69% were discussed by the general practitioner with the student after the consultation. Students spent an average of 21.5 hours a week sitting in with the general practitioner. While most of this time was as a passive observer, the students were also able to participate more actively, personally taking histories for a median of 1.25 hours a week and personally examining patients for a median of 1.7 hours a week. During these periods of active involvement each student personally took a mean of 10 short and 2.5 long histories per week and performed a mean of 25.5 short and 1.2 long examinations per week. General practitioners to whom the students were attached spent a mean of 4 hours a week on (patient-oriented) teaching. The tuition was highly rated by the students in terms of both usefulness and stimulation. Students also received a mean of 2.3 hours a week of teaching from other members of the primary health care team, which was somewhat less well received. Areas for improvement were: the relatively few home visits (median of 6 per week) per student; the limited time students spent on self-education (average of 65 minutes per week); and the few practical procedures performed by the students. Students could also be encouraged to play a more active role in examining and interviewing patients.

  5. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  6. Predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women in general practice.

    PubMed

    Bro, F; Juul, S

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in order to suggest indications for culture among women in general practice. In a multi-practice study 29 general practitioners examined 352 women complaining of vaginal discharge and 225 women having a pelvic examination for other reasons. Information from patient history, pelvic examination, and laboratory tests was recorded, and a culture for C. trachomatis was performed. C. trachomatis was isolated from 30 women (8.5%) with complaints of vaginal discharge and from nine (4.0%) without complaints. The predictive value for chlamydial infection of the information obtained was examined by logistic regression. Complaints of vaginal discharge, age under 25 years, use of oral contraception, suspected exposure to sexually transmitted disease, increased amount of discharge on pelvic examination, pH of discharge above 5.0 and the presence of leucocytes on wet smear microscopy were predictive of infection with C. trachomatis. Using information from patient history alone it was possible to discriminate between patients with low and high risk for chlamydia infection, the range being from 2% to 37%. Indications for culture for C. trachomatis, based upon easily obtained information from the patient history, are suggested.

  7. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  8. Using Online Modules to Bridge Research to Practice in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; King, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Although research identifies a plethora of evidence-based instructional practices, classroom teachers find research difficult to access and often of little relevance to classroom practice; therefore, they do not implement these practices. Bridging the gap between research and practice requires continued and mediated support as teachers translate…

  9. Trends in Antibiotic Prescribing in Adults in Dutch General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Haeseker, Michiel B.; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Bruggeman, Cathrien A.; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Verbon, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibiotic consumption is associated with adverse drug events (ADE) and increasing antibiotic resistance. Detailed information of antibiotic prescribing in different age categories is scarce, but necessary to develop strategies for prudent antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic prescriptions of different antibiotic classes in general practice in relation to age. Methodology Retrospective study of 22 rural and urban general practices from the Dutch Registration Network Family Practices (RNH). Antibiotic prescribing data were extracted from the RNH database from 2000–2009. Trends over time in antibiotic prescriptions were assessed with multivariate logistic regression including interaction terms with age. Registered ADEs as a result of antibiotic prescriptions were also analyzed. Principal Findings In total 658,940 patients years were analyzed. In 11.5% (n = 75,796) of the patient years at least one antibiotic was prescribed. Antibiotic prescriptions increased for all age categories during 2000–2009, but the increase in elderly patients (>80 years) was most prominent. In 2000 9% of the patients >80 years was prescribed at least one antibiotic to 22% in 2009 (P<0.001). Elderly patients had more ADEs with antibiotics and co-medication was identified as the only independent determinant for ADEs. Conclusion/Discussion The rate of antibiotic prescribing for patients who made a visit to the GP is increasing in the Netherlands with the most evident increase in the elderly patients. This may lead to more ADEs, which might lead to higher consumption of health care and more antibiotic resistance. PMID:23251643

  10. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    PubMed

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  11. Academic--practice partnerships in practice research: A cultural shift for health social workers.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Academic practice partnerships in practice research support health social workers in engaging in research that is embedded within their practice. This shift in culture enables social workers to join in a health service discourse that is increasingly data -driven and focused on effective practice and demonstrated quality of care for patients. The mentoring model is described as enabling practitioners to superimpose research skills onto existing practice skills. An academic practice research collaboration can reduce the distance between research and practice, contribute to a body of knowledge for health social work and promote health social workers as 'research focused practitioners'.

  12. Integrating a pharmacist into the general practice environment: opinions of pharmacist’s, general practitioner’s, health care consumer’s, and practice manager’s

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist into the Australian general practice environment. Methods A sample of general practitioners, health care consumers, pharmacists and practice managers in South-East Queensland were invited to participate in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. Seeding questions common to all sessions were used to facilitate discussion. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer software was used to qualitatively analyse responses. Results A total of 58 participants took part in five focus groups and eighteen semi-structured interviews. Concepts relating to six themes based on the seeding questions were identified. These included positively viewed roles such as medication reviews and prescribing, negatively viewed roles such as dispensing and diagnosing, barriers to pharmacist integration such as medical culture and remuneration, facilitators to pharmacist integration such as remuneration and training, benefits of integration such as access to the patient’s medical file, and potential funding models. Conclusions These findings and future research may aid the development of a new model of integrated primary health care services involving pharmacist practitioners. PMID:22852792

  13. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  14. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  15. Teachers' General and Contextualised Research Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouteden, Wendy; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research into teaching is a new and important focus in teaching-intensive institutions in higher education. Given the paucity of empirical insight into the research--teaching relationship in teaching-intensive institutions, teachers' research conceptions are studied as a first step in understanding the research--teaching…

  16. Communicating Educational Research Data to General, Nonresearcher Audiences. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacColl, Gail S.; White, Kathleen D.

    This digest describes some of the problems researchers face in communicating educational research data to general, nonresearcher audiences. Accessibility is one problem. Most research on effective educational practices does not filter down to the people who contribute or control funding. Another problem is that of readability. In the rare event…

  17. Implementing portfolio in postgraduate general practice training. Benefits and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a review to explore the literature focusing on portfolio in postgraduate general practice (GP) training, and to examine the impact of implementation of portfolio on learning process, as well as proposing recommendations for its implementation in postgraduate GP training. An electronic search was carried out on several databases for studies addressing portfolio in postgraduate GP training. Six articles were included to address specifically the effectiveness of portfolio in postgraduate GP training. Five of them described successful experiences of portfolio-based learning implementation. Only one article addressed portfolio-based assessment in postgraduate GP training. The existing evidence provides various benefits of professional portfolio-based learning. It does appear to have advantages of stimulating reflective learning, promoting proactive learning, and bridging the hospital experiences of the learners to GP. Moreover, the challenges to implementation of portfolio-based learning are often based on orientation and training of stakeholders.

  18. Dealing with uncertainty in general practice: an essential skill for the general practitioner.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Margaret; Dahinden, André; Aktürk, Zekeriya; Ortiz, José Miguel Bueno; Dağdeviren, Nezih; Elwyn, Glyn; Micallef, Adrian; Murtonen, Mikko; Samuelson, Marianne; Struk, Per; Tayar, Danny; Thesen, Janecke

    2011-01-01

    Many patients attending general practice do not have an obvious diagnosis at presentation. Skills to deal with uncertainty are particularly important in general practice as undifferentiated and unorganised problems are a common challenge for general practitioners (GPs). This paper describes the management of uncertainty as an essential skill which should be included in educational programmes for both trainee and established GPs. Philosophers, psychologists and sociologists use different approaches to the conceptualisation of managing uncertainty. The literature on dealing with uncertainty focuses largely on identifying relevant evidence and decision making. Existing models of the consultation should be improved in order to understand consultations involving uncertainty. An alternative approach focusing on shared decision making and understanding the consultation from the patient's perspective is suggested. A good doctor-patient relationship is vital, creating trust and mutual respect, developed over time with good communication skills. Evidence-based medicine should be used, including discussion of probabilities where available. Trainers need to be aware of their own use of heuristics as they act as role models for trainees. Expression of feelings by trainees should be encouraged and acknowledged by trainers as a useful tool in dealing with uncertainty. Skills to deal with uncertainty should be regarded as quality improvement tools and included in educational programmes involving both trainee and established GPs.

  19. Cardiovascular screening in general practice in a low SES area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower social economic status (SES) is related to an elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk. A pro-active primary prevention CV screening approach in general practice (GP) might be effective in a region with a low mean SES. This approach, supported by a regional GP laboratory, was investigated on feasibility, attendance rate and proportion of persons identified with an elevated risk. Methods In a region with a low mean SES, men and women aged ≥50/55 years, respectively, were invited for cardiovascular risk profiling, based on SCORE 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease and additional risk factors (family history, weight and end organ damage). Screening was performed by laboratory personnel, at the GP practice. Treatment advice was based on Dutch GP guidelines for cardiovascular risk management. Response rates were compared to those in five other practices, using the same screening method. Results 521 persons received invitations, 354 (68%) were interested, 33 did not attend and 43 were not further analysed because of already known diabetes/cardiovascular disease. Eventually 278 risk profiles were analysed, of which 60% had a low cardiovascular risk (SCORE-risk <5%). From the 40% participants with a SCORE-risk ≥5%, 60% did not receive medication yet for hypertension/hypercholesterolemia. In the other five GPs response rates were comparable to the currently described GP. Conclusion Screening in GP in a low SES area, performed by a laboratory service, was feasible, resulted in high attendance, and identification and treatment advice of many new persons at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:23228012

  20. [Documentation of electronic patient records (EPRS) in German general practices: a telephone survey].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Regine; Himmel, Wolfgang; Böckmann, Harro; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M; Niebling, Wilhelm; Rogausch, Anja; Sigle, Jörg; Wetzel, Dirk; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2005-01-01

    In Germany, use and contents of EPRs are largely unknown and expected to be highly variable, due to missing standards. We conducted a telephone survey to describe and compare computer documentation habits in general practices. Specifically, we were interested in: (1) the type of medical data recorded; and (2) which factors influence the extent to which doctors used the EPR while seeing their patients. The sampling frame consisted of family physicians participating in a general practice research project: 32% (145/452) of family physicians in the district of Göttingen, Lower Saxony, and 63% (52/83) of physicians from a quality assurance network of family practices in the district of Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg. With the exception of two practices in Göttingen, all practices (n = 165 of 167) took part in this survey. Diagnoses, digital codes for service fees, and prescriptions were computerized in nearly all practices, although doctors were significantly more involved in Freiburg than in Göttingen. Clinical symptoms and findings were recorded in 80% of Freiburg and 52% of Göttingen practices (p = 0.008). Overall, in 74% of Freiburg and 51% of Göttingen practices, the physicians opened the EPR while seeing patients (p = 0.022). Nearly half of the Göttingen practices (49%) and 24% of the Freiburg practices (p < 0.05) entered digital codes for service fees and diagnoses on paper before entering them electronically. In multivariate models adjusting for sex, target group and training specialty, internet access in the office was independently predictive of 'EPR-activity' (OR: 2.23; 95%-confidence interval: 1.12-4.43). There seems to be room for improvement in terms of degree and intensity of recording of clinically-relevant data. Technical interest, i.e., internet access in the office, seems to enhance electronic documentation activities.

  1. Learning preferences and learning styles: a study of Wessex general practice registrars.

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Anel, J; Robinson, G; Moody, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experienced trainers know that individual registrars react very differently to identical learning experiences generated during the year in practice. This divergence reflects differences in registrars' learning styles. Only one study of United Kingdom (UK) general practitioners' learning styles has been undertaken. Learning style theory predicts that matching learning preference with learning style will enhance learning. This paper researches for the first time the evidence in the setting of UK general practice. AIM: To determine, for the general practice registrars within the Wessex Region, the nature of their learning preferences and learning styles and correlations between them. DESIGN OF STUDY: A descriptive confidential postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Fifty-seven registrars identified in the Wessex Region with a minimum experience of six months in general practice. METHOD: The questionnaire gathered demographic data (sex, age, experience in general practice, years post-registration, and postgraduate qualifications). Learning preferences were elicited using a six-point Likert scale for learning experiences. The Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) elicited the registrars' learning styles. A second questionnaire was sent to non-responders. RESULTS: The response rate was 74%. Registrars report that interactive learning with feedback is preferred, but more passive learning formats remain valued. A wide range of learning style scores was found. The Honey and Mumford LSQ mean scores fell within the reflector-theorist quadrant. Evidence for correlations between learning preferences and learning styles was also found, in particular for the multiple choice question and audit components of summative assessment. CONCLUSION: A wide range of registrar learning styles exists in Wessex, and initial correlations are described between learning preferences and learning styles as predicted by style theory. This work sets the stage for a shared

  2. [COPD treatment in general practice in Denmark is into a rapid development].

    PubMed

    Moll Nielsen, Lill; Elbrønd, Jette

    2013-04-29

    In this article the change towards pro-activity in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed. Implementing International Classification of Primary Care and COPD indicators registration provide opportunity for quality assurance by quality reports and follow-up. Changing practice organization supports teamwork for the benefit of the patients. Municipal COPD rehabilitation has become available. Cooperation is improved by an overview of municipal services on www.sundhed.dk and by a correspondence module. Tracing COPD and applying data must be enhanced. In the years to come we will benefit from the collected data for research in general practice.

  3. Patient-centred care in general dental practice - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delivering improvements in quality is a key objective within most healthcare systems, and a view which has been widely embraced within the NHS in the United Kingdom. Within the NHS, quality is evaluated across three key dimensions: clinical effectiveness, safety and patient experience, with the latter modelled on the Picker Principles of Patient-Centred Care (PCC). Quality improvement is an important feature of the current dental contract reforms in England, with “patient experience” likely to have a central role in the evaluation of quality. An understanding and appreciation of the evidence underpinning PCC within dentistry is highly relevant if we are to use this as a measure of quality in general dental practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the features of PCC relevant to dentistry and ascertain the current research evidence base underpinning its use as a measure of quality within general dental practice. Results Three papers were identified which met the inclusion criteria and demonstrated the use of primary research to provide an understanding of the key features of PCC within dentistry. None of the papers identified were based in general dental practice and none of the three studies sought the views of patients. Some distinct differences were noted between the key features of PCC reported within the dental literature and those developed within the NHS Patient Experience Framework. Conclusions This systematic review reveals a lack of understanding of PCC within dentistry, and in particular general dental practice. There is currently a poor evidence base to support the use of the current patient reported outcome measures as indicators of patient-centredness. Further research is necessary to understand the important features of PCC in dentistry and patients’ views should be central to this research. PMID:24902842

  4. Expanding access to rheumatology care: the rheumatology general practice toolbox.

    PubMed

    Conway, R; Kavanagh, R; Coughlan, R J; Carey, J J

    2015-02-01

    Management guidelines for many rheumatic diseases are published in specialty rheumatology literature but rarely in general medical journals. Musculoskeletal disorders comprise 14% of all consultations in primary care. Formal post-graduate training in rheumatology is limited or absent for many primary care practitioners. Primary care practitioners can be trained to effectively treat complex diseases and have expressed a preference for interactive educational courses. The Rheumatology General Practice (GP) Toolbox is an intensive one day course designed to offer up to date information to primary care practitioners on the latest diagnostic and treatment guidelines for seven common rheumatic diseases. The course structure involves a short lecture on each topic and workshops on arthrocentesis, joint injection and DXA interpretation. Participants evaluated their knowledge and educational experience before, during and after the course. Thirty-two primary care practitioners attended, who had a median of 13 (IQR 6.5, 20) years experience in their specialty. The median number of educational symposia attended in the previous 5 years was 10 (IQR-5, 22.5), with a median of 0 (IQR 0, 1) in rheumatology. All respondents agreed that the course format was appropriate. Numerical improvements were demonstrated in participant's confidence in diagnosing and managing all seven common rheumatologic conditions, with statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 11 of the 14 aspects assessed. The Rheumatology Toolbox is an effective educational method for disseminating current knowledge in rheumatology to primary care physicians and improved participant's self-assessed competence in diagnosis and management of common rheumatic diseases.

  5. A study of the safety of tenoxicam in general practice.

    PubMed

    Caughey, D; Waterworth, R F

    1989-11-08

    An open, noncomparative study was undertaken to examine the safety of tenoxicam, a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) in general practice. One thousand two hundred and sixty-seven patients with rheumatic conditions were recruited by 392 general practitioners throughout New Zealand. Forty-three point six percent of patients recruited were over 65 years of age, 62.5% had some form of concomitant disease and 76.3% of patients were already receiving NSAIDs. Three hundred and four (23.9%) patients experienced adverse drug reactions, the commonest being gastrointestinal (11.4%), central and peripheral nervous system disorders (2.8%) and skin reactions (2.5%). The profile of adverse drug reactions in those more than 65 was similar to those in patients under 65 years. Of the reactions reported, 14.7% were considered severe. Three peptic ulcers were reported. There were no unexpected adverse drug reactions. Eight hundred and forty-nine patients completed 6 months treatment. Subjective assessments of overall efficacy, pain at night, pain on movement and stiffness made before treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months posttreatment showed that tenoxicam significantly improved all parameters. The clinical response was maintained throughout the 6 month study period and was not different in patients less than or greater than 65 years.

  6. Vocational thresholds: developing expertise without certainty in general practice medicine.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper argues that particular experiences in the workplace are more important than others and can lead to transformational learning. This may enable practitioners to cross 'vocational thresholds' to new ways of being. AIM A notion of 'vocational thresholds' is developed, aiming to help build an understanding of the most powerful learning experiences of general practitioners (GPs). Vocational thresholds takes its cue from the idea of 'threshold concepts' - concepts that transform perspectives and integrate previously disconnected or hidden knowledge, sometimes in ways that are 'troublesome' to previously held beliefs. METHODS The paper is based on a thematic analysis of 57 GPs' brief written accounts of a particularly powerful learning experience during their development. Accounts were provided in a conference session about an ongoing study of workplace-based structured learning arrangements in the fields of general practice medicine, engineering, and building. FINDINGS Most GPs' accounts focused on development of dispositional attributes that moved them to a new understanding of themselves in relation to their work and patients. Just under two-thirds picked out informal and formal collegial relationships within purposeful learning arrangements as pivotal. A third picked out direct experiences with patients as shifting their perspective. CONCLUSION The emergent idea of vocational thresholds is offered as a way to frame the most important learning experiences identified by GPs. It supports a focus in early and ongoing development beyond accumulating clinical expertise and skills (knowing and doing), to dispositional capability (being) - vital for practitioners negotiating inherent and daily uncertainty. KEYWORDS General practitioners; Medical education; Vocational education; Identity; Learning experiences; Threshold concepts.

