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Sample records for research methods epistemology

  1. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  2. Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles

    2007-12-01

    In this article, the authors clarify a framework for qualitative research, in particular for evaluating its quality, founded on epistemology, methodology, and method. They define these elements and discuss their respective contributions and interrelationships. Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly in the participant- researcher relationship, measures of research quality, and form, voice, and representation in analysis and writing. Epistemology guides methodological choices and is axiological. Methodology shapes and is shaped by research objectives, questions, and study design. Methodologies can prescribe choices of method, resonate with particular academic disciplines, and encourage or discourage the use and/or development of theory. Method is constrained by and makes visible methodological and epistemic choices. If we define good quality qualitative research as research that attends to all three elements and demonstrates internal consistency between them, standardized checklists can be transcended and innovation and diversity in qualitative research practice facilitated.

  3. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  4. Epistemological pluralism: reorganizing interdisciplinary research.

    Treesearch

    Thaddius R. Miller; Timothy D. Baird; Caitlin M. Littlefield; Gary Kofinas; E. Stuart Chapin; Charles L. Redman

    2008-01-01

    Despite progress in interdisciplinary research, difficulties remain. In this paper, we argue that scholars, educators, and practitioners need to critically rethink the ways in which interdisciplinary research and training are conducted. We present epistemological pluralism as an approach for conducting innovative, collaborative research and study. Epistemological...

  5. Epistemology at work: the ontological relationship between feminist methods, intersubjectivity and nursing research--a research exemplar.

    PubMed

    Walter, R; Glass, N; Davis, K

    2001-06-01

    This article explores the importance of strong epistemological and ontological links in nursing research by examining the design and process of a recent research project. The research topic concerns the relationship between self-concept and nursing practice. In this article, the authors demonstrate that commitment to a methodologically consistent process and the necessary associated epistemological and ontological positions provides a depth and structure to nursing research. It is the authors' belief that such consistency within research acts to strengthen the research process, and consequently strengthens nursing's research base and knowledge.

  6. [Epistemology as health research propedeutics].

    PubMed

    Ortega Calvo, Manuel; Román Torres, Pilar; Lapetra Peralta, José

    2011-01-01

    The present article advocates the need for epistemological training prior to the study of biostatistics and epidemiology. Taking Plato as the starting point, we reached this conclusion after analysis of the paradigm problems affecting biostatistics and the connotations of causality and research time in major epidemiological designs. External validity is intimately linked to the philosophical problem of induction. Evidence-based health could be renamed as "neopositive health" and could possibly have a French origin.

  7. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues.

    PubMed

    Parnas, J; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external objects, and mind as a mirror of nature. In our view, this epistemology considerably impedes etiologic research. Objectivist epistemology has been recently confronting a growing critique from diverse scientific fields. Alternative models in neurosciences (neuronal selection), artificial intelligence (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world. The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot be viewed as disconnected manifestations of discrete localized brain dysfunctions. Psychopathology should therefore focus on how the person's self-coherence is maintained and on the understanding and empirical investigation of the systemic laws that govern neurodevelopment and the organization of human cognition.

  8. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  9. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  10. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  11. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-20

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  12. Critical Issues: Preparation for New Literacy Researchers in Multi-Epistemological, Multi-Methodological Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Nell K.; Mallette, Marla H.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the preparation of novice literacy researchers should change in response to the growing diversification of epistemologies and methods employed in literacy research. Suggests ways in which coursework related to research methods and epistemologies, research apprenticeships and mentoring, and the reading and writing of literacy research…

  13. We need to talk about epistemology: orientations, meaning, and interpretation within music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Epistemology is a term used explicitly in social science research to refer to theory of knowledge, or ways of knowing. Describing the epistemological stance underpinning research studies in music therapy that use social science methods such as grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography will increase understanding of the outcomes presented. To promote an understanding of epistemology and its applications for music therapy research. The researcher describes her own views and experiences in developing knowledge of epistemology with reference to the social sciences and music therapy research literature published in English. She first focuses on terminology, then presents a discussion of epistemology. Further clarification is needed to improve understanding of the role of epistemology in advancing understanding of the foundations of the methods from the social sciences used in research in music therapy. In order to improve some aspects of research studies the following recommendations are made to authors. At minimum, a research report should, (a) define and describe the specific methodology such as grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, or other, (b) present the epistemological foundations of the method chosen, (c) include a statement on the personal standpoint of the researcher including motivations to undertake the study, (d) include the process of data analysis with justification from the epistemological stance as to why the process is credible, (e) provide outcomes of the analysis of the research in detail and in summary, and (f) refer to processes of reflexivity.

  14. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  16. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  17. Comparing and contrasting different methods for probing student epistemology and epistemological development in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaskey, Timothy L.

    In this dissertation, I perform and compare three different studies of introductory physics students' epistemological views -- their views about the nature of knowledge and how it is learned. Physics education research (PER) shows that epistemological views affect how students learn, so they are important to understand and diagnose. The first study uses a Likert-scale instrument, adapted from the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey, designed to assess to what extent students see physics knowledge as coherent (rather than piecemeal), conceptual (rather than just formulas), and constructed (rather than absorbed). Using this survey, I documented several results, including that (i) a large lecture class can produce favorable changes in students' epistemological views, at least in the context of the class, and (ii) teaching a rushed modern physics unit at the end of an introductory sequence can lead to negative epistemological effects. The second study uses the Force Concept Inventory with modified instructions: students indicated both the answer they think a scientist would give and the answer that makes the most sense to them personally. A "split" between these two answers shows that the student does not think she has reconciled her common sense with the formal physics concepts. This study showed that attention to reconciliation in a course allows students to see initially-counterintuitive ideas as making sense. Finally, I did a detailed study of one student by (i) watching video of her in tutorial, where she and three other students answered a structured series of conceptual and quantitative physics questions, (ii) formulating interviews based largely on what I observed in the video, and (iii) interviewing her while the tutorial was still fresh in her head. I repeated this cycle every week for a semester. I found that her tendency to focus on the multiple and ambiguous meanings of words like "force" hampered her ability to reconcile physics concepts with common sense

  18. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  19. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  20. The epistemology of patient safety research.

    PubMed

    Runciman, William B; Baker, G Ross; Michel, Philippe; Jauregui, Itziar Larizgoitia; Lilford, Richard J; Andermann, Anne; Flin, Rhona; Weeks, William B

    2008-12-01

    Patient safety has only recently been subjected to wide-spread systematic study. Healthcare differs from other high risk industries in being more diverse and multi-contextual, and less certain and regulated. Also many patient safety problems are low-frequency events associated with many, varied contributing factors. The subject of this paper is the epistemology of patient safety (the science of the method of finding out about patient safety). Patient safety research is considered here on the background of a risk management framework which requires researchers to: •  Understand the context - as a subset of healthcare quality, services and systems research, with technical and human behavioural (cultural) components and a range of external and internal organisational influences, a wide range of research disciplines is necessary •  Identify the risks - identify the things that go wrong and the frequency and nature of different types of incidents from sources such as medical record review, observational studies, audit, incident and medico-legal reports •  Analyse the risks - deconstruct the things that go wrong, identifying contributing factors and trying to detect trends and patterns in contributing factors, detection, mitigation factors, ameliorating factors and actions taken to reduce risk •  Evaluate the risks - decide on priorities, identifying preventive and corrective strategies and judging the risk- and cost-benefit of potential corrective strategies such as standardisation or simplification of a process or device •  Manage the risk - evaluate and scope preventive and/or corrective strategies and then implement these, or place the problem on a risk register pending solution, or accept that what is needed is unaffordable •  Communicate and consult - use interactive sessions, audit, on-going feedback, reminders and patient mediated prompts •  Monitor and review the state of the problem - get baseline trends and patterns so that changes

  1. Epistemology.

    PubMed

    Marcos, A

    2010-01-01

    This entry begins by presenting the origin, history and etymology of the term, as well as a short definition of epistemology as the discipline that deals with the nature, origin, validity and limits of knowledge. Then we focus on the classical platonic analysis of knowledge as truth justified belief. Against the backdrop of this platonic notion we present other relevant perspectives. It is essential to follow the history of the relation between origin and justification of knowledge until the contemporary separation of both problems. The study of the origin of knowledge seems to require a naturalized epistemology, while the problem of justification is usually approached from a philosophical point of view, whether coherentist, foundationalist or fallibilist. However, currently some authors are advocating for a full naturalized epistemology, while others are extending the philosophical point of view also to the genesis of knowledge.

  2. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  3. University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk

  4. The Epistemological Challenges of Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, Eve E.; Hasenfeld, Yeheskel

    2017-01-01

    We argue that the dominance of an empiricist epistemology in social work research steers much of the research away from studying and explaining the structural forces that cause the conditions of oppression, exploitation, and social exclusion that are at the roots of the social problems addressed by the profession. It does so because it assumes…

  5. Using a Chicana Feminist Epistemology in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Dolores Delgado

    1998-01-01

    States that employing a Chicana feminist epistemology in educational research is one means of resisting traditional models. Presents a framework that uses the concept of cultural institutions, which are derived from personal experience, existing literature, professional experience, and analytical research. (SK)

  6. Epistemological Separation of Research and Teaching among Graduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian Miles; Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; Turner, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Development of a more scholarly approach to teaching at university may expose the novice university teacher to an apparent conflict in belief systems about teaching and learning (i.e. epistemological beliefs). Educational research is explicit in its recognition of a constructivist framework, whilst other academic research is often embedded more…

  7. Epistemological Separation of Research and Teaching among Graduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian Miles; Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; Turner, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Development of a more scholarly approach to teaching at university may expose the novice university teacher to an apparent conflict in belief systems about teaching and learning (i.e. epistemological beliefs). Educational research is explicit in its recognition of a constructivist framework, whilst other academic research is often embedded more…

  8. On the Epistemology of Narrative Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caduri, Galit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the epistemological foundations of narrative research in education. In particular, I seek to explain how one can obtain knowledge, given its origin in teachers' subjective experiences. The problem with rhetorical and aesthetic criteria that narrative researchers use to warrant their knowledge claims is not…

  9. Epistemological development and judgments and reasoning about teaching methods.

    PubMed

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by lectures versus class discussions) were systematically varied. Epistemological development was assessed in the aesthetics, values, and physical truth domains. All participants took the domain, nature of the topic, and teaching method into consideration in ways that showed age-related variations. Epistemological development in the value domain alone was predictive of preferences for class discussions and a critical perspective on teacher-centered direct instruction, even when age was controlled in the analysis.

  10. Practical Applications of the Research on Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Holschuh, Jodi Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Theories of epistemological beliefs focus on individuals' perceptions about what knowledge is and where knowledge comes from. These beliefs are part of, and may in fact direct, the cognitive processes involved in learning. Research stemming from these theories offers varied explanations as to how beliefs relate to student learning and academic…

  11. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  12. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  13. YPAR and Critical Epistemologies: Rethinking Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Limarys; Lozenski, Brian D.; Lyiscott, Jamila J.; Morrell, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Knowledges from academic and professional research-based institutions have long been valued over the organic intellectualism of those who are most affected by educational and social inequities. In contrast, participatory action research (PAR) projects are collective investigations that rely on indigenous knowledge, combined with the desire to take…

  14. Educative Accountability Policy Research: Methodology and Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Accountability policy research relies on systems theory, objectivism, and logical empiricism to identify learning performance indicators. Policy knowledge production should permit a more holistic, causally interdependent view of teaching, learning, and leadership services. Presents an accountability policy methodology stressing formative…

  15. Educative Accountability Policy Research: Methodology and Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Accountability policy research relies on systems theory, objectivism, and logical empiricism to identify learning performance indicators. Policy knowledge production should permit a more holistic, causally interdependent view of teaching, learning, and leadership services. Presents an accountability policy methodology stressing formative…

  16. Lockean Epistemology and the Freshman Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Probabilistic reasoning as developed by John Locke can provide the English teacher with a useful system for teaching the research paper since it consists of four major strategies for probing a subject: (1) the use of maxims or principles, (2) the framing of hypotheses, (3) the use of analogy, and (4) the reliance on authority. However, it is the…

  17. Lockean Epistemology and the Freshman Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the research paper as taught in English classes is an artificial construct that has its basis in empiricism, a philosophical system that English teachers no longer understand or accept. Suggests a system of probablistic reasoning developed by eighteenth century philosopher John Locke may be a more useful system for teaching the…

  18. Lockean Epistemology and the Freshman Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the research paper as taught in English classes is an artificial construct that has its basis in empiricism, a philosophical system that English teachers no longer understand or accept. Suggests a system of probablistic reasoning developed by eighteenth century philosopher John Locke may be a more useful system for teaching the…

  19. Disciplinary capture and epistemological obstacles to interdisciplinary research: Lessons from central African conservation disputes.

    PubMed

    Brister, Evelyn

    2016-04-01

    Complex environmental problems require well-researched policies that integrate knowledge from both the natural and social sciences. Epistemic differences can impede interdisciplinary collaboration, as shown by debates between conservation biologists and anthropologists who are working to preserve biological diversity and support economic development in central Africa. Disciplinary differences with regard to 1) facts, 2) rigor, 3) causal explanation, and 4) research goals reinforce each other, such that early decisions about how to define concepts or which methods to adopt may tilt research design and data interpretation toward one discipline's epistemological framework. If one of the contributing fields imposes a solution to an epistemic problem, this sets the stage for what I call disciplinary capture. Avoiding disciplinary capture requires clear communication between collaborators, but beyond this it also requires that collaborators craft research questions and innovate research designs which are different from the inherited epistemological frameworks of contributing disciplines.

  20. Psychoanalysis and qualitative psychotherapy research-some epistemological remarks.

    PubMed

    Zepf, S

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses the extent to which psychoanalytic treatments can be tested by qualitative research strategies. He shows that these strategies operate without an adequate and epistemological, i.e., theoretically justified, methodology and that the specificity of psychoanalytic treatments in this kind of research has so far eluded us. The author suggests that the course of the treatments should be systematized relative to their outcomes within the theory of psychoanalytic treatment. Provided that the treatment theory is conceptually based on "consensual common ground" (Wallerstein, 1998, p. 1041), such studies allow us to conclude that psychoanalytic treatments will be successful if the sequences that are generalized in the treatment theory are actually realized in treatments that recognize the patients' unique requirements.

  1. Re-Authoring Research Conversations: Beyond Epistemological Differences and toward Transformative Experience for Researchers and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Common sense and published literature both assert that education research is often dismissed by practitioners on the grounds that it is irrelevant to their work. Some have argued that this is due primarily to a mismatch of professional epistemologies. While agreeing in principle, this work draws on work in sociology (Erving Goffman) and literary…

  2. Re-Authoring Research Conversations: Beyond Epistemological Differences and toward Transformative Experience for Researchers and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Common sense and published literature both assert that education research is often dismissed by practitioners on the grounds that it is irrelevant to their work. Some have argued that this is due primarily to a mismatch of professional epistemologies. While agreeing in principle, this work draws on work in sociology (Erving Goffman) and literary…

  3. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Epistemology and Networking Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical reflection on epistemology is presented. The important role of epistemological analysis in research in mathematics education is discussed. I analyze the epistemological evolution as a consequence of the changes in the mathematical culture and demonstrate how the epistemological analysis is tightly linked to the cultural dimension.…

  5. Epistemology and Networking Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical reflection on epistemology is presented. The important role of epistemological analysis in research in mathematics education is discussed. I analyze the epistemological evolution as a consequence of the changes in the mathematical culture and demonstrate how the epistemological analysis is tightly linked to the cultural dimension.…

  6. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student's views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow…

  7. Consistency of Practical and Formal Epistemologies of Science Held by Participants of a Research Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Stephen R.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the consistency between students' practical and formal understandings of scientific epistemologies (also known as nature of science (NOS) understandings) in the context of a research apprenticeship program. Six high school student participants of a residential summer research apprenticeship program at a…

  8. Educational Research in Palestine: Epistemological and Cultural Challenges--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifah, Ayman A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the prevailing epistemological and cultural conditions that underlie educational research in Palestine. Using a case study of a major Palestinian University that awards Masters Degrees in Education, the study analyzes the assumptions and the methodology that characterizes current educational research. Using an analysis of…

  9. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  10. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  11. Perspectivism: An Alternative Research Epistemology for the 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have urged school practitioners to shift from isolated patterns of work to a communal negotiation of meaning in order to overcome problems in an uncertain environment. Nevertheless, researchers, in their inquiry processes, are still bounded within a net of epistemological premises (from objectivism on the one hand to…

  12. Perspectivism: An Alternative Research Epistemology for the 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have urged school practitioners to shift from isolated patterns of work to a communal negotiation of meaning in order to overcome problems in an uncertain environment. Nevertheless, researchers, in their inquiry processes, are still bounded within a net of epistemological premises (from objectivism on the one hand to…

  13. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  14. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  15. Educational Research in Palestine: Epistemological and Cultural Challenges--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifah, Ayman A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the prevailing epistemological and cultural conditions that underlie educational research in Palestine. Using a case study of a major Palestinian University that awards Masters Degrees in Education, the study analyzes the assumptions and the methodology that characterizes current educational research. Using an analysis of…

  16. Hope in nursing research: a meta-analysis of the ontological and epistemological foundations of research on hope.

    PubMed

    Kylmä, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the ontological basis of hope and the epistemological solutions adopted in research on hope by reviewing research articles concerned with the subject in the field of nursing science. The material consisted of 46 articles published between 1975 and 1993, and the examination was based on the meta-analysis method. References to the ontology of hope were inductively clustered according to the principle of continuous comparison. For the analysis of epistemological solutions, the purpose of the study, population/respondents, and methods of data collection and analysis were identified. The articles reviewed focus on the essence and distinctive characteristics of hope. Although rich in detail and quite vivid, there is a certain lack of precision about the descriptions. Hope may be described as an emotion, an experience or need. A distinction is made between generalized and particularized hope. There is a clear emphasis on the necessity and the dynamism of hope. As far as its dynamics are concerned, the most important dimension is the dialectic between hope and despair. An affective, functional, contextual and temporal as well as relational dimension are distinguished in the process of hope. Research on hope consists in the main part of descriptive cross-sectional research that focuses on individuals who are unwell. The most common method of data collection is the questionnaire, while the analyses are typically based on quantitative methods. There is need for further work to clarify the concept of hope. In the field of nursing research, there is obvious need to carry out more qualitative longitudinal research. More attention should be paid to healthy individuals and families at different stages of their life cycle.

  17. From method to hermeneutics: which epistemological framework for narrative medicine?

    PubMed

    Abettan, Camille

    2017-06-01

    The past 10 years have seen considerable developments in the use of narrative in medicine, primarily through the emergence of the so-called narrative medicine. In this article, I question narrative medicine's self-understanding and contend that one of the most prominent issues is its lack of a clear epistemological framework. Drawing from Gadamer's work on hermeneutics, I first show that narrative medicine is deeply linked with the hermeneutical field of knowledge. Then I try to identify which claims can be legitimately expected from narrative medicine, and which ones cannot be. I scrutinize in particular whether narrative medicine can legitimately grasp the patient's lived experience of his or her illness. In the last section of this article, I begin to explore the potential usefulness of this epistemological clarification. This analysis allows for a further understanding of what is really at stake with narrative medicine, and thus to identify when it may be convenient, and when it may not. Furthermore, this clarification opens up promising new possibilities of dialogue with critics of the field. I conclude that narrative medicine finds its proper place as a possible tool available to mediate dialogue, which is at the heart of the clinical encounter in medical practice.

