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Sample records for research trends intervention

  1. "Intervention" in Physical Education and Sport: Trends and Developments in a Decade of Francophone Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musard, Mathilde; Poggi, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this literature review were to characterize the communications presented during six Association for Research on "Intervention" in Sport (ARIS) French-speaking congresses from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the research trends between French and English research traditions. The definition of pedagogy is close to the…

  2. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  3. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  4. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  5. Research trends in biostratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Upshaw, C.F.

    1983-03-01

    Paleontology, as applied in biostratigraphy, has long been an indispensable part of petroleum exploration. However, rapidly improving technology in many disciplines and the limitations of traditional biostratigraphy based on tops and zones dictate the need for an improved technology. In response to this need new approaches have been suggested, including probabilistic stratigraphy, geohistory diagrams, no-space graphs, isotopic and fission track dating, radiometric geochronology, tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy, paleo-oceanographic geochemistry, and graphic correlation utilizing composite standards. One example of a research program for the 1990s and beyond includes the development of a paleontologic composite standards and the interactive capability for their use by graphic correlation; the development of computer data bases for morphologic, taxonomic, paleoecologic and paleogeographic research and the interactive capability for synthesis, analysis and display; and, the development of time-based primary sedimentary models for prediction of geologic conditions ahead of the drill. Refined and stable taxonomic data supplied by highly capable paleontologists are a prerequisite for success. Such a program clearly requires management commitment of manpower and resources necessary to develop the technology, and it requires the development of effective technology transfer mechanisms to implement the results in exploration programs. The reward for success will be multifold improvement in our understanding of geologic conditions and history.

  6. A Family-Based Intervention for Preschoolers: Evaluating Sibling Outcomes. Data Trends #130

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" discusses family-based interventions and how they may have both direct and indirect effects. While the measurement of direct outcomes for a targeted group is important, a…

  7. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  8. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  9. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  10. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  11. Research and Development Trends for Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, Paul J.; Dooley, James J.

    2004-05-01

    Invited chapter for the Encyclopedia of Energy focusing on Energy Research and Development trends and the analysis of these trends. Article surveys energy R&D data from a number of industrialized nations and list some cautions for those who rely on these data for decisionmaking.

  12. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  13. New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    material costs) recycling liquidation by combustion liquidation costs " safe " material usage safe disarming cost decreasing about 60-80...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials 5. FUNDING NUMBERS FA8655-04-1-5001 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof Zvatopluk Zeman...Affairs Office) 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Final Proceedings for New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials , 20

  14. Trends in Career and Technical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Asunda, Paul; Kim, Soo Jung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify current trends and issues in research focusing on career and technical education (CTE). The primary sources of literature for this review included all research articles published in three refereed scholarly journals--"Career and Technical Education Research," "Journal of Career and Technical…

  15. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  16. Challenges in intervention research on adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-12-01

    The field of intervention and prevention research is rapidly growing. In this general discussion of the studies in the special issue on intervention and prevention with adolescents, we highlight some of the challenges facing researchers in this field. One is the community perspective. Family and school are the primary settings for intervention research today, and this special issue covers various approaches to family- and school-based interventions. Taking a community perspective, the question becomes how these different interventions can be co-ordinated across contexts and be integrated in a local community's broader intervention policies and activities. Another challenge for intervention and prevention research is to use better designs in order to better understand how interventions into young peoples' lives affect their future health and adjustment. Overall, the studies in this special issue illustrate well the many challenges that intervention researchers face when they go from theory to practice.

  17. Trends in Array Antenna Research,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    is written: 81. Ruze, J. (1952) Physical Limitations on Antennas. MIT Research Lab . Electronics Tech. Rept. 248. 82. Miller, C. J. (19G4...MIT Radiation Lab ., Cambridge, MA, Hep 479. Ruze, J. (19f>5) Lateral feed displacement in a paraboloid, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation...field effects such U the use of a filter near small diffrating obstacles, and in the presence of fields with pseudo- random phase variations. The

  18. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  19. Keeping Students on Track to Graduate: A Synthesis of School Dropout Trends, Prevention, and Intervention Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…

  20. Future trends of AFRL cryocooler research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettyjohn, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Over the past year, Air Force Research Labs (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate, has significantly defined the science and technology (S&T) path forward for cryocoolers in support of Air Force space missions. There are two trends that are emerging for cryocooler S&T: the first is missile warning and the second is responsive space. Missile warning is moving towards larger Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which generate large heat loads. Responsive space is moving towards a cheap, fast alternative to augment, or reconstitute space capabilities. At first glance, these two trends require completely different approaches to cryocooler S&T. However, decreasing the size, weight, and power of cryocoolers supports both trends. This paper will discuss the technology path chosen by AFRL to meet the Air Force (AF) mission needs for cryocoolers to include AFRL's research path, and potential Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) opportunities to help support the research goals.

  1. Trends in publication of nursing informatics research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations.

  2. Trends in Publication of Nursing Informatics Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations. PMID:25954387

  3. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  4. Pharmacological Intervention Research for Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Ellis, Cynthia; Evans, Joseph H.

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the status and trends of pharmacological intervention research focused on the academic functioning of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-two studies involving 1,668 participants were included in the review. Results indicated: (1) information on participants is limited; (2)…

  5. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Hemming, Karla; Stevens, Andrew J; Lilford, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Evaluations of service delivery interventions with contemporaneous controls often yield null results, even when the intervention appeared promising in advance. There can be many reasons for null results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a 'rising tide' phenomenon being a possible explanation of null results. We note that evaluations of service delivery interventions often occur when awareness of the problems they intend to address is already heightened, and pressure to tackle them is mounting throughout a health system. An evaluation may therefore take place in a setting where the system as a whole is improving - where there is a pronounced temporal trend or a 'rising tide causing all vessels to rise'. As a consequence, control sites in an intervention study will improve. This reduces the difference between intervention and control sites and predisposes the study to a null result, leading to the conclusion that the intervention has no effect. We discuss how a rising tide may be distinguished from other causes of improvement in both control and intervention groups, and give examples where the rising tide provides a convincing explanation of such a finding. We offer recommendations for interpretation of research findings where improvements in the intervention group are matched by improvements in the control group. Understanding the rising tide phenomenon is important for a more nuanced interpretation of null results arising in the context of system-wide improvement. Recognition that a rising tide may have predisposed to a null result in one health system cautions against generalising the result to another health system where strong secular trends are absent.

  6. Study on global cloud computing research trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feicheng; Zhan, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Since "cloud computing" was put forward by Google , it quickly became the most popular concept in IT industry and widely permeated into various areas promoted by IBM, Microsoft and other IT industry giants. In this paper the methods of bibliometric analysis were used to investigate the global cloud computing research trend based on Web of Science (WoS) database and the Engineering Index (EI) Compendex database. In this study, the publication, countries, institutes, keywords of the papers was deeply studied in methods of quantitative analysis, figures and tables are used to describe the production and the development trends of cloud computing.