  7. A General Survey of Qualitative Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Rick

    Current definitions and philosophical foundations of qualitative research are presented; and designs, evaluation methods, and issues in application of qualitative research to education are discussed. The effects of positivism and the post-positivist era on qualitative research are outlined, and naturalist and positivist approaches are contrasted.…

  8. The Quality and Outcomes Framework: Body commodification in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Norman, Armando H; Russell, Andrew J; Merli, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems. QOF as a biomedical technology has led to the commodification of patients and their bodies. This complex phenomenon breaks down into three main themes: commodification of patients, QOF as currency, and valuing commodities. Despite the ostensible aim of QOF being to improve healthcare in general practice, it is accompanied by a body commodification process. The interface between patients and care providers has been commodified, with QOF's pricing mechanism and fragmentation of care provision performing an important role in animating the UK economy.

  9. General practice based teaching exchanges in Europe. Experiences from the EU Socrates programme 'primary health care'.

    PubMed

    van Weel, Chris; Mattsson, Bengt; Freeman, George K; de Meyere, Marc; von Fragstein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of international exchange of medical students for general practice. The experience is based on the EU Socrates programme 'Primary Health Care' that offers, since 1992, clinical attachments and research electives in primary care. This programme involves 11 university departments of general practice/primary care in eight countries: Austria - Vienna; Belgium - Gent; Germany Düsseldorf; Italy - Monza, Udine; Netherlands Nijmegen; Slovenia - Ljubljana; Sweden - Göteborg; and the UK - Edinburgh, Imperial College London and Nottingham. More than 150 students have taken part in the programme, most in the last four years. For clinical attachment communication to patients is essential, and students should be able to speak the language of the host university. A research elective in primary care is less demanding and requires students' ability to communicate in English. Despite marked differences in health care structure in the countries involved, it is quite possible to provide a valuable teaching environment in general practice, and the experience gained by students in the exchanges more than equals that what they would gain at home. The added value is in experiencing the influence of another health care system and of working in another academic primary care centre. A substantial number of research electives have been published in international peer reviewed scientific journals with the student as first (occasionally second) author and staff members of the student's host and home university as co-authors. A further benefit of the exchange programme lies in the transfer teaching innovations between universities.

  10. Personalizing Research: Special Educators' Awareness of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guckert, Mary; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence-based practices are considered critical to student success, a research-to-practice gap exists. This qualitative study examined practicing special education teachers' perceptions of their use of evidence-based practices. Special education teachers were interviewed and their classroom practices examined. Major themes emerged and…

  11. Putting Research Findings into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137

  12. Usefulness of a virtual community of practice and web 2.0 tools for general practice training: experiences and expectations of general practitioner registrars and supervisors.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Bonney, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    General practice training is a community of practice in which novices and experts share knowledge. However, there are barriers to knowledge sharing for general practioner (GP) registrars, including geographic and workplace isolation. Virtual communities of practice (VCoP) can be effective in overcoming these barriers using social media tools. The present study examined the perceived usefulness, features and barriers to implementing a VCoP for GP training. Following a survey study of GP registrars and supervisors on VCoP feasibility, a qualitative telephone interview study was undertaken within a regional training provider. Participants with the highest Internet usage in the survey study were selected. Two researchers worked independently conducting thematic analysis using manual coding of transcriptions, later discussing themes until agreement was reached. Seven GP registrars and three GP supervisors participated in the study (average age 38.2 years). Themes emerged regarding professional isolation, potential of social media tools to provide peer support and improve knowledge sharing, and barriers to usage, including time, access and skills. Frequent Internet-using GP registrars and supervisors perceive a VCoP for GP training as a useful tool to overcome professional isolation through improved knowledge sharing. Given that professional isolation can lead to decreased rural work and reduced hours, a successful VCoP may have a positive outcome on the rural medical workforce.

  13. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  14. Introducing a drug formulary to general practice — effects on practice prescribing costs

    PubMed Central

    Beardon, P.H.G.; Brown, S.V.; Mowat, D.A.E.; Grant, J.A.; McDevitt, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A drug formulary comprising 249 preparations of 132 drugs and drug combinations was prepared by the partners in a three-doctor general practice serving more than 5000 patients. No attempt was made to change to generic prescribing nor were repeat prescription drugs altered. Introduction of the formulary in September 1981 was followed by an increase in the proportion of prescriptions containing drugs from the formulary from about 55% to more than 60% for both repeat and non-repeat prescriptions. The proportion of formulary drugs on non-repeat prescriptions reached a maximum of 78% within the first year with the additional influence of information feedback. Over the first year the level of formulary drugs used for both repeat and nonrepeat prescribing levelled off at about 62%. Even with these modest changes, when compared with the costs of general practice prescribing in Scotland as a whole, the introduction of the formulary resulted in savings of approximately 10% within the practice for the mean ingredient costs both per patient and per prescription. PMID:3449632

  15. Demonstrating excellence in practice-based research for public health.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Quill, Beth E; Aglipay, Geraldine S; Anderson, Elaine; Rowitz, Louis; Smith, Lillian U; Telfair, Joseph; Whittaker, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This document explores the opportunity for scholarship to enhance the evidence base for academic public health practice and practice-based research. Demonstrating Excellence in Practice-Based Research for Public Health defines practice-based research; describes its various approaches, models, and methods; explores ways to overcome its challenges; and recommends actions for its stakeholders in both academic and practice communities. It is hoped that this document will lead to new partnership opportunities between public health researchers and public health practitioners to strengthen the infrastructure of public health and add new dimensions to the science of public health practice. Demonstrating Excellence in Practice-Based Research for Public Health is intended for those who produce, participate in, and use practice-based research. This includes academic researchers and educators, public health administrators and field staff, clinical health professionals, community-based organizations and professionals, and interested members of the public.

  16. Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Iddo, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

  17. Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Noonan, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.

  18. MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE?

    SciTech Connect

    D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ

    2000-10-01

    This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community.

  19. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  20. Organisational development in general practice: lessons from practice and professional development plans (PPDPs)

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Hocking, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices) that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development) and education (self-directed adult learning theories) and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4) where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of introducing expert external

  1. Predictors of trust in the general science and climate science research of US federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Myers, Teresa A; Kotcher, John; Stenhouse, Neil; Anderson, Ashley A; Maibach, Edward; Beall, Lindsey; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2016-03-08

    In this article, we focus on a key strategic objective of scientific organizations: maintaining the trust of the public. Using data from a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 1510), we assess the extent to which demographic factors and political ideology are associated with citizens' trust in general science and climate science research conducted by US federal agencies. Finally, we test whether priming individuals to first consider agencies' general science research influences trust in their climate science research, and vice versa. We found that federal agencies' general science research is more trusted than their climate science research-although a large minority of respondents did not have an opinion-and that political ideology has a strong influence on public trust in federal scientific research. We also found that priming participants to consider general scientific research does not increase trust in climate scientific research. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. Antibiotic prescribing: the need for a policy in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, T D; Passmore, C M; Morrow, N C; Reilly, P M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether changes in prescribing of oral antibacterials in Northern Ireland show the need for a community antibiotics policy. DESIGN--Analysis of prescribing totals for several oral antibiotics obtained retrospectively from the prescription pricing bureau for the years 1983-7. SETTING--Audit of anti-infective prescribing in general practice in Northern Ireland over five years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Respective usage of agents defined as "common" and "occasional" in 1983. RESULTS--There was a gradual decrease in the relative use of common agents from 82% of the total in 1983 to 77% in 1987 together with a complementary increase in the use of occasional agents from 5% to 10%. Pronounced changes were noted in the use of amoxycillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, minocycline, doxycycline, and amoxycillin-clavulanic acid. CONCLUSION--Though this survey found reasonably conservative prescribing, the trend towards increased use of occasional agents has both clinical and cost implications which could be addressed by the use of a prescribing formulary. PMID:2107899

  3. Assessment of elderly people in general practice. 3. Confiding relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, S; Haines, A; Stein, A; Gallivan, S

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the importance of confiding relationships in elderly people. Associations between lack of confiding relationships and depression, lifestyle characteristics, medication use, and contacts with doctors were studied by interviewing a random sample of 235 elderly people aged 75 years and over registered with nine general practices in inner London. It was found that men were not significantly more likely than women to report lack of confiding relationships. Married people of both sexes were more likely to have confiding relationships than those who were single, separated, divorced or widowed. Depression was not associated with lack of a confiding relationship, but those lacking such relationships were significantly more likely to smoke, and were prescribed significantly more medicines than those with confiding relationships. Individuals without a confiding relationship were significantly less likely to admit to any alcohol consumption in the previous three months, suggesting that alcohol consumption in this age group is largely a social phenomenon. Confiding relationships do not appear to confer strong protection against depression and a question on confiding relationships should not therefore be routinely incorporated into surveillance programmes for elderly people in the community. PMID:1807305

  4. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients’ multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key pointsAlthough integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter.The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects.The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life

  5. Workplace learning from a socio-cultural perspective: creating developmental space during the general practice clerkship.

    PubMed

    van der Zwet, J; Zwietering, P J; Teunissen, P W; van der Vleuten, C P M; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2011-08-01

    Workplace learning in undergraduate medical education has predominantly been studied from a cognitive perspective, despite its complex contextual characteristics, which influence medical students' learning experiences in such a way that explanation in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and single determinants of instructiveness is unlikely to suffice. There is also a paucity of research which, from a perspective other than the cognitive or descriptive one, investigates student learning in general practice settings, which are often characterised as powerful learning environments. In this study we took a socio-cultural perspective to clarify how students learn during a general practice clerkship and to construct a conceptual framework that captures this type of learning. Our analysis of group interviews with 44 fifth-year undergraduate medical students about their learning experiences in general practice showed that students needed developmental space to be able to learn and develop their professional identity. This space results from the intertwinement of workplace context, personal and professional interactions and emotions such as feeling respected and self-confident. These forces framed students' participation in patient consultations, conversations with supervisors about consultations and students' observation of supervisors, thereby determining the opportunities afforded to students to mind their learning. These findings resonate with other conceptual frameworks and learning theories. In order to refine our interpretation, we recommend that further research from a socio-cultural perspective should also explore other aspects of workplace learning in medical education.

  6. Catchments of general practice in different countries--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Allan, Donald P

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on catchment areas of private general practices in different developed countries because healthcare reform, including primary health care, has featured prominently as an important political issue in a number of developed countries. The debates around health reform have had a significant health geographic focus. Conceptually, GP catchments describe the distribution, composition and profile of patients who access a general practitioner or a general practice (i.e. a site or facility comprising one or more general practitioners). Therefore, GP catchments provide important information into the geographic variation of access rates, utilisation of services and health outcomes by all of the population or different population groups in a defined area or aggregated area.This review highlights a wide range of diversity in the literature as to how GP catchments can be described, the indicators and measures used to frame the scale of catchments. Patient access to general practice health care services should be considered from a range of locational concepts, and not necessarily constrained by their place of residence. An analysis of catchment patterns of general practitioners should be considered as dynamic and multi-perspective. Geographic information systems provide opportunities to contribute valuable methodologies to study these relationships. However, researchers acknowledge that a conceptual framework for the analysis of GP catchments requires access to real world data. Recent studies have shown promising developments in the use of real world data, especially from studies in the UK. Understanding the catchment profiles of individual GP surgeries is important if governments are serious about patient choice being a key part of proposed primary health reforms. Future health planning should incorporate models of GP catchments as planning tools, at the micro level as well as the macro level, to assist policies on the

  7. Making the links between domestic violence and child safeguarding: an evidence-based pilot training for general practice.

    PubMed

    Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene

    2016-10-14

    We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to

  8. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  9. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices.

  10. Strategic Integration: The Practical Politics of Integrated Research in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae

    2005-01-01

    Designing an integrative research program requires that research leaders negotiate a balance between the scientific interest of research and the practical interests of non-scientific partners. This paper examines the ways integrated research is formally categorised, and analyses the tangible expressions of the practical politics involved in…

  11. What do medical students seek to learn from general practice? A study of personal learning objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, I M; al-Shehri, A M

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of stimulating learning which is more self directed, fourth year medical students in Liverpool are encouraged to set personal learning objectives for the general practice attachment. On average, a student defines seven objectives for the three week attachment. A classification of objectives derived from the 1989 cohort of students is presented and the objectives could be seen as focusing on the practice population and its health problems, the role of the general practitioner, the work of general practice, the management of general practice, general practice as a career, and general learning. The validity and reliability of the classification are considered. Along with the advantages of this approach in motivating students to learn, the findings are considered in relation to impending changes in undergraduate medical education and the future role of general practice teaching by departments and by practice based colleagues. PMID:1297372

  12. A spatial analysis of the expanding roles of nurses in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes to the workforce and organisation of general practice are occurring rapidly in response to the Australian health care reform agenda, and the changing nature of the medical profession. In particular, the last five years has seen the rapid introduction and expansion of a nursing workforce in Australian general practices. This potentially creates pressures on current infrastructure in general practice. Method This study used a mixed methods, ‘rapid appraisal’ approach involving observation, photographs, and interviews. Results Nurses utilise space differently to GPs, and this is part of the diversity they bring to the general practice environment. At the same time their roles are partly shaped by the ways space is constructed in general practices. Conclusion The fluidity of nursing roles in general practice suggests that nurses require a versatile space in which to maximize their role and contribution to the general practice team. PMID:22870933

  13. Biomedicine, holism and general medical practice: responses to the 2004 General Practitioner contract.

    PubMed

    Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen; McDonald, Ruth; Grant, Suzanne; Campbell, Stephen; Guthrie, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    In 2004 a new contract was introduced for General Practitioners in the UK, which introduced a significant element of 'pay-for-performance', including both clinical and organisational targets. The introduction of this contract has caused interest across the world, particularly amongst those responsible for commissioning primary care services. It can be argued that the clinical targets in the contract (known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework, QOF) represent a move towards a more biomedical model of health and illness, which is contrary to the ideal of providing holistic (or biopsychosocial) care that has been traditionally espoused by GPs. This paper reports results from two linked studies (in England and Scotland) investigating the early stages of the new contract. We describe the way in which four practices with different organisational approaches and espoused identities have all changed their practice structures, consultations and clinical care in response to QOF in ways which will result in patients receiving a more biomedical type of care. In spite of these observed changes, respondents continued to maintain discursive claims to holism. We discuss how this disconnection between rhetoric and reality can be maintained, and consider its implications for the future development of GPs' claims to a professional identity.

  14. Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Graabæk, Trine; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Background Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists’ medication reviews are sparse. Objective To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. Methods A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart and clinical or laboratory data. The medication review focuses on the diagnoses of the patient instead of the individual drugs. Patient interviews are not part of the model. The model was tested in a pilot study by conducting medical reviews on 50 polypharmacy patients (i.e. receiving 7 or more drugs for regular use). Results The model contained seven main steps. Information about the patient and current treatment was collected in the first three steps, followed by identification of possible interventions related to either diagnoses or drugs in the fourth and fifth step. The sixth and seventh step concerned the reporting of interventions and the considerations of the GPs. 208 interventions were proposed among the 50 patients. The acceptance rate among the GPs was 82%. The most common interventions were lack of clinical or laboratory data (n=57, 27%) and drugs that should be discontinued as they had no indication (n=47, 23%). Most interventions were aimed at cardiovascular drugs. Conclusion We have provided a detailed description of a practical approach to pharmacists’ medication review in a GP setting. The model was tested and found to be usable, and to deliver a medication review with high acceptance rates. PMID:25243030

  15. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  16. Ad Hoc Supervision of General Practice Registrars as a "Community of Practice": Analysis, Interpretation and Re-Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, T.; Brown, J.; Morrison, J.; Nestel, D.

    2016-01-01

    General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also…

  17. Consumer satisfaction with practice nursing: a cross-sectional survey in New Zealand general practice.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Davies, Deborah; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-01-01

    An important consideration in health service delivery is ensuring that services meet consumer needs. Whilst nursing services in primary care have grown internationally, there has been limited exploration of consumer satisfaction with these services. This paper reports a descriptive survey that sought to evaluate consumers' perceptions of New Zealand practice nurses (PNs). One thousand, five hundred and five patients who received nursing services at one of 20 participating New Zealand general practices completed a survey tool between December 2010 and December 2011. The 64-item self- report survey tool contained the 21-item General Practice Nurse Satisfaction (GPNS) scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Internal consistency of the GPNS scale was high (Cronbach's α 0.97). Participants aged over 60 years and those of European descent were significantly less satisfied with the PN (P = 0.001). Controlling for these characteristics, participants who had visited the PN more than four times previously were 1.34 times (adjusted odds ratio 1.34 (95% CI: 1.06-1.70) more satisfied than the comparison group (up to 4 previous visits to PN). In addition to the further validation of the psychometric properties of the GPNS scale in a different setting, the study also revealed a high level of satisfaction with PNs, with increased satisfaction with an increased number of visits. Nevertheless, the lower levels of satisfaction with PNs in the older age group as well as those of European descent, warrants further examination. The study also highlights the need for PNs and consumers to discuss consumer's expectations of services and create a shared understanding of treatment goals.