  18. Epistemology as Ethics in Research and Policy: The Use of Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John; Lukes, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ethnographic case study in education in the context of policy making with particular emphasis on the practice of research and policy making. The central claim of the article is that it is impossible to establish a transcendental epistemology of the case study on instrumental rationality. Instead it argues for the notion…

  19. Epistemological Issues in Astronomy Education Research: How Big of a Sample is "Big Enough"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, T. F.; Souri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As astronomy education research (AER) continues to evolve into a sophisticated enterprise, we must begin to grapple with defining our epistemological parameters. Moreover, as we attempt to make pragmatic use of our findings, we must make a concerted effort to communicate those parameters in a sensible way to the larger astronomical community. One area of much current discussion involves a basic discussion of methodologies, and subsequent sample sizes, that should be considered appropriate for generating knowledge in the field. To address this question, we completed a meta-analysis of nearly 1,000 peer-reviewed studies published in top tier professional journals. Data related to methodologies and sample sizes were collected from "hard science” and "human science” journals to compare the epistemological systems of these two bodies of knowledge. Working back in time from August 2011, the 100 most recent studies reported in each journal were used as a data source: Icarus, ApJ and AJ, NARST, IJSE and SciEd. In addition, data was collected from the 10 most recent AER dissertations, a set of articles determined by the science education community to be the most influential in the field, and the nearly 400 articles used as reference materials for the NRC's Taking Science to School. Analysis indicates these bodies of knowledge have a great deal in common; each relying on a large variety of methodologies, and each building its knowledge through studies that proceed from surprisingly low sample sizes. While both fields publish a small percentage of studies with large sample sizes, the vast majority of top tier publications consist of rich studies of a small number of objects. We conclude that rigor in each field is determined not by a circumscription of methodologies and sample sizes, but by peer judgments that the methods and sample sizes are appropriate to the research question.

  20. Re-authoring research conversations: beyond epistemological differences and toward transformative experience for researchers and educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Shawn M.

    2016-03-01

    Common sense and published literature both assert that education research is often dismissed by practitioners on the grounds that it is irrelevant to their work. Some have argued that this is due primarily to a mismatch of professional epistemologies. While agreeing in principle, this work draws on work in sociology (Erving Goffman) and literary theory (Mikhail Bakhtin) to argue that practitioner mistrust of research may be primarily related to differences in the presentation of self in the teaching (and research) profession and a history of research used as a tool of transgression in the authorship of the practitioner professional self. Goffman's account of frontstage and backstage settings in the everyday presentation of self is combined with Bakhtin's account of the ways research erases the voice of practitioners by reducing their fundamentally dialogic experiences to monologic narratives dominated by the voice of the researcher. As an alternative, I draw on the work of the research psychologist Jerome Bruner and the practicing clinical psychologist Michael White to explore ways in which practitioners might be more meaningfully engaged in the research enterprise through a process of re-narrativizing their own experiences captured as part of research. Narrative techniques that help share responsibility for authoring accounts of practice among researchers and practitioners as research participants are described leading to conclusions about the potential transformative nature of such work for both researchers and practitioners.

  1. 2015 AERA Presidential Address: Morally Engaged Research/ers Dismantling Epistemological Nihilation in the Age of Impunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Joyce E.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents Joyce E. King's 2015 AERA presidential address, which artfully combined scholarly discourse with performance elements and diverse voices in several multimedia formats. In discussing morally engaged research/ers dismantling epistemological nihilation, the article advances the argument that the moral stance, solidarity with…

  2. Teacher research experiences, epistemology, and student attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Diana L.

    This concurrent mixed methods research study examined the impact of a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) on science teacher beliefs about science, scientific research, science teaching, and student attitudes toward science. Surveys, interviews, reflective journals, and classroom observations of six teachers involved in a TRE were utilized to examine changes in beliefs as a result of participation in the TRE. Student attitudes were measured with a pre and post survey. An analysis of qualitative data from the teachers' interviews, journals, and pre and post TRE surveys indicated that some change occurred in their beliefs about science and scientists for all six teachers, and that teachers' beliefs about science teaching were affected in a variety of ways after participating in the TRE. The quantitative results of the study using Science Teachers' Beliefs About Science (STBAS) instrument suggest that the change from the beginning to the end of the school year, if any, was minimal. However, interviews with and observations of teachers identified valuable components of the TRE, such as the advanced resources (e.g., DVD, samples), a feeling of rejuvenation in teaching, a new perspective on science and scientific research, and first hand experiences in science. Results from the classroom observations using the Science Classroom Practice Record (SCPR) were mixed. Some differences may be explained, however, as relating to content taught in the pre and post classes observed or simply to inherent differences in student dynamics and behavior from class to class. There were no significant differences from pre to post TRE regarding student attitudes toward science as measured by paired samples t-tests on the modified Attitudes Toward Science (mATSI) instrument. Attitudes and beliefs are not easily changed, and change is more likely to result from direct experience and education rather than an indirect experience. Although the results are generalizable only to the participants in

  3. Knowledge about Science in Science Education Research from the Perspective of Ludwik Fleck's Epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, André Ferrer Pinto

    2016-08-01

    The importance of knowledge about science is well established, and it has a long history in the area of science education. More recently, the specialized literature has highlighted the search for consensus in relation to what should be taught in this regard, that is, what should compose the science curricula of elementary and high school levels. Despite this effort, several criticisms made by researchers in this field have been targeted at this "consensus view," limiting the possibility of a true consensus. This work brings an epistemological framework—the epistemology of Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961)—to interpret the current state of research in this area concerning the search for consensus. In particular, Ludwik Fleck's notions of thought style; thought collective; active and passive connections; communication of thoughts within and between collectives (intracollective and intercollective communication); and esoteric and exoteric circles are presented and used for the characterization of our object.

  4. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-06-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly causal relationships among knowing, understanding, accepting, and believing; and the factors that affect student understanding, acceptance, and/or belief. Second, I summarize the specific epistemological issues involved, including empiricism, naturalism, philosophical vs methodological materialism, science vs religion as non-overlapping magisteria, and science as a way of knowing. Third, the paper critically reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the research tools available to measure the nature of science, epistemological beliefs, and especially the acceptance of evolution. Based on these findings, further research in these areas, especially study of the factors that cause lack of explanatory coherence as well as replications of studies that promise to explain current confusing findings about the interrelationships among student understanding, acceptance, and belief in evolution, are called for. In addition, this review calls for more longitudinal studies to delineate causal connections as well as improved measurement tools.

  5. Ethics and epistemology of accurate prediction in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips

    2015-07-01

    All major research ethics policies assert that the ethical review of clinical trial protocols should include a systematic assessment of risks and benefits. But despite this policy, protocols do not typically contain explicit probability statements about the likely risks or benefits involved in the proposed research. In this essay, I articulate a range of ethical and epistemic advantages that explicit forecasting would offer to the health research enterprise. I then consider how some particular confidence levels may come into conflict with the principles of ethical research.

  6. Epistemological Questions about Research and Practice in ALM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedege, Tine

    The new research and practice area of "adults and mathematics" is situated within the didactics of mathematics as it is structured and delimited by the concrete forms of practice and knowledge currently regarded as mathematics teaching, learning, and knowing. "Adults Learning Mathematics" (ALM) is a community of practice and research within the…

  7. University Bioscientists' Risk Epistemologies and Research Problem Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine…

  8. Study and Research Courses as an Epistemological Model for Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Carl; Matheron, Yves; Mercier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is explain how the notion of "study and research course", a recent construct in the anthropological theory of didactics, provides a general tool to model mathematical knowledge from a didactical perspective. We do this from two points of view. First, the notion itself arose as a tool for didactic design, particularly in…

  9. University Bioscientists' Risk Epistemologies and Research Problem Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine…

  10. Researching domestic violence in same-sex relationships--a feminist epistemological approach to survey development.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marianne; Donovan, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on recently completed research by the authors, involving a detailed study of love and intimate partner violence in same-sex and heterosexual relationships (funded by the ESRC, award RES-000-23-0650). The research, hitherto the most detailed study of its kind in the United Kingdom, included a national same-sex community survey (n = 800) plus four focus groups and interviews with 67 individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, transgender, or heterosexual. The article discusses in particular the development of the same-sex community survey, focusing on the epistemological and methodological implications of using a feminist approach.

  11. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  12. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  13. The Experience of Doctoral Studies in the UK and France: Differences in Epistemology, Research Objects and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctoral students perceive their research education in different disciplines in two higher education systems, the UK and France. It explores what underlies the diversity of doctoral students' experiences. Three theoretical positions are identified: the epistemological position, conceptualisation of research objects…

  14. The Experience of Doctoral Studies in the UK and France: Differences in Epistemology, Research Objects and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctoral students perceive their research education in different disciplines in two higher education systems, the UK and France. It explores what underlies the diversity of doctoral students' experiences. Three theoretical positions are identified: the epistemological position, conceptualisation of research objects…

  15. The epistemology and ethics of chronic disease research: further lessons from ECMO.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Robyn

    2010-04-01

    Robert Truog describes the controversial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in newborns. Because early results with ECMO indicated that it might be a great advance, saving many lives, Truog argues that ECMO should not have been tested using RCTs, but that a long-term, large-scale observational study of actual clinical practice should have been conducted instead. Central to Truog's argument, however, is the idea that ECMO is an unusual case. Thus, it is an open question whether Truog's conclusions can be extended to other areas of medical research. In this paper, I look at epistemological and ethical issues arising in the care of patients with chronic diseases, using ECMO as a starting point. Both the similarities and the dissimilarities of these two cases highlight important issues in biomedical research and support a conclusion similar to Truog's. Observational studies of clinical practice provide the best evidence to inform the treatment of patients with chronic disease.

  16. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  17. But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera

    2015-01-01

    At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…

  18. Bringing Creativity into Being: Underlying Assumptions That Influence Methods of Studying Organizational Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    We compare different epistemological frameworks for the effective collection of creativity data. We suggest that researchers' epistemological approaches can significantly influence collection methods and subsequent outcomes. Classic sociological epistemological approaches--functionalism, interpretivism, radical humanism, and radical structuralism…

  19. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology, Pedagogy, and Epistemology: Opportunities and Challenges of Using Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools in Elementary Science Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Meyer, Jason; Sharma, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    This study infused computer modeling and simulation tools in a 1-semester undergraduate elementary science methods course to advance preservice teachers' understandings of computer software use in science teaching and to help them learn important aspects of pedagogy and epistemology. Preservice teachers used computer modeling and simulation tools…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  3. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an analysis of a basic assumption grounding the clinical research: the ontological autonomy of psychotherapy-based on the idea that the clinical exchange is sufficiently distinguished from other social objects (i.e. exchange between teacher and pupils, or between buyer and seller, or interaction during dinner, and so forth). A criticism of such an assumption is discussed together with the proposal of a different epistemological interpretation, based on the distinction between communicative dynamics and the process of psychotherapy-psychotherapy is a goal-oriented process based on the general dynamics of human communication. Theoretical and methodological implications are drawn from such a view: It allows further sources of knowledge to be integrated within clinical research (i.e. those coming from other domains of analysis of human communication); it also enables a more abstract definition of the psychotherapy process to be developed, leading to innovative views of classical critical issues, like the specific-nonspecific debate. The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy.

  4. Gender legacies of jung and freud as epistemology in emergent feminist research on late motherhood.

    PubMed

    Barone-Chapman, Maryann

    2014-03-01

    While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung's mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud's supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche's discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung's views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung's mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance.

  5. Gender Legacies of Jung and Freud as Epistemology in Emergent Feminist Research on Late Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    Barone-Chapman, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung’s mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud’s supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche’s discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung’s views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung’s mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance. PMID:25379265

  6. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  7. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  8. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  9. The Relation between the Epistemological Beliefs of Teachers and Students and Their Behavior in Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maravilla, Jaime; Gómez, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the relation of the epistemological beliefs of students and teachers and the actions deployed in the classroom. The framework is the study of personal epistemology, which was developed, among other researchers, by Hofer, Pintrich and Schommer. The research method was, within the qualitative paradigm, through case studies,…

  10. Using a Modeling Approach To Explore Scientific Epistemology with High School Biology Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jennifer

    This paper describes a study of high school students' participation in the construction and revision of explanatory models as they attempted to account for a variety of inheritance phenomena observed in computer-generated "fruit flies". Throughout the course students were encouraged to explore epistemological issues related to the assessment and…

  11. Epistemological Dialogue of Validity: Building Validity in Educational and Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The notion of validity in the social sciences is evolving and is influenced by philosophy of science, critiques of objectivity, and epistemological debates. Methodology for validation of the knowledge claims is diverse across different philosophies of science. In other words, definition and the way to establish of validity have evolved as…

  12. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly…

  13. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  14. Epistemological Dialogue of Validity: Building Validity in Educational and Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The notion of validity in the social sciences is evolving and is influenced by philosophy of science, critiques of objectivity, and epistemological debates. Methodology for validation of the knowledge claims is diverse across different philosophies of science. In other words, definition and the way to establish of validity have evolved as…

  15. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly…

  16. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  17. Epistemological Resources: Applying a New Epistemological Framework to Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louca, Loucas; Elby, Andrew; Hammer, David; Kagey, Trisha

    2004-01-01

    Most research on personal epistemologies has conceived them as made up of relatively large, coherent, and stable cognitive structures, either developmental stages or beliefs (perhaps organized into theories). Recent work has challenged these views, arguing that personal epistemologies are better understood as made up of finer grained cognitive…

  18. The Philosophy of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holma, Katariina; Hyytinen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    In higher education, "personal epistemology" is today a significant research area. Personal epistemology has been seen as promising particularly because it focuses on one of the general learning aims of many contemporary universities, namely, the development of students' creative and critical thinking. The article identifies serious…

  19. The Philosophy of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holma, Katariina; Hyytinen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    In higher education, "personal epistemology" is today a significant research area. Personal epistemology has been seen as promising particularly because it focuses on one of the general learning aims of many contemporary universities, namely, the development of students' creative and critical thinking. The article identifies serious…

  20. 'Every teacher is a researcher!': Creating indigenous epistemologies and practices for HIV prevention through values-based action research.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Since gender is an undisputed driver of HIV infection, teachers concerned with HIV prevention education should ideally encourage critical awareness of and culturally sensitive practices around gender inequalities. Many interventions and programmes have been developed for teachers to enable them to do this, however most have met with limited success. This article proceeds from the viewpoint that for HIV-prevention interventions to be sustainable and effective, teachers should be actively engaged in their design, implementation and evaluation. It outlines how teachers in an HIV prevention programme utilised an action research design to explore their own gender constructs as a necessary first step to the creation of more gender-sensitive school climates and teaching practices. This values-based self-enquiry moved the teachers to action on two levels: first, to adopt a more gender-sensitive approach in their own personal and professional lives and second, to take action to challenge gender inequalities within their particular educational contexts. Evidence is presented to justify the claim that action research of this genre helps teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general.

  1. Changing Epistemological Beliefs: The Unexpected Impact of a Short-Term Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Bromme, Rainer; Stahl, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that sophisticated epistemological beliefs exert a positive influence on students' learning strategies and learning outcomes. This gives a clear educational relevance to studies on the development of methods for promoting a change in epistemological beliefs and making them more sophisticated. Aims: To…

  2. The Epistemological Differences between a Teacher and Researcher: A Personal Journey Illustrating Second Order Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholl, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This keynote address tells the personal journey of a former teacher who is now involved in educational research. Educational research is topical at the moment in Design and Technology (D&T) Education, as many initial teacher training (ITE) courses make the transition to masters level accreditation, something endorsed by the teacher training and…

  3. Exploring the Intersections of Personal Epistemology, Public Epistemology, and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lising, Laura J.

    2007-11-01

    This paper discusses an approach to exploring the divide between students' stances toward their own learning and their perceptions of what is productive for the scientific community (sometimes called "personal epistemology" and "public epistemology"). The possible relationship between this divide and students' science- and course-related affect (e.g. preferences, motivation, emotions) will also be discussed. Previous research and theory indicate certain methodological considerations in study design and analysis, particularly attention to survey context, both with respect to attempting to tease apart epistemology from course expectations, and in considering differences between stated and enacted epistemologies and, similarly, beliefs vs. resources. A survey instrument designed to explore personal/public epistemology splits and affective variables will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  4. Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, a growing number of methods for synthesising qualitative research have emerged, particularly in relation to health-related research. There is a need for both researchers and commissioners to be able to distinguish between these methods and to select which method is the most appropriate to their situation. Discussion A number of methodological and conceptual links between these methods were identified and explored, while contrasting epistemological positions explained differences in approaches to issues such as quality assessment and extent of iteration. Methods broadly fall into 'realist' or 'idealist' epistemologies, which partly accounts for these differences. Summary Methods for qualitative synthesis vary across a range of dimensions. Commissioners of qualitative syntheses might wish to consider the kind of product they want and select their method – or type of method – accordingly. PMID:19671152

  5. Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.

    PubMed

    Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position.

  6. Revisiting Philosophical and Theoretical Debates in Contemporary Educational Research and Major Epistemological and Ontological Underpinnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    It is important for educational researchers to possess an understanding that research (albeit a contentious area in terms of what indeed this constitutes) undertaken is done with certain pre-existing values and beliefs as to what we as individuals and teachers hold true. The methods and methodologies defined by Gough (2000, p.3) as "the reasoning…

  7. Software Epistemology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    epistemology have focused on two contrary goals: first, small signatures that are able to identify malware that may have polymorphic presentation and...one version of a library can interoperate with another version of the same library. In the case of small signatures for malware , signatures must be...from source code or machine binaries—enables the rapid identification of known software vulnerabilities, unsafe use cases, and hidden malware in

  8. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  9. Epistemology and Science Education: A Study of Epistemological Views of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolou, Alexandros; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the epistemological views of science teachers for the following epistemological issues: scientific method, demarcation of scientific knowledge, change of scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Teachers' views for each one of these epistemological questions were investigated during…

  10. Epistemology and Science Education: A Study of Epistemological Views of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolou, Alexandros; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the epistemological views of science teachers for the following epistemological issues: scientific method, demarcation of scientific knowledge, change of scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Teachers' views for each one of these epistemological questions were investigated during…

  11. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  12. Students' General and Physics Epistemological Beliefs: A Twofold Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although research on epistemological beliefs has expanded over the past two decades, there are still some issues that need to be explored, such as whether epistemological beliefs are domain general or domain specific. Purpose: One of the purposes of this research was to determine if high school students' general epistemological beliefs…

  13. Sequential multiple methods as a contemporary method in learning disability nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores and advocates the use of sequential multiple methods as a contemporary strategy for undertaking research. Sequential multiple methods involve the use of results obtained through one data collection method to determine the direction and implementation of subsequent stages of a research project (Morse, 1991; Morgan, 1998). This paper will also explore the significance of how triangulating research at the epistemological, theoretical and methodological levels could enhance research. Finally the paper evaluates the significance of sequential multiple method in learning disability nursing research practice.

  14. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

  15. The Comparative Studying of Rumi and Bonaventura Mystical Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliyari, Farshad; Elmi, Qorban; Alizamani, Amirabbas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider most critical issues of mystical epistemology in Rumi and Bonaventura once the views on subject, reality of the world, and the possibility of knowledge were expressed. This research referring works of Rumi and Bonaventura studies this issue through a descriptive-analytical method. Rumi and Bonaventura…

  16. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  17. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  18. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  19. Ethical and epistemological insights: a case study of participatory action research with young people.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Cathy; Shoveller, Jean A; Spencer, Grace; Johnson, Joy L

    2012-04-01

    Debates over how to determine age of consent for youth to participate in research feature prominently in the practice of researchers, research ethics boards (REBs), and community decision makers working with youth. In particular, tensions can arise over how the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice are interpreted and applied in research involving young people. We discuss our experiences obtaining ethical approval to conduct a participatory action research project involving youth and the differences of opinion we encountered regarding underage youth's capability to make informed consent. We suggest that researchers, REBs, and community decision makers all share a responsibility to conduct proactive outreach to youth participants, so that they are adequately informed of their rights related to research.