  7. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  8. Gender Bias: Recent Research and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 14 publications about recent research on gender bias and interventions to reduce gender bias in schools. The bibliography is divided into two sections: current research and intervention. The first includes descriptions of studies examining the following topics: gender bias in U.S. schools and its effects;…

  9. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  10. Fidelity to Theory in PA Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Sidani, Souraya; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    Research using theory-based interventions to promote regular physical activity (PA) has increased substantially over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and summary of PA intervention research specific to fidelity to intervention theory, providing an overview of the concept of fidelity to intervention theory, defining the evaluative components of fidelity: (a) conceptualization of the problem, (b) operationalization of the theory, (c) specification of mediating processes, and (d) specification of outcome variables. Using journal scans and computerized literature database searches, the authors identified 470 PA activity intervention studies that incorporated a theoretical perspective. A validity framework explicated by was used to summarize intervention research in light of fidelity to intervention theory. In all, 15 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. Theoretical models for health behavior change, including social cognitive theory (SCT), cognitive behavioral theory (CBT), the transtheoretical model (TTM, the TTM combined with SCT), the reversal theory (theory of psychological reversals), and the disconnected values theory, were used as a basis for intervention design and evaluation.

  11. Hypersensitivity and nanoparticles: update and research trends

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, TEODORA; MATEA, CRISTIAN T.; IANCU, CORNEL; AGOSTON-COLDEA, LUCIA; MOCAN, LUCIAN; ORASAN, REMUS

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great promise for a wide range of medical-intent applications (diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of various diseases). Their advantages are due to their size, versatility and potential for multiple simultaneous applications. However, concerns have been formulated by scientific world due to insufficient data on toxicity of nanomaterials. One area of interest is represented by the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. We review herein reported data on hypersensitivity reactions. The role exerted by nanoparticles in both immunostimulation and immunosuppression in allergen-driven mechanisms was studied, as well as future trends in worldwide research. PMID:27152071

  12. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  13. Mechanical Low Back Pain: Secular Trend and Intervention Topics of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Silvia; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on mechanical low back pain (MLBP) rehabilitation, the secular (i.e., long-term) trend, and the distribution of interventions studied. Methods: All included RCTs were extracted from all Cochrane systematic reviews focusing on rehabilitation therapies for MLBP, and two independent reviewers screened and analyzed the information on interventions. Results: After removal of duplicates, the data set consisted of 196 RCTs published between 1961 and 2010. The number of RCTs published increased consistently over time: 2 trials (1% of the total) were published in 1961–1970, 10 (5%) in 1971–1980, 41 (21%) in 1981–1990, 68 (35%) in 1991–2000, and 75 (38%) in 2001–2010. The intervention of interest in the majority of RCTs was exercise therapy (115/399; 29%), followed by spinal manipulation therapies (60/399; 15%). Conclusion: The number of RCTs focusing on MLBP has risen over time; of all interventions studied, exercise therapy has attracted the most research interest. PMID:27504049

  14. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  15. [Literature and schizophrenia. Research trends and research tasks].

    PubMed

    Kudszus, W G

    1979-01-01

    Research on schizophrenia and on the psychopathology of creativity is increasingly absorbing and transforming insights from literature (Büchner, Celan, Kafka, Proust) and literary aesthetics. This development is discussed against the background of the history of psychiatric research. Regarding contemporary research trends, special emphasis is placed on communication theory as presented by the Palo Alto group (double bind theory), anti-psychiatry (Cooper, Laing), French structuralism (Foucault, Lacan), and on schizoanalysis (Deleuze and Guattari). Traditional concepts of mental health and illness are called into question.

  16. Aversive Intervention: Research and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Deanna K.; Kohler, Patty

    2012-01-01

    From the beginning of time, there has been a pervasive interest in getting some members of the human race to conform to the wishes of other members of the human race. The use of positive as well as not so positive methods have been utilized, researched and espoused upon. The current paper presents a review of the vast literature on the history of…

  17. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  18. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  19. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  20. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  1. Is Educational Intervention Research on the Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined intervention studies that appeared in four educational psychology journals (Cognition & Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Education) and the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) in 1983 and from 1995 to 2004. The majority of…

  2. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  3. Use of videotaped interventions in research.

    PubMed

    Steinke, E E

    2001-10-01

    Evaluating conceptual and methodological issues are important considerations when developing a videotape for research intervention. The process of developing a videotape for research involves several critical steps to maintain scientific rigor during the project. Establishing content validity of the videotape script and maintaining scientific integrity while producing the videotape are key components. Issues such as copyright and intellectual property are important considerations. The use of videotape provides a consistent method of providing information to research subjects. Careful attention to the research process during each phase of development of the videotape will enhance the success of the project.

  4. Anticipating Challenges: School-Based Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Muskat, Barbara; Cook, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research is vital for social work, as it aims to develop practice/program approaches and provide evidence to understand which interventions are effective and for whom. Despite growing attention, little social work research exists that evaluates interventions. Among the reasons for the dearth of intervention research within social work…

  5. Recent trends in rehabilitation interventions for visual neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia following right hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kortte, Kathleen B; Hillis, Argye E

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the most recent findings regarding the rehabilitation interventions for the syndromes of visual neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia that occur following right hemisphere stroke. We review papers published in the past 4 years pertaining to therapeutic approaches for these two syndromes in order to identify the trends in the development of effective interventions. Overall, it appears well recognized that visual neglect syndromes and awareness syndromes frequently co-occur and both include complex, multifaceted impairments leading to significant difficulties in daily life functioning following stroke. Thus, the interventions for these syndromes must be multifaceted in order to address the complex interplay of cognitive–behavioral–emotional components. There appears to be a trend for using combination therapeutic interventions that address these components. PMID:21339836

  6. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  7. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  8. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  9. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  10. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  11. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  12. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  13. Trends in US Autism Research Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per…

  14. Trends in US autism research funding.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-05-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per year and a significant increase in the proportion of translational projects per year. The number of translational projects funded by the National Alliance for Autism Research and Cure Autism Now increased significantly, whereas the number of clinical projects significantly increased for the National Institutes of Health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the shifting landscape of autism research from basic science to clinical and translational research.

  15. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  16. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  17. Research Trends in the United States: EE to ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2007-01-01

    Research on education for sustainable development (ESD) is not a unified body of work and, much like the literature for environmental education (EE), research is published in many arenas. The trends, however, capture some of the major foci of the research that is emerging on ESD, especially in the early years of the Decade of Education for…

  18. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  19. Designing Research Studies on Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence; Dawson, Geraldine; Guthrie, Donald; Lord, Catherine; Odom, Samuel; Rogers, Sally; Wagner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    To address methodological challenges in research on psychosocial interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a model was developed for systematically validating and disseminating interventions in a sequence of steps. First, initial efficacy studies are conducted to establish interventions as promising. Next, promising interventions are…

  20. Analyzing global trends of biomarker use in drug interventional clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Masuda, S; Kimura, H

    2012-04-01

    The trend of biomarker use in drug interventional clinical studies was analyzed using ClinicalTrials.gov to provide an overview of how biomarkers are used to streamline clinical studies and to examine regional differences. A total of 3,383 clinical study data was analyzed according to phase, region, sponsor, and therapeutic class. The number of clinical studies using biomarkers has been increasing constantly and is dependent on the number of Phase I and II studies. The majority of studies (58.5%) were sponsored by the United States, with the studies being conducted mainly in the sponsor's home region (80.3%). The use of biomarkers was prominent in the oncology area (37.1%). Although current data indicates some bias in the clinical use of biomarkers, it is expected that their use will increase in later phase studies or other therapeutic areas as biomarker development proceeds. In addition, limited regional use of biomarkers may lead to differences in biomarker use in drug development and in combination with political support may result in differences in competitiveness of drug development. Biomarkers would be a powerful tool against deteriorating research and development productivity when used more in appropriate clinical study conditions.