  18. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C.; Heaton, Lisa J.; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. Methods The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants’ responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. Results The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. Conclusions One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Practical Implications Given dentin

  19. Practice as Research: A Fine Art Contextual Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Suze

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic interplay between practice and theory in practice-led research in the visual arts. Building on recent debate around the issue and following appropriately rigorous models, the importance of locating a suitable methodology to adequately reflect the integrated process of research practice in written as well as visual…

  20. Epistemological Questions about Research and Practice in ALM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedege, Tine

    The new research and practice area of "adults and mathematics" is situated within the didactics of mathematics as it is structured and delimited by the concrete forms of practice and knowledge currently regarded as mathematics teaching, learning, and knowing. "Adults Learning Mathematics" (ALM) is a community of practice and research within the…

  1. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention.

  2. A Virtual Community of Practice for General Practice Training: A Preimplementation Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Robinson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional isolation is an important factor in low rural health workforce retention. Objective The aim of this study was to gain insights to inform the development of an implementation plan for a virtual community of practice (VCoP) for general practice (GP) training in regional Australia. The study also aimed to assess the applicability of the findings of an existing framework in developing this plan. This included ascertaining the main drivers of usage, or usefulness, of the VCoP for users and establishing the different priorities between user groups. Methods A survey study, based on the seven-step health VCoP framework, was conducted with general practice supervisors and registrars—133 usable responses; 40% estimated response rate. Data was analyzed using the t test and the chi-square test for comparisons between groups. Factor analysis and generalized linear regression modeling were used to ascertain factors which may independently predict intention to use the VCoP. Results In establishing a VCoP, facilitation was seen as important. Regarding stakeholders, the GP training provider was an important sponsor. Factor analysis showed a single goal of usefulness. Registrars had a higher intention to use the VCoP (P<.001) and to perceive it as useful (P<.001) than supervisors. Usefulness independently predicted intention to actively use the VCoP (P<.001). Regarding engagement of a broad church of users, registrars were more likely than supervisors to want allied health professional and specialist involvement (P<.001). A supportive environment was deemed important, but most important was the quality of the content. Participants wanted regular feedback about site activity. Regarding technology and community, training can be online, but trust is better built face-to-face. Supervisors were significantly more likely than registrars to perceive that registrars needed help with knowledge (P=.01) and implementation of knowledge (P<.001). Conclusions Important

  3. Urinary tract infections in adult general practice patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are symptomatic infections of the urinary tract, mainly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. One in two women suffers from a UTI at least once in her life. The young and sexually active are particulaly affected, but it is also seen in elderly, postmenopausal women. The likelihood of recurrence is high. Diagnosis is made with regard to typical complaints and the presence of leucocytes and nitrites in the urine. A culture is unnecessary in most cases. Uncomplicated UTI should be distinguished from complicated UTI, which has a risk of severe illness. The treatment of choice--short-term therapy with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin--is successful in over 80% of the cases. Co-trimoxazol fluoroquinolones or cephalsporins are not considered first-choice drugs. There are indications that general practitioners' (GPs') management of UTI is not always optimal, specifically concerning diagnostic tests, the application of second-choice antibiotics, and the length of prescribed treatment courses. Many points relevant to GPs requirefurther research, such as epidemiology and resistance of urinary pathogens in the community and natural history of UTI, as well as optimal management in elderly or complicated patients and men. PMID:12236281

  4. Patients with shoulder syndromes in general and physiotherapy practice: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder complaints are commonly seen in general practice and physiotherapy practice. The only complaints for which general practitioners (GPs) refer more patients to the physiotherapist are back and neck pain. However, a substantial group have persistent symptoms. The first goal of this study is to document current health care use and the treatment process for patients with shoulder syndromes in both general practice and physiotherapy practice. The second goal is to detect whether there are differences between patients with shoulder syndromes who are treated by their GP, those who are treated by both GP and physiotherapist and those who access physiotherapy directly. Methods Observational study using data from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice and the National Information Service for Allied Health Care. These registration networks collect healthcare-related information on patient contacts including diagnoses, prescriptions, referrals, treatment and evaluation on an ongoing basis. Results Many patients develop symptoms gradually and 35% of patients with shoulder syndromes waited more than three months before visiting a physiotherapist. In 64% of all patients, treatment goals are fully reached at the end of physiotherapy treatment. In general practice, around one third of the patients return after the referral for physiotherapy. Patients with shoulder syndromes who are referred for physiotherapy have more consultations with their GP and are prescribed less medication than patients without a referral. Often, this referral is made at the first consultation. In physiotherapy practice, referred patients differ from self-referrals. Self-referrals are younger, they more often have recurrent complaints and their complaints are more often related to sports and leisure activities. Conclusions There is a fairly large group of patients with persistent symptoms. Early referral by a GP is not advised under current guidelines. However, in many

  5. Research-Practice Integration in Real Practice Settings: Issues and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny K.; Thyer, Bruce A.; Webb, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    At the National Bridging the Research and Practice Gap Symposium to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work, 150 participants attended five breakout groups to address real practice setting applications. These participants from social work academia and practice communities addressed issues and looked for solutions to promote…

  6. Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice have…

  7. Correlates of the Orthodontic Aspects of the General Dentist's Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse, Robert J.; Dooley, Raynard J.

    1980-01-01

    A study undertaken to determine the extent of orthodontic referrals and treatment performed by general dentists is discussed. Results indicate that general practitioners who graduated after 1945 tend to make more referrals, and general practitioners who had treated patients orthodontically in their predoctoral training tend to continue in…

  8. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  9. Conceptualizing Research-Practice Partnerships as Joint Work at Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Allen, Anna-Ruth; Coburn, Cynthia E.; Farrell, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for analyzing how researchers and district leaders perceive and navigate differences they encounter in the context of research-practice partnerships. Our framework contrasts with images of partnership work as facilitating the translation of research into practice. Instead, we argue that partnership…

  10. Implementation Practice and Implementation Research: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, John S.; Phillips, Elizabeth; Pancake, Laura; O, Anne; Lewis, Jenebah; Duke, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Interventions and Practice Research Infrastructure Program (IPRISP) funding mechanism was introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to bridge the gap between the worlds of services research and the usual care practice in the community. The goal was to build infrastructure that would provide a platform for research to…

  11. Management and marketing for the general practice dental office.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Earl; Bhatia, Sanjeev

    2008-07-01

    This article reviews trends in the dental marketplace. Marketing is an essential element of dentistry. Communicating treatment options with patients is one aspect of marketing. Treatment planning helps patients understand the relationships between oral health, occlusion, temporomandibular joint function, and systemic health. Through marketing, dental practice owners inform patients of ever-changing treatment modalities. Understanding treatment options allows patients to make better, informed choices. More options leads to a higher level of care and more comprehensive dental treatment. Managing a practice requires tracking its financial health. Economic statistics measure the effect of management decisions that mark the direction of a dental practice.

  12. Experimenting Clinical Pathways in General Practice: a Focus Group Investigation with Italian General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results Four major themes emerged: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment. Acknowledgments the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers. PMID:25181354

  13. Determinants of the range of drugs prescribed in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Bakker, Dinny H; Coffie, Dayline SV; Heerdink, Eibert R; van Dijk, Liset; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Background Current health policies assume that prescribing is more efficient and rational when general practitioners (GPs) work with a formulary or restricted drugs lists and thus with a limited range of drugs. Therefore we studied determinants of the range of drugs prescribed by general practitioners, distinguishing general GP-characteristics, characteristics of the practice setting, characteristics of the patient population and information sources used by GPs. Methods Secondary analysis was carried out on data from the Second Dutch Survey in General Practice. Data were available for 138 GPs working in 93 practices. ATC-coded prescription data from electronic medical records, census data and data from GP/practice questionnaires were analyzed with multilevel techniques. Results The average GP writes prescriptions for 233 different drugs, i.e. 30% of the available drugs on the market within one year. There is considerable variation between ATC main groups and subgroups and between GPs. GPs with larger patient lists, GPs with higher prescribing volumes and GPs who frequently receive representatives from the pharmaceutical industry have a broader range when controlled for other variables. Conclusion The range of drugs prescribed is a useful instrument for analysing GPs' prescribing behaviour. It shows both variation between GPs and between therapeutic groups. Statistically significant relationships found were in line with the hypotheses formulated, like the one concerning the influence of the industry. Further research should be done into the relationship between the range and quality of prescribing and the reasons why some GPs prescribe a greater number of different drugs than others. PMID:17711593

  14. An algorithmic approach to diagnosing asthma in older patients in general practice.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Richard E; Wilson, David H; Appleton, Sarah L; Adams, Robert J

    2005-07-04

    WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW: How effective would an algorithm be in helping general practitioners diagnose asthma? What proportion of older people with undiagnosed asthma fail to recognise symptoms? What proportion of the population believe asthma does not occur in the older population? What systems or supports do GPs need to diagnose asthma more effectively? WHAT WE NEED TO DO: Work on developing a gold standard for asthma diagnosis. Develop prototype algorithms for general practice discussion. Conduct a general practice study to assess the effectiveness of an algorithm. In conjunction with GPs, develop a pilot program to increase awareness of the current asthma problem. Conduct focus-group research to identify why some people do not believe they can develop asthma for the first time in adult life. Conduct focus-group research to identify why some adults do not attribute asthma symptoms to asthma. Conduct focus groups with GPs to identify what support is needed to diagnose asthma more effectively. Consult with all stakeholders before an intervention is used. Evaluate any interventions used.

  15. Nursing consultations and control of diabetes in general practice: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Murrells, Trevor; Ball, Jane; Maben, Jill; Ashworth, Mark; Griffiths, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects around 3.6 million people in the UK. Previous research found that general practices employing more nurses delivered better diabetes care, but did not include data on individual patient characteristics or consultations received. Aim To examine whether the proportion of consultations with patients with diabetes provided by nurses in GP practices is associated with control of diabetes measured by levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Design and setting A retrospective observational study using consultation records from 319 649 patients with diabetes from 471 UK general practices from 2002 to 2011. Method Hierarchical multilevel models to examine associations between proportion of consultations undertaken by nurses and attaining HbA1c targets over time, controlling for case-mix and practice level factors. Results The proportion of consultations with nurses has increased by 20% since 2002 but patients with diabetes made fewer consultations per year in 2011 compared with 2002 (11.6 versus 16.0). Glycaemic control has improved and was more uniformly achieved in 2011 than 2002. Practices in which nurses provide a higher proportion of consultations perform no differently to those where nurse input is lower (lowest versus highest nurse contact tertile odds ratio [OR] [confidence interval {95% CI}]: HbA1c ≤53 mmol/mol (7%) 2002, 1.04 [95% CI = 0.87 to 1.25] and 2011, 0.95 [95% CI = 0.87 to 1.03]; HbA1c ≤86 mmol/mol (10%) 2002, 0.97 [95% CI = 0.73 to 1.29] and 2011, 0.95 [95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04]). Conclusion Practices that primarily use GPs to deliver diabetes care could release significant resources with no adverse effect by switching their services towards nurse-led care. PMID:26412840

  16. 14 CFR 61.43 - Practical tests: General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... weather conditions, aircraft airworthiness, or any other safety-of-flight concern. (f) If a practical test... notice of disapproval form or the letter of discontinuance form, as appropriate; (3)...

  17. Practical library research: a tool for effective library management.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E; Mankin, C J; Bastille, J D

    1995-01-01

    Librarians are being urged to conduct research as one of their professional responsibilities. Many librarians, however, avoid research, because they believe it is beyond their capabilities or resources. This paper discusses the importance of conducting applied research-research directed toward solving practical problems. The paper describes how one library conducted practical research projects, including use studies and surveys, over an eighteen-year period. These projects produced objective data that were used by the library to make management decisions that benefited both the library and its parent institution. This paper encourages other librarians to conduct practical research projects and to share the results with their colleagues through publication in the professional literature.

  18. Familial research reveals new practice model.

    PubMed

    Denham, Sharon A

    2003-01-01

    Three ethnographic studies investigated how families define and practice family health within their household and community settings. Synthesis of these findings prompted the Family Health Model. It suggests ways to dialogue about the complex variables associated with family health and approaches to family-focused practice.

  19. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  20. Talking Trade: Literacy Researchers as Practicing Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Holbrook, Teri; Harste, Jerome C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, educational scholars have seen major shifts in how literacy is viewed. One of these shifts has been toward conceptualizing literacy as a set of social practices (Street, 1995) that people embody and value. To disrupt current definitions of literacy, the valued practices that keep those forms of literacy in place must…

  1. Audit in general practice by a receptionist: a feasibility study.

    PubMed Central

    Essex, B; Bate, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether audit can be done cost effectively by a practice's receptionist. DESIGN--The practice set goals for various aspects of care, and forms were devised for the receptionist to collect, analyse, and present data to assess whether these goals had been achieved in the previous year. SETTING--Six doctor practice in south London looking after 11,500 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Ability of receptionist to present data showing the level of attainment of the practice's goals; time spent on audit by receptionist each week. RESULTS--The practice set goals for immunisation; follow up of patients with abnormal cervical smears; frequency of recording of blood pressure and smoking habit; screening of patients over 75; care of diabetic patients and patients with serious mental illness; antenatal care; variations in workload; and availability of appointments. The receptionist was able to audit all these tasks in four hours a week; this increased her job satisfaction and extended her skills. A small amount of regular supervision was necessary--roughly 30 minutes a week in the first year of the study and 30 minutes a fortnight in the second--to ensure accuracy and deal with any difficulties that arose. CONCLUSION--The method developed enabled a receptionist to audit aspects of the practice cost effectively. There is great scope for enlarging the conventional role of the receptionist. PMID:1902382

  2. Epidemiology of lower limb fractures in general practice in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, J; Jick, H

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To estimate the incidence of lower limb fractures in the United Kingdom and assess the relative importance of various risk factors for lower limb fractures. Design: Cohort analysis and matched case-control study. Setting: General practices contributing information to the General Practice Research Database. Subjects: Individuals registered with these general practices who were at risk for a first time lower limb fracture from 1 January1990 to 31 December 2001. Main outcome measures: Age, sex, and fracture site specific incidence rates; relative risks and population attributable risks for various medical risk factors. Results: Overall, the risk of lower limb fracture was 17% higher in women then in men. Within age groups, men and women had generally similar proportions of fractures at specific sites in the lower limb. Among the risk factors evaluated, road collisions were associated with the highest relative risk for lower limb fracture, but only accounted for 3.1% or less of the population attributable risk for specific fracture types in any age group. The relative risk for lower limb fracture associated with a diagnosis of dementia was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.6), while relative risk estimates for other medical diagnoses were less than 2. Fracture risk was increased among current users of corticosteroids, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and hypnotic/sedatives, but the population attributable risks for each of these drug classes within fracture and age specific strata were only 3.0% or less. Conclusions: Many risk factors for lower limb fracture have been identified, but population attributable risk estimates for various risk factors are small. These findings suggest that multifactorial prevention programs are needed to decrease the incidence of lower limb fractures in the general population. PMID:15583259

  3. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  4. Supporting General Educators' Inclusive Practices in Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Al-Juraid, Sarah E.; Stuker, Jodi D.

    This paper describes a state-funded project at Southeastern Louisiana University that offered coursework and direct classroom assistance to general educators attempting to include students with disabilities for mathematics and science instruction. Thirty-five general educators in five parish school systems participated. A sequence of three credit…

  5. Action Research: Informing Professional Practice within Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…

  6. Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative…

  7. Observations on Citation Practices in Mathematics Education Research. Research Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that the field of mathematics education as a whole can and should improve its citation practices. He discusses 4 forms of citation practice and considers how they vary with respect to transparency of voice. He also discusses several ways that citation practices may misrepresent cited authors' ideas. He concludes with suggestions…

  8. Robustness, generality and efficiency of optimization algorithms in practical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thanedar, P. B.; Arora, J. S.; Li, G. Y.; Lin, T. C.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of two approaches, sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and optimality criteria (OC), are analyzed and compared, with emphasis on the critical importance of parameters such as accuracy, generality, robustness, efficiency, and ease of use in large scale structural optimization. A simplified fighter wing and active control of space structures are considered with other example problems. When applied to general system identification problems, the OC methods are shown to lose simplicity and demonstrate lack of generality, accuracy and robustness. It is concluded that the SQP method with a potential constraint strategy is a better choice as compared to the currently prevalent mathematical programming and OC approaches.

  9. Theory in Educational Research and Practice in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Leonie G.

    2013-01-01

    A problem in education, that has long concerned philosophers of education, is the problem of the relationship between theory and practice in educational research and practice. Despite the fact that much has been written on the relationship between theory and practice in education, it would seem that teachers continue to cling to an image of theory…

  10. 14 CFR 61.43 - Practical tests: General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) If the aircraft's type certification data sheet requires the pilot flight crew complement be a... the FAA Flight Standardization Board report, FAA-approved aircraft flight manual, or aircraft type... weather conditions, aircraft airworthiness, or any other safety-of-flight concern. (f) If a practical...

  11. Integrating Geriatric Dentistry into General Practice Residency Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Patrick M.; Shay, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    The predoctoral dental curriculum cannot provide the depth of experience and knowledge needed for the increasing representation of geriatric patients in family dental practices. A curriculum model designed to enhance knowledge and refine clinical skills in caring for the elderly is proposed. (MSE)

  12. [Dealing with uncertainty--the hypermodernity of general practice].

    PubMed

    Barth, Niklas; Nassehi, Armin; Schneider, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    The general practitioner is fundamentally dealing with uncertainty. On the one hand, we want to demonstrate that uncertainty cannot simply be stipulated as a matter of fact. Instead, we will show that this uncertainty is a performative effect of the primary care setting. On the other hand, we want to point out that the general practitioner's ability to bear uncertainty is a genuinely hypermodern way of productively dealing with uncertainty.

  13. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  14. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  15. Effective Teaching of Reading: Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V., Ed.

    Distilling and interpreting past and current research on the effective teaching of reading is the focus of this volume. The titles and authors are as follows: "Research in Effective Teaching: An Overview of Its Development" (William H. Rupley, Beth S. Wise, and John W. Logan); "Process-Product Research on Effective Teaching: A Primer for a…

  16. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  17. Children's Comprehension of Text: Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise, Ed.