  20. In Defense of Clarity in the Study of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Andrew Elby (this issue) argues that researchers in the field of personal epistemology should beware insistence on a narrow definition of epistemology to guide this work. His argument is a response to suggestions (Hofer & Pintrich, 1997; Sandoval, 2005) that the study of personal epistemology should focus on people's views about knowledge and…

  1. Examining Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher Candidates According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs of teachers are important factors on their perceptions of subject area and their classroom practices. This research aims to define epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates and investigates whether or not epistemological beliefs change according to teacher candidates' gender, fields of study, year of study, and…

  2. Understanding Students' Use of Sources in Research Writing through an Epistemological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolas, Corinne E.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the poor quality of students' use of sources in undergraduate research writing have typically led to investigations either of students' information-seeking strategies or of their composing practices. I argue that an either/or approach provides an incomplete picture of students' research writing processes, and that an exploration of…

  3. Ensuring Curriculum Relevance in Vocational Education and Training: Epistemological Perspectives in a Curriculum Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiim, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses challenges regarding relevance in vocational education and training (VET) curricula. Recent research on Norwegian VET shows that the educational content is not sufficiently related to the students' needs for qualification in the actual vocations. I will present a new curriculum research project aimed at investigating and…

  4. Epistemology and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurro, Rafael

    These lectures consider the information concept as well as the epistemological foundations of information science. The first lecture discusses the epistemological roots of the information concept and the hermeneutical paradigm within modern epistemology. Particular attention is given to the roots of the information concept in everyday English. An…

  5. Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), Epidemiology, and Epistemology: Reflections on EMRs and Future Pediatric Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research. PMID:21622040

  6. Electronic medical records (EMRs), epidemiology, and epistemology: reflections on EMRs and future pediatric clinical research.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer-term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research.

  7. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  8. Risky Epistemology: Connecting with Others and Dissonance in Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Hollyce C.

    2014-01-01

    Connecting with others and experiences of dissonance are two factors identified as central to transformative learning in engaged teaching and research (Kiely, 2005). At the same time, these ways of knowing are unpredictable and come with the risk of actually disrupting rather than enhancing learning. This article reports the findings of a mixed…

  9. Epistemological, Artefactual and Interactional-Institutional Foundations of Social Impact of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Reijo; Tuunainen, Juha; Esko, Terhi

    2015-01-01

    Because of the gross difficulties in measuring the societal impact of academic research, qualitative approaches have been developed in the last decade mostly based on forms of interaction between university and other societal stakeholders. In this paper, we suggest a framework for qualitative analysis based on the distinction between three…

  10. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  11. Epistemological, Artefactual and Interactional-Institutional Foundations of Social Impact of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Reijo; Tuunainen, Juha; Esko, Terhi

    2015-01-01

    Because of the gross difficulties in measuring the societal impact of academic research, qualitative approaches have been developed in the last decade mostly based on forms of interaction between university and other societal stakeholders. In this paper, we suggest a framework for qualitative analysis based on the distinction between three…

  12. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  13. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  14. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  15. Seeking the "Truth" in the Stories We Tell: The Role of Critical Race Epistemology in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espino, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how critical race theory informed the author's epistemological perspective and methodological approach as she analyzed Mexican American educational narratives and formulated her identity as a scholar. Using a storytelling technique employed in CRT, the author weaves together her position as the translator of participants'…

  16. On the substance of a sophisticated epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew; Hammer, David

    2001-09-01

    Among researchers who study students' epistemologies, a consensus has emerged about what constitutes a sophisticated stance toward scientific knowledge. According to this community consensus, students should understand scientific knowledge as tentative and evolving, rather than certain and unchanging; subjectively tied to scientists' perspectives, rather than objectively inherent in nature; and individually or socially constructed, rather than discovered. Surveys, interview protocols, and other methods used to probe students' beliefs about scientific knowledge broadly reflect this outlook. This article questions the community consensus about epistemological sophistication. We do not suggest that scientific knowledge is objective and fixed; if forced to choose whether knowledge is certain or tentative, with no opportunity to elaborate, we would choose tentative. Instead, our critique consists of two lines of argument. First, the literature fails to distinguish between the correctness and productivity of an epistemological belief. For instance, elementary school students who believe that science is about discovering objective truths to questions, such as whether the earth is round or flat, or whether an asteroid led to the extinction of the dinosaurs, may be more likely to succeed in science than students who believe science is about telling stories that vary with one's perspective. Naïve realism, although incorrect (according to a broad consensus of philosophers and social scientists), may nonetheless be productive for helping those students learn. Second, according to the consensus view as reflected in commonly used surveys, epistemological sophistication consists of believing certain blanket generalizations about the nature of knowledge and learning, generalizations that do not attend to context. These generalizations are neither correct nor productive. For example, it would be unsophisticated for students to view as tentative the idea that the earth is round

  17. Epistemological Agency in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss research that sought to explore how the individually purposeful nature of new employee workplace learning might be understood through its conception as epistemological agency, that is, the personally mediated construction of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sociocultural…

  18. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  19. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  20. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  1. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  2. Signature Pedagogies and Legal Education in Universities: Epistemological and Pedagogical Concerns with Langdellian Case Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Aine; Kilcommins, Shane

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of Lee S. Shulman's concept of "signature pedagogies" as it relates to legal education. In law, the signature pedagogy identified by Shulman is the Langdellian case method. Though the concept of signature pedagogies provides an excellent infrastructure for the exchange of teaching ideas, Shulman has a tendency to…

  3. Epistemological Beliefs in Science: An Exploratory Study of Lebanese University Students' Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizk, Nadya; Jaber, Lama; Halwany, Sarah; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing have been investigated extensively in educational and developmental psychology research. Hofer's framework on personal epistemology is adopted in the present study for assessing Lebanese university students' epistemologies of science. Participants were 213 students in their first year of…

  4. Epistemological Beliefs in Science: An Exploratory Study of Lebanese University Students' Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizk, Nadya; Jaber, Lama; Halwany, Sarah; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing have been investigated extensively in educational and developmental psychology research. Hofer's framework on personal epistemology is adopted in the present study for assessing Lebanese university students' epistemologies of science. Participants were 213 students in their first year of…

  5. Co-­Teaching Social Research Methods in a Joint Sociology/Anthropology Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Jennifer; Isler, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In the course of developing and co-­teaching Social Research Methods (SRM), an interdisciplinary, upper-­division undergraduate course at the University of Illinois at Springfield (UIS), the authors discovered that this type of partnership is ripe ground for exploring integration of anthropology and sociology on epistemological and methodological…

  6. Narrative methods in quality improvement research

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, T; Russell, J; Swinglehurst, D

    2005-01-01

    

 This paper reviews and critiques the different approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research. The defining characteristics of narrative are chronology (unfolding over time); emplotment (the literary juxtaposing of actions and events in an implicitly causal sequence); trouble (that is, harm or the risk of harm); and embeddedness (the personal story nests within a particular social, historical and organisational context). Stories are about purposeful action unfolding in the face of trouble and, as such, have much to offer quality improvement researchers. But the quality improvement report (a story about efforts to implement change), which is common, must be distinguished carefully from narrative based quality improvement research (focused systematic enquiry that uses narrative methods to generate new knowledge), which is currently none. We distinguish four approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research—narrative interview; naturalistic story gathering; organisational case study; and collective sense-making—and offer a rationale, describe how data can be collected and analysed, and discuss the strengths and limitations of each using examples from the quality improvement literature. Narrative research raises epistemological questions about the nature of narrative truth (characterised by sense-making and emotional impact rather than scientific objectivity), which has implications for how rigour should be defined (and how it might be achieved) in this type of research. We offer some provisional guidance for distinguishing high quality narrative research in a quality improvement setting from other forms of narrative account such as report, anecdote, and journalism. PMID:16326792

  7. Epistemology and science education: a study of epistemological views of teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolou, Alexandros; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the epistemological views of science teachers for the following epistemological issues: scientific method, demarcation of scientific knowledge, change of scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Teachers' views for each one of these epistemological questions were investigated during semi-structured interviews. These issues were studied according to the following epistemological positions: empirico-inductivism, hypothetico-deductivism, contextualism and relativism. In general, the analysis of the interviews showed that a mixture of empirico-inductive and contextualist positions were dominant among science teachers for most epistemological issues. The hypothetico-deductive views appeared to have little support. For the question of scientific method teachers appear to have eclectic views.

  8. IF YOU CAN MANIPULATE THEM, MUST THEY BE REAL?:. The epistemological role of instruments in nanotechnological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebaglia, Alberta

    2006-06-01

    ≪So far as I'm concerned, if you can spray them then they are real≫ (Hacking, 1983, p.23). This statement embodies a well-known key point in Ian Hacking's contemporary reading of scientific realism: scientific instruments assume a fundamental role in characterizing the ontological scenario to believe in. This paper focuses on the challenges of nanotechnology to this standpoint. Scanning tunnelling microscopy, as opposed to traditional microscopy (from optical to electron microscope), is not an imaging but a "touching and rearranging" technique. It requires a deep appraisal of epistemological ideas such as "representing" and "intervening", "knowing" "natural" entities and "creating" "artificial” ones.

  9. [Jervis and scientific research in psychoterapy: reflections on the problem of plurality of research methods].

    PubMed

    Migone, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    It is documented that psychotherapy and its scientific investigation interested Giovanni Jervis since the early 1960s. In this paper an aspect of psychotherapy research that attracted Jervis' interest is discussed. While there is more agreement on the hierarchy among the various methods of outcome research in psychotherapy, it is argued that in the field of process research the discussion on how the many process methods should relate to each other is still open. It is not clear which method is "superior" or "more useful" than others in understanding and measuring behaviour change. This problem is discussed also in its epistemological aspects, e.g., regarding the knowledge of "reality" (the patient's mind) and the eye(glasses) we have (the research methods or "lens" we use). A subdivision of the methods of psychotherapy process research into "thematic" and "structural" methods, used also for the classification of projective tests in personality psychology, is suggested.

  10. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  11. Epistemology and history.

    PubMed

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  12. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  13. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  14. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  15. Deaf epistemology: Deafhood and Deafness.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter C; O'Hearn, Amanda; McKee, Michael; Steider, Anne; Thew, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Deaf epistemology constitutes the nature and extent of the knowledge that deaf individuals acquire growing up in a society that relies primarily on audition to navigate life. Deafness creates beings who are more visually oriented compared to their auditorily oriented peers. How hearing individuals interact with deaf individuals shapes how deaf individuals acquire knowledge and how they learn. Aspects of the Deaf episteme, not caused by deafness but by Deafhood, have a positive impact on how deaf individuals learn, resist audism, stay healthy, and navigate the world. Research on psychology, health, and education are reviewed to illustrate how visually oriented beings think and view the world differently from the majority. The article provides support to the theory of multiple epistemologies,and has implications for families, teachers, and researchers.

  16. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  17. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  18. Epistemology, Sociology, and Learning and Teaching in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between epistemology, sociology, and learning and teaching in physics based on an examination of literature from research in science studies, history and philosophy of science, and physics pedagogic research. It reveals a mismatch between the positivist epistemological foundation which seems to underpin the…

  19. Epistemology, Sociology, and Learning and Teaching in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between epistemology, sociology, and learning and teaching in physics based on an examination of literature from research in science studies, history and philosophy of science, and physics pedagogic research. It reveals a mismatch between the positivist epistemological foundation which seems to underpin the…

  20. Children's Spirituality: Epistemology and Theory from Various Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    Children's spirituality is a rising area of importance in research within other helping disciplines, which social work should attend to. Epistemology is an important element of research that is often difficult to discern. This article discusses the different epistemological paradigms and identifies pertinent theories in relation to some of the…

  1. Children's Spirituality: Epistemology and Theory from Various Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    Children's spirituality is a rising area of importance in research within other helping disciplines, which social work should attend to. Epistemology is an important element of research that is often difficult to discern. This article discusses the different epistemological paradigms and identifies pertinent theories in relation to some of the…

  2. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  3. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  4. Evolutionary epistemology as a scientific method: a new look upon the units and levels of evolution debate.

    PubMed

    Gontier, Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary epistemology can provide a unified scientific methodology that enables scholars to study the evolution of life as well as the evolution of cognition, science, culture and any other phenomenon displayed by living organisms. In this article, three heuristics are provided that allow for a thorough search for the units, levels and mechanisms of evolution. Contrary to previous approaches, units, levels and mechanisms are not identified by pointing out essential features, but rather ostensive definitions are preferred. That is, units are considered as such if a level of evolution and a mechanism of evolution is identifiable. Levels are levels if one can point out units that evolve at that level according to evolutionary mechanisms, and mechanisms are considered as such if one can point out units and levels where the mechanism is active.

  5. Multiple Epistemological Coherences in an Eighth-Grade Discussion of the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…

  6. Multiple Epistemological Coherences in an Eighth-Grade Discussion of the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…

  7. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  8. Mathematical and Formalized Epistemologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, Robert

    A mathematical epistemology at the macroscopic level is proposed, based on the process of perception represented by an observation operator. The linear case introduces a Volterra composition with the two extreme cases of multiplication and convolution. Presented in terms of observation operators, are introduced the concepts of epistemological indiscernibility and of epistemological inverse transfer. The case of perception of duration is considered, as well as time-space selection and time-space filtering, which give rise to rather general modelings of familiar observation devices. If the observing system also has the ability to decide, a pragmatic operator, the product of observation and decision operators, may be introduced. It generates pragmatic indiscernibility and pragmatic inverse transfers. The resulting actions modify the evolution of the supersystem composed of the system and its environment, thereby creating a feedback loop allowing the construction of a mathematical epistemo-praxiology, which may be seen as a step toward other formal epistemologies not restricted to the macroscopic domain.

  9. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  10. An epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. Part 3. End points and measurement.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Hofer, T; Johal, A; Thomson, R; Nicholl, J; Franklin, B D; Lilford, R J

    2008-06-01

    This article builds on the previous two articles in this series, which focused on an evaluation framework and study designs for patient safety research. The current article focuses on what to measure as evidence of safety and how these measurements can be undertaken. It considers four different end points, highlighting their methodological advantages and disadvantages: patient outcomes, fidelity, intervening variables and clinical error. The choice of end point depends on the nature of the intervention being evaluated and the patient safety problem it has been designed to address. This paper also discusses the different methods of measuring error, reviewing best practice and paying particular attention to case note review. Two key issues with any method of data collection are ensuring construct validity and reliability. Since no end point or method of data collection is infallible, the present authors advocate the use of multiple end points and methods where feasible.

  11. Introduction: Toward an Understanding of Epistemology and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Moores, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    The major concept of epistemology--or epistemologies--is discussed, as well as related terms such as "paradigm" and "science". Also covered are two broad paradigms, the clinical and the cultural, that seem to drive theorizing, research, and practice regarding individuals who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The two paradigms emanate from different…

  12. Intellectual Humility and Morality as Consultee-Centered Consultation Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Kearney, Moriah A.; Davis, Don E.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Little research examines how epistemological constructs affect the consultation process in schools. We consider how the epistemological constructs of (a) intellectual humility and (b) moral foundations may moderate the effectiveness of consultee-centered consultation. We define the constructs and provide examples of their potential influences on…

  13. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  14. Positioning oneself within an epistemology: refining our thinking about integrative approaches.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Integrative approaches seem to be paramount in the current climate of family therapy and other psychotherapies. However, integration between and among theories and practices can only occur within a specific epistemology. This article makes a distinction between three different epistemologies: individualizing, systems, and poststructural. It then makes the argument that one can integrate theories within epistemologies and one can adopt practices and some theoretical concepts across theories and across epistemologies, but that it is impossible to integrate theories across epistemologies. It further states that although social constructionism has influenced much of contemporary psychological thinking, because of the divergence between a structural and a poststructural approach, constructionism looks different depending upon one's epistemological stance. Examples of integration within epistemologies and of what looks like integration across epistemologies (but is not) further illustrate these important distinctions. The conclusions reached here are crucial to our philosophical considerations, our pedagogical assumptions, and implications for both research and a reflexive clinical practice.

  15. Understanding students' epistemologies: Examining practice and meaning in community contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Megan Elisabeth

    There is a great need to raise the levels of science achievement for those groups of children who have traditionally underperformed. Prior cognitive research with Native people suggests that problems with achievement for Native students may be more complicated then simple problems with knowing or not knowing content knowledge. This dissertation hypothesizes that Native Americans engage in practices and have funds of knowledge that facilitate sophisticated reasoning in the domain of science. However, the knowledge and patterns of reasoning are not elicited, acceptable, or recognized in classroom science, or perhaps are in conflict with classroom science. Furthermore the divergence is not simply in the details of what is known; there is discord at the level of epistemology, in the fundamental ways in which Native people conceptualize knowledge of the natural world. This work proposes a new framework, Micro-practice epistemology, for understanding epistemology. I propose that epistemology should be understood as implicitly and explicitly imbedded in the worldviews, values, beliefs and practices of our everyday lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods this work investigates the everyday practices related to nature, the epistemological stances and biological knowledge embedded in those practices in a 3X3 model (age cohort: child, adult, elder X community). The three communities involved in this work include: Chicago urban Indian community, Menominee reservation community, and a rural working poor white community. I find significant differences in all three areas across communities. Native communities tend to participate in practices in which some aspect of nature is fore-grounded while non-Native participants tended to participate in practices in which nature is the back-grounded. These findings are extended to explore the ways in which worldviews and values are connected to practice and knowledge about the natural world. I find significant differences in

  16. Epistemologies, Deafness, Learning, and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of Deaf epistemologies is in a nascent stage relative to, e.g., the study of feminist or African American epistemologies. It has only recently begun attracting the widespread attention it deserves. The present article addresses Deaf epistemologies as they relate to the sometimes conflicting trends in American society and education. In a…

  17. [Epistemology in cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    1988-01-01

    The probabilistic character of several scientific laws, is emphasized. Some considerations are formulated about epistemology: the critical study of the principles, hypotheses and results of sciences. The evolution of medical epistemology and its implications in the field of cardiology is also described from the hippocratic treatises to the present. In former works the oldest use of the word hypothesis with the sense of supposition, is found. Finally remains to be established the relationship between the individual and general field i.e. between a patient, the isolated object of study, and the disease as an abstraction of the human mind.

  18. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  19. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  20. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and quantitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  1. George Engel's Epistemology of Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Saraga, Michael; Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, J Donald

    2014-01-01

    George Engel's (1913-1999) biopsychosocial model, one of the most significant proposals for the renewal of medicine in the latter half of the 20th century, has been understood primarily as a multi-factorial approach to the etiology of disease and as a call to re-humanize clinical practice. This common reading of Engel's model misses the central aspect of his proposal, that the biopsychosocial model is an epistemology for clinical work. By stating the simple fact that the clinician is not dealing directly with a body, but first, and inevitably, with a person, Engel challenged the epistemology implicit in the classical clinical method-a method predicated on the possibility of direct access to the body. Framed in epistemological terms, the issue at stake is not the need to complement medical science with humane virtues, but rather to acknowledge that the object of clinical practice is not the body but the patient.