  1. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  2. Anesthesia Practice and Clinical Trends in Interventional Radiology: A European Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, Philip J.; Yap, Bernard; Mueller, Peter R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine current European practice in interventional radiology regarding nursing care, anesthesia, and clinical care trends.Methods: A survey was sent to 977 European interventional radiologists to assess the use of sedoanalgesia, nursing care, monitoring equipment, pre- and postprocedural care, and clinical trends in interventional radiology. Patterns of sedoanalgesia were recorded for both vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Responders rated their preferred level of sedoanalgesia for each procedure as follows: (a) awake/alert, (b) drowsy/arousable, (c) asleep/arousable, (d) deep sedation, and (e) general anesthesia. Sedoanalgesic drugs and patient care trends were also recorded. A comparison was performed with data derived from a similar survey of interventional practice in the United States.Results: Two hundred and forty-three of 977 radiologists responded (25%). The total number of procedures analyzed was 210,194. The majority (56%) of diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures were performed at the awake/alert level of sedation, 32% were performed at the drowsy/arousable level, and 12% at deeper levels of sedation. The majority of visceral interventional procedures were performed at the drowsy/arousable level of sedation (41%), 29% were performed at deeper levels of sedation, and 30% at the awake/alert level. In general, more sedoanalgesia is used in the United States. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported the use of a full-time radiology nurse, 67% used routine blood pressure/pulse oximetry monitoring, and 46% reported the presence of a dedicated recovery area. Forty-nine percent reported daily patient rounds, 30% had inpatient hospital beds, and 51% had day case beds.Conclusion: This survey shows clear differences in the use of sedation for vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Many, often complex, procedures are performed at the awake/alert level of sedation in Europe, whereas deeper levels of sedation are

  3. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  4. Strategies and Trends in Admissions Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the technical service rendered by the national testing agencies may be an undesirable tradeoff for the active involvement of admissions workers in admissions research, the author suggests that the use of decision theory, quasi-actuarial assessment, quasi-experimental design, and program evaluation strategies would place admissions…

  5. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  6. Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Kwan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2011-01-01

    A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng. PMID:23717084

  7. Leadership as a Health Research Policy Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Cochrane, Gavin; Manville, Catriona; Harte, Emma; Chataway, Joanna; Jones, Molly Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In early 2012, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) leadership programme was re-commissioned for a further three years following an evaluation by RAND Europe. During this new phase of the programme, we conducted a real-time evaluation, the aim of which was to allow for reflection on and adjustment of the programme on an on-going basis as events unfold. This approach also allowed for participants on the programme to contribute to and positively engage in the evaluation. The study aimed to understand the outputs and impacts from the programme, and to test the underlying assumptions behind the NIHR Leadership Programme as a science policy intervention. Evidence on outputs and impacts of the programme were collected around the motivations and expectations of participants, programme design and individual-, institutional- and system-level impacts. PMID:28083398

  8. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  9. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  10. Trends and Features of Student Research Integration in Educational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinenko, Svetlana; Makarova, Elena; Andreassen, John-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This study examines trends and features of student research integration in educational program during international cooperation between Østfold University College in Norway and Southern Federal University in Russia. According to research and education approach the international project is aimed to use four education models, which linked student…

  11. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  12. Trends and Tensions: Australian and International Research about Starting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper details and compares the discernible trends observed in a wide-ranging review of the recent starting school literature in Australia and beyond. More than half of the research reviewed considers children's readiness for school. This research is critiqued through a three-way view of readiness: child readiness, school readiness and support…

  13. Trends and Challenges in Nigerian Extension Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gombe, Sani Yakubu; Bin Suandi, Turiman; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Omar, Zohara

    2016-01-01

    Research in extension education is a serious and challenging task facing Nigeria today because of new trends that keeps on emerging continuously. This paper seeks to examine some of the common research techniques used in extension education and describe their applicability and workability in helping people to help themselves. Most of the…

  14. The Use of Citation Counting to Identify Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Harry; Woodhead, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The analysis and application of manpower statistics to identify some long-term international research trends in economic entomology and pest conrol are described. Movements in research interests, particularly towards biological methods of control, correlations between these sectors, and the difficulties encountered in the construction of a…

  15. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

  16. Medical education: a particularly complex intervention to research.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of thinking about medical education as a complex intervention and to analyse medical education research to determine whether its collaborations and methodologies are becoming more like health services research. Research articles published in three journals over 2 years were analysed to determine the purpose of the research in relation to a framework for evaluating complex interventions, the degree of collaboration, and the methodology. Most studies aimed to develop theory or assess effectiveness and many categories of the complex interventions framework were not represented in the medical education research literature. Studies usually involved only one research site and were predominantly quantitative but not experimental or quasi-experimental. Whilst medical education research has not moved significantly in the direction of health services research over recent years, the complex interventions lens provided insights into why this might be so (namely the significant challenges associated with researching medical education). We recommend that medical education researchers work within a complex interventions framework and look to research fields with similar challenges (e.g. the study of chronic illness in a changing context) for ideas about theories, frameworks, methodologies and collaborations that can illuminate the field of medical education research.

  17. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  18. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  19. Establishing guidelines for executing and reporting Internet intervention research.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Judith; Klein, Britt; Barak, Azy; Carlbring, Per; Cuijpers, Pim; Lange, Alfred; Ritterband, Lee; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet interventions, guidelines for research, and evidence of effectiveness have been slower to follow. This article focuses on the quality standardization of research on Internet-delivered psychological and behavioural interventions. Although the science underpinning Internet interventions is just starting to be established, across research studies there are often conceptual and methodological difficulties. The authors argue that this situation is due to the lack of universally accepted operational guidelines and evaluation methods. Following a critical appraisal of existing codes of conduct and guidelines for Internet-assisted psychological and health interventions, the authors developed a framework of guidelines for Internet intervention research utilizing aspects of facet theory (Guttman & Greenbaum, 1998). The framework of facets, elements, and guidelines of best practice in reporting Internet intervention research was then sent to several leading researchers in the field for their comment and input, so that a consensus framework could be agreed on. The authors outline 12 key facets to be considered when evaluating and reporting Internet intervention studies. Each facet consists of a range of recommended elements, designed as the minimum features for reporting Internet intervention studies. The authors propose that this framework be utilized when designing and reporting Internet intervention research, so results across studies can be replicated, extended, compared, and contrasted with greater ease and clarity.