    Reflecting the concerns of researchers and practitioners about children's text comprehension, this book defines and provides examples of narrative and expository text and describes research-based strategies for helping children comprehend these two types of text. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Research on Stories: Implications…

  18. What Is Implementation Research? Rationale, Concepts, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Onil; Reeves, Scott; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing knowledge base on evidence-based practices in social work and medicine, there is a large gap between what is known and what is consistently done. Implementation research is the study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings into routine practice. In this article, we describe the rationale for implementation…

  19. Theoretical Trajectories within Communities of Practice in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the role of theory in higher education research is problematised using a communities of practice framework. Drawing on a case study derived from the author's own published work and doctoral study, the article concludes that the differential uses of theory within communities of research practice can be fruitfully explored, in part,…

  20. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  1. Fostering Elementary Teachers' Research on Their Science Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of a program fostering prospective and practicing elementary school teachers' research on their science-teaching practices, discussing the science-education community's recognition of the importance of teacher research, examining beliefs underlying development of the program, describing the program's setting, summarizing…

  2. Practices of Legitimacy and the Problem of Artistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matcham, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the positioning of art practice as a mode of research through various legitimising practices. While frequently fruitful, the imperative to make art justify itself as a form of research in order to achieve legitimacy allows that in art which does not engage in negative dialectics to slip from view. The possibility of the kind of…

  3. Using Action Research Projects to Examine Teacher Technology Integration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the technology integration practices of teachers involved in a statewide initiative via one cycle of action research. It differs from other studies of teacher technology integration practices because it simultaneously involved and provided direct benefits to teachers and researchers. The study used thematic analysis to provide…

  4. Connecting Practice and Research: Integrated Reading and Writing Instruction Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caverly, David C.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg; Dimino, Renee K.; Lampi, Jodi P.

    2016-01-01

    The first "Connecting Practice and Research" column (Lampi, Dimino, & Salsburg Taylor, 2015), introduced a Research-to-Practice partnership (Coburn & Penuel, 2016) between two faculty from a community college and a university professor who were aiming to develop effective integrated reading and writing (IRW) instruction through a…

  5. Broadening horizons: engaging advanced practice nursing students in faculty research.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Josie A

    2009-01-01

    Inviting advanced practice nursing students to participate in faculty research can be an innovative way to interest students in using current evidence as the basis for their practice. The author discusses strategies for effectively engaging graduate nursing students into research projects in ways that broaden the students' perspectives and strengthen their healthcare decision-making skills.

  6. Capacity census - a pilot study of general practices in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Brett, Tom; Arnold-Reed, Diane; Phan, Cam; Jones, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The GP Super Clinics that will provide multidisciplinary primary care services are seen as a key feature of the Federal Government's health infrastructure development. They are designed to improve convenience for patients when accessing services – especially patients with multiple comorbidities requiring visits to multiple providers – as well as providing the space and equipment for teaching and research in primary care. In addition, Medicare Locals are seen as facilitating ‘investments in primary healthcare infrastructure, including GP Super Clinics’. Enhancements to existing private general practices to ‘support a broader team, teaching or visiting sessions from other health professionals’ are also seen as infrastructure development possibilities. Although no one model is provided for GP Super Clinics, it is intended that each ‘will bring together general practitioners, nurses, visiting medical specialists, allied health professionals and other healthcare providers to deliver better healthcare, tailored to the needs and priorities of the local community’.

  7. Role of Patient and Practice Characteristics in Variance of Treatment Quality in Type 2 Diabetes between General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeon Young; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Accounting for justifiable variance is important for fair comparisons of treatment quality. The variance between general practices in treatment quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients may be attributed to the underlying patient population and practice characteristics. The objective of this study is to describe the between practice differences in treatment, and identify patient and practice level characteristics that may explain these differences. Methods The data of 24,607 T2DM patients from 183 general practices in the Netherlands were used. Treatment variance was assessed in a cross-sectional manner for: glucose-lowering drugs/metformin, lipid-lowering drugs/statins, blood pressure-lowering drugs/ACE-inhibitor or ARB. Patient characteristics tested were age, gender, diabetes duration, comorbidity, comedication. Practice characteristics were number of T2DM patients, practice type, diabetes assistant available. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the between practice variance in treatment and the effect of characteristics on this variance. Results Treatment rates varied considerably between practices (IQR 9.5–13.9). The variance at practice level was 7.5% for glucose-lowering drugs, 3.6% for metformin, 3.1% for lipid-lowering drugs, 10.3% for statins, 8.6% for blood pressure-lowering drugs, and 3.9% for ACE-inhibitor/ARB. Patient and practice characteristics explained 19.0%, 7.5%, 20%, 6%, 9.9%, and 13.4% of the variance respectively. Age, multiple chronic drugs, and ≥3 glucose-lowering drugs were the most relevant patient characteristics. Number of T2DM patients per practice was the most relevant practice characteristic. Discussion Considerable differences exist between practices in treatment rates. Patients’ age was identified as characteristic that may account for justifiable differences in especially lipid-lowering treatment. Other patient or practice characteristics either do not explain or do not justify the differences

  8. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  9. [General Strategies for Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura Laura

    2015-01-01

    The need to use clinical practice guidelines (CPG) arises from the health conditions and problems that public health institutions in the country face. CPG are informative documents that help improve the quality of care processes and patient safety; having among its objectives, to reduce the variability of medical practice. The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social designed a strategic plan for the dissemination, implementation, monitoring and control of CPG to establish an applicable model in the medical units in the three levels of care at the Instituto. This paper summarizes some of the strategies of the plan that were made with the knowledge and experience of clinicians and managers, with which they intend to promote the adoption of the key recommendations of the guidelines, to promote a sense of belonging for health personnel, and to encourage changes in organizational culture.

  10. Talking with women about personal health resources in general practice. Key questions about salutogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H

    1998-06-01

    We want to share experiences from an approach for clinical communication and research, intended to identify and mobilize personal health resources in female patients, and promote strategies for resource oriented talk in general practice. We used an action research design with qualitative evaluation to summarize the process where we developed a key question about self-assessed health resources in women, based on The Health Resource/Risk Balance Model, including salutogenesis, patient-centredness and gender perspectives. From consultations with 49 female patients in our own practices, we have drawn a narrative description of the development process, a summary of issues that facilitated resource talk, and our final version of the key question. We suggest that resource talk is based on 1) an explicit shift of language from disease to health, but nevertheless recognizing the fact that illness occurs, 2) options for answers given by the female patient and not by the doctor, 3) signification of the woman's assessment of her own situation (in contrast to the doctor's assessment), and 4) taking for granted that women's personal health resources exist as numerous strategies which are utilized, and may be identified. We have learnt that communicative action can provide tools for shifting the attention of doctor and patients from risks and diseases to resources and strengths. This is an example of one way to change your practice through systematic reflection in dialogue with a colleague.

  11. Partnership and Recognition in Action Research: Understanding the Practices and Practice Architectures for Participation and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Groves, Christine; Olin, Anette; Karlberg-Granlund, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first and introductory article of this special issue. The article gives a societist account of the principles of partnership and recognition as they are encountered and experienced in practices in action research. A societist account of practices requires a social theory for understanding practices. Therefore, the article…

  12. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

  13. Best Practices for Young Children's Music Education: Guidance from Brain Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews best practices for young children's music experiences in light of developments in brain research. The first section reviews research music and brain topics including neuromyths, effect of music on structural brain changes and general intelligence, plasticity, critical and optimal periods, and at-risk student populations. The…

  14. Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

    2005-01-01

    With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

  15. Applications of Current Research Findings to Bilingual Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ana Maria

    Recent research findings that have potential application or are already contributing to the refinement of educational practice in bilingual education include developments in language research, teacher effectiveness research, and ethnography. In language research, these contributions include work on the need for and types of language proficiency,…

  16. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  17. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  18. Collaborative Learning. Research to Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    A Fully Integrated Educational System practices collaborative learning among all peers. The study summarized in this report (Zhang, X., Anderson, R. C., Morris, J., Miller, B., Nguyen-Janiel, K. T., Lin, T., Zhang, J., Jadallah, M., Scott, T., Sun, J., Latawjec, B., Ma, S., Grabow, K., & Hsu, J. Y. (2016). "Improving children's competence…

  19. Creating High Functioning Schools: Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Yvonne, Ed.; Wood, Fred H., Ed.; Simmons, Jan C., Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers, chosen from those presented within the last 2 years at the annual National Conference on Creating the Quality School, hosted by the Center for the Study of Small/Rural Schools at the University of Oklahoma. The papers are grouped into three sections: leadership for school improvement; classroom practices for school…

  20. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  1. [Cryosurgical treatment of benign skin tumors. Experiences in the practice of a general physician].

    PubMed

    Haehn, K D

    1984-10-04

    The frequency of the occurrence of predominantly benevolent dermatomas in a medium-sized general practice is reported; whereby mainly warts (verrucae vulgares) are dealt with. The treatment of these types of dermatomas by means of cryosurgery is presented, the results are evaluated and the procedure--suitable for a general practice--is described.

  2. Survey practices in dental education research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.

  3. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  4. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  5. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  6. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  7. 29 CFR 780.146 - Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Importance of relationship of the practice to farming... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.146 Importance of relationship of the practice to farming generally. The inclusion of incidental practices in the definition of agriculture was not...

  8. Adapting research instruction to support the scholarship of practice: practice-scholar partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crist, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.

  9. The 'heartsink' patient revisited. The Welsh Philosophy And General Practice discussion Group.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, C C; Evans, M

    1999-01-01

    The term 'heartsink patient' is now part of the vocabulary of general practice. But what and where is the heartsink? How should the phenomenon be studied? What are the implications of differing interpretations for general practice? The heartsink patient presents personal, social, and soteriological (pertaining to salvation) problems in physical terms. This poses a fundamental challenge to the philosophical foundations of general practice. Emphasizing a biomedical role justifies questioning the legitimacy of 'heartsinks' as patients. Alternatively, general practice should reassert its acceptance of suffering, whatever its origin and presentation. This would justify accommodating a far greater range of problems than simply those explained by biomedicine alone, and make general practice soteriological to the core. PMID:10343431

  10. Instrument Reporting Practices in Second Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Deirdre J.

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers often have to develop or change the instruments they use to measure numerous constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2012). Given the prevalence of researcher-developed and -adapted data collection instruments, and given the profound effect instrumentation can have on results, thorough reporting of instrumentation is…

  11. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  12. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  13. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnine, Doug

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale and suggestions for increasing the quality of and demand for research findings as a vital component of educational improvement efforts. Addresses issues of trustworthiness, useability, and accessibility and suggests ways to nurture demand for research among influence producers, knowledge producers, knowledge…

  14. Does an activity based remuneration system attract young doctors to general practice?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    pace. Conclusions Given a concern about low recruitment to general practice in Norway, and the fact that an increasing share of medical students is women, we were interested in the extent to which the current Norwegian remuneration system correspond with the preferences of potential GPs. This study suggests that an existing remuneration mechanism has a selection effect on who would like to become a GP. Those most attracted are income motivated men. Those deterred are risk averse, and less happy with a high work pace. More research is needed on the extent to which experienced GPs differ along the questions we asked potential GPs, as well as studying the relative importance of other attributes than payment schemes. PMID:22433750

  15. Regionalisation of general practice training--are we meeting the needs of rural Australia?

    PubMed

    Campbell, David G; Greacen, Jane H; Giddings, Patrick H; Skinner, Lesley P

    2011-06-06

    The concept of "social accountability" has underpinned the development of many medical education programs over the past decade. Success of the regionalisation of the general practice training program in Australia will ultimately be measured by the ability of the program to deliver a sufficient rural general practice workforce to meet the health needs of rural communities. Regionalisation of general practice training in Australia arose from the 1998 recommendations of the Ministerial Review of General Practice Training. The resultant competitive structure adopted by government was not the preferred option of the Review Committee, and may be a negative influence on rural workforce, as the competitive corporate structure of regional training providers has created barriers to meaningful vertical integration. Available data suggest that the regionalised training program is not yet providing a sustainable general practice workforce to rural Australia. The current increase in medical student and general practice training places provides an opportunity to address some of these issues. In particular, it is recommended that changes be made to registrar selection processes, the rural pipeline and vertical integration of training, and training for procedural rural practice. To achieve these goals, perhaps it is time for another comprehensive ministerial review of general practice training in Australia.

  16. The Educator as Researcher: Principles and Practice of Participatory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Alma Flor; And Others

    The text of three papers are presented. The first, by Alma Ada Flor, focuses on the question "What is participatory research?" It is suggested that participatory research enriches the knowledge of participants and opens up new topics to them. The nature and theory fundmental to participatory research and the relation of participatory research to…

  17. Operator Priming and Generalization of Practice in Adults' Simple Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I. D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a renewed debate about whether educated adults solve simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 3) by direct fact retrieval or by fast, automatic counting-based procedures. Recent research testing adults' simple addition and multiplication showed that a 150-ms preview of the operator (+ or ×) facilitated addition, but not multiplication,…

  18. Optimising value and quality in general practice within the primary health care sector through relationship marketing: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Manjit K

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of applying relationship marketing and service quality concepts within the primary health care sector. The use of relational strategies in general practice, by modelling the relationships between practitioners and patients from a marketing perspective, could potentially lead to sustained high quality service being provided, and to more efficient use of resources. This essentially conceptually focused paper addresses an area that has not yet been researched in detail, and furthers understanding of the relationships that facilitate exchange within general practice and service delivery in non-profit, resource-constrained conditions. Deeper understanding of the needs and expectations of patients and the way these can be delivered by general practice can only lead to improvements for all parties involved. The relationship marketing paradigm presents itself as a potentially exciting way of addressing issues associated with ensuring that the highest level of quality is delivered in this area of the UK National Health Service.

  19. Grievances: A Review of Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael E.; Miller, Sandra J.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed behavioral and industrial relations literature on grievances, and raised serious methodological, theoretical, and ethical questions. Given existing threats to traditional grievance systems, basic research, especially program evaluation, on proposed structural and behavior variants of grievance procedures is necessary. (JAC)

  20. [The practice of research in history].

    PubMed

    Poisson, Michel

    2013-11-01

    History is a discipline whose research methods present similarities with those of other human and social sciences, with certain specificities. The nursing profession can use these methods to showcase its history and the history of nursing care.

  1. Training for systemic general practice: a new approach from the Tavistock Clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, J; Lindsey, C

    1997-01-01

    A new course at the Tavistock Clinic offers general practitioners (GPs) and primary care nurses a training based on family therapy principles but directed at developing skills and conceptualization across the whole range of general practice work. The course may point to a new way forward for postgraduate training in general practice, creating links with the social sciences and giving doctors and nurses appropriate training for the 'postmodern' world. PMID:9281876

  2. University Libraries and Other General Research Libraries Section. General Research Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on university and other research libraries, presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Impact of Technology on Users of Academic and Research Libraries," in which C. Lee Jones (United States) focuses on the impact of technical advances in computing and…

  3. Ontario dentists: 3. Radiographs prescribed in general practice.

    PubMed

    Swan, E S; Lewis, D W

    1993-01-01

    In February 1991, a mail survey was used to poll a sample consisting of about 10 per cent of Ontario's general dentists. The data obtained provided information about the radiographs prescribed by dentists for five different patient types, which were described to the respondents. The per cent agreement between the radiographic procedures prescribed by Ontario dentists and the ADA-approved Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) guidelines ranged from three per cent to 79 per cent, depending on patient type and disease risk. For each patient and risk type, there was considerable variation in the radiographs prescribed.

  4. Novel anticoagulants: general overview and practical considerations for dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Elad, S; Marshall, J; Meyerowitz, C; Connolly, G

    2016-01-01

    Currently, 4 novel Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) were approved by the FDA. This review focuses on these agents and proposes a matrix for the general dentists to assess bleeding risk in dental management of patient on DOACs. The outline covers the pharmacology of DOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban and dabigatran), bleeding complications, risk associated with discontinuation, monitoring/reversal, and implications for the dental practitioners. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were identified with mixed results in regards to the risk for bleeding. Considering the pharmacology of DOACs and challenges in monitoring and reversing their effect, the dentist should consider carefully the management of patients on DOACs as it may differ from patients on conventional anticoagulants. Based on the type of dental procedure and the medical risk assessment, several general treatment approaches can be considered: continue DOACs, time dental treatment as late as possible after the last DOACs dose, discontinue DOACs for 24hrs, or discontinue DOACs for 48hrs. Based on the current reported dental literature, limited dental surgery may benefit from the first 2 conservative options. However, this needs to be proven in comparative clinical trials.

  5. Bipolar disorder in general practice: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piterman, Leon; Jones, Kay M; Castle, David J

    2010-08-16

    General practitioners are involved in the continuing care and shared care of patients with chronic mental illness, including bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists are particularly reliant on GPs to monitor and treat comorbidities as well as the psychiatric condition itself. Management of chronic mental illness is compromised by a number of factors, including problems with diagnosis, physical comorbidity, erratic attendance and poor compliance with treatment. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder is often delayed, and differential diagnoses to be considered include unipolar depression, anxiety disorder, drug and alcohol dependence, personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and general medical and central nervous system diseases. New Medicare items have been introduced under the Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative. However, uptake for patients with chronic psychiatric illness, including bipolar disorder, is low. Patients with bipolar disorder may be prone to a range of comorbid psychological, social and physical problems, and GPs need to be vigilant to detect and manage comorbidity and social problems as part of the overall plan. This includes assistance with certification for sickness and unemployment benefits. GPs may become involved during crises affecting patients and this may pose significant problems for GPs who need to provide ongoing care following patient discharge from hospital. Despite these difficulties, opportunities exist for GPs to play a vital and ongoing role in the management of patients with bipolar disorder.