  2. Mixed methods research for the novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2006-10-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular in the health and social science disciplines. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the varieties of mixed methods designs. We begin by situating mixed methods research in the context of a paradigmatic framework which assists a researcher in making decisions concerning the design of their study. Although the most commonly used mixed methods designs are underpinned by positivist/postpositivist assumptions, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods can be used within any research paradigm.

  3. [Methodologic and epistemologic reflections on acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Pascual, P

    1989-01-01

    Methodological difficulties met in acupuncture cannot be overcome without epistemological analysis by researchers and practitioners. This is because of the 'cognitivo-cultural' gap between Occidental and Chinese traditions. With this aim, the author considers the role of cognitive expectancies in the effect of antalgic acupuncture, and draws epistemological then methodological conclusions. After comparing the advent of the holistic movement with the crisis of rationalism in medicine, an attempt is made to formulate an evaluation of the problems in acupuncture in terms of metaphysical realism. The author challenges the holistic model compared to the orthodox bio-medical model.

  4. Introduction: toward an understanding of epistemology and deafness.

    PubMed

    Paul, Peter V; Moores, Donald F

    2010-01-01

    The major concept of epistemology--or epistemologies--is discussed, as well as related terms such as paradigm and science. Also covered are two broad paradigms, the clinical and the cultural, that seem to drive theorizing, research, and practice regarding individuals who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The two paradigms emanate from different epistemologies and might account for much of the tension in research and practice. Finally, the authors present their view on the nature of scholarly inquiries-namely, that theory, research, and practice should adhere to the principles of a multiparadigmatic science.

  5. Focus on Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M.

    A brief review of the papers presented at the Symposium on Research and Evaluation Methodology highlights some of the major issues of research in Indian Country. There is a need to translate research results into terms that are meaningful at the local level, yet the act of doing this reveals tensions between scientific objectivity and advocacy.…

  6. Protagorean Epistemology and Dialectic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Brian R.

    Contemporary dispute among teachers of rhetoric between those who prefer the classical tradition of rhetoric and those who champion an epistemic view of rhetoric has antecedents among the disputes of the ancient Greek scholars. Some of the vital themes of epistemology can be traced back to Protagoras of Abdera, one of the two great leaders of the…

  7. Lockean Social Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Locke's reputation as a sceptic regarding testimony, and the resultant mockery by epistemologists with social inclinations, is well known. In particular Michael Welbourne, in his article "The Community of Knowledge" (1981), depicts Lockean epistemology as fundamentally opposed to a social conception of knowledge, claiming that he…

  8. Lockean Social Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Locke's reputation as a sceptic regarding testimony, and the resultant mockery by epistemologists with social inclinations, is well known. In particular Michael Welbourne, in his article "The Community of Knowledge" (1981), depicts Lockean epistemology as fundamentally opposed to a social conception of knowledge, claiming that he…

  9. What's Epistemology Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Feminist standpoint epistemology is neither a necessary nor a sufficient starting point for social work intervention research. Contemporary social scientists readily grapple with cultural, political, and/or structural aspects of social problems either in the absence of or in conjunction with an explicitly formulated feminist standpoint…

  10. [Introduction to epistemology in nursing sciences].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The development of nursing research is one of the stages in the process for the professionalization of nurses. An epistemological reflection which took place gradually became necessary. Today, three traditions derived from the positivist, interpretative and critical approaches orientate reflections on nursing sciences, not without some controversy and debate.

  11. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  12. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  13. Graduate Teaching Assistants' Epistemological and Metacognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi-Urena, Santiago; Cooper, Melanie M.; Gatlin, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Research in general chemistry laboratory instruction has rarely focused on the impact of the learning environment on the graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). We decided to investigate the effect that facilitating a well established cooperative problem-based chemistry laboratory has on GTAs' epistemological and metacognitive development, and how…

  14. Relations between Epistemological Beliefs and Culture Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulimma, Maren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs, defined as individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the process of knowing, are assumed to serve an important function in regulating the application of individuals' learning behaviour. Previous research has mainly been shaped by the framework of results of white, well-educated people from North…

  15. Artifact-based reflective interviews for identifying pragmatic epistemological resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher Walden

    Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research

  16. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  17. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  18. Does Feminism Convince Us: A Response to ''The Case for Feminist Standpoint Epistemology in Social Work Research''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Clio Belle

    2017-01-01

    A response to the critique of where social work research currently stands, as put forth by Garrow and Hasenfeld, and their position that social work research should be undertaken from a feminist perspective. It is important to remember the origins and foundation of feminist thought and to approach research and practice with a full understanding of…

  19. Media Research Methods: Measuring Audiences, Reactions and Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie

    Discussing the theoretical underpinnings of media research methodologies, this book provides a broad overview of the methodological perspectives adopted by media researchers in their attempt to derive a better understanding of the nature, role, and impact of media in society. By tracing the epistemological and theoretical roots of the major…

  20. A Critical Reflection on Comparative Communication Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myung Koo

    This paper examines the unresolved epistemological and theoretical problems in comparative communication research. The first section examines what "comparative" means by reviewing various fields in the social sciences. The second section provides an overview of epistemic assumptions of comparative communication research and suggests that in the…

  1. A Critical Reflection on Comparative Communication Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myung Koo

    This paper examines the unresolved epistemological and theoretical problems in comparative communication research. The first section examines what "comparative" means by reviewing various fields in the social sciences. The second section provides an overview of epistemic assumptions of comparative communication research and suggests that in the…

  2. Putting Ourselves on the Line: The Epistemology of the Hyphen, Intersubjectivity and Social Responsibility in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granek, Leeat

    2013-01-01

    As researchers, we are intertwined in our research relationships in two ways that put us on the line. First, our very beings are co-constituted and developed in an intersubjective exchange with the people we work with. Acknowledging our interdependence frees us to take an empathetic and hermeneutic stance that I have termed the "epistemology…

  3. Why Shouldn't Teachers and Teacher Educators Conduct Research on Their Own Practices? An Epistemological Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Ponte, Petra; van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2007-01-01

    The idea of teachers and teacher educators engaging in research is not, in itself, new, but in recent years the propagation of this idea seems to have become really popular. This growing popularity brings the risk that practitioner research will degenerate into an increasingly vague and obscure "container concept". The aim of this article is to…

  4. [Ettore Majoran's transversal epistemology].

    PubMed

    Bontems, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    « Il valore delle leggi statistiche nella fisica e nelle scienze sociali » is Ettore Majorana's only work on science. It offers a critique of classical determinism, establishing an analogy between the laws of quantum mechanics and social science and arguing that both are intrinsically linked to probability. This article first studies this argument from the standpoing of metaphysics, physics, and sociology, and then assesses the significance of this transversal epistemology.

  5. Essential Tensions in Interdisciplinary Scholarship: Navigating Challenges in Affect, Epistemologies, and Structure in Environment-Society Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, V. Kelly; Benessaiah, Karina; Warren, Scott; Iwaniec, David

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have enumerated unique challenges to collaborative interdisciplinary research, many of which evade prescriptive solutions. Some of these challenges can be understood as "essential tensions," necessary and persistent contradictory imperatives in the scientific process. Drawing from interviews with internationally renowned…

  6. Essential Tensions in Interdisciplinary Scholarship: Navigating Challenges in Affect, Epistemologies, and Structure in Environment-Society Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, V. Kelly; Benessaiah, Karina; Warren, Scott; Iwaniec, David

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have enumerated unique challenges to collaborative interdisciplinary research, many of which evade prescriptive solutions. Some of these challenges can be understood as "essential tensions," necessary and persistent contradictory imperatives in the scientific process. Drawing from interviews with internationally renowned…

  7. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  8. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  9. Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990)…

  10. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. © Georg Thieme

  11. Of Languages and Epistemologies: Reflections of a Graduate International Student on the Road to Becoming a Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    It is late at night, after working all day on her postdoctoral research Laura Colombo is trying to wind down while drawing and jotting down thoughts in her notebook. She is in the living room/office of her apartment in Buenos Aires, the city where she was born and left when she was 26 years old to pursue her graduate studies in the United States…

  12. The Production of Knowledge about the Building of Values in Physical Education at School: Methods, Methodology and Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Elisabete dos Santos; Miranda, Maria Luiza de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a wide range of published research analysing the possible influences of physical education at school over the building of values. Some of these studies indicate positive outcomes while others demonstrate that the influence of physical education at school over the values built by students is not as beneficial as believed. When…

  13. The Production of Knowledge about the Building of Values in Physical Education at School: Methods, Methodology and Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Elisabete dos Santos; Miranda, Maria Luiza de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a wide range of published research analysing the possible influences of physical education at school over the building of values. Some of these studies indicate positive outcomes while others demonstrate that the influence of physical education at school over the values built by students is not as beneficial as believed. When…

  14. Patterns of Epistemological Beliefs among Filipino Students at a Graduate Seminary in Manila: Cultural Perspectives and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano-Soberano, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Research points to the centrality of one's personal epistemology to learning. While most studies were conducted in Western countries, the few studies done in non-Western contexts have shown varied number and nature of epistemological belief dimensions pointing to the cultural specificity of epistemological beliefs. A culturally-sensitive study…

  15. The Chasm between Beliefs and Practice: A Case Study of the Epistemological Positions of Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richie; Baker, Marshall A.; Goossen, Carmelita E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in epistemological research suggest that teachers' epistemological beliefs influence the approaches he or she employs in both teaching and learning. Therefore, the purpose of this instrumental case study was to understand the initial epistemological positions of pre-service agricultural education teachers at Oklahoma State…

  16. The Chasm between Beliefs and Practice: A Case Study of the Epistemological Positions of Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richie; Baker, Marshall A.; Goossen, Carmelita E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in epistemological research suggest that teachers' epistemological beliefs influence the approaches he or she employs in both teaching and learning. Therefore, the purpose of this instrumental case study was to understand the initial epistemological positions of pre-service agricultural education teachers at Oklahoma State…

  17. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R; Wasco, S M

    2000-12-01

    This paper is a primer for community psychologists on feminist research. Much like the field of community psychology, feminist scholarship is defined by its values and process. Informed by the political ideologies of the 1970s women's movement (liberal, radical, socialist feminism, and womanism), feminist scholars reinterpreted classic concepts in philosophy of science to create feminist epistemologies and methodologies. Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge. Feminist methodologies attempt to eradicate sexist bias in research and find ways to capture women's voices that are consistent with feminist ideals. Practically, the process of feminist research is characterized by four primary features: (1) expanding methodologies to include both quantitative and qualitative methods, (2) connecting women for group-level data collection, (3) reducing the hierarchical relationship between researchers and their participants to facilitate trust and disclosure, and (4) recognizing and reflecting upon the emotionality of women's lives. Recommendations for how community psychologists can integrate feminist scholarship into their practice are discussed.

  19. A social justice epistemology and pedagogy for Latina/o students: Transforming public education with participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine F

    2009-01-01

    The article reports on Latina/o high school students who conducted participatory action research (PAR) on problems that circumscribe their possibilities for self-determination. The intention is to legitimize student knowledge to develop effective educational policies and practices for young Latinas/os. PAR is engaged through the Social Justice Education Project, which provides students with all social science requirements for their junior and senior years. The mandated curriculum is supplemented with advanced-level readings from Chicana/o studies, critical race theory, critical pedagogy, and, most important, PAR. The intention is for students to meet the requirements for graduation and to develop sophisticated critical analyses to address problems in their own social contexts.

  20. Intersectional Epistemologies of Ignorance: How Behavioral and Social Science Research Shapes What We Know, Think We Know, and Don't Know About U.S. Black Men's Sexualities.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana María; Holt, Sidney L; Pérez, Carolin; Massie, Jenné S; Mandell, Jessica E; A Boone, Cheriko

    2017-03-13

    Epistemologies of ignorance describe how ignorance influences the production of knowledge. Advancing an intersectional epistemologies of ignorance approach that examines how conscious (or unconscious) ignorance about racism, heterosexism, and classism shapes empirical knowledge about Black men's sexualities, we conducted a critical review of the behavioral and social science research on U.S. Black men, ages 18 and older, for two time frames: pre-1981 and the most recent decade, 2006-2016. Our search yielded 668 articles, which we classified into five categories: sexual violence, sexual experiences and expressions, sexual identities, cultural and social-structural influences, and sexual health and sexual risk. We found that most of the research, particularly pre-1981, centered the experiences of White heterosexual men as normative and implicitly constructed Black men as hypersexual or deviant. Most of the research also color-blinded White privilege and ignored how racism, heterosexism, and classism structured Black men's inequities. We also found notable exceptions to these trends. Black men who are gay, bisexual, or who have sex with men, and research on HIV risk were prominent in the past decade, as was research that emphasized the social-structural (e.g., poverty, heterosexism, racism) and cultural (e.g., masculinity, religion) contexts of Black men's lives and sexualities. We provide 10 recommendations to avoid intersectional epistemic ignorance in future research.

  1. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  2. Epistemologies of Ignorance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik; Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies of Ignorance provide educators a distinct epistemological view on questions of marginalization, oppression, relations of power and dominance, difference, philosophy, and even death among our youth. The authors of this edited collection challenge the ambivalence--ignorance--found in the construction of curriculum, teaching practices,…

  3. Epistemology as Education: Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    In his Introduction to this Special Edition of "Education Sciences," Andrew Stables points out that often, epistemological questions in education have been pursued in isolation from ethics and other social concerns. In part, this problem has been addressed by "local" epistemologies--feminist, queer, post-colonial, postmodern…

  4. Epistemologies of Ignorance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik; Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies of Ignorance provide educators a distinct epistemological view on questions of marginalization, oppression, relations of power and dominance, difference, philosophy, and even death among our youth. The authors of this edited collection challenge the ambivalence--ignorance--found in the construction of curriculum, teaching practices,…

  5. Epistemological Beliefs of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bethany A.; Magun-Jackson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate and graduate engineering students' epistemological beliefs as a function of their educational level. Schommer's (1998) Epistemological Questionnaire was used to assess the beliefs in quick learning, certain knowledge, fixed ability, and simple knowledge of 396 students attending two universities in Western…

  6. Deaf epistemologies as a critique and alternative to the practice of science: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Goedele A M

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, and responding to the criticism of orientalism, anthropology has engaged in a self-critical practice, working toward a postcolonial perspective on science and an epistemological stance of partial and situated knowledge (Pinxten, 2006; Pinxten & Note, 2005). In deaf studies, anthropological and sociological studies employing qualitative and ethnographic methods have introduced a paradigm shift. Concepts of deaf culture and deaf identity have been employed as political tools, contributing to the emancipation process of deaf people. However, recent anthropological studies in diverse local contexts indicate the cultural construction of these notions. From this viewpoint, deaf studies faces a challenge to reflect on the notions of culture, emancipation, and education from a nonexclusive, noncolonial perspective. Deaf studies research in a global context needs to deal with cultural and linguistic diversity in human beings and academia. This calls for epistemological reflection and new research methods.

  7. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  8. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  9. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  10. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  11. CSM parallel structural methods research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  12. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  13. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  14. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  15. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  16. Predicting Change in Epistemological Beliefs, Reflective Thinking and Learning Styles: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although extensive research has examined epistemological beliefs, reflective thinking and learning approaches, very few studies have looked at these three theoretical frameworks in their totality. Aims: This research tested two separate structural models of epistemological beliefs, learning approaches, reflective thinking and academic…

  17. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  18. Epistemology in Education: Epistemological Development Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbas, Rachida

    2013-01-01

    Learning is a continuous process, and through the process of learning, people acquire or construct new knowledge; this knowledge is evaluated implicitly or explicitly (Hofer, 2000). Research on beliefs about knowledge has become an important field of inquiry in educational research (Hofer & Pintrich, 1997). This field of research has emerged…

  19. Statistical Methods for Cardiovascular Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Moyé, Lem

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Biostatistics continues to play an essential role in contemporary cardiovascular investigations, but successful implementation of biostatistical methods can be complex. Objective To present the rationale behind statistical applications and to review useful tools for cardiology research. Methods and Results Prospective declaration of the research question, clear methodology, and study execution that adheres to the protocol together serve as the critical foundation of a research endeavor. Both parametric and distribution-free measures of central tendency and dispersion are presented. T-testing, analysis of variance, and regression analyses are reviewed. Survival analysis, logistic regression, and interim monitoring are also discussed. Finally, common weaknesses in statistical analyses are considered. Conclusion Biostatistics can be productively applied to cardiovascular research if investigators 1) develop and rely on a well-written protocol and analysis plan, 2) consult with a biostatistician when necessary, and 3) write results clearly, differentiating confirmatory from exploratory findings. PMID:26846639

  20. Relationship between nursing students' epistemological beliefs and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Kaya, Hülya

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing students' epistemologic beliefs and locus of control, and the research was conducted at Istanbul University Florence Nightingale School of Nursing with 350 nursing students. Data were collected using the Turkish version of the Epistemological beliefs questionnaire and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. In the data analysis number, percentage, mean, correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test were used. The findings as whole indicated that nursing students' epistemological beliefs that "The Belief of Learning Depends on Effort (Effort)" showed a greater degree of development than their beliefs about the two other dimensions as named "The Belief of Learning Depends on Ability (Ability)" and "The Belief That There is Only One Unchanging Truth (Unchanging Truth)" in this study, while their belief that there is Unchanging Truth was not developed when compared to the other two. There was a positive correlation between nursing students locus of control and Effort and Ability dimensions, but a significant correlation was not found with Unchanging Truth dimension. This researcher suggests that research should be carried out to determine nursing students' epistemological beliefs and the factors influencing them in an environment to promote the development of these beliefs, and thus the research can be used to learn about the development of the epistemological beliefs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epistemological beliefs in introductory biology: Addressing measurement concerns and exploring the relationship with strategy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschuh, Jodi Lynn

    This study had two main purposes: to address measurement concerns about assessing students' epistemological beliefs and to explore the relationship between epistemological beliefs and deep and surface strategy use in an introductory biology classroom. The following research questions guided the study: (a) Are epistemological beliefs multidimensional? (b) Are the measures of epistemological beliefs correlated? (c) Are the measures of strategy use correlated? (d) Are epistemological beliefs correlated with deep and surface strategy use? (e) How much of the unique variance in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, grade point average (GPA), and course grade is accounted for by epistemological beliefs and strategy use? (f) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of mature epistemological beliefs? and (g) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of deep strategies? Participants (N = 518) were recruited from two sections of an introductory biology course. All participants completed five assessments including the Epistemological Questionnaire, the Epistemological Scenario, the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory, two strategy checklists, and an open-ended questionnaire. The factor analysis, which was used to answer the first question, indicated no clear loading of the hypothesized dimensions underlying epistemological beliefs as measured by the Epistemological Questionnaire. However, the factor analysis of the Epistemological Scenario indicated four factors underlying epistemological beliefs (i.e., certain knowledge, innate ability, quick learning, and simple knowledge). In addition, the correlation analyses, which were used to answer the second, third, and fourth questions, indicated a significant relationship between epistemological beliefs and strategy use. The multiple regression commonality analysis, which was used to answer the fifth

  2. Applications of interpretive and constructionist research methods in adolescent research: philosophy, principles and examples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Shek, Daniel T L; Bu, Fei-Fei

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to interpretivism, constructionism and constructivism. Similarities and differences between interpretivism and constructionism in terms of their histories and branches, ontological and epistemological stances, as well as research applications are highlighted. This review shows that whereas interpretivism can be viewed as a relatively mature orientation that contains various traditions, constructionism is a looser trend in adolescent research, and in the narrow sense denotes the "pure" relativist position, which refers to a discursive approach of theory and research. Both positions call for the importance of clearly identifying what type of knowledge and knowledge process the researcher is going to create, and correctly choosing methodology matching with the epistemological stance. Examples of adolescent research adopting interpretivist and constructionist orientations are presented.