  20. Structural Interventions: Concepts, Challenges and Opportunities for Research

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S. R.; Dworkin, S.; Mantell, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural interventions refer to public health interventions that promote health by altering the structural context within which health is produced and reproduced. They draw on concepts from multiple disciplines, including public health, psychiatry, and psychology, in which attention to interventions is common, and sociology and political economy, where structure is a familiar, if contested, concept. This has meant that even as discussions of structural interventions bring together researchers from various fields, they can get stalled in debates over definitions. In this paper, we seek to move these discussions forward by highlighting a number of critical issues raised by structural interventions, and the subsequent implications of these for research. PMID:16736355

  1. Current trends in Internet- and cell phone-based HIV prevention and intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S

    2007-12-01

    As the reach of the Internet and cell phones increases, their use as health intervention and prevention tools has been increasingly researched. To identify recent advances in technology-based HIV prevention and intervention research, we conducted a literature search in the Spring of 2007. Only a handful of articles have been published in the last year describing evaluations of technology-based HIV programs. Nonetheless, many programs have recently been funded and are being developed or imminently evaluated. Results to date suggest the Internet and cell phones are feasible technologies to deliver HIV prevention and intervention programs for some target populations. Opportunities for future research are identified, including the development of programs for populations other than men who have sex with men who also are at risk for HIV (eg, adolescents, elderly), the integration of advances from other fields, examination of the potential for using text messaging to affect HIV behavior change, and applications of Internet-based programs in developing countries.

  2. Neuroscience nursing research: trend analysis from 1989 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Basone, Davide; Mestroni, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    This study extends an earlier investigation (DiIorio et al., 2004) regarding neuroscience studies published in four nursing journals over the period from 1989 to 2000. A literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2010 with the same search strategy performed by DiIorio from 1989 to 2000. A trend analysis comparing the articles published in the period of 2001-2008 with those published from 1993 to 2000 (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) was performed. From 1989 to 2010, a total of 607 articles were published, 2.2 articles per month. A significantly increased number of publications on neuroscience nursing research have emerged comparing 2001-2008 versus 1993-2000 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.22, 3.29]; p = .00). From 1989 to 2000, neurological problems were the predominant object of study (389 articles, 64.1%), followed by neurotrauma problems (156, 25.7%) and those neurosurgical problems (31, 5.1%). Moreover, a progressive reduction of studies focusing on neurological problems (OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.26, 0.68]; p = .00) has emerged comparing 2001-2008 versus 1993-2000. The setting chosen for the study from 1989 to 2000 was mainly hospitals (211, 34.8%) followed by long-term care (125, 20.6%) and the home environment (77, 12.7%). Over the years (2001- 2008 vs. 1993-2000), studies performed at the home level were lower (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.15, 0.47]; p = .00), whereas those carried out at the hospital level and at the long-term care level have increased. Research in neuroscience nursing has continued to grow in the last decade, involving more patients who are mainly women. In the coming years, quasiexperimental, experimental, or complex intervention designs, involving the various care settings and along the trajectories of illnesses of patients who have an acute phase but especially in a long-term phase, are needed.

  3. Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…

  4. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  5. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  6. Trends Shaping Education 2013. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean for education that our societies are increasingly diverse? How is global economic power shifting towards new countries? In what ways are the skills required in the world of work changing? "Trends Shaping Education 2013" brings together international evidence to give policy makers, researchers, educational leaders, administrators…

  7. Crisis Intervention: A Review of Outcome Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    Crisis intervention studies conducted in suicide prevention/crisis intervention programs, in psychiatric settings, and with surgical patients are critically evaluated, and the methodological shortcomings of studies in each of these settings are discussed. Available from: Order Department, American Psychological Association, Inc., 1200 Seventeenth…

  8. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results.

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Senechal, V A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a 2-year study describe tobacco use trends, perceptions, and prevention effects for 1,281 5th and 6th graders enrolled in 12 randomly selected Washington State elementary schools. Youths were pretested, then randomly divided by school into skills, discussion, and control groups. Preventive intervention curriculums for the skills and discussion groups included age-relevant information on smoked and smokeless tobacco use, peer testimonials, debates, games, and homework. Youths in the skills group also learned communication and problem-solving methods for handling difficult situations around tobacco use. Following intervention, youths were posttested, then retested semiannually for 2 years. During the 2-year study, three-quarters of all smokers and nonusers and half of all smokeless tobacco users maintained their statuses. Only 10 percent of all smokers and 3 percent of all smokeless users quit their habits. One in six reported new tobacco use, one-third of smokers began using smokeless tobacco, and two-thirds of all smokeless users began smoking during the study. Most youths at final measurement perceived smokeless tobacco as less of a health risk than smoking. Nearly one in two of all smokeless users intended to smoke, and two-thirds were actually smoking at 24-month followup. Both smoked and smokeless tobacco use rates increased in all groups, and youths in the skills intervention group consistently showed the lowest rates relative to the other groups. These findings demonstrate the potential of skills intervention methods for lowering tobacco use rates among adolescents. PMID:3090603

  9. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  10. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-01-20

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, and to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues and offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have exerted efforts to develop administrative, environmental and personal engineering controls to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as sampling methods and instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. Based on the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies.

  11. Intervention Research on School Bullying in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…

  12. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  13. Intervention Adherence for Research and Practice: Necessity or Triage Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; Lentz, F. Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Intervention integrity or adherence describes qualities of carrying out an intervention plan and in research is fundamentally linked to experimental validity questions addressed by measurement of independent and dependent variables. Integrity has been well described in conceptual writing but has been a continuing thorny subject in research and…

  14. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  15. Investigating trends in acoustics research from 1970-1999.

    PubMed

    Viator, J A; Pestorius, F M

    2001-05-01

    Text data mining is a burgeoning field in which new information is extracted from existing text databases. Computational methods are used to compare relationships between database elements to yield new information about the existing data. Text data mining software was used to determine research trends in acoustics for the years 1970, 1980, 1990, and 1999. Trends were indicated by the number of published articles in the categories of acoustics using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) as the article source. Research was classified using a method based on the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS). Research was further subdivided into world regions, including North and South America, Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Australia/New Zealand. In order to gauge the use of JASA as an indicator of international acoustics research, three subjects, underwater sound, nonlinear acoustics, and bioacoustics, were further tracked in 1999, using all journals in the INSPEC database. Research trends indicated a shift in emphasis of certain areas, notably underwater sound, audition, and speech. JASA also showed steady growth, with increasing participation by non-US authors, from about 20% in 1970 to nearly 50% in 1999.