  6. Clinical drug trials in general practice: a 10-year overview of protocols

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drugs predominantly prescribed in general practice should ideally be tested in that setting; however, little is known about drug trials in general practice. Our aim was to describe drug trials in Norwegian general practice over the period of a decade. Methods The present work concerns a 10-year retrospective study of protocols submitted to the Norwegian national medicines agency (1998 to 2007) identifying all studies involving general practitioners (GPs) as clinical investigator(s). We analyzed the number of trials, drug company involvement, patients, participating doctors, payment, medications tested and main diagnostic criteria for inclusion. We also analyzed one trial in greater detail. Results Out of 2,054 clinical drug trials, 196 (9.5%) were undertaken in general practice; 93% were multinational, 96% were industry funded and 77% included patients both from general practice and specialist care. The trials were planned to be completed in the period 1998 to 2012. A total of 23,000 patients in Norway and 340,000 patients internationally were planned to be included in the 196 trials. A median of 5 GPs participated in each trial (range 1 to 402). Only 0.7% of 831 GP investigators had general practice university affiliations. Median payment for participating investigators was €1,900 (range €0 to 13,500) per patient completing the trial. A total of 30 pharmaceutical companies were involved. The drugs most commonly studied were antidiabetics (21%), obstructive airway disease medications (12%), agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (10%), and lipid modifying agents (10%). One trial, presented in more detail, had several characteristics of a seeding or marketing trial. Conclusions Only one in four drug trials involving general practice were solely general practice trials and almost all were industry initiated without input from academic general practice. There was a large variation in the number of patients, participating doctors, and economic

  7. An Introduction to Research and Evaluation in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flor, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research and evaluation are tools that can help validate experiential education practice and provide a better understanding of it. Defines types of research and evaluation and discusses the benefits of these activities. Reasons for conducting research include (1) gaining support and credibility; (2) program improvement; and (3) marketing. (KS)

  8. Extending Engineering Practice Research with Shared Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevelyan, James

    2016-01-01

    Research on engineering practice is scarce and sharing of qualitative research data can reduce the effort required for an aspiring researcher to obtain enough data from engineering workplaces to draw generalizable conclusions, both qualitative and quantitative. This paper describes how a large shareable qualitative data set on engineering…

  9. Assessment as Action Research: Bridging Academic Scholarship and Everyday Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…

  10. Moving Research into Practice: Can We Make Dissemination Stick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers in special education have made significant advances in defining and identifying evidence-based practices, scholars often constitute an insular group that disseminates research findings primarily through outlets and venues targeting like-minded researchers using traditional approaches. Thus, despite tangible results in…

  11. Addressing Quandaries in Early Education through Research Practice Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carla; Connolly, Faith; Doss, Chris; Grigg, Jeffrey; Gorgen, Perry; Wentworth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This panel examines research on early education from two research practice partnerships, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) with Baltimore City Schools and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and the Stanford-SFUSD Partnership with San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and Stanford University in San Francisco,…

  12. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  13. Metacognitions in generalized anxiety disorder: theoretical and practical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Heiden, Colin van der

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, reviews of the clinical significance has indicated that approximately 50% of patients with GAD return to a 'well' status following treatment. So how might the field advance? One way is to base new treatments on GAD maintenance mechanisms. A treatment that does this is metacognitive therapy (MCT), which targets the beliefs about worrying, instead of worrying itself. So far, MCT has been evaluated in two open trials, and two randomized controlled trials, all of which achieved quite favorable results. That is, MCT achieved statistically significant decreases in GAD symptoms, with large effect sizes and high recovery rates, and was found to be superior to two forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. In this article, an overview of MCT and results of the studies on the effectiveness of MCT for GAD is given.

  14. Implementation Research Workshop in Argentina: Moving Research into Practice

    Cancer.gov

    Research on implementation science addresses the level to which health interventions can fit within real-world public health and clinical service systems. The overall goal of the Introduction to Cancer Program Planning and Implementation Research Workshop was to train a critical mass of researchers, program managers, practitioners, and policy makers that can apply the knowledge gained on implementation and dissemination research to promote evidence-based interventions to reduce the cancer burden in the country and globally.

  15. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research.

  16. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  17. Refugee experiences of general practice in countries of resettlement: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Hao; Drillich, Ann; Schattner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Refugees and asylum seekers often struggle to use general practice services in resettlement countries. Aim To describe and analyse the literature on the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers using general practice services in countries of resettlement. Design and setting Literature review using systematic search and narrative data extraction and synthesis methodologies. International, peer-reviewed literature published in English language between 1990 and 2013. Method Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms: refugee, asylum seeker, experience, perception, doctor, physician, and general practitioner. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed and were critically appraised. Narrative themes describing the refugee or asylum seeker’s personal experiences of general practice services were identified, coded, and analysed. Results From 8722 papers, 85 were fully reviewed and 23 included. These represented the experiences of approximately 864 individuals using general practice services across 11 countries. Common narrative themes that emerged were: difficulties accessing general practice services, language barriers, poor doctor–patient relationships, and problems with the cultural acceptability of medical care. Conclusion The difficulties refugees and asylum seekers experience accessing and using general practice services could be addressed by providing practical support for patients to register, make appointments, and attend services, and through using interpreters. Clinicians should look beyond refugee stereotypes to focus on the needs and expectations of the individual. They should provide clear explanations about unfamiliar clinical processes and treatments while offering timely management. PMID:25733438

  18. ADHD medication prescription: Effects of child, sibling, parent and general practice characteristics.

    PubMed

    Heins, Marianne J; Bruggers, Inge; van Dijk, Liset; Korevaar, Joke C

    2016-10-05

    Many children receive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, but factors that determine medication prescription are largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the relative impact of factors on the child, family and general practitioner (GP) practice level on ADHD medication prescription. We included 1259 Dutch children aged 6-18 years with a diagnostic code of ADHD or related behavioural problems (ICPC codes P20-P22) in NIVEL primary care database. Using multilevel analyses, we examined predictors of ADHD medication prescription. Children diagnosed as 'hyperactive' were 16 times more likely to be prescribed ADHD medication than those with 'behavioural concerns'. Children with a parent or sibling receiving ADHD medication were three to four times more likely to be prescribed ADHD medication themselves. Children from GP practices with a high percentage of children with ADHD were twice as likely to be prescribed ADHD medication. Concluding, factors on the individual, family and GP practice level determine ADHD medication prescription. Future research into the decision-making process for ADHD medication is warranted.

  19. Classroom Authority: Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Judith L., Ed.; Hemmings, Annette B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book describes and analyzes authority relationships in classrooms through explorations of theory, prior research, and contemporary qualitative studies. The emphasis is on the social construction of authority and the crucial role authority plays in K-16 teachers' pedagogy and students' academic engagement and achievement. The introductory…

  20. Borderline Clients: Practice Implications of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Harriette C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews current research on treatment of borderline clients with medication, individual counseling, and family interventions. Notes that recent studies indicate that borderline personality is heterogeneous condition in which different underlying disorders (affective, schizotypal, and neurological) may be present. Reviews effectiveness of various…

  1. Contextualizing Theories and Practices of Bricolage Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decade, bricolage, as an approach to qualitative inquiry, has gained popularity in academic circles. However, while conceptual and concrete precedents exist, the approach has remained relatively misunderstood, and unpopular, in broader research communities. This may be because the complexity of the approach has stymied widespread…

  2. Creativity and Innovation: Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are frequently mentioned as key 21st-century skills for career and life success. Indeed, recent research provides evidence that the jobs of the future will increasingly require the ability to bring creative solutions to complex problems. And creativity is often the spice of life, that little extra something that makes the…

  3. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G.

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  4. Kevlar: Transitioning Helix for Research to Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    entropy randomization techniques , automated program repairs leveraging highly-optimized virtual machine technology, and developing a novel framework...particular languages, compilers, or libraries, (b) it is complementary to other security techniques including inspection, static analysis and testing... technique for defeating web application attacks, and • Accepted paper at the 11th Annual Cyber and Information Security Research Conference

  5. Multicultural Issues in Literacy Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Arlette Ingram, Ed.; Garcia, Georgia Earnest, Ed.; Barrera, Rosalinda B., Ed.; Harris, Violet J., Ed.

    This book addresses the lack of research and scholarly discussion on multicultural literacies. A common theme across chapters is the ways in which elements of difference--race, ethnicity, gender, class, and language--create tensions that influence students' literacy experiences and achievements. Sections explore the relationships among culture,…

  6. Converging Paths: Creativity Research and Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michael Hanchett

    2014-01-01

    Education has long been a central issue for creativity research, and the integration of creativity and education has remained a goal and controversy. In spite of over sixty years of trying to bring creativity into education, education is often criticized for not teaching creative thinking, while also criticized from other quarters for not meeting…

  7. The Evolution and Practice of Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John; Hanlon, Martin; Yorke, Mantz

    2013-01-01

    Although institutional research has been a significant feature of U.S. higher education for more than 50 years, it is not so well understood in other parts of the world. As higher education around the world faces increasingly challenging times in responding to pressures of massification and globalization, increasing forms of accountability and…

  8. The application of qualitative research findings to oncology nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings.

  9. What’s in a dental practice-based research network?

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Hilton, Thomas J.; Ferracane, Jack; Berg, Joel; Zhou, Lingmei; Rothen, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The authors conducted a study to describe the general dentists, practices, patients and patient care patterns of the dental practice-based research network (PBRN) Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Methods Northwest PRECEDENT is a dental PBRN of general and pediatric dentists and orthodontists from five U.S. states in the Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah and Washington. The authors collected data from general dentists in Northwest PRECEDENT (n = 101) regarding the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (N = 1,943) visiting their practices. They also obtained demographic data from the general dentists and their patients. Results The authors found that 50 percent of the general dentists were 51 to 60 years of age, 14 percent were female and 76 percent were non-Hispanic white. More than one-half (55 percent) of the dentists had practiced dentistry for more than 20 years, 83 percent had private solo practices and 32 percent practiced in rural community settings. The majority (71 percent) of patients visiting the dental practices was in the age range of 18 to 64 years, 55 percent were female and 84 percent were non-Hispanic white. In terms of reasons for seeking dental care, 52 percent of patients overall visited the dentist for oral examinations, checkups, prophylaxis or caries-preventive treatment. In the preceding year, 85 percent of the patients had received prophylaxis, 49 percent restorative treatments, 34 percent caries-preventive treatments and 10 percent endodontic treatments. Conclusions Northwest PRECEDENT general dentists are dispersed geographically and are racially and ethnically diverse, owing in part to efforts by network administrators and coordinators to enroll minority dentists and those who practice in rural areas. Estimates of characteristics of dentists and patients in Northwest PRECEDENT will be valuable in planning

  10. Particularizing the general: Sustaining theoretical integrity in the context of an evidence-based practice agenda.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally; Sawatzky, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation of demands for accountability and health care quality places nurses under constant pressure to ensure professional practice is evidence-based. The corresponding emphasis on knowledge that pertains to general populations challenges nursing's traditional focus on the uniqueness of each individual patient. Considering how nurses engage with professional systematic thinking processes, we reflect on ways competing agendas in the evidence-based practice environment compromise the professional vision aspired to by an earlier era of nursing model and framework builders. Exploring the scientific thinking underpinning practice evidence, we contemplate implications for applying general knowledge to particular practice, reconsidering options for conceptualizing nursing praxis.

  11. Revisiting practice-based research networks as a platform for mental health services research.

    PubMed

    Curtis McMillen, J; Lenze, Shannon L; Hawley, Kristin M; Osborne, Victoria A

    2009-09-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs)-collaborations of practice settings that work together to generate research knowledge-are underused in mental health services research. This article proposes an agenda for mental health services research that uses a variety of PBRN structures and that focuses on what really happens in practice, the effectiveness of practice innovations in real world care, the challenges of implementing evidence supported interventions, modification of clinician behavior, and assessment of the effect of mental health policy changes on practice. The challenges of conducting research within PBRNs are substantial, including difficulties in maintaining positive member relations, securing ongoing funding, sustaining productivity, overcoming IRB entanglements and achieving both scientific excellence in recruitment and measurement validity and utility for practitioner members. However, the awareness of these challenges allows researchers and practitioners to build networks that creatively overcome them and that infuse mental health services research with heavy doses of the realities of everyday clinical practice.

  12. Practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) for CPD: a pilot with general practice trainees to support the transition to independent practice.

    PubMed

    Rial, Jonathan; Scallan, Samantha

    2013-05-01

    The paper describes a small-scale enquiry with UK-based general practice specialty trainees (GPSTs) at the time of transition from training to independent practice. It aimed to identify whether they were supported in making this transition through attending practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) sessions. Participants in the study reported that the sessions helped them to consolidate their learning from their third year of training (GPST3), improved their ability to identify and use evidence in practice, and shifted the focus of their learning needs away from the two UK general practice postgraduate exams (applied Knowledge Test or aKT; and Clinical Skills assessment or CSa) and towards 'real world' practice. The two pilot groups have become established as means of peer support and continue to meet, with small changes in composition. The work has led to the wider roll out of PBSGL for newly qualified GPs across Wessex.

  13. [Mastitis in general practice. Is bacteriologic examination useful?].

    PubMed

    Aabø, O; Matheson, I; Aursnes, I; Horgen, M; Lagerløv, P; Melby, K

    1990-06-20

    For a period of 22 months, postpartial women in Oslo were asked to consult one of several specific general practitioners in the event of mastitis. Clinical symptoms, bacteriological findings in breast milk and treatment were recorded in 43 patients. Patients with a favourable (n = 35) and with an unfavourable outcome (n = 8) defined as abscess, relapse and/or relief of symptoms after more than seven days, were compared. Unfavourable outcome was characterized by higher score of clinical symptoms and a higher isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus. The occurrence of fever did not differ between the groups. Bacteriological findings in milk from both breasts were compared with the findings from 100 milk donors. Staphylococcus aureus was more frequently isolated in milk from affected breasts than from unaffected and control breasts (17/40 versus 4/40 versus 4/100). Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains (70%) were betalactamase producers. Coagulase negative staphylococci were a frequent finding in all milk samples, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were frequent only in the controls. The presence of pathogenic bacteria, as well as high bacterial counts, were associated with a higher number of symptoms. However, the predictive value of the bacteriological examination was low. Our study indicates that bacteriological examination of breast milk is justified only in patients with severe, acute symptoms and recurrences when betalactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus are suspected.

  14. Comorbidity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Diseases in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Olmos, Luis; Salvador, Carlos H.; Alberquilla, Ángel; Lora, David; Carmona, Montserrat; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Monteagudo, José Luis; García-López, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare management is oriented toward single diseases, yet multimorbidity is nevertheless the rule and there is a tendency for certain diseases to occur in clusters. This study sought to identify comorbidity patterns in patients with chronic diseases, by reference to number of comorbidities, age and sex, in a population receiving medical care from 129 general practitioners in Spain, in 2007. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a health-area setting of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma), covering a population of 198,670 individuals aged over 14 years. Multiple correspondences were analyzed to identify the clustering patterns of the conditions targeted. Results Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8–42.2) of the registered population had at least one chronic condition. In all, 24.5% (95% CI: 24.3–24.6) of the population presented with multimorbidity. In the correspondence analysis, 98.3% of the total information was accounted for by three dimensions. The following four, age- and sex-related comorbidity patterns were identified: pattern B, showing a high comorbidity rate; pattern C, showing a low comorbidity rate; and two patterns, A and D, showing intermediate comorbidity rates. Conclusions Four comorbidity patterns could be identified which grouped diseases as follows: one showing diseases with a high comorbidity burden; one showing diseases with a low comorbidity burden; and two showing diseases with an intermediate comorbidity burden. PMID:22359665

  15. Evidence-based medicine in general practice: helping the whole patient.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2004-09-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation at the 13th Nordic Congress in General Practice in Helsinki, Finland in September 2003. The aim was to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in a primary healthcare setting, and to show how and why it also can represent a hindrance to optimal medical care. The presentation comprised two separate lectures. Initially, Marjukka Mäkelä pointed to strengths to underline the need for EBM in general practice. Subsequently, Irene Hetlevik argued that the concept of EBM, on the contrary, could be a hindrance for good general practice.

  16. Evidence-based practice curriculum in allied health professions for teaching-research-practice nexus.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V

    2012-11-01

    Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession.

  17. Online Education and Its Effective Practice: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Anna; Chen, Xiufang

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative content analysis approach, this study reviewed 47 published studies and research on online teaching and learning since 2008, primarily focusing on how theories, practices and assessments apply to the online learning environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide practical suggestions for those who are planning to develop…

  18. Numeracy into Action: Putting Numeracy Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Daniel; Byrne, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 the National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) published a research report titled "What Really Counts Next: Action Learning Project with Numeracy Tutors" (Sellers and Byrne, 2014). The report provided an in-depth insight into the way tutors made changes to their practice, and offered practical tips on how to teach numeracy to adult…

  19. Researching "Practiced Language Policies": Insights from Conversation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacina-Pugh, Florence

    2012-01-01

    In language policy research, "policy" has traditionally been conceptualised as a notion separate from that of "practice". In fact, language practices were usually analysed with a view to evaluate whether a policy is being implemented or resisted to. Recently, however, Spolsky in ("Language policy". Cambridge…

  20. Double Blind: Supervising Women as Creative Practice-Led Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Courtney; Haynes, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Many women creative practice-led researchers appear inhibited by a number of factors directly connected to their gender. This article discusses these factors, including the culture of visual arts professional practice, the circumstances surrounding women postgraduate students and unproductive self-theories about intelligence and creativity. A…

  1. Strengthening Research by Designing for Coherence and Connections to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerst, Timothy; Confrey, Jere; Heck, Daniel; Knuth, Eric; Lambdin, Diana V.; White, Dorothy; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Quander, Judith Reed

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is committed to strengthening relations between research and practice and to the development of a coherent knowledge base that is usable in practice. The need to work toward connection and coherence is not unique to the field of mathematics education. Fields such as medicine, software…

  2. Teacher Inquiry: Living the Research in Everyday Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Anthony, Ed.; Erickson, Gaalen, Ed.