  3. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research. PMID:19386828

  4. Understanding the experience of stroke: a mixed-method research agenda.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-06-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.

  5. Forecasting Methods for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Linda W.; Young, Dean M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing demands for accurate forecasts in such areas as student enrollment, energy expenditures, and facility capacity are placing new demands on the institutional researcher. A variety of forecasting models and methods are available, all to be used with caution in long-range forecasting. (Author/MSE)

  6. Forecasting Methods for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Linda W.; Young, Dean M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing demands for accurate forecasts in such areas as student enrollment, energy expenditures, and facility capacity are placing new demands on the institutional researcher. A variety of forecasting models and methods are available, all to be used with caution in long-range forecasting. (Author/MSE)

  7. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  8. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  9. Challenging the epistemological foundations of EBM: what kind of knowledge does clinical practice require?

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina J; Rogers, Wendy A

    2012-10-01

    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question the notion of the knower that is assumed by EBM. We argue that EBM assumes an enlightenment conception of knowers as autonomous, substitutable individuals. This conception is troubled by the way that clinicians learn the role of anecdote in health care and the role of patient choice, all of which bring into play features of clinicians and patients as situated individuals with particular backgrounds and experiences. EBM's enlightenment conception of the knower is also troubled by aspects of the way evidence is produced. Given these limitations, we argue that EBM should retain its reliabilist bent, but should look beyond formal research methodologies in identifying processes that yield reliable evidence for clinical practice. We suggest looking to feminist epistemology, with its focus on the standpoints of individual situated knowers, and the role of social context in determining what counts as knowledge. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. An exploration of young children's understandings of genetics concepts from ontological and epistemological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

    2005-07-01

    This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and DNA. Data were collected by interview and were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. A theoretical framework consisting of an ontological perspective and an epistemological perspective informed the data analysis. The results indicate that the majority of students had a theory of kinship because they could differentiate between socially and genetically inherited characteristics. While these students had heard of the concepts gene and DNA, a bona fide theory of genetics was elusive because they did not know where genes are or what they do. The discussion explores popular cultural origins of students' understandings and potential ontological and epistemological barriers to further learning about genetics.

  11. A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Bonnie Bost

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

  12. Epistemology and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, I.E.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the concept of epistemic justification, with particular reference to establishing conditions under which this concept can be applied to computer reasoning systems: what is it, we ask, to say of a computer that it has arrived at an unjustified conclusion-that it has reasoned as it (rationally) ought not to have reasoned. This problem is important because of its relevance to the relations between the two conceptual schemes of mind, thought, and reasoning on the one hand, and of computers, programs, and computation on the other. The main findings are: (i) Certain epistemological concepts find natural application to some types of computer-reasoning systems. (ii) Such reasoning systems will themselves require these concepts to articulate the principles of reasoning they accept. (iii) Judgments involving the concept of epistemic justification can be explained in terms of the concepts thus identified. The present account of justification has a noncognitivist flavor: A theory is given of what it is to have certain beliefs involving the concept of epistemic justification by saying how such beliefs function; we remain silent as to what, if anything, those beliefs are about.

  13. Reconsidering Personal Epistemology as Metacognition: A Multifaceted Approach to the Analysis of Epistemic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzilai, Sarit; Zohar, Anat

    2014-01-01

    One of the central unresolved conceptual issues that concerns researchers of personal epistemology is the characterization of the intersection between personal epistemology and cognitional. The contested and diverse nature of both constructs makes untangling their connections a complex yet vital task. The purpose of this article is to advance the…

  14. Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Their Teaching and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çam, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    The epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers influence both their teaching experiences and their students' content understanding. Little research has been devoted to the interaction between teachers' epistemological beliefs and teaching practices (Schraw & Olafson, 2002). To address this gap, this study investigated primary pre-service…

  15. The Domain Generality--Specificity of Epistemological Beliefs: A Theoretical Problem, a Methodological Problem or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Research on epistemological beliefs has clearly increased in the last decade. Even though the construct is clearer and relevant data are being collected, there are important theoretical and methodological issues that need further clarification. One of them is the debate about the domain generality-specificity of epistemological beliefs. I argue…

  16. Reconsidering Personal Epistemology as Metacognition: A Multifaceted Approach to the Analysis of Epistemic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzilai, Sarit; Zohar, Anat

    2014-01-01

    One of the central unresolved conceptual issues that concerns researchers of personal epistemology is the characterization of the intersection between personal epistemology and cognitional. The contested and diverse nature of both constructs makes untangling their connections a complex yet vital task. The purpose of this article is to advance the…

  17. Epistemological Beliefs across Cultures: Critique and Analysis of Beliefs Structure Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Elliott, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The findings of epistemological beliefs studies in North America, Hong Kong and Taiwan were compared and interpreted in terms of the different cultural contexts and methodologies used in the research studies. Based on cross culture analysis a hypothesis for the structure of epistemological beliefs was proposed. Implications were also drawn for…

  18. Investigating the Relationships among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2010-01-01

    The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students' perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626…

  19. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs: A Study of Student and Course Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The research project described herein was designed to measure teacher education students' epistemological beliefs. Teacher education students' epistemological beliefs were compared according to participants' academic and demographic characteristics as well as characteristics of the courses in which students are enrolled at the time of study data…

  20. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Laboratory Activities: Linking Epistemological Beliefs, Goals, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how science teachers' epistemological beliefs and teaching goals are related to their use of lab activities. Research questions include: (1) What are the teachers' epistemological beliefs pertaining to lab activities? (2) Why do the science teachers use lab activities? (3) How are the teachers'…

  1. Information Literacy: A Positivist Epistemology and a Politics of Outformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that a positivist philosophical orientation makes the information literacy framework for school library research incompatible with emergent concepts of knowledge and epistemology for digital and online environments, reviewing government policy documents and research promoting information literacy as an antidote to information overload and…

  2. Information Literacy: A Positivist Epistemology and a Politics of Outformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that a positivist philosophical orientation makes the information literacy framework for school library research incompatible with emergent concepts of knowledge and epistemology for digital and online environments, reviewing government policy documents and research promoting information literacy as an antidote to information overload and…

  3. Without boundaries: an inquiry into deaf epistemologies through a metaparadigm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate on Deaf epistemologies reflects two major paradigms in deaf education: positivism and constructivism. The present article investigates Deaf epistemologies through a metaparadigm, which should blur the boundaries among different paradigms and connect the epistemological inquiry to instructional practice for d/Deaf students. The author states that researchers and educators should not be obsessed with defending a particular paradigm and attacking others, but should move toward paradigmatic integration. If successful instructional practices are to be fully understood, each paradigm needs insights from the others. Furthermore, effective classroom instruction should be based on the goal of the educational activity and the ability of the students in the classroom. Mainstream theories and research in English literacy education can and should be applicable to d/Deaf students; furthermore, using appropriate instructional tools, teachers of the d/Deaf can and should teach phonologically related skills to their students.

  4. Epistemologies, deafness, learning, and teaching.

    PubMed

    Moores, Donald F

    2010-01-01

    The study of Deaf epistemologies is in a nascent stage relative to, e.g., the study of feminist or African American epistemologies. It has only recently begun attracting the widespread attention it deserves. The present article addresses Deaf epistemologies as they relate to the sometimes conflicting trends in American society and education. In a relatively short period, the education of deaf students has gone from an independent enterprise under the aegis of special education to heavy influence by No Child Left Behind legislation that applies to virtually all American students. American education at one and the same time embraces and celebrates diversity, imposes uniform, rigid learning standards for all children, and mandates that all children be tested in the same way. An oxymoron exists of individualized educational planning and one-size-fits-all curricula and assessment of academic achievement. Implications for teaching and learning of deaf students are explored.

  5. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    PubMed

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  6. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  7. Combining the power of stories and the power of numbers: mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews.

    PubMed

    Pluye, Pierre; Hong, Quan Nha

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews. These two approaches are used to combine the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods and to compensate for their respective limitations. This article is structured in three main parts. First, the epistemological background for mixed methods will be presented. Afterward, we present the main types of mixed methods research designs and techniques as well as guidance for planning, conducting, and appraising mixed methods research. In the last part, we describe the main types of mixed studies reviews and provide a tool kit and examples. Future research needs to offer guidance for assessing mixed methods research and reporting mixed studies reviews, among other challenges.

  8. Epistemological Beliefs and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving in Solo and Paired Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2012-01-01

    A mixed-method exploratory approach was employed to examine the relationship between epistemological beliefs and quality of thinking when participants first thought about an ill-structured problem alone, and then with another person in a dyad. The results showed that there was not a systematic connection between epistemological beliefs and…

  9. Epistemological Beliefs and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving in Solo and Paired Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2012-01-01

    A mixed-method exploratory approach was employed to examine the relationship between epistemological beliefs and quality of thinking when participants first thought about an ill-structured problem alone, and then with another person in a dyad. The results showed that there was not a systematic connection between epistemological beliefs and…

  10. Stimulated Recall Interviews for Describing Pragmatic Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources…

  11. Deaf Epistemology: The Deaf Way of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The standard epistemology requires the use of hard science to gain knowledge and discover the truth. In contrast, Deaf epistemology relies heavily on personal testimonies, personal experiences, and personal accounts to document knowledge. In recent years, a number of deaf schools have adopted deaf-centric policies shaped by Deaf epistemology in an…

  12. Stimulated Recall Interviews for Describing Pragmatic Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources…

  13. Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction?

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R; Goward, P

    2000-03-01

    Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction? In response to issues arising out of curriculum developments, the authors wished to examine more closely the potential reasons why psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses appear to gravitate towards certain research methodologies. This paper therefore briefly examines the essential differences between qualitative and quantitative research paradigms, focusing on philosophical, epistemological and methodological issues. It then proceeds to examine some of the essential characteristics and attributes of P/MH nurses and suggests some differences in emphasis between these and other disciplines of nursing. The authors posit that psychiatric/mental health nurses are drawn to the qualitative paradigm as a result of the potential synchronicity and linkage that appears to exist between the practice of mental health nursing and qualitative research. This apparent synchronicity appears to centre around the three themes of: (a) the purposeful use of self; (b) the creation of an interpersonal relationship; and (c) the ability to accept and embrace ambiguity and uncertainty. Given this alleged synchronicity the authors argue that there are implications for nurse education and nursing research. Further it is possible that each nursing situation where the mental health nurse forms a relationship and attempts to gain an empathic sense of the individual's world is akin to an informal phenomenological study, the product of which would be a wealth of qualitative data. However, as this would be a subconscious, implicit process, the data would remain predominantly unprocessed. The authors conclude that perhaps these data are the knowledge that expert practitioners draw upon when making intuition-based clinical judgements.

  14. Untraining Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that educational research curriculum that repeats formalized, scientized, pre-existing, methods-driven social science research methodologies stifle the present and future of educational research. Because such methodologies are too often disconnected from their onto-epistemological commitments, she argues for a reconnection with…

  15. Untraining Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that educational research curriculum that repeats formalized, scientized, pre-existing, methods-driven social science research methodologies stifle the present and future of educational research. Because such methodologies are too often disconnected from their onto-epistemological commitments, she argues for a reconnection with…

  16. Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer-Healing Systems Between Biomedicine and the Maya of Guatemala: A Tool for Reciprocal Reflexivity in a Multi-Epistemological Setting.

    PubMed

    Berger-González, Mónica; Stauffacher, Michael; Zinsstag, Jakob; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Transdisciplinarity (TD) is a participatory research approach in which actors from science and society work closely together. It offers means for promoting knowledge integration and finding solutions to complex societal problems, and can be applied within a multiplicity of epistemic systems. We conducted a TD process from 2011 to 2014 between indigenous Mayan medical specialists from Guatemala and Western biomedical physicians and scientists to study cancer. Given the immense cultural gap between the partners, it was necessary to develop new methods to overcome biases induced by ethnocentric behaviors and power differentials. This article describes this intercultural cooperation and presents a method of reciprocal reflexivity (Bidirectional Emic-Etic tool) developed to overcome them. As a result of application, researchers observed successful knowledge integration at the epistemic level, the social-organizational level, and the communicative level throughout the study. This approach may prove beneficial to others engaged in facilitating participatory health research in complex intercultural settings.

  17. Dialogues on Mixed-Methods and Mental Health Services Research: Anticipating Challenges, Building Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Cynthia S.; Ware, Norma C.; dosReis, Susan; Willging, Cathleen E.; Chung, Joyce Y.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, contemporary mental health services research projects aim to combine qualitative and quantitative components. Yet researchers often lack theoretical and practical guidance for undertaking such studies. In September 2006 the authors convened under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health at a working conference, “Mixed Methods in Community-Based Mental Health Services Research.” This meeting provided the opportunity for participants to share their experiences in conducting mixed-methods research, to critically consider problems they had encountered and their solutions, and to develop guiding principles for others conducting similar research. The authors' discussions, which are described in this article, emphasize that the problems encountered by mixed-methods research teams are rarely simple misunderstandings but often reflect epistemological differences that are overlooked in the study planning phases. Failure to acknowledge these different worldviews may result in significant tensions between members of the study team, use of qualitative methods that are insufficient or inappropriate for a particular research question, or serious conflicts when team members belatedly discover they are interpreting key concepts—or each other's research techniques—differently. The authors conclude that ongoing communication is the organizing principle for robust and effective mixed-methods research. Among the recommendations for preventing problems are collaboration between quantitative and qualitative researchers during the study design phase; open acknowledgement of the philosophical approaches brought to the study by various team members; and because not all challenges can be anticipated, a shared willingness to negotiate emerging problems. PMID:18586988

  18. Epistemological Realism in Cognitive Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Jack

    An inappropriate epistemological realism continues to dominate cognitive science. Realism, the idea that there is a single, univocal world which exists independently of us but which we can come to know, is tacitly accepted by almost the whole body of cognitive science. The fatal flaw in any realist approach to cognition and perception is that the…

  19. Epistemological Grounds for Cybernetic Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses philosophical grounds for artificial intelligence (AI) and cybernetic models by investigating three epistemological views--realism, a priorism, and phenomenology--to determine the problems in information transfer between a model and the real world. It is suggested that phenomenology demonstrates the most promise for opening up…

  20. Personal Epistemologies and Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…

  1. Images, Words, and Narrative Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews work suggesting that imagery and language function in tandem to constitute a sense of being, and that metaphors of sight hold as much formative power as metaphors of word. Describes the limitations of language and the ways in which imagery compensates for that limitation. Discusses narrative of epistemology as a fusion of image and…

  2. Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Griffin W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

  3. Deaf Epistemology: Deafhood and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Peter C.; O'Hearn, Amanda; McKee, Michael; Steider, Anne; Thew, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Deaf epistemology constitutes the nature and extent of the knowledge that deaf individuals acquire growing up in a society that relies primarily on audition to navigate life. Deafness creates beings who are more visually oriented compared to their auditorily oriented peers. How hearing individuals interact with deaf individuals shapes how deaf…

  4. Knowing how we know: an epistemological rationale for the medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Chiavaroli, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Although their inclusion in medical curricula internationally is increasing, the medical humanities still face challenges to their role and place in the curriculum. Justifications supporting the inclusion of humanities content, methods and perspectives in medical curricula have generally been proposed along instrumental, intrinsic and critical lines. However, recent literature in the field has turned to 'ways of knowing' as representing an alternative, essentially epistemological, perspective on the matter. This involves the claim that the medical humanities align with and promote characteristic ways of understanding and practising medicine, which are not adequately represented in traditional disciplinary frameworks. Such epistemological arguments aim to move beyond generic claims of medicine as both an 'art' and a 'science' to explore the way in which the humanities support the ultimate objectives of a medical education, particularly in relation to claims about requisite knowledge and typical reasoning. Not only can this help focus attempts to identify and document relevant learning or clinical outcomes, but it can potentially uncover evidence from education outcomes research which may not have been the focus of previous inquiry in the medical humanities and which may in fact be associated, at least in part, with curricular activities formally associated with humanities disciplines. An epistemological view of the humanities in medical education offers a significant new way of conceptualising and communicating the potential role of the humanities in medical training. If clinical practice can be characterised as rational but interpretive, partly predictable yet fundamentally uncertain, and logical but also intuitive, it follows that educational training should facilitate such ways of knowing and thinking. An epistemological perspective enables the argument that the medical humanities are valuable not because they are more 'humane', but because they help constitute

  5. Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Expectations, and Learning Physics: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    It has been established by physics education researchers that there is a correlation between the learner's behavior, their epistemological beliefs with which they come to the classrooms, and their success in a course. This study of Indian students and teachers explores expectations and beliefs in learning physics at the secondary and tertiary…

  6. Consistency and Development of Teachers' Epistemological and Ontological World Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Lori; Schraw, Gregory; Vander Veldt, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined epistemological and ontological world views using self-report surveys, brief written reflections, and an extended written action research project for a sample of 16 graduate students enrolled in an education class at a large university on the West coast of the USA. We made two predictions. We anticipated that the majority of students…

  7. Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Expectations, and Learning Physics: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    It has been established by physics education researchers that there is a correlation between the learner's behavior, their epistemological beliefs with which they come to the classrooms, and their success in a course. This study of Indian students and teachers explores expectations and beliefs in learning physics at the secondary and tertiary…

  8. Consistency and Development of Teachers' Epistemological and Ontological World Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Lori; Schraw, Gregory; Vander Veldt, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined epistemological and ontological world views using self-report surveys, brief written reflections, and an extended written action research project for a sample of 16 graduate students enrolled in an education class at a large university on the West coast of the USA. We made two predictions. We anticipated that the majority of students…

  9. Inferring Teacher Epistemological Framing from Local Patterns in Teacher Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we use research from science education on teacher framing and work from mathematics education on teacher noticing to develop new approaches to modeling teacher cognition. The framing literature proposes a dynamic cognitive model of teaching in which teacher epistemological framing, or moment-to-moment understanding of what is going on…

  10. Teacher Epistemology and Collective Narratives: Interrogating Teaching and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Susan Matoba

    2011-01-01

    This action research study interrogates how one teacher educator analyzed her pedagogy and engaged her students in writing narratives about working with children, families, and co-workers who are racially and ethnically different from themselves. Data were collected from a special topic graduate course entitled, Epistemology, Diversity and…

  11. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  12. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  13. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  14. Epistemological Trade-Offs: Accounting for Context When Evaluating Epistemological Sophistication of Student Engagement in Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema; Crucet, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Science education has long seen an emphasis on supporting students' epistemological understandings of how scientific knowledge is constructed and evaluated with the expectation that these understandings will support the students' own construction and evaluation of scientific knowledge. However, research has shown that this connection does not…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Epistemological Development in Teaching Learning Questionnaire (EDTLQ): An Inventory to Measure Higher Order Epistemological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellström, Sofia; Golino, Hudson; Hamer, Rebecca; Van Rossum, Erik Jan; Almers, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research supports a developmental dimension in views on teaching and learning, but there are currently no quantitative tools to measure the full range of this development. To address this, we developed the Epistemological Development in Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (EDTLQ). In the current study the psychometric properties of the…

  16. Epistemological beliefs in child care: implications for vocational education.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, J; Boulton-Lewis, G; Berthelsen, D

    2008-09-01

    The quality of child care is of social and economic significance worldwide. The beliefs that child care workers hold about knowing and knowledge (epistemological beliefs) influence the quality of their professional work. However, attention to epistemological beliefs is rarely a focus in vocational education programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of child care students' epistemological beliefs. All first- and second-year students completing a Diploma of Children's Services at three separate training institutes in a large metropolitan area in Australia were invited to participate in the study. There were 46 first- and 31 second-year students (77 in total, 71 females). This study used semi-structured interviews based on a child care scenario to enable students to articulate their epistemological beliefs. A descriptive-interpretative approach in which interviews were analysed for patterns of meaning was used in the content analysis. The categories, based on the work of Kuhn and Weinstock (2002), included objectivism, subjectivism, and evaluativism. While this proved to be a useful framework, the authors remained open to new categories emerging. This constituted the interpretive component of the analysis. Therefore, the data were analysed using both data-driven and theory-led approaches to analysis, which still made it possible to take account of many viewpoints before arriving at the categories of beliefs. The categories were audited by a second researcher to establish trustworthiness and credibility. The findings of this study revealed a range of epistemological beliefs; however, a new way of thinking about evaluativistic beliefs called 'basic evaluativism' emerged. This view of knowledge relates to the construction of evidence-based practice rather than knowledge as is typically the case in evaluativistic beliefs. Implications for the need to address epistemological beliefs in vocational education programmes for child care workers are

  17. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.