  16. Trends of triple negative breast cancer research (2007–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. Methods: TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA), and VOSviewer (Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands) software were used to analyze the trend of TNBC research. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Results: A total of 1695 papers were identified and were cited 34,078 times with a time limit of May 27, 2016. The United States accounted for 43.10% of the articles, 57.59% of the citations, and the highest H-index (64). China ranked second in total number of articles, but seventh in citation frequency (1998) and ninth in H-index (21). The journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment had the highest number of publications. The author, Narod SA, has published the most papers in this field (30). The keyword “receptor” was mentioned the most, 1489 times, and the word “myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1)” was the latest hot spot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth related to TNBC is expanding rapidly in recent years. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Newest progress of the TNBC research may be released by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment first. Narod SA, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, and Hortobagyi GN may be good candidates for collaborative research in this field. MCL-1 is an emerging topic that should be closely observed. PMID:27861384

  17. Intervention Development and Cultural Adaptation Research With Diverse Families

    PubMed Central

    BERNAL, GUILLERMO

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. The need for research on intervention development and on cultural adaptation of interventions is presented, followed by a discussion of frameworks on treatment development. Seven articles included in this special issue serve as examples of the stages of treatment and intervention development, and of the procedures employed in the cultural adaptation with diverse families. An overview of the seven articles is provided to illustrate the treatment development process and the use of pluralistic research methods. We conclude with a call to the field for creative and innovative intervention development research with diverse families to contribute to the body of evidence-based practice with these populations. PMID:16768015

  18. Trends in gambling studies research: quantifying, categorizing, and describing citations.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Stanton, Michael V; Nelson, Sarah E

    2006-12-01

    As opportunities to gamble have increased during the 20th century, so has gambling research. This study used new strategies, methods, and technology to examine citation trends and the growth of knowledge in the field of gambling studies. The sample included 2,246 citations that were published between 1903 and 2003. By using multiple keywords to classify each citation into distinct topic areas, this study yielded a more comprehensive analysis than was previously available. The results reveal that gambling-related research has grown at an exponential rate. The most prevalent topics explored within gambling studies citations have been pathology, risk-taking, decision-making and addiction. Between 1999 and 2003, studies addressing epidemiology, drug abuse, comorbidity and neuroscience have become increasingly prevalent. Based on these trends and their implications, this paper provides several recommendations for both future areas of inquiry within the field of gambling studies and better classification techniques for citations within all fields of psychology.

  19. The Research Status and Development Trend of Microbial Flocculant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao-jun, Jia; Jiang-mei, Yu

    Microbial flocculant is a kind of newly developed flocculant,For their biodegradability,high performance and harmless to environment,microbial flocculants has draw more and more attentions. This paper summarized a series of research and development on preparation of microbial flocculants. The factors that effect microbial flocculation and the optimization of the flocculation conditions were studied and discussed systematically. Also discussed the advantages and future trends of microbial flocculants in wastewater treatment.

  20. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  1. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  2. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  3. Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant

  4. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  5. Recent trends and important developments in propolis research

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The newest developments in propolis pharmacological research are summarized. The problem regarding biological studies, caused by the chemical variability of propolis, is discussed. The most important trends and developments in recent propolis research are outlined: biological studies performed with chemically characterized samples, bioassay-guided studies of active principles and comparative biological studies of propolis of different origin and chemical composition. These types of studies are extremely valuable with respect to propolis standardization and practical applications in therapy. They will allow scientists to connect a particular chemical propolis type to a specific type of biological activity and formulate recommendations for practitioners. PMID:15841275

  6. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  7. Research Priorities for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that investments in comprehensive and coordinated early intervention services will generate long-term benefits for children and families. Additional research is needed to continue to improve all aspects of service delivery in early intervention and early childhood special education, with a particular focus on conditions…

  8. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors.

  9. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of

  10. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, J W

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a "paucity" of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s.

  11. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a “paucity” of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s. PMID:22477630

  12. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping; Shen Liyin

    2011-04-15

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C and D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C and D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C and D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C and D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C and D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C and D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C and D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C and D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  13. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2011-04-01

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C&D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C&D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C&D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C&D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C&D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C&D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C&D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  14. Publication trends in Aeolian research: An analysis of the biblography of Aeolian research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Overall, results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. P...

  15. Multilevel Intervention Research: Lessons Learned and Pathways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    2012-01-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  16. Aging in france: population trends, policy issues, and research institutions.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Viriot Durandal, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology research, and, finally, points to several emerging issues about aging. In France, these issues include active and healthy aging, the improvement of knowledge on specific vulnerable segments of the elderly population, and the adaptation of the urban landscape and infrastructure to an aging population. At the broadest level, one of the key points formulated in this article is that in France, aging research is dominated by the state, yet it is scattered and compartmentalized, posing a crucial challenge in an era dominated by European and other international networks and coordination efforts in aging policy and knowledge.

  17. Recent trends in energy research and development expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of this report is to analyze recent trends in industrial research and development (R and D) spending. Emphasis is on energy and energy conservation R and D expenditures. This objective was achieved by performing two tasks. The first task was to collect and assemble data on industrial R and D expenditures in the US from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Office of Industrial Studies. The second task was to graphically and numerically analyze recent trends in total, energy-related, and energy conservation R and D expenditures. Total R and D and energy R and D expenditures for the period 1975 to 1982 were analyzed for each of nine industries: chemicals, petroleum, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, aircraft and missiles, professional and scientific instruments, other manufacturing, nonmanufacturing. Energy conservation R and D expenditures for this period were analyzed for each of six industries: chemicals, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, other manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing. In addition, for all three types of R and D, trends in expenditures for all industries combined were analyzed.

  18. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  19. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  20. Stress and Reading Difficulties: Research, Assessment, Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Lance M.; McMillan, Merna M.

    Focusing on the personality of the reading disabled child, this booklet is designed to encourage researchers to move past the circular debate concerning student reading difficulties and to help teachers improve the reading performance of students with disabling stress reactions to reading. The first section examines research related to emotional…

  1. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research. Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed. A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML. There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article. PMID:27149452

  2. Research Trends in Non Point Source during 1975-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanhua, Zhuang; Thuminh, Nguyen; Beibei, Niu; ei, Shao; Song, Hong

    According to the samples of 2924 articles about non point source of SCI and SSCI databases from 1975 to 2010, this study analysed the articles in the growth trend of article outputs, subject categories and journals, international collaborations, geographic distribution and scientific research issues by using bibliometric analysis. The results showed that non point source research steadily increased over the past 35 years and the annual number of articles published in 2010 was 79 times of that in 1975. Non point source was involved into 67 kinds of subjects and appeared in 451 journals. The main study area was concentrated in North America and Europe, following by East Asia. There were 79 countries/territories participated in non point source research, and USA was the largest contributor in non point source research and had a central position in collaboration networks. A keyword analysis indicated that water quality, non point pollutions, and watershed were the hottest issues of non point source research; "GIS, "watershed management", "modeling", "simulation", "monitoring", and "remote sensing" were the most popular research methods; and "agriculture", "land use", "runoff", and "pollution" were the leading causes of non point pollution.

  3. Trends of spinal tuberculosis research (1994–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Wang, Qijin; Zhu, Rongbo; Yang, Changwei; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming; Zhai, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Spinal tuberculosis is the most common form of skeletal tuberculosis. However, there were limited data to evaluate the trend of spinal tuberculosis research. This study aims to investigate the trend of spinal tuberculosis research and compare the contribution of research from different countries and authors. Methods: Spinal tuberculosis-related publications from 1994 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the search results for number of publications, cited frequency, H-index, and country contributions. Results: A total of 1558 papers were identified and were cited 16,152 times as of January 25, 2016. The United States accounted for 15.1% of the articles, 22.3% of the citations, and the highest H-index (33). China ranked third in total number of articles, fifth in citation frequency (815), and ranked seventh in H-index (13). The journal Spine (IF 2.297) had the highest number of publications. The author Jain A.K. has published the most papers in this field (20). The article titled “Tuberculosis of the spine: Controversies and a new challenge” was the most popular article and cited a total of 1138 times. The keyword “disease” was mentioned the most for 118 times and the word “bone fusion” was the latest hotspot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth in spinal tuberculosis is slowly expanding. Although publications from China are increasing, the quality of the articles still requires improvements. Meanwhile, the United States continues to be the largest contributor in the field of spinal tuberculosis. According to our bibliometric study, bone fusion may be an emerging topic within spinal tuberculosis research and is something that should be closely observed. PMID:27661044

  4. AAC Interventions for Autism: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Debora R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six studies from 1980 to 2007 involving the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by individuals with autism were reviewed. The majority of the studies used single-subject research designs and emphasized language production skills. Many investigations were held in artificial language learning settings, and a few involved…

  5. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  6. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  7. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  8. Digital reconstructions of neuronal morphology: three decades of research trends.