    This book includes 22 papers in three parts. After (1) "Teacher Inquiry: A Defining Feature of Professional Practice" (Anthony Clarke and Gaalen Erickson), Part 1, "Enacting Teacher Research in Practice Settings," includes (2) "Writing Matters: Exploring the Relationship between Writing Instruction and Assessment"…

  3. From Research to Practice: Tying It All Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnert, Joanna B.; Moore, G. A. B.

    1985-01-01

    The University of Guelph's Office for Educational Practice, an administrative unit for instructional development that relies on faculty volunteer leadership and participation, is described and discussed in the context of research on improvement of instructional effectiveness. (MSE)

  4. A mixed-methods study of research dissemination across practice-based research networks.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Paula Darby; Lange, Carol J; Cohen, Rachel A; Peterson, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks may be expanding beyond research into rapid learning systems. This mixed-methods study uses Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality registry data to identify networks currently engaged in dissemination of research findings and to select a sample to participate in qualitative semistructured interviews. An adapted Diffusion of Innovations framework was used to organize concepts by characteristics of networks, dissemination activities, and mechanisms for rapid learning. Six regional networks provided detailed information about dissemination strategies, organizational context, role of practice-based research network, member involvement, and practice incentives. Strategies compatible with current practices and learning innovations that generate observable improvements may increase effectiveness of rapid learning approaches.

  5. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  6. Practices and opinions of Connecticut general dentists regarding dental treatment during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pina, Patricia M; Douglass, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the opinions and practices of general dentists in Connecticut regarding dental care during pregnancy. A survey was mailed to Connecticut general dentists to acquire data regarding age, gender, training, type of practice, years in practice, payment types accepted, procedures provided for pregnant women according to trimester, provider comfort level with treating pregnant patients, reasons for not treating pregnant patients, and provider opinions about dental care during pregnancy. The response rate was 42%, yielding a sample of 116 dentists. The majority of respondents (97%) reported treating pregnant patients; however, only 45% felt "very comfortable" treating these patients. All dentists in the sample agreed that physicians need to include an oral health evaluation and appropriate referral for patients' prenatal care. However, 70% of respondents had never received a dental referral for a pregnant patient. The majority of dentists favored providing dental treatment during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most dentists (77%) would take a radiograph for a patient 10 weeks into the pregnancy seeking treatment for dental pain, but only 2% would take routine radiographs regardless of the pregnancy trimester. There was a lack of consensus about medications dentists reported acceptable to prescribe for pregnant patients, and female dentists were significantly less likely than males to prescribe ibuprofen (P < 0.05). At least half of the respondents reported not being completely comfortable treating pregnant patients. Further, many dentists appear to not follow medication prescribing guidelines for this population. While additional research is needed, these initial results indicate that additional education regarding the treatment of pregnant patients would be a beneficial addition to dental school and continued education course curricula.

  7. Advanced training for primary care and general practice nurses: enablers and outcomes of postgraduate education.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Christine M; Hegarty, Kelsey L

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to understand enablers to participation in postgraduate education for primary care nurses (PCNs), and to explore how postgraduate education has advanced their nursing practice. Cross-sectional questionnaires were mailed out in April 2012 to current and past students undertaking postgraduate studies in primary care nursing at The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Questionnaires were returned by 100 out of 243 nurses (response rate 41%). Ninety-one per cent (91/100) of the respondents were first registered as nurses in Australia. Fifty-seven per cent were hospital trained and 43% were university educated to attain their initial nurse qualification. The respondents reported opportunities to expand scope of practice (99%; 97/98), improve clinical practice (98%; 97/99), increase work satisfaction (93%; 91/98) and increase practice autonomy (92%; 89/97) as factors that most influenced participation in postgraduate education in primary care nursing. Major enablers for postgraduate studies were scholarship access (75%; 71/95) and access to distance education (74%; 72/98). Many respondents reported an increased scope of practice (98%; 95/97) and increased job satisfaction (71%; 70/98) as an education outcome. Only 29% (28/97) cited an increase in pay-rate as an outcome. Of the 73 PCNs currently working in general practice, many anticipated an increase in time spent on the preparation of chronic disease management plans (63%; 45/72), multidisciplinary care plans (56%; 40/72) and adult health checks (56%; 40/72) in the preceding 12 months. Recommendations emerging from findings include: (1) increased access to scholarships for nurses undertaking postgraduate education in primary care nursing is imperative; (2) alternative modes of course delivery need to be embedded in primary care nursing education; (3) the development of Australian primary care policy, including policy on funding models, needs to more accurately reflect the

  8. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  9. Research into Practice. Leaders Sharing--Research Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses three compendiums of Ed Tech research giving readers a fairly broad overview of where the field stands today. But, just as with technology, research is constantly moving forward. New and exciting ways to use technology and valuable data to support different kinds of technology use are continually being discovered. The texts…

  10. Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.

    2012-01-01

    Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

  11. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case Series Seen in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Little, Deirdre Therese; Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  12. Placebos in clinical practice and research.

    PubMed Central

    De Deyn, P P; D'Hooge, R

    1996-01-01

    The main current application of placebo is in clinical research. The term placebo effect refers to diverse non-specific, desired or non-desired effects of substances or procedures and interactions between patient and therapist. Unpredictability of the placebo effect necessitates placebo-controlled designs for most trials. Therapeutic and diagnostic use of placebo is ethically acceptable only in few well-defined cases. While "therapeutic" application of placebo almost invariably implies deception, this is not the case for its use in research. Conflicts may exist between the therapist's Hippocratic and scientific obligations. The authors provide examples in neuropsychiatry, illustrating that objective scientific data and well-considered guidelines may solve the ethical dilemma. Placebo control might even be considered an ethical obligation but some provisos should be kept in mind: (a) no adequate therapy for the disease should exist and/or (presumed) active therapy should have serious side-effects; (b) placebo treatment should not last too long; (c) placebo treatment should not inflict unacceptable risks, and (d) the experimental subject should be adequately informed and informed consent given. PMID:8798935

  13. Action Research for Educational Reform: Remodelling Action Research Theories and Practices in Local Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget; Zeichner, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how action research theories and practices are remodelled in local contexts and used to support educational reform. From an analysis of 46 publications from the period 2000-2008, five "variations" in the globalized theory and practice of action research are identified: action research in times of political upheaval and…

  14. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research

    PubMed Central

    Pook, Michael L.; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed. PMID:27136563

  15. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research.

    PubMed

    Pook, Michael L; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-04-29

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed.

  16. Practice-Near and Practice-Distant Methods in Human Services Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froggett, Lynn; Briggs, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses practice-near research in human services, a cluster of methodologies that may include thick description, intensive reflexivity, and the study of emotional and relational processes. Such methods aim to get as near as possible to experiences at the relational interface between institutions and the practice field.…

  17. Tooth wear and the role of salivary measures in general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Scott, JoAnna; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the association between tooth wear and salivary measures in a random sample of patients from practices of dentist members of a practice-based research network. Materials and methods Patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, health, dietary habits, medications, and socio-demographic variables. Six salivary characteristics (consistency, resting salivary flow, resting salivary pH, stimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary pH, and buffering capacity) were measured, and a dental examination included categorizing patients according to the dentist’s judgment of the degree of tooth wear (i.e., none/minimal, some, or severe/extreme). Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models were used to relate salivary characteristics and other factors to the outcome of tooth wear. Results Data are reported from 1,323 patients (age range 16–97 years) from 61 practices. Patient age, gender, number of teeth, and perception of dry mouth were associated with tooth wear, but salivary and dietary factors were either weakly or not related. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional assessment suggest that using these salivary tests and dietary assessments in real-life clinical settings is unlikely to be useful in assessing tooth wear risk. Suggestions are offered about risk assessment for tooth wear. Clinical relevance Assessing a dental patient’s risk of tooth wear using salivary measures and dietary assessments as described is not recommended for general dental practice until stronger evidence exists indicating its utility. PMID:24647789

  18. A collaborative approach to improving patient access in general practice: impact of three different pilot schemes in 12 general practices in Greenwich

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Melanie; Wright, Ellen; Davidson, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background With rising patient demand and expectations, many practices are struggling to respond to the demand for appointments. Objective To investigate different approaches to improving access to general practice and assess the impact on (i) patient experience, (ii) practice staff experience and (iii) activity in A&E and walk-in centres. Method Greenwich CCG piloted three approaches in 12 volunteer practices. The schemes were:(1) Systematic GP telephone triage of all appointment requests.(2) Analysis and comparison of practice data including demand and capacity to identify opportunities for improvement.(3) Online consultations. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation was undertaken. Results Overall results were inconclusive and no one pilot scheme was overwhelmingly successful in improving patient experience of access or reducing practice workload. Scheme 1 telephone triage: In some cases, overall demand on clinician time through the day reduced as face-to-face consultations were replaced with shorter telephone consultations. However, in other practices, total consulting time went up when telephone consultations took longer than the suggested average 5 min. Scheme 2 practice analysis and benchmarking: The pilot practices implemented no significant changes. Scheme 3 online consultations: Take up was low, with users as a percentage of total list size dropping significantly to even lower levels in the second half of the pilot – from 3.13% in the first three months to 1.20% in the second three months. Conclusion As the pilots did not improve the overall patient experience of access or practice workload, the pilot schemes were not rolled out by the CCG. From the CCG’s point of view, it was valuable to test out the effect of a scheme before committing further resources. PMID:28250835

  19. Sharing Research Models: Using Software Engineering Practices for Facilitation.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Stephanie P; Solano, Eric; Cantor, Susanna; Cooley, Philip C; Wagener, Diane K

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, researchers are turning to computational models to understand the interplay of important variables on systems' behaviors. Although researchers may develop models that meet the needs of their investigation, application limitations-such as nonintuitive user interface features and data input specifications-may limit the sharing of these tools with other research groups. By removing these barriers, other research groups that perform related work can leverage these work products to expedite their own investigations. The use of software engineering practices can enable managed application production and shared research artifacts among multiple research groups by promoting consistent models, reducing redundant effort, encouraging rigorous peer review, and facilitating research collaborations that are supported by a common toolset. This report discusses three established software engineering practices- the iterative software development process, object-oriented methodology, and Unified Modeling Language-and the applicability of these practices to computational model development. Our efforts to modify the MIDAS TranStat application to make it more user-friendly are presented as an example of how computational models that are based on research and developed using software engineering practices can benefit a broader audience of researchers.

  20. The Influence of Advanced General Dentistry Training on Practice Patterns of Iowa Dental Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Aljernon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared the practice patterns of 41 dentists with graduate training in general dentistry with those of 41 dentists without such training, in terms of number and types of procedures performed, patient characteristics, professional and community activities, and practice characteristics. Some differences were found, particularly in patient…

  1. "Empathy" and "Sympathy" in Action: Attending to Patients' Troubles in Finnish Homeopathic and General Practice Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruusuvuori, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes "empathy" and "sympathy" as situated practices, sequential processes that are coconstructed by the participants in the situation. The data consists of 228 sequences of patients' descriptions of their problematic experiences and professionals' responses to them in videorecorded general practice and…

  2. A survey of chiropractors practicing in Germany: practice characteristics, professional reading habits, and attitudes and perceptions toward research

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ilke; Hondras, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2004, a survey conducted by the European Chiropractor's Union among member countries reported that "there appears to be little interest in research among chiropractors in Germany." However, no research has tested this statement. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of practicing chiropractors in Germany regarding research, to look at their reading and research habits, and to gather demographic and practice data. Methods A questionnaire was developed and distributed among participants at a seminar held by the German Chiropractors' Association in 2005. The questionnaire was mailed to any members of the association who did not attend the seminar. Results A total of 49 (72%) of 68 distributed questionnaires were returned. Forty-five (92%) respondents stated they would support research efforts in Germany and 15 (31%) declared interest in participating in practiced based research. An average of three hours per week were reportedly spent reading scientific literature by 44 (85%) respondents. However, few journals listed by respondents were peer-reviewed and indexed; most were newsletters of chiropractic organizations or free publications. Most participants agreed on the importance of research for the profession, but when asked about the most pressing issue for chiropractic in Germany, legislation and recognition of the profession were the dominant themes. Conclusion The results of this survey show that there is a general interest in supporting and participating in research activities among chiropractors practicing in Germany. Next steps could consist of educating practitioners about the resources available to read and interpret the scientific literature and thus further the understanding of research. PMID:17480221

  3. Practice-Based Research Priorities for Palliative Care: Results From a Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K; Riffin, Catherine; Prigerson, Holly; Reid, M C

    2015-11-01

    We employed the research-to-practice consensus workshop (RTP; workshops held in New York City and Tompkins County, New York, in 2013) model to merge researcher and practitioner views of translational research priorities in palliative care. In the RTP approach, a diverse group of frontline providers generates a research agenda for palliative care in collaboration with researchers. We have presented the major workshop recommendations and contrasted the practice-based research priorities with those of previous consensus efforts. We uncovered notable differences and found that the RTP model can produce unique insights into research priorities. Integrating practitioner-identified needs into research priorities for palliative care can contribute to addressing palliative care more effectively as a public health issue.

  4. Practical suggestions for community interventions using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.

  5. Training and Education in Practice Nursing: The Perspectives of the Practice Nurse, Employing General Practitioner and Family Health Service Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Karl; Lunt, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 56 practice nurses, 29 general practitioners (GPs), 23 health administrators, and 1 government official revealed that nurses use a variety of education and training opportunities; GPs largely let nurses take responsibility for their continuing education. The informal nature of training opportunities and lack of funding were…

  6. General practitioners’ and students’ experiences with feedback during a six-week clerkship in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gran, Sarah Frandsen; Brænd, Anja Maria; Lindbæk, Morten; Frich, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Feedback may be scarce and unsystematic during students' clerkship periods. We wanted to explore general practitioners' (GPs) and medical students' experiences with giving and receiving supervision and feedback during a clerkship in general practice, with a focus on their experiences with using a structured tool (StudentPEP) to facilitate feedback and supervision. Design Qualitative study. Setting Teachers and students from a six-week clerkship in general practice for fifth year medical students were interviewed in two student and two teacher focus groups. Subjects 21 GPs and nine medical students. Results We found that GPs first supported students' development in the familiarization phase by exploring the students' expectations and competency level. When mutual trust had been established through the familiarization phase GPs encouraged students to conduct their own consultations while being available for supervision and feedback. Both students and GPs emphasized that good feedback promoting students' professional development was timely, constructive, supportive, and focused on ways to improve. Among the challenges GPs mentioned were giving feedback on behavioral issues such as body language and insensitive use of electronic devices during consultations or if the student was very insecure, passive, and reluctant to take action or lacked social or language skills. While some GPs experienced StudentPEP as time-consuming and unnecessary, others argued that the tool promoted feedback and learning through mandatory observations and structured questions. Conclusion Mutual trust builds a learning environment in which supervision and feedback may be given during students' clerkship in general practice. Structured tools may promote feedback, reflection and learning. Key PointsObserving the teacher and being supervised are essential components of Medical students' learning during general practice clerkships.Teachers and students build mutual trust in the

  7. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  8. From evidence-based practice making to practice-based evidence making: creating communities of (research) and practice.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul W; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    Models of research translation frequently emphasize independent roles for research producers and intended users. This article describes a novel approach for enhancing exchange between researchers and practitioners. The framework is based on Wenger's notion of Communities of Practice (CoP) where knowledge is regarded as a social enterprise at the center of member interactions. Research-based practices and policies emerge when research producers and users mutually engage one another about specific health promotion problems through negotiation and by creating and sharing technical standards and other resources. CoPs are more than loose networks or task-oriented teams. They aim to create both social and intellectual capital through mutual negotiation, reciprocity, trust, and cohesion. A Consortium of Quitline Operators across North America and a Canadian project to enhance research capacity for tobacco control research serve as examples of how the model has been successfully operationalized.