  18. Maternal Epistemological Perspectives and Variations in Mental State Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Bond, Lynne A.; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how complexity of maternal epistemological beliefs predicted mothers' and children's talk about the mind. Method: Twenty-eight mothers of 5- to 10-year-olds completed a measure of receptive vocabulary, and mothers and children participated in a storytelling task specifically designed to elicit talk about the mind.…

  19. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  20. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  1. [Sulfonamide-research on human subjects in Nazi concentration camps: a critical re-evaluation of the epistemological and ethical dimension].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Existing scholarship on the experiments performed in concentration camps beginning in 1942 on the value of sulfonamides in treatment of wound infections, in which inmates were used as experimental subjects, maintains that not only were the experiments ethically and legally completely reprehensible and unacceptable, but that they were also bad science in the sense that they were investigating questions that had already been resolved by valid medical research. In contrast to this, the paper argues on the basis of contemporary publications that the value of sulfonamides in the treatment of wound infections, including gas gangrene infections, was not yet established, that is, that the questions pursued by the experiments had not been resolved. It also argues that regarding their "design" and methodical principles, the experiments directly followed the rationality of contemporary clinical trials and animal experiments. However, for the step from animal to the human experiment, the experimental "objects" were only in regard to their body, but not to their individuality and subjectivity regarded as "human". In a concluding section, the paper lines out some implications for an adequate historical reconstruction of medical research on humans, in particular the importance of a combined focus on the scientific rationality as well as explicit or implicit value hierarchies. Further, the article points to the potential impact of such a revised image of the sulfonamide experiments for present day debates on the ethics of medical research.

  2. Health and human rights: epistemological status and perspectives of development.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance.

  3. Deaf epistemology: the deaf way of knowing.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Thomas K

    2010-01-01

    The standard epistemology requires the use of hard science to gain knowledge and discover the truth. In contrast, Deaf epistemology relies heavily on personal testimonies, personal experiences, and personal accounts to document knowledge. In recent years, a number of deaf schools have adopted deaf-centric policies shaped by Deaf epistemology in an effort to improve academic performance of deaf students. Because of federal laws, all schools are now expected to show accountability in the performance of their students, with data becoming increasingly available for public scrutiny. The preliminary data from three well-known deaf schools are beginning to show that the effectiveness of deaf-centric approaches can be substantiated by the standard epistemology. For this reason, Deaf epistemology and the standard epistemology should not always be viewed as having an oxymoronic relationship.

  4. Research Methods and Intelligibility Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…

  5. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  6. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  7. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  8. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  9. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  10. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  11. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  12. Toward a New Understanding of Epistemological Style: A Preliminary Factor Analysis of Epistemological Style Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; Migotsky, Christopher P.

    Empirical findings related to the development of a new measure of epistemological style are reported. After a review of available epistemological style inventories and individual item qualities, 93 items reflecting 7 epistemological styles were selected. The scale was administered to 222 college undergraduates and graduate students (102 males and…

  13. Links between parents' epistemological stance and children's evidence talk.

    PubMed

    Luce, Megan R; Callanan, Maureen A; Smilovic, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    Recent experimental research highlights young children's selectivity in learning from others. Little is known, however, about the patterns of information that children actually encounter in conversations with adults. This study investigated variation in parents' tendency to focus on testable evidence as a way to answer science-related questions (e.g., causes of climate change, extinction of species) and asked whether this is related to children's own use of evidence in conversation. Parents read a science-themed book with their 4- to 8-year-old children. Guided by D. Kuhn's framework of epistemological stances, we coded (a) parents' expressions of epistemology-related information (e.g., using evidence to reason about an opinion, appealing to statements of fact that do not need evidence, or pointing out that knowing for sure may not be possible) while discussing four science-related topics and (b) children's comments about evidence for two different science-related topics. We found variation in parents' expressions of epistemological information by children's age and gender for particular topics. Also, parents' expressions of evaluativist epistemology (expressing the value of reasoning with evidence) were correlated with children's talk about evidence. To the extent that children experience different conversational environments, they may seek different types of answers to questions, become familiar with different ways of thinking about "knowing," and develop different strategies for being selective about learning from the testimony of others.

  14. Secondary science teachers' use of laboratory activities: Linking epistemological beliefs, goals, and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how science teachers' epistemological beliefs and teaching goals are related to their use of lab activities. Research questions include (a) What are the teachers' epistemological beliefs pertaining to lab activities? (b) Why do the science teachers use lab activities? (c) How are the teachers' epistemological beliefs and instructional goals related to teaching actions? Two major aspects of epistemologies guided this study: ontological aspect (certainty/diversity of truth) and relational aspect (relationship between the knower and the known). The ontological aspect addresses whether one views knowledge as one certain truth or as tentative multiple truths. The relational aspect addresses whether one views him/herself as a receiver of prescribed knowledge separating self from knowledge construction or as an active meaning maker connecting self to the knowledge construction processes. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs include the acknowledgement of multiple interpretations of the same phenomena and active role of the knower in knowledge construction. Three experienced secondary science teachers were interviewed and observed throughout an academic course. The findings illustrate that a teacher's naïve epistemological beliefs are clearly reflected in the teacher's teaching practices. However, a teacher's sophisticated epistemological beliefs are not always clearly connected to the practice. This seems to be related to the necessary negotiation among their epistemological beliefs, teaching contexts, and instructional goals. Ontological and relational beliefs seem to be connected to different facets of teaching practices. Findings indicate that various syntheses of different aspects of epistemological beliefs and instructional goals are linked to teachers' diverse ways of using lab activities. Implications for research and teacher education are discussed.

  15. Epistemological considerations on neuroimaging--a crucial prerequisite for neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Huber, Christian G; Huber, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, 'neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new 'dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline.

  16. Research Methods and Data Analysis Procedures Used by Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tse-chi

    2005-01-01

    To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the "American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)," "Journal of Experimental Education (JEE)" and "Journal of Educational Research (JER)" from…

  17. Decomposition methods in turbulence research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uruba, Václav

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  18. Research essentials.

    PubMed

    English, Christine; Pengelly, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A RESEARCHER needs to select a methodology and methods that fit the purpose of the study and will be able to answer the questions it poses. Clarifying viewpoints about epistemology (the philosophical theory of knowledge) and ontology (the nature of reality) is also important because these perspectives can affect the choice of study design. Consideration must also be given to any specific criteria in the research proposal bid criteria.

  19. Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…

  20. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  1. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  2. Using mixed methods in health research

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  3. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  4. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  5. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  6. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  7. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  8. Two Different Epistemologies about Limit Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Joong; Kang, Hyangim; Lee, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of limit concepts through the simultaneous use of historical and experimental epistemologies. Based on a historical epistemology which is an investigation of historical developments in a mathematical concept raised in the history of mathematics, four different developments of limit…

  9. Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

  10. Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2012-01-01

    The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…

  11. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  12. The Epistemological Chain: Practical Applications in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grecic, David; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of personal epistemology in decision-making and proposes the construct of an epistemological chain (EC) to support this process in the domain of sports coaching. First, the EC is outlined using examples from education and other parallel disciplines. What it looks like to sports coaches is then described, and its…

  13. Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

  14. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  15. [Ludovico Geymonat: The problem of historical epistemology].

    PubMed

    Minazzi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The study of the various inspirations of Ludovico Geymonat's epistemology (positivism and neopositivism, neorationalism, historicism and dialectical materialism) illustrates the way in which for the Italian philosopher the problem of objectivity of knowledge remains inseparable from the historicity of the sciences. Geymonat's epistemological approach associates scientific progress to its objectivity.

  16. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  17. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  18. The Epistemological Chain: Practical Applications in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grecic, David; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of personal epistemology in decision-making and proposes the construct of an epistemological chain (EC) to support this process in the domain of sports coaching. First, the EC is outlined using examples from education and other parallel disciplines. What it looks like to sports coaches is then described, and its…

  19. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  20. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (γ-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  1. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  2. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  3. Introducing the concept of epistemological beliefs into medical education: the hot-air-balloon metaphor.

    PubMed

    Roex, Ann; Degryse, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The authors draw attention to the need to introduce the concept of epistemological beliefs into medical education. Epistemological beliefs are the cognitions (i.e., understandings) individuals have on knowledge and knowing and determine how (new) knowledge is perceived and processed. Within educational psychology, three different frameworks have been used to study epistemological beliefs. The authors describe these three frameworks and discuss their applicability and their significance for phrasing and studying issues that intuitively seem essential to medical educators. The metaphor of a piloted hot-air balloon illustrates the different factors contributing to medical expertise: the hot-air balloon's basket symbolizes the well-organized knowledge base, the envelope (i.e., air bag) stands for the skills repertoire of the pilot, and the burners represent motivation, intelligence, and other noncognitive factors. The pilot needs to achieve sophisticated levels of epistemological beliefs and metacognitive skills to be able to reach the upper levels of expertise with his well-equipped balloon. The metaphor emphasizes the dynamic disposition of expertise and offers a visual framework for designing curricula, assessment procedures, and educational research projects. Future research into medical students' epistemological beliefs should focus on outcome measures that are relevant within the medical education setting, and must take into account a number of pitfalls and difficulties inherent both in the concept of epistemological beliefs and in research in medical education.

  4. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  5. Scientific knowledge in medicine: a new clinical epistemology?

    PubMed

    Marshall, T

    1997-04-01

    Technological developments in the field of communications have widened access to research evidence and, as a result, scientific epistemology is in the ascendancy in the area of medical knowledge. This has been the subject of vigorous debate within the medical profession itself, with many opposing the increasing weight given to research evidence at the expense of expert opinion. Medicine has a professional culture which identifies knowledge with particular individuals - a 'person culture'. Much of the authority of physicians derives from the presumption that medical professionals have privileged access to medical knowledge. Scientific epistemology, on the other hand, identifies knowledge with a process of investigation. The esoteric knowledge to which expert individuals claim privileged access has no currency in this process. Because of this, the rise of scientific epistemology in medicine partially undermines the profession's authority. Access to scientific research evidence can be used to undermine the individual authority of professional experts. Illustrative examples are given of the nature of debate within a 'person culture' and of ways in which research evidence has been used to challenge the authority of physicians.

  6. Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study seeks to test the causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemologies on student conceptual learning in physics. A causal model, integrating multiple variables that were investigated separately in the prior literature, is proposed and tested through path analysis. These variables include student preinstructional reasoning skills measured by the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, pre- and postepistemological views measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, and pre- and postperformance on Newtonian concepts measured by the Force Concept Inventory. Students from a traditionally taught calculus-based introductory mechanics course at a research university participated in the study. Results largely support the postulated causal model and reveal strong influences of reasoning skills and preinstructional epistemology on student conceptual learning gains. Interestingly enough, postinstructional epistemology does not appear to have a significant influence on student learning gains. Moreover, pre- and postinstructional epistemology, although barely different from each other on average, have little causal connection between them.

  7. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  8. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  9. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  10. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  11. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  12. Epistemologies and scientific reasoning skills among undergraduate science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollohan, Katherine N.

    Non-cognitive factors such as students' attitudes and beliefs toward a subject and their proficiency in scientific reasoning are important aspects of learning within science disciplines. Both factors have been studied in relation to science education in various discplines. This dissertation presents three studies that investigate student epistemologies and scientific reasoning in the domain of biology education. The first study investigated students' epistemic viewpoints in two introductory biology courses, one for science majors and one for non-science majors. This quantitative investigation revealed that the majors exhibited a negative shift in their attitudes and beliefs about biology and learning biology during a semester of introductory instruction. However, the non-science majors did not exhibit a similar shift. If fact, the non-science majors improved in their attitudes and beliefs during a semester of instruction, though not significantly so. The second study expands epistemological research to a population that has often been left out of this work, that is, intermediate-level biology majors. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected to reveal that junior and senior ranked students for the most part were able to characterize their views about biology and learning biology, and were able to associate factors with their epistemic improvement. Finally, the third study expands epistemology research further to determine if scientific reasoning and student attitudes and beliefs about learning science (specifically biology) are related. After a description of how various science and engineering majors compare in their scientific reasoning skills, this study indicated that among intermediate level biology majors there is no relationship between scientific reasoning skills and epistemologies, nor is there a relationship with other educational factors, including the number of courses taken during an undergraduate career, cumulative GPA, and standardized test

  13. Research methods for formal consensus development.

    PubMed

    James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility.

  14. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  15. Mixed method designs in implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research.

  16. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  17. What Is Qualitative Research?

    PubMed

    Otani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

     The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.

  18. Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Webb, C

    1993-03-01

    The literature relating to feminist research both within and beyond nursing is reviewed in this paper. Feminist research is located within a post-positivist paradigm, and various definitions are considered. The distinctive methodological approach of feminist research is discussed, and interviewing and ethnography are evaluated as suitable methods for use in feminist research. Oakley's (1981) paper on interviewing women is subjected to criticism. A final section examines attempts by three sets of writers to propose evaluation criteria for feminist research. The review concludes that a number of paradoxes and dilemmas in feminist research have yet to be resolved.

  19. Case studies within a mixed methods paradigm: toward a resolution of the alienation between researcher and practitioner in psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Dattilio, Frank M; Edwards, David J A; Fishman, Daniel B

    2010-12-01

    This article addresses the long-standing divide between researchers and practitioners in the field of psychotherapy, regarding what really works in treatment and the extent to which interventions should be governed by outcomes generated in a "laboratory atmosphere." This alienation has its roots in a positivist paradigm, which is epistemologically incomplete because it fails to provide for context-based practical knowledge. In other fields of evaluation research, it has been superseded by a mixed methods paradigm, which embraces pragmatism and multiplicity. On the basis of this paradigm, we propose and illustrate new scientific standards for research on the evaluation of psychotherapeutic treatments. These include the requirement that projects should comprise several parallel studies that involve randomized controlled trials, qualitative examinations of the implementation of treatment programs, and systematic case studies. The uniqueness of this article is that it contributes a guideline for involving a set of complementary publications, including a review that offers an overall synthesis of the findings from different methodological approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mapping knowledge to boolean dynamic systems in Bateson's epistemology.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Thomas E; Jensen, Gary C; Song, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Gregory Bateson (1972, 1979) established an epistemology that integrates mind and nature as a necessary unity, a unity in which learning and evolution share fundamental principles and in which criteria for mental process are explicitly specified. E42 is a suite of freely available Java applets that constitute an online research lab for creating and interacting with simulations of the Boolean systems developed by Kauffman (1993) in his study of evolution where he proposed that self-organization and natural selection are co-principles "weaving the tapestry of life." This paper maps Boolean systems, developed in the study of evolution, onto Bateson's epistemology in general and onto his criteria of mental process in particular.

  1. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  2. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline’s main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of “multidisciplinarity,” to the adoption of theoretically imbued “interdisciplinarity.” The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other. PMID:18833344

  3. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline's main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of "multidisciplinarity," to the adoption of theoretically imbued "interdisciplinarity." The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other.

  4. Reinventing college physics for biologists: Explicating an epistemological curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redish, Edward F.; Hammer, David

    2009-07-01

    The University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group has done a five-year project to rethink, observe, and reform introductory algebra-based (college) physics, which primarily serves life-science majors. We refocused the class on helping the students learn to think scientifically—to build coherence, think in terms of mechanisms, and to follow the implications of assumptions. We designed the course to tap into students' productive conceptual and epistemological resources, based on a theoretical framework from research on learning. The reformed class retains its traditional structure in terms of time and instructional personnel, but we modified existing best-practices curricular materials. We provided class-controlled spaces for student collaboration, which allowed us to observe and record students learning directly. We also scanned all written homework and examinations and administered pre-post conceptual and epistemological surveys. The reformed class enhanced the strong gains on pre-post conceptual tests produced by the best-practices materials while obtaining unprecedented pre-post gains on epistemological surveys instead of the traditional losses.

  5. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  6. Issues and Research in Special Education. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert, Ed.

    This compilation presents five papers on issues and research in special education. "Qualitative Research in Special Education: An Evaluative Review" (Charles A. Peck and Gail C. Furman) explicates some of the epistemological assumptions underlying qualitative research methods, reviews examples of qualitative research, evaluates the contributions…

  7. Explicating formal epistemology: Carnap's legacy as Jeffrey's radical probabilism.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Quine's "naturalized epistemology" presents a challenge to Carnapian explication: why try to rationally reconstruct probabilistic concepts instead of just doing psychology? This paper tracks the historical development of Richard C. Jeffrey who, on the one hand, voiced worries similar to Quine's about Carnapian explication but, on the other hand, claims that his own work in formal epistemology—what he calls "radical probabilism"—is somehow continuous with both Carnap's method of explication and logical empiricism. By examining how Jeffrey's claim could possibly be accurate, the paper suggests that Jeffrey's radical probabilism can be seen as a sort of alternative explication project to Carnap's own inductive logic. In so doing, it deflates both Quine's worries about Carnapian explication and so also, by extension, similar worries about formal epistemology.

  8. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  9. Translational science: epistemology and the investigative process.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2009-04-01

    The term "translational science" has recently become very popular with its usage appearing to be almost exclusively related to medicine, in particular, the "translation" of biological knowledge into medical practice. Taking the perspective that translational science is somehow different than science and that sound science is grounded in an epistemology developed over millennia, it seems imperative that the meaning of translational science be carefully examined, especially how the scientific epistemology manifests itself in translational science. This paper examines epistemological issues relating mainly to modeling in translational science, with a focus on optimal operator synthesis. It goes on to discuss the implications of epistemology on the nature of collaborations conducive to the translational investigative process. The philosophical concepts are illustrated by considering intervention in gene regulatory networks.