    PubMed

    Halavi, Maryam; Hamilton, Kelly A; Parekh, Ruchi; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2012-01-01

    The importance of neuronal morphology has been recognized from the early days of neuroscience. Elucidating the functional roles of axonal and dendritic arbors in synaptic integration, signal transmission, network connectivity, and circuit dynamics requires quantitative analyses of digital three-dimensional reconstructions. We extensively searched the scientific literature for all original reports describing reconstructions of neuronal morphology since the advent of this technique three decades ago. From almost 50,000 titles, 30,000 abstracts, and more than 10,000 full-text articles, we identified 902 publications describing ∼44,000 digital reconstructions. Reviewing the growth of this field exposed general research trends on specific animal species, brain regions, neuron types, and experimental approaches. The entire bibliography, annotated with relevant metadata and (wherever available) direct links to the underlying digital data, is accessible at NeuroMorpho.Org.

  9. What Lies Within: Superscripting References to Reveal Research Trends.

    PubMed

    Anicich, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    Interpreting scholarly contributions solely on the basis of the number, and not nature, of citations is inherently flawed because contradictory as well as confirmatory findings feed into the same metric, capturing popularity at the expense of precision. I propose a citation and indexing procedure that would conveniently integrate information about research trends while imposing minimal burden on the producers and consumers of research. Under the proposed system, citations appearing in the reference list of research reports would be superscripted with letters corresponding to one of the following six categories: references to findings that are Consistent with the current findings, are Replicated by the current findings, are Inconsistent with the current findings, Failed to be replicated by the current findings, were used to build Theory, or were used to cite Methodologies. I explain how the resulting CRIF-TM data could be summarized and perpetually updated by an online indexing service. I provide an example to demonstrate how these superscripts could be conveniently and unobtrusively presented in the reference list of forthcoming articles. Finally, I examine the anticipated benefits, limitations, and implementation challenges of the proposed citation and indexing procedure.

  10. Dementia Caregiver Intervention Research: In Search of Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; O’Brien, Alison; Czaja, Sara; Ory, Marcia; Norris, Rachel; Martire, Lynn M.; Belle, Steven H.; Burgio, Lou; Gitlin, Laura; Coon, David; Burns, Robert; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Stevens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed intervention studies that reported dementia caregiver outcomes published since 1996, including psychosocial interventions for caregivers and environmental and pharmacological interventions for care recipients. Our goal was to focus on issues of clinical significance in caregiver intervention research in order to move the field toward a greater emphasis on achieving reliable and clinically meaningful outcomes. Design and Methods MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health databases from 1996 through 2001 were searched to identify articles and book chapters mapping to two medical subject headings: caregivers and either dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Articles were evaluated on two dimensions, outcomes in four domains thought to be important to the individual or society and the magnitude of reported effects for these outcomes in order to determine if they were large enough to be clinically meaningful. Results Although many studies have reported small to moderate statistically significant effects on a broad range of outcomes, only a small proportion of these studies achieved clinically meaningful outcomes. Nevertheless, caregiving intervention studies have increasingly shown promise of affecting important public health outcomes in areas such as service utilization, including delayed institutionalization; psychiatric symptomatology, including the successful treatment of major and minor depression; and providing services that are highly valued by caregivers. Implications Assessment of clinical significance in addition to statistical significance is needed in this research area. Specific recommendations on design, measurement, and conceptual issues are made to enhance the clinical significance of future research. PMID:12351794

  11. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-15

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  12. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  13. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  14. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  15. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  16. Use of family management styles in family intervention research.

    PubMed

    Alderfer, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    Family management styles (FMSs) explain some of the complexities embedded in a family with a child who has chronic illness. The FMS typologies provide descriptions of family adjustment and management of care. These 5 distinct patterns may be valuable in tailoring and evaluating family interventions in research.

  17. Intervention Research in Social Work: Recent Advances and Continuing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review substantive and methodological advances in interventive research. Three substantive advances are discussed: (a) the growing use of a risk factor perspective, (b) the emergence of practice-relevant micro social theories, and (c) the increased acceptance of structured treatment protocols and manual. In…

  18. Action Research and Response to Intervention: Bridging the Discourse Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…

  19. Intervention Research and Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.

    2003-01-01

    Getting research-based instructional practices into the hands of professionals who teach students with learning disabilities is one of the most significant challenges for educators. This paper describes some of the major factors accounting for the gaps that exist between the special education research and classroom practice and presents four major…

  20. Trends in Radiation Dosimetry: preliminary overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from 2011-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.

    2017-01-01

    The themes and trends of the radiation dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for the period from 2011 to 2015. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualization tool to generate cluster maps of radiation dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics.

  1. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990's by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research.

  2. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  3. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990’s by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research. PMID:19794815

  4. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  5. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  6. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, 1995-1999. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta Coll., San Luis Obispo, CA. Matriculation and Research Services.

    This report contains 22 tables and 25 figures showing student characteristics and enrollment trends from 1995 to 1999 for Cuesta College. Section 1 presents five-year student characteristics and enrollment trends; Section 2 outlines enrollment by Cuesta College educational region, 1998-99. Both sections contain data on enrollment status, course…

  7. Temporal trend, geographic distribution, and publication quality in asbestos research.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Leoncini, Giacomo; Ratto, Giovanni Battista; Neri, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a well-known cause of cancer and respiratory diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific production in asbestos research evaluating temporal trend, geographic distribution, impact factor (IF) of published literature, and taking into account socioeconomic variables. The PubMed database was searched starting from 1970. Publication numbers and IF were evaluated as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). Six thousand nine hundred seven articles related to asbestos were retrieved. Publications grew steeply in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1980s, decreased in the 1990s, and then increased again. Mesothelioma, lung neoplasms, and occupational diseases are the most commonly used keywords. In the period of 1988-2011, 4220 citations were retrieved, 3187 of whom had an impact factor. The US, Italy, and the UK were the most productive countries. European countries published about 20 % more asbestos-related articles than the US, although the latter reached a higher mean IF, ranking second after Australia. When the national scientific production (sum of IF) was compared taking into account socioeconomic variables, Australia and Scandinavian countries performed very well, opposite to all main asbestos producers like Russia, China, and Brazil (except for Canada). The American Journal of Industrial Medicine and the Italian La Medicina del Lavoro published the highest numbers of articles. This study provides the first bibliometric analysis of scientific production in asbestos research. Interest appears to be higher in selected countries, with strong national features, and is growing again in the new millennium.