  9. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 9, Issue B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is a publication of the U.S. Division of World Education, Inc. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to connecting research…

  10. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  11. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Learning disabilities is the theme of the latest issue of "Focus on Basics," the World Education publication that brings together research, policy, and practice in adult basic education. Starting with an update on research on neurobiology and dyslexia, this issue also examines how the adult basic education system supports students with…

  12. Adaptive Research Supervision: Exploring Expert Thesis Supervisors' Practical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested the importance of being responsive to students' needs in research supervision. Adapting support strategies to students' needs in light of the goals of a task is referred to as "adaptivity." In the present study, the practice of adaptivity is explored by interviewing expert thesis supervisors about…

  13. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 6, Issue A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is…

  14. Counseling Adopted Persons in Adulthood: Integrating Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.; O'Leary Wiley, Mary

    2007-01-01

    For the past 50 years, adults who were adopted during infancy have been research participants for empirical studies with goals ranging from twin studies for heritability, to adjustment following adoption, to attachment. While the research body is broad, it has given little attention to counseling practices with adopted adults. Because empirical…

  15. Image as Insight: Visual Images in Practice-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julia

    2007-01-01

    "Art practice as research" casts artmaking as inquiry--as a particularly experiential and constructivist process of learning in which imaginative synthesis and creative image making are ways of constructing knowledge. This article explores how artmaking functions as research through the creation of visual images, especially images that picture…

  16. Informing Our Practice: Useful Research on Young Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, Eva L., Ed.; Burnham, Melissa M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Best practice is based on knowledge--not on beliefs or guesses--about how children learn and develop. This volume contains 20 overviews of research on aspects of young children's social, emotional, cognitive, or physical development, as well as how the findings can be applied in the classroom. Originally "Research in Review" articles in NAEYC's…

  17. Putting Writing Research into Practice: Applications for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A., Ed.; Shankland, Rebecca K., Ed.; Heintz, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    What are the most effective methods for teaching writing across grade levels and student populations? What kind of training do teachers need to put research-validated methods into practice? This unique volume combines the latest writing research with clear-cut recommendations for designing high-quality professional development efforts. Prominent…

  18. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  19. Research and Practice in Education: Building Alliances, Bridging the Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E., Ed.; Stein, Mary Kay, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    That there is a divide between research and practice is a common lament across policy-oriented disciplines, and education is no exception. Rhetoric abounds about the role research plays (or does not play) in the improvement of schools and classrooms, and policy makers push solutions that are rooted in assumptions about the way that research…

  20. Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and…

  1. Encouraging a Culture of Research in Practicing Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading the status of early childhood teaching and improving job satisfaction are areas of concern to practitioners, policy makers and other stakeholders in the early childhood field. Ways to upgrade practicing teachers, including their involvement in research, is an on-going challenge. This paper reports on a research in Singapore where a…

  2. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  3. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. Articles appearing in this issue…

  4. A Review of Practical Reasoning in Child and Youth Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the review is to investigate various relations between the concepts of competence and participation found within child and youth research with the aim of identifying differences in practical reasoning of the various kinds of child research. The search identified 260 articles, and an in-depth analysis of 39 articles was conducted,…

  5. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  6. Research, Practice, and Policy Connections: The Artplay Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert; Jeanneret, Neryl

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between arts-based research, theory, practice, and policy. It does so through reference to a longitudinal study of ArtPlay, a unique Australian community arts center that offers artist-led workshops involving young people aged 3-13 years. The ethnographic and action research study investigated how children responded…

  7. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to…

  8. Science and Mathematics Education: International Innovations, Research, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F., Ed.; White, Arthur L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The chapters in this book reflect the work of science and mathematics educators who have worked for many years at the international level. As members of the International Consortium for Research in Science and Mathematics Education, their work provides readers with issues, models, practices, and research results that have applicability and…

  9. Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…

  10. What supports physiotherapists’ use of research in clinical practice? A qualitative study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice has increasingly been recognized as a priority by professional physiotherapy organizations and influential researchers and clinicians in the field. Numerous studies in the past decade have documented that physiotherapists hold generally favorable attitudes to evidence-based practice and recognize the importance of using research to guide their clinical practice. Research has predominantly investigated barriers to research use. Less is known about the circumstances that actually support use of research by physiotherapists. This study explores the conditions at different system levels that physiotherapists in Sweden perceive to be supportive of their use of research in clinical practice. Methods Patients in Sweden do not need a referral from a physician to consult a physiotherapist and physiotherapists are entitled to choose and perform any assessment and treatment technique they find suitable for each patient. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted with 45 physiotherapists, each lasting between 90 and 110 minutes. An inductive approach was applied, using topics rather than questions to allow the participants to generate their own questions and pursue their own priorities within the framework of the aim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Analysis of the data yielded nine favorable conditions at three system levels supporting the participant’s use of research in clinical practice: two at the individual level (attitudes and motivation concerning research use; research-related knowledge and skills), four at the workplace level (leadership support; organizational culture; research-related resources; knowledge exchange) and three at the extra-organizational level (evidence-based practice guidelines; external meetings, networks, and conferences; academic research and education). Conclusions Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research exist at multiple interdependent levels

  11. The Use of the Internet to Support General Aviation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowbottom, James H.

    1995-01-01

    For the past few years, innovation in the field of General Aviation (GA) has declined. The reason for this decline has not been because of a lack of ideas, but rather a lack of funds necessary to convert these ideas into reality. NASA implemented the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program in an effort to promote new technology in General Aviation. Under this program, small business with good ideas present them to NASA who reviews them and determines their value potential in the GA market. If the company's idea proves worthy, NASA subsidizes their research in three phases that include the research, testing, development, and production of their product. The purpose of my internship this summer was to use the Internet to promote the work of SBIR companies globally to prospective investors.

  12. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  13. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  14. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  15. Researching Assessment as Social Practice: Implications for Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Suellen

    2008-01-01

    Recent educational journals on both sides of the Atlantic have seen a resurgence of debate about the nature of educational research. As a contribution to these debates, this paper draws on theoretical and methodological "thinking tools" of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Specifically, the paper explores what Jenkins [Jenkins, R.…

  16. Human research ethics in practice: deliberative strategies, processes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn; Guillemin, Marilys; Bolitho, Annie; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2009-03-01

    In theory, HREC members should use the ethical guidelines in the National Statement on the Ethical Conduct of Research Involving Humans as the basis for their decisions, and researchers should design their research in accordance with these guidelines. However, very little is known about what researchers and HREC members actually do in practice. In this paper, we report some of the key findings of the study "Human Research Ethics in Practice", a qualitative interview-based study of health researchers and HREC members in Victoria. The findings shed light on how researchers and HREC members conceptualise ethics, how they use the National Statement, and what deliberative strategies they employ to assess the ethical appropriateness of research studies. The findings also reveal differences and similarities between health researchers' and HREC members' perceptions of the roles of HRECs, and point to some sources of misunderstanding and tension. We examine the implications of some of these findings for the ways in which HRECs carry out their task, and research institutions support and promote ethical conduct in research amongst their staff and students. The focus of this study is on health research, but we suggest that the findings are highly relevant to all other research areas where human participants are involved.

  17. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling... Procedures § 181.92 Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... that interprets and applies the provisions of NAFTA to a specific set of facts involving any...

  18. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling... Procedures § 181.92 Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... that interprets and applies the provisions of NAFTA to a specific set of facts involving any...

  19. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling... Procedures § 181.92 Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... that interprets and applies the provisions of NAFTA to a specific set of facts involving any...

  20. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling... Procedures § 181.92 Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... that interprets and applies the provisions of NAFTA to a specific set of facts involving any...

  1. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling... Procedures § 181.92 Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice. (a) Definitions. For purposes of... that interprets and applies the provisions of NAFTA to a specific set of facts involving any...

  2. Generalization of Tactics in Tag Rugby from Practice to Games in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Myung-Ah; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many of the issues relating to game performance of students found in the physical education literature can be considered a failure of generalization from practices to games, and from games to games. However, no study in secondary physical education has examined generalization effects as a result of effective game pedagogy in the…

  3. Drug interactions in general dental practice--considerations for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, B E S; Roberts, A; Yates, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the diverse and complex nature of pharmacological drug-drug interactions in the general dental practice setting. Using published NHS statistics, this article will highlight medications for common medical conditions that could interact with frequently prescribed drugs by the general dental practitioner.

  4. The challenges of communicating research evidence in practice: perspectives from UK health visitors and practice nurses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health practitioners play a pivotal role in providing patients with up-to-date evidence and health information. Evidence-based practice and patient-centred care are transforming the delivery of healthcare in the UK. Health practitioners are increasingly balancing the need to provide evidence-based information against that of facilitating patient choice, which may not always concur with the evidence base. There is limited research exploring how health practitioners working in the UK, and particularly those more autonomous practitioners such as health visitors and practice nurses working in community practice settings, negotiate this challenge. This research provides a descriptive account of how health visitors and practice nurses negotiate the challenges of communicating health information and research evidence in practice. Methods A total of eighteen in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. The participants comprised nine health visitors and nine practice nurses, recruited via adverts on a nursing website, posters at a practitioner conference and through recommendation. Thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative method, was used to analyse the data. Results The data were grouped into three main themes: communicating evidence to the critically-minded patient; confidence in communicating evidence; and maintaining the integrity of the patient-practitioner relationship. These findings highlight some of the daily challenges that health visitors and practice nurses face with regard to the complex and dynamic nature of evidence and the changing attitudes and expectations of patients. The findings also highlight the tensions that exist between differing philosophies of evidence-based practice and patient-centred care, which can make communicating about evidence a daunting task. Conclusions If health practitioners are to be effective at communicating research evidence, we suggest that more research

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1984. General Research Libraries Division. Section on Parliamentary Libraries; Section on Public Libraries; Section on University and Other General Research Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on government libraries, public libraries, and research libraries presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Library Services for Research" (Maria S. Pla de Menendez, Colombia); (2) "Interlibrary Loans, Present and Future: A Consideration for Academic Library Management" (Geoffrey G. Allen, Australia);…

  6. New graduate nurses as knowledge brokers in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Practice nursing in New Zealand is not well described in the literature. One survey illustrated that most of the New Zealand practice nurses sampled did not know of the country's two premier evidence-based health websites. A recent review compared general practice in the UK, New Zealand and Australia and found that whereas there had been significant developments in empowering the practice nurse workforce to run nurse-led clinics in the UK, New Zealand and Australia lagged behind. The aim of this reported constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate practice nurses' use of information. Conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, data were collected through ethnographic techniques in one general practice between September 2009 and January 2010 to enhance theoretical sensitivity to the area of information use. Subsequently, six experienced practice nurses (one twice after moving jobs) and five new graduate nurses from five different general practices were interviewed, using open-ended questions, between January 2010 and August 2011. Concurrent data collection and analysis occurred throughout the study period. The use of memos, the constant comparative method, data categorisation and finally, data abstraction resulted in the final theory of reciprocal role modelling. Experienced practice nurses role modelled clinical skills to new graduate nurses. Unexpectedly, new graduate nurses were unconscious experts at sourcing information and role modelled this skill to experienced practice nurses. Once this attribute was acknowledged by the experienced practice nurse, mutual learning occurred that enabled both groups of nurses to become better practitioners. Graduate nurses of the millennial generation were identified as a resource for experienced practice nurses who belong to the baby boomer generation and generation X.

  7. A Research Agenda to Advance the Coordination of Care for General Medical and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Rubinsky, Anna D; Fernandez, Anne C; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    The separation of addiction care from the general medical care system has a negative impact on patients' receipt of high-quality medical care. Clinical and policy-level strategies to improve the coordination of addiction care and general medical care include identifying and engaging patients with unhealthy substance use in general medical settings, providing effective chronic disease management of substance use disorders in primary care, including patient and family perspectives in care coordination, and implementing pragmatic models to pay for the coordination of addiction and general medical care. This Open Forum discusses practice and research recommendations to advance the coordination of general medical and addiction care. The discussion is based on the proceedings of a national meeting of experts in 2014.

  8. Developmentally Appropriate Practice to Promote Healthy Adolescent Development: Integrating Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina Renee; Bartholomae, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intervention models to promote healthy adolescent development highlight the importance of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP); however, scant resources identifying DAP in relation to the relevant research are available. With the increased professionalization of youth work and the expanding research on adolescent development,…

  9. A nursing faculty practice for the severely mentally ill: merging practice with research.

    PubMed

    Chafetz, Linda; Collins-Bride, Geraldine M; White, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This Faculty Practice developed in response to increasing medical complexity among severely mentally ill adults in community programs. It represents collaboration between an academic nursing program and Progress Foundation, a residential care provider in San Francisco for the severely mentally ill (SMI). Over ten years, the practice and research agenda have evolved together, through a commitment to mutual collaboration by clinicians and researchers from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing, and the mental health community. Initial efforts at research focused on description of clients and practice. Research efforts have broadened and evolve to include an on-going clinical trial that tests the value of adding active health promotion to primary care. Factors contributing to success included trust among research and clinical faculty and community partners, use of clinical data in the service of practice and education, and relative freedom from fiscal administration. The merging of practice and research increases visibility of nursing contributions and will allow testing of models for care.

  10. Disinfection methods in general practice and health authority clinics: a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Kaul, S; Littlepage, B C

    1988-10-01

    Concern about the epidemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome led to discussions in one health district about the dangers of cross-infection from instruments in general practice and health authority clinics. In order to establish what current disinfection practices were in use a telephone survey was adopted as a quick and easy method of data collection. Information was collected on who was responsible for disinfection as well as details of how each instrument was disinfected. Results from 69 general practices and 21 health authority clinice in one health district are reported.Some form of sterilizer was used in 63 general practices. These included water boilers (49%), dry heat sterilizers (41%), autoclaves (5%) and pressure cookers (5%). Sixty one practices were using metal vaginal specula and of these 29 were disinfecting by boiling, three were using pressure cookers, 18 dry heat, seven chemical methods, three autoclaves and one the central sterile department of the local hospital. Of those who were boiling after simple washing, three practices boiled for five to 10 minutes and reused instruments during the same clinic. Of the 29 using simple boiling 20 (69%) were boiling for less than 20 minutes.The study highlights the fact that no formal advice has been given on disinfection practice by the DHSS, the health authorities or the family practitioner committees. The need to set up local guidelines and develop practical steps for their introduction are discussed.

  11. General practitioners and pharmaceutical sales representatives: quality improvement research

    PubMed Central

    Spurling, Geoffrey; Mansfield, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective Interaction between pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) and general practitioners (GPs) may have an adverse impact on GP prescribing and therefore may be ethically questionable. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between PSRs and GPs in an Australian general practice, and develop and evaluate a policy to guide the interaction. Methods Doctors' prescribing, diaries, practice promotional material and samples were audited and a staff survey undertaken. After receiving feedback, the staff voted on practice policy options. The resulting policy was evaluated 3 and 9 months. Results Prior to the intervention, GPs spent on average 40 min/doctor/month with PSRs. There were 239 items of promotional material in the practice and 4660 tablets in the sample cupboard. These were reduced by 32% and 59%, respectively, at 3 months after policy adoption and the reduction was sustained at 9 months. Vioxx was the most common drug name in promotional material. Staff adopted a policy of reduced access to PSRs including: reception staff not to make appointments for PSRs or accept promotional material; PSRs cannot access sample cupboards; GPs wishing to see PSRs may do so outside consulting hours. At 3 and 9 months, most staff were satisfied with the changes. Promotional items/room were not significantly reduced at 3 months (−4.0 items/room ; 95% CI −6.61 to −1.39; p = 0.066) or 9 months (−2.63 items/room; 95% CI −5.86 to 0.60; p = 0.24). Generic prescribing significantly increased at 3 months (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.86; p = 0.0027) and 9 months (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.82; p = 0.016). Conclusion There was a marked reduction in interactions with PSRs with majority staff satisfaction and improved prescribing practices. The new policy will form part of the practice's orientation package. Reception staff give PSRs a letter explaining the policy. It is hoped that the extra 40 min/doctor of

  12. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  13. The impact of general practice attachments on foundation doctors: achieving the goals of Modernising Medical Careers.

    PubMed

    Firth, Adam; Wass, Val

    2011-09-01

    Modernising Medical Careers saw the introduction of four-month attachments in primary care during the second Foundation Year, to foster a broader understanding of healthcare settings. The North West Deanery offered this opportunity to virtually all trainees. Previous work had captured poor impressions of undergraduate experience in general practice. This study aimed to explore Foundation Doctors' perceptions of Foundation primary care attachments before and after the experience. Qualitative methodology was used. Two focus groups were held with 12 trainees at the end of their first Foundation Year to explore their expectations of pending rotation in general practice. Eighteen individual interviews were conducted with Foundation Doctors after the attachment. Themed analysis of transcripts revealed a striking contrast between trainees' perceptions of general practice before and after undertaking F2 rotations. Undergraduate exposure and secondary care bias in training had a significant negative impact on trainees' perceptions of general practice. The one-to-one opportunities for educational supervision, the range of patients seen and the opportunity to understand communication at the primary/secondary interface dispelled these concerns. The findings highlighted the beneficial impact of foundation posts in general practice for training, career planning in general and, as outlined in the initial goals of the programme, the interaction between primary and secondary care.

  14. Reasons for not reporting patient safety incidents in general practice: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Joensen, Anne Sofie; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the reasons for not reporting patient safety incidents in general practice. Design Qualitative interviews with general practitioners and members of the project group. Setting General practice clinics in the Region of Northern Jutland in Denmark. Subjects Twelve general practitioners. Main outcome measures The experiences and reflections of the involved professionals with regard to system use and non-use. Results While most respondents were initially positive towards the idea of reporting and learning from patient safety incidents, they actually reported very few incidents. The major reasons for the low reporting rates are found to be a perceived lack of practical usefulness, issues of time and effort in a busy clinic with competing priorities, and considerations of appropriateness in relation to other professionals. Conclusion The results suggest that the visions of formal, comprehensive, and systematic reporting of (and learning from) patient safety incidents will be quite difficult to realize in general practice. Future studies should investigate how various ways of organizing incident reporting at the regional level influence local activities of reporting and learning in general practice. PMID:23113662

  15. Scientists researching teaching: Reforming science education and transforming practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    Reforming science education is a multidimensional and complex undertaking. Of extreme importance is transforming how teachers teach. Answering the equity call of reform initiatives requires focusing on the underlying values and beliefs guiding teacher action and the promotion of inclusive practices (Brickhouse, 2001; Harding, 1994; Eisenhart, Finkel, & Marion, 1995; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1997). Reform efforts within the last decade are being directed at college level science courses. Course and pedagogical transformations are particularly aimed at increasing the numbers of females and persons of color in science and improving the education of preservice teachers. Facilitating transformations toward these goals at the individual and program level is challenging work. This study explores and describes the conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy. Two science professors affiliated with a reform collaborative were the main participants of the research. The professors, in collaboration with the primary researcher, engaged in assisted action research that lead to the identification and descriptions of their context and practical teaching theories. Among the questions explored were: "How does placing the professor in a position to conduct an assisted action research project help to foster teacher change conditions?" "How do the practical theories guiding the professors' teaching foster or impede inclusionary practice?" "What necessary conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy emerged from the study?". Using case study and ethnographic qualitative research strategies for data collection and analysis, this study affords a unique perspective through which to consider why and how science professors change their practice. Data indicated that the assisted action research strategy fostered the conditions of teacher change. In addition, findings revealed that the professors shared a teacher and curriculum

  16. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  17. Telephone triage in general practices: A written case scenario study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marleen; Hanssen, Suzan; Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective General practices increasingly use telephone triage to manage patient flows. During triage, the urgency of the call and required type of care are determined. This study examined the organization and adequacy of telephone triage in general practices in the Netherlands. Design Cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey among practice assistants including questions on background characteristics and triage organization. Furthermore, practice assistants were asked to assess the required type of care of written case scenarios with varying health problems and levels of urgency. To determine the adequacy of the assessments, a comparison with a reference standard was made. In addition, the association between background characteristics and triage organization and the adequacy of triage was examined. Setting Daytime general practices. Subjects Practice assistants. Main outcome measures Over- and under-estimation, sensitivity, specificity. Results The response rate was 41.1% (n = 973). The required care was assessed adequately in 63.6% of cases, was over-estimated in 19.3%, and under-estimated in 17.1%. The sensitivity of identifying patients with a highly urgent problem was 76.7% and the specificity was 94.0%. The adequacy of the assessments of the required care was higher for more experienced assistants and assistants with fixed daily work meetings with the GP. Triage training, use of a triage tool, and authorization of advice were not associated with adequacy of triage. Conclusion Triage by practice assistants in general practices is efficient (high specificity), but potentially unsafe in highly urgent cases (suboptimal sensitivity). It is important to train practice assistants in identifying highly urgent cases. Key pointsGeneral practices increasingly use telephone triage to manage patient flows, but little is known about the organization and adequacy of triage in daytime practices.Telephone triage by general practice assistants is

  18. Lunar cycle and consultations for anxiety and depression in general practice.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, G; Piccinelli, M; Roberts, S; Micciolo, R; Fry, J

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the moon on patient consultations for anxiety or depression in general practice was assessed through a retrospective survey based on general practice medical records and on lunar records detailing the dates and times of different phases of the moon. Seven-hundred-eighty-two patients continuously registered in a general practice in Beckenham, South London, between 1971 and 1988 were included in analyses. No statistically significant lunar effect was found by setting the expected surge in consultations one to three days after the full moon and the period of the sine-wave curve to 30 days. Similarly, no statistically significant lunar effect was found, when the period of the sine-wave curve was allowed to vary in order to best fit the data. The moon had little influence on when individuals consulted their general practitioner with anxiety or depression.