  10. Epistemological Considerations of the Studies Counterplan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    Examines a recent innovation in academic debate, the studies counterplan. Considers objections to its use, epistemological assumptions of the studies counterplan, and the appropriate use of scientific evidence in decision making. (PD)

  11. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  12. System Therapy: Epistemology, Paradigm and Pragmatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntern, Gottlieb

    1981-01-01

    Presents a model of therapy called "system therapy." Discussed epistemology, some basic concepts, stages of the therapeutic process, and the training of system therapists. Proposes and defines a therapeutic system. (Author)

  13. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  14. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  15. Principled missing data methods for researchers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yiran; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2013-12-01

    The impact of missing data on quantitative research can be serious, leading to biased estimates of parameters, loss of information, decreased statistical power, increased standard errors, and weakened generalizability of findings. In this paper, we discussed and demonstrated three principled missing data methods: multiple imputation, full information maximum likelihood, and expectation-maximization algorithm, applied to a real-world data set. Results were contrasted with those obtained from the complete data set and from the listwise deletion method. The relative merits of each method are noted, along with common features they share. The paper concludes with an emphasis on the importance of statistical assumptions, and recommendations for researchers. Quality of research will be enhanced if (a) researchers explicitly acknowledge missing data problems and the conditions under which they occurred, (b) principled methods are employed to handle missing data, and (c) the appropriate treatment of missing data is incorporated into review standards of manuscripts submitted for publication.

  16. Constructivism and science education: Some epistemological problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1993-03-01

    The paper outlines the significant influence of constructivism in contemporary science and mathematics education and emphasizes the central role that epistemology plays in constructivist theory and practice. It is claimed that constructivism is basically a variant of old-style empiricist epistemology, which had its origins in Aristotle's individualist and sense-based theory of knowledge. There are well-known problems with empiricism from which constructivism appears unable to dissociate itself.

  17. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  18. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  19. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  20. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  1. Theory and Methods of Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner, Ed.

    The document reports the proceedings of a conference on "Theory and Methods of Research on Aging" held under the auspices of the Division of Maturity and Old Age of the American Psychological Association, the Department of Psychology and the Human Resources Research Institute of West Virginia University, May 17-19, 1967. The summaries of four…

  2. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  3. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  4. Research Methods in Health, Physical Education, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, M. Gladys, Ed.

    Methods for designing and conducting research related to health education, physical education and reaction are described. The use of libraries, the selection and definition of research problems, principles of statistically sampling, and data collection devices are presented. Instructions for the construction and validation of tests as well as…

  5. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  6. Research and Evaluation Methods in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; McLaughlin, John A.

    This text is designed to enable educators to design, conduct, and report research and evaluation in a way that transforms special education by addressing the needs of persons with disabilities as heterogeneous, cultural groups. The book explores ways to adapt those research methods to the special education context by providing a framework for…

  7. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  8. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  9. Navigating cultures and epistemologies in science and technology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Kathleen T.

    This investigation focuses on the nexus of science and culture in the lives of marginalized youth in the United States and South Africa. The epistemologies and contextual realities of cross-cultural learner cohorts and their understandings of scientific phenomena are examined. The researcher was a participant observer within the context of the Science, Technology & Culture: Empowering Learners (STC) program, an after-school and school-based collaboration focused upon integrating science, technology and culture. Electronic communication provided a vehicle for dialogue between youth in St. Louis, Missouri, USA and a South African Township. Study findings include documentation of the marginalizing effects of poverty for the United States and South African study participants. Study participants drew upon multiple contexts to form identity. United States and South African learners revealed many ways of knowing as explanatory tools for natural phenomena. Learners maintained multiple epistemologies as explanatory tools after engaging in scientific pedagogical activities. However, belief in multiple epistemologies did not preclude learner trust in scientifically acceptable explanations for natural events. Change was a constant in the experience of study participants. Educators and learners negotiated their changing world through the lenses of their cultural/indigenous understandings. Implications for policy and practice are provided.

  10. The Effect of Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs on Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huling, Milton

    Unfortunately, for the most part, teachers do not teach the Nature of Science (NOS). Even when teachers have adequate NOS knowledge, their knowledge still does not make its way into practice. While there are various reasons for this happening, this study has isolated other, more typical, constraints to teaching in order to look more closely at the influence of personal epistemological beliefs, understandings of NOS, and their effects on practice. In an effort to minimize typical constraints of time for the teaching of NOS, a sixth grade physical science course was chosen as a way to minimize this constraint. Within this course there was a School District- mandated schedule for the teaching of NOS. This curriculum map included details of what NOS topics to teach and when to teach them. In Phase One of the study, correlational relationships between these understandings of NOS and personal epistemological beliefs were investigated. A Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.62 was calculated based on 28 sixth grade science teachers. In Phase Two of the research, eleven participants were chosen for a more indepth analysis. Through the use of triangulation of interview data, classroom observations, artifact collection and survey scores to ascertain the constraints for each individual, even though few constraints could be verified that would affect instruction, only three of eleven participants taught NOS. Personal epistemological beliefs play a role in the way instruction is approached in either a constructivist or non-constructivist manner.

  11. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar

    2017-08-01

    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  12. "That's Not Quite the Way We See It": The Epistemological Challenge of Visual Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve; Hall, Elaine; Woolner, Pam

    2013-01-01

    In research textbooks, and much of the research practice, they describe, qualitative processes and interpretivist epistemologies tend to dominate visual methodology. This article challenges the assumptions behind this dominance. Using exemplification from three existing visual data sets produced through one large education research project, this…

  13. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  14. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  15. [Methodology, method, and quality of qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jörg; Rennie, David L

    2006-05-01

    Over the last ten years qualitative research approaches have been increasingly recognized and applied to the fields of psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine in German-speaking countries, although this development has lagged behind what has occurred at the same time in English-speaking countries. In the former, especially, a misunderstanding prevails that qualitative research methods are at best preliminary to real science. This misunderstanding has roots in the philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. It comes from the lack of recognition that the human sciences, unlike the natural sciences, entail a double rather than single hermeneutic and that qualitative research methods are logically coherent ways of working systematically and rigorously with this double hermeneutic. Indeed, this nature of qualitative research is generally not well understood by many qualitative researchers themselves. In this article, the need for qualitative research is shown and its methodology is seen as an integration of method and hermeneutics, or methodical hermeneutics, which in turn is distinguished from alternative qualitative research methodologies. The article closes with considerations of quality criteria and publication standards.

  16. Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anita Witt

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  17. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  18. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  19. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  20. The Feminist Biographical Method in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee

    2004-01-01

    The feminist biographical method is an in-depth interpretive methodology that is useful for research in the field of psychology. I believe that this qualitative method is an excellent tool for analyzing individual narratives of participants' lives in relation to the larger cultural matrix of the society in which they live. Although an oral…

  1. Future methods in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed.

  2. [Ethnography and ethnonursing: research methods in nursing].

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ninon Girardon; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Crossetti, Maria da Graça O

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to review the literature about the qualitative ethnographic research method, and its application in nursing, describing one of the authors experience while writing a master's dissertation. Both methods, ethnography and ethnonursing, are presented with their specific proposals and phases. Leininger's ideas are enhanced since it was this author who revealed to nursing the importance to comprehend culture, allowing to give care which is coherent to each ones beliefs and values. The study allowed to better know the research methods and it is wished that it contributes to deepen the knowledge about them, stimulating their use.

  3. Analyzing Storytelling in TESOL Interview Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele; Prior, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographic research interviews have become an accepted and valued method of qualitative inquiry in TESOL and applied linguistics more broadly. In recent discussions surrounding the epistemological treatment of autobiographic stories, TESOL researchers have increasingly called for more attention to the ways in which stories are embedded in…

  4. "Having to Shift Everything We've Learned to the Side": Expanding Research Methods Taught in Psychology to Incorporate Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Castell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students' attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students' attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate

  5. “Having to Shift Everything We’ve Learned to the Side”: Expanding Research Methods Taught in Psychology to Incorporate Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Castell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students’ attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students’ attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate

  6. Comparative epistemology: contours of a research program.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question whether and how literary documents can be used to further our understanding of a number of key issues on the agenda of the philosophy of biology such as "complexity" and "reductionism". Kant already granted a certain respectability to aesthetical experiences of nature in his third Critique. Subsequently, the philosophical movement known as phenomenology often used literary sources and literary techniques to criticize and question mainstream laboratory science. The article discusses a number of literary documents, from Moby-Dick to Jurassic Park, that explicitly stage a confrontation between scientific and non-scientific ways of experiencing and understanding the natural world. Special attention is given to the work of Michael Crichton. Its relevance for the philosophy of biology is pointed out.

  7. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  8. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  9. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  10. The impact of epistemological beliefs and cognitive ability on recall and critical evaluation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople's processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.

  11. Applying Beliefs and Resources Frameworks to the Psychometric Analyses of an Epistemology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how researchers' views about the form of students' epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students' responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students'…

  12. Epistemology and Expectations Survey about Experimental Physics: Development and Initial Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning…

  13. Applying Beliefs and Resources Frameworks to the Psychometric Analyses of an Epistemology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how researchers' views about the form of students' epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students' responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students'…

  14. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  15. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  16. An exploration of the epistemological intricacies of using qualitative data to develop a quantitative measure of user views of health care.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J; Williams, B

    2000-05-01

    Nurse researchers are increasingly combining qualitative and quantitative methods in order to understand more fully the world of research subjects. Qualitative data are often used to explore the subjective meanings behind survey responses and to develop quantitative measures and scales. Insights from qualitative data help researchers to design instruments which are more sensitive to respondents' meanings and interpretations. The aim of this paper is to highlight the epistemological and methodological complexities involved in this enterprise through drawing on our own experience of developing an instrument to examine person-centredness in health care from a qualitative study of dissatisfaction. The intricacies of this project relate to: epistemological continuity and inconsistency; research roles; reflexivity; confirmation; and completeness. Through discussing the literature around integrating methods, we suggest that researchers could be assisted in their attempts to develop conceptually sound quantitative measures by extending the concept of reflexivity (used in qualitative research) to the quantitative components of mixed method studies. This would aid conceptual clarity by making explicit the social, cultural, and political construction of knowledge, and would also encourage researchers to reflect upon the ethical and political consequences of their research.

  17. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  18. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  19. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  20. Higher Education Research Methodology-Literature Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Guijuan

    2009-01-01

    Starting by a brief introduction of literature method, this paper raises the question of how to choose representative research literatures. For this question, Professor Hongcai Wang points out the root of this problem and the strategies to resolve it and provides the ways to choose representative literatures. Through analyzing and summarizing,…

  1. Epistemological world awareness of healthcare faculty.

    PubMed

    Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Gomes, Diana Coelho; Jesus, Bruna Helena de

    2016-09-29

    To understand how epistemological world awareness is expressed in the educational practices of healthcare professors. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, and analytical study. Data were collected through open-end interviews and non-participant observation from May to December 2013, with 10 professors from a public university in southern Brazil. The adopted theoretical framework was the composition of Paulo Freire and Lee Shulman. Data were analysed according to the operative proposal of Minayo. The emerging category was Epistemological world awareness of healthcare professors. For professors to understand and reflect on the core knowledge categories required for their practice, they must have an epistemological world awareness that allows them to perceive themselves as unfinished in relation to the world and able to transform their practice.

  2. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross-sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in-service teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature on learners' epistemological beliefs about physics has almost exclusively focused on analysis of university classroom instruction and its effects on students' views. However, little is known about other populations or factors other than classroom instruction on learners' epistemologies. In this study, we used a cross-sequential method, combining both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, to investigate an epistemological progression trend from preservice to in-service teachers. Six cohorts of participants were studied, who either were then attending or had completed an undergraduate teacher preparation program in physics at a major Chinese university. These cohorts were incoming freshmen, end-of-year freshmen, end-of-year sophomores, end-of-year juniors, end-of-year seniors, and 1st-year high school physics teachers who were about to enter the 2nd year of teaching. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) as both a pretest and a post-test to gauge the changes in the participants' epistemological views over an entire academic year. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to explore factors responsible for such changes. Results showed that the epistemological trend as measured by CLASS did not increase monotonically. Instead, there was a decrease in the epistemological trend among the incoming freshmen in their first year undergraduate studies, followed by a long stasis until the end of the senior year. Then, there was a rebound for the end-of-year seniors in their 1st year of teaching, followed by another plateau. Interviews revealed that the competitive learning environment, increased content difficulty, and unfamiliar pedagogies in college were major factors that negatively influenced incoming freshmen's views about physics. Conversely, a role change from student to teacher and relatively easy content in high school positively impacted end-of-year seniors' views about physics and learning.

  3. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingxin; He, Qiang; Gong, Jianxing

    2013-03-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling method based on BOM, designed a general structure of the coupled model based on BOM, and traversed the structure of atomic and coupled model based on BOM. At last, the paper introduced the process of BOM based composable modeling and made a conclusion on composable modeling method based on BOM. From the prototype we developed and accumulative model stocks, we found this method could increase the reuse and interoperability of models.

  4. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  5. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  6. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  7. Without Boundaries: An Inquiry into Deaf Epistemologies through a Metaparadigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate on Deaf epistemologies reflects two major paradigms in deaf education: positivism and constructivism. The present article investigates Deaf epistemologies through a metaparadigm, which should blur the boundaries among different paradigms and connect the epistemological inquiry to instructional practice for d/Deaf students. The…

  8. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  9. The Epistemological Chain in High-Level Adventure Sports Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave; Grecic, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the personal epistemology of adventure sports coaches, the existence of the epistemological chain and its impact on professional judgment and decision-making. The epistemological chain's role and operationalization in other fields is considered, offering clues to how it may manifest itself in the adventure sports coach…

  10. Investigating the Relationships Among Elementary School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, and Constructivist Science Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2010-03-01

    The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students’ perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eight grades of nine elementary public schools located in Ankara, Turkey constituted the participants of this study. Constructivist learning environment survey (CLES), Junior metacognitive awareness inventory (Jr. MAI), and Schommer epistemological belief questionnaire (EB) were administered to students. Factor Analysis of Jr. MAI revealed both knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition items were loaded into one factor. Confirmatory factor analysis of EB revealed a four factor structure namely innate ability, quick learning, omniscient authority, and certain knowledge. Regression analyses revealed that metacognition and omniscient authority were significant predictors of personal relevance dimension of CLES. Metacognition was found as the only predictor of the student negotiation. Innate ability and metacognition significantly contributed to uncertainty. This study revealed that the elementary students with different mastery levels hold different epistemological beliefs and multi-faceted nature of elementary school students’ metacognition was seemed to be supported with this study. It was found that metacognition contributed to model more than epistemological beliefs for all three dimensions of CLES.

  11. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  12. Epistemological development and collaborative learning: a hermeneutic analysis of music therapy students' experience.

    PubMed

    Luce, David W

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate education must address student's developmental needs, as well as their learning needs. Yet, there has been little discussion regarding music therapy students' epistemological development, how that influences their education and clinical training, and how that understanding can inform educators and clinical supervisors. As part of an introductory music therapy course that was taught using collaborative learning consensus groups, students provided written and verbal comments about their experience and some students agreed to a series of interviews (Luce, 2002). This hermeneutic analysis of that data was based upon Perry's Scheme and Women's Ways of Knowing suggested that (a) the students' comments reflected the various perspectives or positions within the models, (b) the collaborative learning consensus groups facilitated transitions and movement within the models, and (c) there was a need for more research to understand music therapy students' developmental needs, to enhance teaching methods and pedagogy, and to address students' developmental needs as they prepare to enter the profession.

  13. Examining the Potential of Combining the Methods of Grounded Theory and Narrative Inquiry: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Shalini; Suto, Melinda; Ungar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, qualitative researchers are combining methods, processes, and principles from two or more methodologies over the course of a research study. Critics charge that researchers adopting combined approaches place too little attention on the historical, epistemological, and theoretical aspects of the research design. Rather than…

  14. Applying the Scientific Method of Cybersecurity Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Bonheyo, George T.; Cort, Katherine A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hutton, William J.; Miller, Erin A.; Nowak, Kathleen E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Purvine, Emilie AH; Schenter, Gregory K.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2016-09-15

    The cyber environment has rapidly evolved from a curiosity to an essential component of the contemporary world. As the cyber environment has expanded and become more complex, so have the nature of adversaries and styles of attacks. Today, cyber incidents are an expected part of life. As a result, cybersecurity research emerged to address adversarial attacks interfering with or preventing normal cyber activities. Historical response to cybersecurity attacks is heavily skewed to tactical responses with an emphasis on rapid recovery. While threat mitigation is important and can be time critical, a knowledge gap exists with respect to developing the science of cybersecurity. Such a science will enable the development and testing of theories that lead to understanding the broad sweep of cyber threats and the ability to assess trade-offs in sustaining network missions while mitigating attacks. The Asymmetric Resilient Cybersecurity Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-year, multi-million dollar investment to develop approaches for shifting the advantage to the defender and sustaining the operability of systems under attack. The initiative established a Science Council to focus attention on the research process for cybersecurity. The Council shares science practices, critiques research plans, and aids in documenting and reporting reproducible research results. The Council members represent ecology, economics, statistics, physics, computational chemistry, microbiology and genetics, and geochemistry. This paper reports the initial work of the Science Council to implement the scientific method in cybersecurity research. The second section describes the scientific method. The third section in this paper discusses scientific practices for cybersecurity research. Section four describes initial impacts of applying the science practices to cybersecurity research.

  15. Comparative effectiveness research: Policy context, methods development and research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tunis, Sean R; Benner, Joshua; McClellan, Mark

    2010-08-30

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received substantial attention as a potential approach for improving health outcomes while lowering costs of care, and for improving the relevance and quality of clinical and health services research. The Institute of Medicine defines CER as 'the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.' Improving the methods and infrastructure for CER will require sustained attention to the following issues: (1) Meaningful involvement of patients, consumers, clinicians, payers, and policymakers in key phases of CER study design and implementation; (2) Development of methodological 'best practices' for the design of CER studies that reflect decision-maker needs and balance internal validity with relevance, feasibility and timeliness; and (3) Improvements in research infrastructure to enhance the validity and efficiency with which CER studies are implemented. The approach to addressing each of these issues should be informed by the understanding that the primary purpose of CER is to help health care decision makers make informed clinical and health policy decisions. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    As geoscience education has matured as a research field over the last decade, workers in this area have been challenged to adapt methodologies and theoretical approaches to study design and data collection. These techniques are as diverse as the earth sciences themselves, and researchers have drawn on established methods and traditions from science education research, social science research, and the cognitive and learning sciences. While the diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches is powerful, the challenge is to ground geoscience education research in rigorous methodologies that are appropriate for the epistemological and functional realities of the content area and the environment in which the research is conducted. The issue of theory is the first hurdle. After techniques are proven, earth scientists typically need not worry much about the theoretical value or theory-laden nature of measurements they make in the field or laboratory. As an example, a field geologist does not question the validity of the gravitational field that levels the spirit level within a Brunton compass. However, in earth science education research, these issues are magnified because a theoretical approach to a study affects what is admitted as data and the weight that can be given to conclusions. Not only must one be concerned about the validity of measurements and observations, but also the value of this information from an epistemological standpoint. The assigning of meaning to student gestures, utterances, writing and actions all carries theoretical implications. For example, working with geologists learning or working in the field, purely experimental research designs are very difficult, and the majority of the work must be conducted in a naturalistic environment. In fact dealing with time pressure, distractions, and complexity of a field environment is part of intellectual backdrop for field geology that separates experts from novices and advanced students from

  17. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.

  18. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  19. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  20. Epistemological authenticity in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Paul S.