  8. Using simulations and standardized patients in intervention research.

    PubMed

    Gates, D M; Fitzwater, E; Telintelo, S

    2001-11-01

    Caregiving is both an art and a science; both knowledge and skills are necessary to improve the quality of care that professionals provide. Researchers are often limited in their assessment of skill performance due to inadequate and unrealistic measurement options. Simulation using standardized patients offers researchers an objective method to evaluate skill performance. This article describes the use of simulations by researchers in their quest to measure changes in violence prevention skills after an intervention program given to nurse assistants working in long-term care facilities.

  9. Intervention Research and Program Evaluation in the School Setting: Issues and Alternative Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties in conducting intervention research or evaluating intervention programs in a school setting. In particular, the problems associated with randomization and obtaining control groups are examined. The use of quasi-experimental designs, specifically a paired comparison design using the individual as his or her…

  10. Trends and Recent Estimates: Sexual Activity among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Cottingham, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenage sexual activity. In this brief, the authors provide trends through 2002 on multiple indicators of sexual experience and activity for males and females, members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. These new…

  11. Tiered Intervention: History and Trends in Finland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku; Itkonen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the similarities and differences of relatively newly established tiered intervention models for the support of students with special needs in the United States (response to intervention) and in Finland (learning and schooling support). The current models in both countries consist of several tiers with fairly similar…

  12. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  13. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  14. Meeting the Challenges of Intervention Research in Health Science: An Argument for a Multimethod Research Approach.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-06-01

    Research within health science is often based on developing, implementing and evaluating interventions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, with patients or other health care users as the target group. The results of RCTs can have limited generalizability. Since a trial often takes place in a controlled setting, it may be difficult to implement the results in other settings. Successful implementation in practice requires knowledge of the context and the social mechanisms and processes through which an intervention works. It is therefore important to secure such knowledge of high quality. The aim of this paper was to present and discuss how intervention research in RCT designs can be developed and strengthened by using a multimethod research approach. First, we focus on four considerations relating to the use of RCTs, namely objectivity and linearity, contextual dimensions, generalizability, and complex interventions. Second, a multimethod research approach including the terms 'research style' and 'forms of integration' is presented to address the four considerations. Third, a Danish intervention study is presented in order to discuss the potential of this multimethod research approach. We conclude by suggesting that future intervention studies should consider the potential for combining different research styles and forms of integration to the benefits of the patients and other health care users as the target group.

  15. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  16. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief, Publication #2009-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia; Burkhauser, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim; Collins, Ashleigh

    2009-01-01

    The number of U.S. children living in poverty increased in 2007--continuing an upward trend dating back to 2000: in 2007, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, up from 11.6 million children in 2000. The percentage of children living in families with incomes below the poverty line has increased from 16.2 percent in 2000 to 18.0 percent in…

  17. Improving psychotherapy research: The example of mindfulness based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number and sophistication of available psychotherapies suggests that a critical appraisal of the methodological issues of psychotherapy studies is highly needed. Several key questions regarding the efficacy of a given intervention, the understanding of whether positive effects observed following the delivery of a psychotherapeutic intervention are specifically attributable to the intervention itself or to other “non specific” factors, such as benefit expectations, therapist attention and support, and the possibility of improving psychotherapy research need an answer. This, in turn, could provide clinicians with more rigorous information about psychotherapy outcomes and could properly address several shortcomings that are frequently observed in current psychotherapy studies. Accordingly, in this editorial I will highlight some of the most important critical issues that a well designed psychotherapy study should take into account, including the need for appropriate control groups, appropriate randomization and blinding procedures, and the importance of performing appropriately powered studies that include a sufficiently long follow-up period. Finally, I will build on my expertise in the field of mindfulness based interventions, in particular mindfulness based stress reduction and mindfulness based cognitive therapy, to show how such issues have been and can be successfully implemented in the design of future psychotherapy studies. PMID:25237607

  18. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  19. Intervention research: Appraising study designs, interpreting findings and creating research in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ebbels, Susan H

    2017-01-13

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are increasingly required to read, interpret and create evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions. This requires a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different intervention study designs. This paper aims to take readers through a range of designs commonly used in speech-language pathology, working from those with the least to most experimental control, with a particular focus on how the more robust designs avoid some of the limitations of weaker designs. It then discusses the factors other than research design which need to be considered when deciding whether or not to implement an intervention in clinical practice. The final section offers some tips and advice on carrying out research in clinical practice, with the hope that more SLPs will become actively involved in creating intervention research.

  20. Global competencies of regional stem cell research: bibliometrics for investigating and forecasting research trends.

    PubMed

    Watatani, Kenji; Xie, Zhongquan; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sengoku, Shintaro

    2013-09-01

    We employed a bibliometric approach to examine regional stem cell research in the USA, the UK, Japan and China based on publications from 2007 to 2011 with a co-citation clustering analysis to identify region-specific clusters of global competencies. We observed that there are clear differences in the number and interdisciplinary spread of competencies across regions: the USA retains the largest capacity and capability for pursuing medical and pharmaceutical applications; China has shown substantial growth through fusion approaches with chemistry and material sciences; Japan has been pursuing basic biology and is currently seeking further growth; and the UK has shown considerable growth and quality with a focus on medical research and the widest interdisciplinary spread. Furthermore, we discuss policy implications from these results in terms of industrial and clinical applications. These findings provide a rational way of evaluating research policies and forecasting research trends.

  1. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  2. Trends Shaping Education 2016. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Did you ever wonder if education has a role to play in stemming the obesity epidemic sweeping across all OECD countries? Or what the impact of increasing urbanisation might be on our schools, families, and communities? Or whether new technologies really are fundamentally changing the way our children think and learn? "Trends Shaping…

  3. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  4. Research Library Trends II: 35 Libraries in the 1970's and Beyond. A Sequel to Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Warren F.; And Others

    This study is based on the annual statistics of 35 institutions, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. For 17 of the libraries, the statistics cover 1969-1988; for the rest, they cover 1976-1988. Procedurally, the study parallels both its 1987 ancestor ("Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond") and the earlier…

  5. Publication trends in aeolian research: An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, John E.; Warren, Andrew; Gill, Thomas E.

    2009-04-01

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. Rates of publication have increased from only three publications in the 17th Century to nearly three publications per day in the 21st Century. The temporal distribution of publications follows a complex pattern that is influenced by many factors. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, publications appear as isolated clusters indicating limited interest in aeolian research and limited opportunities for individuals to contribute to scientific literature. With time, many new scientific societies are formed and many new scientific journals are established, opening new opportunities for scientists to contribute to scientific discourse. Landmark publications open up new research areas and define new directions for aeolian research. General advances in science and technology provide new techniques for sampling blowing sand and dust. In addition, clear signs exist that publication rates respond to major environmental and climatic events, especially large-scale disasters that focus attention on wind erosion and blowing dust. The Sirocco dust events of 1901-1903, the North American Dust Bowl of the1930s, and the recent sand and dust storm problems in China have all led to significant increases in the number of publications in aeolian research. Rates of publication are negatively influenced by major political and social upheavals, especially global conflicts such as World Wars I and II. Sudden shifts in government structure and support can also influence publication rates. A good example is the increased publication rates in China following the end of the Cultural Revolution, a trend that continues today.