  19. When cultures meet in general practice: intercultural differences between GPs and parents of child patients.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Hans; Meeuwesen, Ludwien; van Wieringen, Joke; Bernsen, Roos; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2003-10-01

    Although health care professionals in The Netherlands are increasingly confronted with diverse immigrant groups, medical counselling and treatment of these groups has not been the subject of extensive research yet. From other studies it is well known that intercultural differences can have serious consequences for health care, e.g. in terms of risk of incorrect diagnoses or non-compliance. Eighty-seven autochthonous Dutch and immigrant (mainly from Turkey and Surinam) parents of child patients and their general practitioners (GPs) were recruited to investigate the influence of cultural differences on mutual understanding and patient compliance. Analyses of questionnaires and home interviews revealed that there is a relation between the cultural background of the patient and effectiveness of communication. Communication in consultations between GPs and persons from ethnic minorities is less effective than in consultations with Dutch persons: there is more misunderstanding, and also more non-compliance. In general, mutual understanding between GP and patient proves to be a strong predictor for patient compliance. These findings hold especially true for patients living in two worlds, i.e. a mixture of traditional and western cultures. The results are discussed in terms of methodological issues and practical implications for the health care providers.

  20. Evaluation of a controlled drinking minimal intervention for problem drinkers in general practice (the DRAMS scheme)

    PubMed Central

    Heather, Nick; Campion, Peter D.; Neville, Ronald G.; Maccabe, David

    1987-01-01

    Sixteen general practitioners participated in a controlled trial of the Scottish Health Education Group's DRAMS (drinking reasonably and moderately with self-control) scheme. The scheme was evaluated by randomly assigning 104 heavy or problem drinkers to three groups – a group participating in the DRAMS scheme (n = 34), a group given simple advice only (n = 32) and a non-intervention control group (n = 38). Six month follow-up information was obtained for 91 subjects (87.5% of initial sample). There were no significant differences between the groups in reduction in alcohol consumption, but patients in the DRAMS group showed a significantly greater reduction in a logarithmic measure of serum gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase than patients in the group receiving advice only. Only 14 patients in the DRAMS group completed the full DRAMS procedure. For the sample as a whole, there was a significant reduction in alcohol consumption, a significant improvement on a measure of physical health and well-being, and significant reductions in the logarithmic measure of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and in mean corpuscular volume. The implications of these findings for future research into controlled drinking minimal interventions in general practice are discussed. PMID:3448228

  1. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  2. The Gap between Educational Research and Practice: Views of Teachers, School Leaders, Intermediaries and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The relation between educational research and practice is a growing point of interest and has produced numerous lively debates. Although many reports and position papers have been published on this topic, little empirical data are available. The aim of this study is to explore the gap between educational research and practice and to assess the…

  3. Collaborative Professional Development in Chemistry Education Research: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…

  4. A proposal to speed translation of healthcare research into practice: dramatic change is needed.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Rodger; Glasgow, Russell E

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy trials have generated interventions to improve health behaviors and biomarkers. However, these efforts have had limited impact on practice and policy. It is suggested that key methodologic and contextual issues have contributed to this state of affairs. Current research paradigms generally have not provided the answers needed for more probable and more rapid translation. A major shift is proposed to produce research with more rapid clinical, public health, and policy impact.

  5. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-Enquiry Research with Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Emily; Schunko, Christoph; Corbera, Esteve; Ruiz Mallén, Isabel; Vogl, Christian R.; Martin, Gary; Arrázola, Susana; Bandeira, Fábio Pedro; Calvo Boyero, Diana; Camacho Benavides, Claudia; Cardoso, Thiago Mota; Chan-Dzul, Albert; Conde, Esther; del Campo García, Carlos; Huanca, Tomás; Sampaio, José Augusto Laranjeiras; Oliveros Lopez, Sara; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Ruiz Betancourt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and…

  6. Design-Based Implementation Research: An Emerging Model for Transforming the Relationship of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry J.; Penuel, William R.; Allen, Anna-Ruth; Cheng, Britte Haugan; Sabelli, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to design-based implementation research (DBIR). We describe the need for DBIR as a research approach that challenges educational researchers and practitioners to transcend traditional research/practice barriers to facilitate the design of educational interventions that are effective, sustainable, and scalable.…

  7. Research-Practice Partnerships: A Strategy for Leveraging Research for Educational Improvement in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Pressures are increasing on educational policy and practice to use research to guide improvement. Recently there have been concerted efforts to forge new and different kinds of relationships between researchers and practitioners. School districts across the country are developing a new kind of partnership with researchers. These research-practice…

  8. Managing the Teaching-Research Nexus: Ideals and Practice in Research-Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Broström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that while ideals of close linkages between research and teaching are widely embraced in research-oriented universities, a practice of division of labour between teaching-oriented and research-oriented staff persists. In an investigation of how the research-teaching nexus is managed at three Swedish universities, we…

  9. [Vaccine Refrigerator and Vaccine Management in General Practices: A Representative, Web-Based Survey among General Practitioners (Keep Cool I)].

    PubMed

    Thielmann, A; Sikora, M; Schnell, U; Gesenhues, S; Weltermann, B

    2015-07-09

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyse vaccine refrigerator and vaccine management in primary care and to identify physician- and practice-related influencing factors. Background: Adequate cooling of vaccines in a temperature range of 2-8°C is essential to assure vaccine effectiveness. Studies from various countries have demonstrated cooling chain problems. We surveyed general practitioners about the quality of their vaccine refrigerator and vaccine management and aimed at identifying physician- and practice-related influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional, web-based questionnaire survey was performed among 3 physician populations in primary care: a 10% random sample of general practitioners (n=954), all teaching physicians of the Universities Duisburg-Essen (n=221) and Halle-Wittenberg (n=92). Surveyed were items on the following 6 aspects: (1) responsibilities within practice teams, (2) vaccine ordering and storing, (3) criteria for the vaccine pre-selection, (4) stocking system inside the refrigerator, (5) wrapping, and use of stocking boxes, (6) refrigerator and temperature control. The quality indicator "comprehensive refrigerator management" was defined to include 4 aspects: (1) separate refrigerator, (2) written temperature documentation (temperature-logbook), (3) regular storage control (wrapping, temperature and expiration date), and (4) storage in original wrappings. Results: A total of 278 physicians participated in the survey (22%). Of these, 80% had a separate refrigerator, 52% reported written temperature documentation, 93% documented regular storage control addressing vaccine wrappings, temperature and expiration dates, and 95% reported vaccine storage in original card box wrappings. A "comprehensive refrigerator management" was realised by 42% of the practices. This indicator was reached more frequently by practices with 3 or more physicians (p=0.01) and those with an additional qualification in travel medicine (p=0.036). Conclusion

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of an intensive IPV training program offered to Greek general practitioners and residents of general practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need for effective training of primary care physicians in the prevention, detection and handling of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely acknowledged, given its frequency in daily practice. The current intervention study aimed to measure changes in the actual IPV knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived preparedness and detection ability of practicing general practitioners (GPs) and general practice residents, following an intensive IPV training program. Methods A pre/post-test design with a control group was employed to compare changes in baseline measures of IPV at the post intervention stage and at 12 months. A total of 40 participants provided full data; 25 GPs (11 in the intervention and 14 in the control) and 15 residents (intervention only). Three scales of the PREMIS survey were used to draw information on the study outcomes. Results The training program met high acceptance by both groups of participants and high practicality in clinical practice. The GPs in the intervention group performed better than the GPs in the control group on “Perceived preparedness” and “Perceived knowledge” in both the post-intervention (p = .012, r = .50 and p = .001, r = .68) and the 12-month follow-up (p = .024, r = .45 and p = .007, r = .54) as well as better than the residents in “Perceived preparedness” at post-intervention level (p = .037, r = .41). Residents on the other hand, performed better than the GPs in the intervention group on “Actual knowledge” at the 12-month follow-up (p = .012, r = .49). No significant improvements or between group differences were found in terms of the self-reported detection of IPV cases. Conclusion Further studies are needed to decide whether residency training could serve as an early intervention stage for IPV training. PMID:23537186

  11. Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: implications for health education practice and research.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health campaigns aimed at changing corporate behavior in six industries selected for their central role in the U.S. economy and their influence on major causes of mortality and morbidity. These are the alcohol, automobile, food, gun, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries. The article defines corporate disease promotion and illustrates the range of public health activities that have emerged to counter such corporate behaviors. It analyzes the role of health professionals, government, and advocacy groups in these campaigns and assesses the implications of this domain for health education practice and research.

  12. Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction--Triumph: the role of general practice databases.

    PubMed

    Logie, J W; Clifford, G M; Farmer, R D; Meesen, B P

    2001-01-01

    The Triumph project aims to document the current management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in general practice and to assess the effectiveness of the initial treatment options used. The first phase of the project will consider existing data sources in primary care. A patient's medical record will contain most, if not all, clinically relevant information, and databases combining the records from a network of computerised general practices can provide longitudinal data for complete populations, linking prescribing records to clinical information on disease progression and outcomes for individual patients. Database research can provide rapid information and offers the ability to conduct studies on a scale that would previously have been prohibited by both time and expense. Within the Triumph project, the THALES, General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) databases are, or will be, used to examine the current management of LUTS/BPH in France, the UK and the Netherlands respectively. Preliminary results from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD) showed that LUTS/BPH incidence increased linearly from the ages of 45 to 85 years (r(2) = 0.992) and prevalence increased from 3.5% to 35% for men in their late 40s and 80s respectively. With treatment failure defined as a change to another medical therapy, catheterisation or prostatic surgery, and accounting for age and year variation, patients receiving the older alpha(1)-blockers (indoramin and prazosin) appeared to fail significantly earlier than those receiving finasteride. There was no significant difference between finasteride and the newer alpha(1)-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin and doxazosin). Patterns of changes between products from the THALES database in France were broadly similar to those seen in the UK.

  13. Building bridges between research, policy and practice in public health.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Gastaldo, Denise

    2011-12-01

    The article examines core elements of the national and international discussion on the required integration between research, policy and practice in public health, and provides input for this integration. Some conceptual barriers and other barriers at different spheres that interfere with the desired integration are discussed. Evidence has shown that research, policy and practice in health are not continuous, homogenous areas but rather involve different levels and actors. Their processes develop in different grounds supported by a variety of actions, paradigms and interests that are not conflict-free. Thus, this integration is a major challenge given its complexity and multiplicity of objective and subjective aspects.

  14. [Informed consent in clinical practice and medical research].

    PubMed

    Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Cabral-Castañeda, Antonio; Soto-Ramírez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the basic aspects, influences and elements that constitute Informed Consent seeing it as a process and not only as an administrative format. Both the patient-physician relationship, as well as the research subject-investigator relationship, should be seen in the same manner, in spite of recognizing specific objectives for each one. For this reason, Informed Consent should not be different regarding both clinical as well as research activities. The patient-physician relationship presents a disbalance of power within the relationship in favor of the physician; this adds to the moral considerations that take place within both participants. Informed Consent should be defined in a broad sense as all those actions that promote a process of communication and dialogue which facilitates a person in order to make decisions with respect of an action, practice or product that have an impact on his/her body, intimacy or other vital spaces. Informed Consent has influences that originate in basic bioethical principles (autonomy, beneficience, non-maleficence, justice), professional and international declarations (Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Helsinki), as well as legal considerations pertinent to each country. In our country legality emmanates from the General Health Law which, unfortunately, only contemplates Informed Consent as part of the relation established in clinical research. However, the Official Medican Norm on the Clinical Record establishes the conditions where Informed Consent must be obtained during clinical as well as research activities. Primary components of Informed Consent (revelation, capacity to understand and voluntariness), can be better understood when divided into several elements: information, voluntariness, risks and benefits, confidentiality, return of information, utility of the process and management of fragility. Informed Consent should be legally instrumented in an explicit written manner (administrative formats

  15. Frequency of attendance in general practice and symptoms before development of chronic fatigue syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, W T; Hall, G H; Round, A P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) research has concentrated on infective, immunological, and psychological causes. Illness behaviour has received less attention, with most research studying CFS patients after diagnosis. Our previous study on the records of an insurance company showed a highly significant increase in illness reporting before development of CFS. AIM: To investigate the number and type of general practitioner (GP) consultations by patients with CFS for 15 years before they develop their condition. DESIGN OF STUDY: Case-control study in 11 general practices in Devon. SETTING: Forty-nine patients with CFS (satisfying the Centers for Disease Control criteria), 49 age, sex, and general practice matched controls, and 37 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were identified from the general practices' computerised databases. METHOD: The number of general practice consultations and symptoms recorded in three five-year periods (quinquennia) were counted before development of the patients' condition. RESULTS: The median number of consultations was significantly higher for CFS patients than that of matched controls in each of the quinquennia: ratios for first quinquennium = 1.88, P = 0.01; second quinquennium = 1.70, P = 0.005; last quinquennium = 2.25, P < 0.001. More CFS patients than controls attended for 13 of the 18 symptoms studied. Significant increases were found for upper respiratory tract infection (P < 0.001), lethargy (P < 0.001), and vertigo (P = 0.02). Similar results were found for CFS patients when compared with MS. CONCLUSIONS: CFS patients consulted their GP more frequently in the 15 years before development of their condition, for a wide variety of complaints. Several possibilities may explain these findings. The results support the hypothesis that behavioural factors have a role in the aetiology of CFS. PMID:11462315

  16. Psychological distress and somatisation as prognostic factors in patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, C K; Fink, P; Olesen, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal illness is a common cause of absenteeism from work, workers' compensation, and disability retirement, and accounts for 9.3% to 17% of patient contacts in general practice. To understand the increase in self-reported musculoskeletal illness and to improve treatment and prevention, it is important to know which factors to target when dealing with these patients. AIM: To investigate whether the prognosis for patients with musculoskeletal illness referred to physiotherapy from general practice can be predicted by the presence of psychological distress and somatisation identified by a general practitioner (GP) and standard questionnaires. METHOD: A multi-practice survey based on questionnaires (index and three-month follow-up). Nine hundred and five consecutive patients referred to physiotherapy from 124 different general practices in Denmark were included. Outcome measures were physical health change, sick leave, patient self-rated improvement, and change in use of medication. RESULTS: Psychological distress and somatisation rated by both GPs and standard questionnaires acted with almost no exception as significant predictors of all four outcome measures. CONCLUSION: Psychological distress and somatisation are important factors when considering preventive initiatives and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice. PMID:10954933

  17. A review of minor surgery in general practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wall, D W

    1987-12-01

    Few general practitioners in the United Kingdom do minor surgery, in contrast to their colleagues in other countries. The reasons are largely historical and relate to the structure and function of the National Health Service. This history of minor surgery describes its common occurrence before the NHS, its virtual disappearance after the NHS came about, and later revival by a few enthusiasts. The state of the art describes the wide range of surgical procedures in general surgery, orthopaedics, ear-nose-and-throat, gynaecology and ophthalmology. There are few complications, and very short waiting times in general practice minor surgery. The workload is not great. Economic studies show great saving may be made. Patients strongly prefer general practice minor surgery. In conclusion, despite many advantages, there remain major financial disadvantages for general practitioners in the United Kingdom to provide minor surgery for their patients.

  18. Significance chasing in research practice: Causes, consequences, and possible solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Jennifer J.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives, which in turn can misdirect research effort and waste money. Methods We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of ‘significant’ findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures, and the impact of these on research practices. Results The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g., unplanned post hoc tests), to the calculated and serious (e.g., fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasise the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimise significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Conclusions Significance chasing, questionable research practices, and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a “publish or perish” culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g., funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. PMID:25040652

  19. Music therapy: fertile ground for application of research in practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J E

    1993-03-01

    When participating in research studies in the clinical setting it is important to remember the goals of the interventions under study. Frequently the parameters and design of the research, while necessary to validate findings, are not written in stone for future application. It is possible to consider other situations in which the intervention might be applied that lie outside the current research protocols. To fully utilize research findings, apply them to your own unique practice and then set up your own study using the original work as a starting place.

  20. Higher Degree Research Supervision: From Practice toward Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our theorizing about the complex nature of higher degree research supervision. The intent is to make a contribution to the current debates about higher education generally, and supervision of higher degree research students in particular. We add to the pedagogy of supervision by extending its scope to and beyond the supervisory…