    A scientifically literate individual understands important characteristics of both the nature of scientific knowledge and the activity that produces it, scientific inquiry. (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1993) In support of these goals the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) envisions science classrooms where students engage productively in activity that is similar to scientific inquiry. It is presumed that by engaging in this kind of activity students will come to deeper understandings of scientific inquiry and scientific knowledge. For this instructional approach to be successful it is necessary students not only engaging in activity that "looks" like science in important ways, but also view their own activity as authentically using knowledge for the purpose of making sense of natural phenomena. Notably the determination of what is authentic is problematic in a science classroom. There are two different possible arbiters "present" in a classroom, the students themselves and the discipline of science. And what is authentic to one might not be to the other. This work provides perspectives on classroom and teacher professional development implications of this view of science instruction. Chapter two articulates a conceptualization, epistemological authenticity, of the nature of student activity necessary to achieve these instructional goals. Such activity involves students engaging in scientific practices with the same purposes as scientists. Chapter three uses a case study of a science classroom to illustrate some of the features of student activity that provide evidence of more and less productive student expectations about the purposes of their own participation in a science class. It also discusses the role teacher instructional choices play in influencing how students perceive the purposes of classroom activity. Chapter four considers teacher professional development, specifically images of exemplary science classrooms in the Standards and a supplement to it

  1. Twenty Years of Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research Journal,""Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational Research."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Woehlke, Paula L.

    Research methods used in articles published in the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ), "Educational Researcher" (ER), and the "Review of Educational Research" (RER) were studied for the years 1978 to 1997. Articles were read to identify and categorize the research methods and statistical techniques used in…

  2. Data Collection Methods in Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, K.-A.; Skinner, E.H.; Mitchell, D.; Haas, R.; Ho, M.; Salter, K.; May, K.; Markham, D.; O’Brien, L.; Plumb, S.; Haines, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hospital length of stay and discharge destination are important outcome measures in evaluating effectiveness and efficiency of health services. Although hospital administrative data are readily used as a data collection source in health services research, no research has assessed this data collection method against other commonly used methods. Objective Determine if administrative data from electronic patient management programs are an effective data collection method for key hospital outcome measures when compared with alternative hospital data collection methods. Method Prospective observational study comparing the completeness of data capture and level of agreement between three data collection methods; manual data collection from ward-based sources, administrative data from an electronic patient management program (i.PM), and inpatient medical record review (gold standard) for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Results Manual data collection from ward-based sources captured only 376 (69%) of the 542 inpatient episodes captured from the hospital administrative electronic patient management program. Administrative data from the electronic patient management program had the highest levels of agreement with inpatient medical record review for both length of stay (93.4%) and discharge destination (91%) data. Conclusion This is the first paper to demonstrate differences between data collection methods for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Administrative data from an electronic patient management program showed the highest level of completeness of capture and level of agreement with the gold standard of inpatient medical record review for both length of stay and discharge destination, and therefore may be an acceptable data collection method for these measures. PMID:25848416

  3. The interplay of scientific epistemological views, learning strategies, and attitudes of college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.; Novak, Joseph D.

    This paper focuses on research that illustrates the important interplay between students' scientific epistemological views and their learning strategies. We address the problem of facilitating meaningful science learning as contrasted to rote memorization, which is practiced by many students and encouraged by instructional and evaluation practices. We show that when metacognitive tools are used to facilitate meaningful learning, positive consequences in learning of subject matter, attitudes toward science, and epistemological views can emerge. Positivistic epistemology continues to be the subtle enemy to encouraging meaningful learning and constructivist views of the nature of science and knowing.If you're a scientist, you can say that all knowledge is scientific and everything can be based on fact and experiment. I've taken so many science classes that I've started to believe that.

  4. Applying beliefs and resources frameworks to the psychometric analyses of an epistemology survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-06-01

    This study explored how researchers’ views about the form of students’ epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students’ responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students’ epistemologies and expectations, we interpreted the results through two different theoretical lenses, the beliefs perspective and the resources perspective. We showed that the beliefs and resources frameworks provided different interpretations of the psychometric analyses, leading to different conclusions about how the survey results should be interpreted and how the survey should be improved.

  5. Issues and Methods in Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Alvarez, Maria; Colon, Angel; Esteban, Cynthia; Febo, Vivian; Klein, Robert B.; Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Montealegre, Federico; Ortega, Alexander N.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Epidemiologic studies have documented higher rates of asthma prevalence and morbidity in minority children compared to non-Latino white (NLW) children. Few studies focus on the mechanisms involved in explaining this disparity, and fewer still on the methodological challenges involved in rigorous disparities research. Objectives and Methods This article provides an overview of challenges and potential solutions to research design for studies of health disparities. The methodological issues described in this article were framed on an empirical model of asthma health disparities that views disparities as resulting from several factors related to the healthcare system and the individual/community system. The methods used in the Rhode Island–Puerto Rico Asthma Center are provided as examples, illustrating the challenges in executing disparities research. Results Several methods are described: distinguishing ethnic/racial differences from methodological artifacts, identifying and adapting culturally sensitive measures to explain disparities, and addressing the challenges involved in determining asthma and its severity in Latino and other minority children. The measures employed are framed within each of the components of the conceptual model presented. Conclusions Understanding ethnic and/or cultural disparities in asthma morbidity is a complicated process. Methodologic approaches to studying the problem must reflect this complexity, allowing us to move from documenting disparities to understanding them, and ultimately to reducing them. PMID:19658111

  6. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.).

  7. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    PubMed

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Making research relevant? Ecological methods and the ecosystem services framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Jaksic, Fabián. M.

    2017-07-01

    We examine some unexpected epistemological conflicts that arise at the interfaces between ecological science, the ecosystem services framework, policy, and industry. We use an example from our own research to motivate and illustrate our main arguments, while also reviewing standard approaches to ecological science using the ecosystem services framework. While we agree that the ecosystem services framework has benefits in its industrial applications because it may force economic decision makers to consider a broader range of costs and benefits than they would do otherwise, we find that many alignments of ecology with the ecosystem services framework are asking questions that are irrelevant to real-world applications, and generating data that does not serve real-world applications. We attempt to clarify why these problems arise and how to avoid them. We urge fellow ecologists to reflect on the kind of research that can lead to both scientific advances and applied relevance to society. In our view, traditional empirical approaches at landscape scales or with place-based emphases are necessary to provide applied knowledge for problem solving, which is needed once decision makers identify risks to ecosystem services. We conclude that the ecosystem services framework is a good policy tool when applied to decision-making contexts, but not a good theory either of social valuation or ecological interactions, and should not be treated as one.

  9. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  10. Speaking for ourselves: feminist methods and community psychology.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, L; McHugh, M C

    2000-12-01

    Although feminist and community psychology share a number of epistemological and methodological perspectives that guide their respective theories and research practices, it has been argued that community psychology has not fully integrated a feminist perspective into the discipline. This paper examines how community psychology and feminist research methods might combine to help us better understand women's experiences without essentializing or universalizing those experiences. The authors offer a series of suggested directions for feminist research that may also prove promising for community psychology. Particular attention is paid to feminist social constructionist approaches insofar as they address the complex relationship between epistemology and methodology.

  11. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  12. Justificationist Social Epistemology and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritola, Juho

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Juho Ritola develops a justificationist approach to social epistemology, which holds that normatively satisfactory social processes pertaining to the acquisition, storage, dissemination, and use of knowledge must be evidence-based processes that include appropriate reflective attitudes by the relevant agents and, consequently, the…

  13. Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our…

  14. Positionalities, Personal Epistemologies, and Instruction: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' sense of who they are and what their positions are in relation to others is known to be their positionality. Positionalities influence individuals' conception of the world, thus their epistemologies. A few of the positionalities that exist, and included in this paper, are gender, spirituality, race/ethnicity, and social class. All…

  15. Toward an Epistemology of the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Svend; Tanggaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Western philosophy has been greatly influenced by visual metaphors. Knowing something has commonly, yet implicitly, been conceptualized as seeing something clearly, learning has been framed as being visually exposed to something, and the mind has been understood as a "mirror of nature". A whole "epistemology of the eye" has been at work, which has…

  16. On the Epistemological Presuppositions of Reflective Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2011-01-01

    Reflection is an ambiguous buzzword in contemporary educational and professional settings. Work has been done to clarify the concept theoretically, but a gap remains between such clarifications and actual reflective activities in educational and work-related practices. Reflective activities embody epistemological presuppositions about the nature…

  17. A framework for understanding medical epistemologies.

    PubMed

    Khushf, George

    2013-10-01

    What clinicians, biomedical scientists, and other health care professionals know as individuals or as groups and how they come to know and use knowledge are central concerns of medical epistemology. Activities associated with knowledge production and use are called epistemic practices. Such practices are considered in biomedical and clinical literatures, social sciences of medicine, philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, and also in other nonmedical literatures. A host of different kinds of knowledge claims have been identified, each with different uses and logics of justification. A general framework is needed to situate these diverse contributions in medical epistemology, so we can see how they fit together. But developing such a framework turns out to be quite tricky. In this survey, three possible frameworks are considered along with the difficulties associated with each of them. The essay concludes with a fourth framework, which considers any epistemology as part of a practice that is oriented toward overcoming errors that emerge in antecedently given practices where knowledge is developed and used. As medicine indirectly advances health by directly mitigating disease, so epistemology indirectly advances knowledge by directly mitigating error.

  18. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  19. Epistemological Values of Feminists in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Studies the current epistemological values of North American feminist psychologists. Explores whether the political commitments, personal identities, and professional activities of psychologists are systematically related to different worldviews and different beliefs about the nature of human experience. Lends support to the idea of situated…

  20. Cultural Complexity: A New Epistemological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Baets, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Culture is a complex process. Many authors show the importance of the concept of culture in organizations. The question which arises is how to approach the cultural problematic of organizations. The paper proposes that the traditional ways--based on the Cartesian epistemology--do not match with the cultural complexity, since it simplifies too much…

  1. Social Epistemology and the Pragmatics of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Kenneth J.; Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present offering we challenge the presumption that the educational testing of students provides objective information about such students. This presumption largely rests on an empiricist account of science. In light of mounting criticism, however, empiricist foundationalism has given way to a social epistemology. From this standpoint,…

  2. Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our…

  3. Epistemology in Excess? A Response to Williams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegei, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Emma Williams' "In Excess of Epistemology" admirably endeavours to open the way to an account of critical thinking that goes beyond the one I have defended ad nauseum in recent decades by developing, via the work of Charles Taylor and Martin Heidegger, "a radically different conception of thinking and the human being who…

  4. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  5. On the Epistemology of Investigative Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettema, James S.; Glasser, Theodore L.

    In focusing on the epistemology of journalism, this paper seeks to determine how reporters, particularly investigative reporters, know what they know. It begins by distinguishing between the validity of knowledge claims and their everyday justification, assuming the latter to be the proper focus for a phenomenological study of what passes as…

  6. On the Epistemological Presuppositions of Reflective Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2011-01-01

    Reflection is an ambiguous buzzword in contemporary educational and professional settings. Work has been done to clarify the concept theoretically, but a gap remains between such clarifications and actual reflective activities in educational and work-related practices. Reflective activities embody epistemological presuppositions about the nature…

  7. Learning through the Ages: An Epistemological Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Courtney

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how three nineteenth-century women writers guided my thinking about education, oppression and spirituality during different decades of my twentieth-century life. In order to re-collect my epistemological journey, a process that requires analysis and reflection, the paper combines the critical lens of feminist theory with the…

  8. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  9. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  10. Notes toward a Naturalistic Study of Education Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boote, David

    2008-01-01

    As the educational research community has struggled with research issues over the last few decades, we have turned almost exclusively to epistemologically oriented methodology for answers. Implicit in this methodological discourse are three questionable presuppositions about the relationship between methods and methodology and between researchers…

  11. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    PubMed

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a…

  13. Activity Theory, Complexity and Sports Coaching: An Epistemology for a Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Edwards, Christian; Filho, I. A. Tuim Viotto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, it is to advance the case for activity theory (AT) as a credible and alternative lens to view and research sports coaching. Second, it is to position this assertion within the wider debate about the epistemology of coaching. Following a framing introduction, a more comprehensive review of the development…

  14. The Non-Theoretical View on Educational Theory: Scientific, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penalva, José

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underlying problems of one particular perspective in educational theory that has recently gained momentum: the Wilfred Carr approach, which puts forward the premise that there is no theory in educational research and, consequently, it is a form of practice. The article highlights the scientific, epistemological and…

  15. A Chinese Young Adult Non-Scientist's Epistemologies and Her Understandings of the Concept of Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are…

  16. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  17. Changing Epistemology of Science Learning through Inquiry with Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Seng Chee; Yeo, Ai Choo Jennifer; Lim, Wei Ying

    2005-01-01

    There have been increasing efforts among science educators to move students away from learning about science towards learning "to be" scientists. To move in this direction, there is a need to change the epistemology of the learning of science from instructivism to one of social constructivist learning. The purpose of this research is to…

  18. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a…

  19. The Epistemological Role of Language Use in Children's Explanations of Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderberg, Elsie; Akerblom, Annika

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the interplay between the meaning given to certain key expressions and pupils' understanding of science subject matter, in a qualitative study of learning.The intentional-expressive approach to the epistemological role of language use served as a theoretical frame, within the wider context of phenomenographic research on…

  20. Epistemological Agency: A Necessary Action-in-Context Perspective on New Employee Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses research premised on the view that new employees' necessary learning actions may be said to constitute a socio-cultural constructivist epistemology of necessity. It examines the work and learning activities of three new employees during their first months at a wholesale fruit and vegetable company. It proposes that what new…

  1. Understanding the Epistemological Development of Substance Abusing College Students: A Construct Exploration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the epistemological constructs of substance abusing college students and explore whether consistencies with Baxter Magolda's (1992) epistemic constructs were indicated. The study utilized a qualitative, narrative inquiry research design framed by Baxter Magolda's interview outline. Interviews were…

  2. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  3. The Non-Theoretical View on Educational Theory: Scientific, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penalva, José

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underlying problems of one particular perspective in educational theory that has recently gained momentum: the Wilfred Carr approach, which puts forward the premise that there is no theory in educational research and, consequently, it is a form of practice. The article highlights the scientific, epistemological and…

  4. Case Study of a Successful Learner's Epistemological Framings of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dini, Vesal; Hammer, David

    2017-01-01

    Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as "a refinement of everyday thinking" [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936)]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In…

  5. Teachers' and Children's Personal Epistemologies for Moral Education: Case Studies in Early Years Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jo; Syu, Jia-Jia; Mascadri, Julia; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Walker, Sue; Johansson, Eva; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Ailwood, Jo

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong interest in teaching values in Australia and internationally there is little focus on young children's moral values learning in the classroom. Research shows that personal epistemology influences teaching and learning in a range of education contexts, including moral education. This study examines relationships between…

  6. Activity Theory, Complexity and Sports Coaching: An Epistemology for a Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Edwards, Christian; Filho, I. A. Tuim Viotto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, it is to advance the case for activity theory (AT) as a credible and alternative lens to view and research sports coaching. Second, it is to position this assertion within the wider debate about the epistemology of coaching. Following a framing introduction, a more comprehensive review of the development…

  7. The Relationship between Test Anxiety, Epistemological Beliefs and Problem Solving among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehdinezhad, Vali; Bamari, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the test anxiety, epistemological beliefs and problem solving among students. The target population of the current research was all the students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan in the academic year 2013-2014 and the number of the sample was 375. They were selected using a classified and simple…

  8. Teachers' and Children's Personal Epistemologies for Moral Education: Case Studies in Early Years Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Jo; Syu, Jia-Jia; Mascadri, Julia; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Walker, Sue; Johansson, Eva; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Ailwood, Jo

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong interest in teaching values in Australia and internationally there is little focus on young children's moral values learning in the classroom. Research shows that personal epistemology influences teaching and learning in a range of education contexts, including moral education. This study examines relationships between…

  9. Age in Social Interaction. On Constructivist Epistemologies and the Social Psychology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronsson, Karin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses work on age in interaction in terms of constructivist epistemologies, relating research on ageism to work on adult-child interaction in a cultural comparative perspective. By focusing on identity in interaction, applied linguistics combines constructivist developments with close textual analyses and maintains that it is possible to avoid…

  10. Social Epistemology and Its Politically Correct Words: Avoiding Absolutism, Relativism, Consensualism, and Vulgar Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Where social epistemology has been applied in environmental education research, certain words have come to be associated with it, such as, "social," "contextualized," "strategic," "political," "pragmatic," "democratic," and "participatory." In this paper, I first suggest interpretations of these words that potentially avoid absolutism, relativism,…

  11. Managing Multidisciplinarity: Building and Bridging Epistemologies in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon-Cox, Leslie; Holzner, Burkart

    The way in which integrated effort encompassing several epistemologies has developed in one organization is analyzed. The concern is to investigate under what conditions multidisciplinarity flourishes. The data base is a long-term, intensive case study of the Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC) of the University of Pittsburgh since its…

  12. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  13. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  14. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind.

  15. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, “atheoretical” definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  16. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  17. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice. Their group models, which were represented by discourse and blood circulation diagrams, were analyzed for the development of the framework that informed the model evaluation levels and epistemological features. The model evaluation levels were categorized into levels one to four based on the following evaluation criteria: no evaluation, authoritative sources, superficial criteria, and more comprehensive criteria. The qualities of group models varied with the criteria of model evaluation. While students who used authoritative sources for evaluating the group model appeared to have an absolutist epistemology, students who evaluated according to the superficial criteria and more comprehensive criteria appeared to have an evaluative epistemology. Furthermore, groups with Level four showed a chain reaction of cognitive reasoning during the modeling practice concerning practical epistemology. The findings have implications for science teachers and education researchers who want to understand the context for developing students' practical epistemologies.

  18. Challenges and promises of overcoming epistemological and methodological partiality: Advancing engineering education through acceptance of diverse ways of knowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Borrego, Maura

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some challenges and promises when the epistemological diversity embedded in qualitative research traditions is introduced to research communities with one dominant research paradigm, such as engineering education. Literature is used from other fields and empirical data are used from engineering education, including the practices of the European Journal of Engineering Education and the Journal of Engineering Education, with the expectation that the ideas that are presented are relevant to a broad range of education disciplines. A number of challenges are identified as the epistemological diversity of qualitative research is introduced to the primarily positivist field of engineering education. Ultimately, embracing epistemological diversity holds the promise of researchers being able to ask: 'What questions and answers become possible from these newly created positions and what can be learned from these alternative approaches?'.

  19. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  20. An epistemological shift: from evidence-based medicine to epistemological responsibility.

    PubMed

    van Baalen, Sophie; Boon, Mieke

    2015-06-01

    In decision making concerning the diagnosis and treatment of patients, doctors have a responsibility to do this to the best of their abilities. Yet we argue that the current paradigm for best medical practice - evidence-based medicine (EBM) - does not always support this responsibility. EBM was developed to promote a more scientific approach to the practice of medicine. This includes the use of randomized controlled trials in the testing of new treatments and prophylactics and rule-based reasoning in clinical decision making. But critics of EBM claim that such a scientific approach does not always work in the clinic. In this article, we build on this critique and argue that rule-based reasoning and the use of general guidelines as promoted by EBM does not accommodate the complex reasoning of doctors in clinical decision making. Instead, we propose that a new medical epistemology is needed that accounts for complex reasoning styles in medical practice and at the same time maintains the quality usually associated with 'scientific'. The medical epistemology we propose conforms to the epistemological responsibility of doctors, which involves a specific professional attitude and epistemological skills. Instead of deferring part of the professional responsibility to strict clinical guidelines, as EBM allows for, our alternative epistemology holds doctors accountable for epistemic considerations in clinical decision making towards the diagnosis and treatment plan of individual patients. One of the key intellectual challenges of doctors is the ability to bring together heterogeneous pieces of information to construct a coherent 'picture' of a specific patient. In the proposed epistemology, we consider this 'picture' as an epistemological tool that may then be employed in the diagnosis and treatment of a specific patient. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.