  6. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-07-01

    Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, it has also been used clinically as a therapeutic intervention. A bibliometric analysis on the biomedical journal literature involving research on the clinical application of yoga has revealed an increase in publication frequency over the past 3 decades with a substantial and growing use of randomized controlled trials. Types of medical conditions have included psychopathological (e.g. depression, anxiety), cardiovascular (e.g. hypertension, heart disease), respiratory (e.g. asthma), diabetes and a variety of others. A majority of this research has been conducted by Indian investigators and published in Indian journals, particularly yoga specialty journals, although recent trends indicate increasing contributions from investigators in the U.S. and England. Yoga therapy is a relatively novel and emerging clinical discipline within the broad category of mind-body medicine, whose growth is consistent with the burgeoning popularity of yoga in the West and the increasing worldwide use of alternative medicine.

  7. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia

    Noting that the U.S. child poverty rate is no longer declining, this research brief uses 2001 Census data to present a statistical portrait of poor children in the United States. The research brief also highlights some consequences of poverty for children and considers promising approaches for decreasing poverty among low-income children and their…

  8. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  9. The Underlying Message in LD Intervention Research: Findings from Research Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Gersten, Russell; Chard, David J.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the critical findings of recent research syntheses concerning intervention with students who have learning disabilities. The syntheses examined research on higher-order processing and problem- solving, reading comprehension, written expression, and grouping practices associated with improved outcomes in reading. Principles…

  10. Mixed Research in Counseling: Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a content analysis of the articles published in the leading counseling journal, "Journal of Counseling & Development", between 2002 and 2010 are presented. The authors present a brief description of mixed research to encourage counseling researchers to explore mixed research as a viable research tool. (Contains 3 tables and 1…

  11. Reducing neurodevelopmental disorders and disability through research and interventions.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Kakooza, Angelina M; Warf, Benjamin C; Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-11-19

    We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture. We provide examples of advances in the prevention and treatment of, and the rehabilitation of those with, neurodevelopment disorders in low- and middle-income countries, along with opportunities for further strategic research initiatives. Our examples are not the only possibilities for strategic research, but they illustrate problems that, when solved, could have a considerable impact in low-resource settings. In each instance, research in low- and middle-income countries led to innovations in identification, surveillance and treatment of a neurodevelopmental disorder. These innovations have also been integrated with genotypic mapping of neurodevelopmental disorders, forming important preventative and rehabilitative interventions with the potential for high impact. These advances will ultimately allow us to understand how epigenetic influences shape neurodevelopmental risk and resilience over time and across populations. Clearly, the most strategic areas of research opportunity involve cross-disciplinary integration at the intersection between the environment, brain or behaviour neurodevelopment, and genetic and epigenetic science. At these junctions a robust integrative cross-disciplinary scientific approach is catalysing the creation of technologies and interventions for old problems. Such approaches will enable us to achieve and sustain the United Nations moral and legal mandate for

  12. Trends in Doctoral Research on English Language Teaching in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özmen, Kemal Sinan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik; Kinik, Betül

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the doctoral research in Turkey completed between 2010 and 2014 in the area of English language teaching and learning. All of the dissertations (N = 137) indexed in the National Theses Database have been included in order to analyze dissertations' subject areas, research paradigms/techniques, and research contexts as well as…

  13. Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkurt, Aras; Akgun-Ozbek, Ela; Yilmazel, Sibel; Erdogdu, Erdem; Ucar, Hasan; Guler, Emel; Sezgin, Sezan; Karadeniz, Abdulkadir; Sen-Ersoy, Nazife; Goksel-Canbek, Nil; Dincer, Gokhan Deniz; Ari, Suleyman; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to explore the current trends in the field of distance education research during the period of 2009-2013. The trends were identified by an extensive review of seven peer reviewed scholarly journals: "The American Journal of Distance Education" (AJDE), "Distance Education" (DE), "The European Journal of…

  14. Research and Trends in the Studies of Homeschooling Practices: A Review on Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The practice of homeschooling still receives contrasting responses on its relevancy and effectiveness. The current study is aimed to map the trends in the selected eleven studies from various educational journals. The analysis focuses on mapping the trends on: a) research settings, b) target sample, c) method or instrument used, d) common focus or…

  15. Short hospitalization after early intervention in managing grade III pancreatic injuries in children: a possible new trend.

    PubMed

    Al-Jazaeri, Ayman H

    2011-01-01

    The presence of ductal disruption in pancreatic trauma is a major indicator of severity leading to higher morbidities and prolonged hospital stay. However, the adoption of early interventional approach in selected cases of documented grade III pancreatic trauma could result in shorter hospitalization and early recovery. We are describing our approach of early presentation-tailored interventions in managing two consecutive children diagnosed with grade III pancreatic injuries, which constitute the two main ends of the presentations' spectrum. For the early presenter a spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed, while for the late presenter with large symptomatic pseudocyst endoscopic drainage was attempted. Both early and late presenting children had quick and uneventful recoveries leading to 5 and 6 days of hospitalization, respectively. Both cases continued to be asymptomatic at 4 and 12 months post procedure. In the pseudocyst case, the gastro-cystostomy stents were removed after 10 weeks, and 2.5 months later a completely healed pancreas was demonstrated by magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Unlike other abdominal solid organ injuries in children, adopting early presentation-tailored intervention can be associated with quicker recovery and short hospitalization for grade III pancreatic injuries. While the series is still small, achieving such remarkable outcomes in two consecutive cases is possible and could set a new trend in managing these injuries in children.

  16. Neutron Imaging Facility Development and Research Trend at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, M.; Hussey, D. S.; Baltic, E. M.; Jacobson, D. L.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)maintains a sustained focus in the development of advanced neutron imaging facilities and hardware components to enable breakthrough research with vastly improved spatial and temporal resolutions, and to identify and employ research practices important to a wide variety of industrial and scientific applications. NIST's main focus is to enable research with broad appeal and commercial impacts. In this article we will give a brief overview of the NIST facility, select examples of current research, and finally comment on emerging technologies including advance manufacturing where neutron imaging has the potential to play an important role.

  17. The Peculiar Institution: New Trends and Controversies in Researching and Teaching Slavery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how, because of its richness and controversy, the study of slavery has captured the interest and imagination of many different theorists. Today, with new technologies and research trends, the study of slavery is entering an accelerated cycle. (EV)

  18. New Trends in Nuclear Data Research for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Nuclear methods play an important role in medicine, both in diagnosis and therapy. The status of nuclear data with regard to the production of commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides is discussed. The new trends and data needs in the development of potentially useful radionuclides are outlined. They pertain to longer-lived positron emitters (e.g., 64Cu, 76Br, 124I) for studying slow metabolic processes, to positron emitters needed for quantification purposes (94mTc, 86Y, etc.) and to soft radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides (103Pd, 186Re, 225Ac, etc.). The imaging problems with new positron emitters are discussed. As regards radiation therapy, data on the formation of short-lived activation products in proton therapy are reported.

  19. New Trends in Nuclear Data Research for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-24

    Nuclear methods play an important role in medicine, both in diagnosis and therapy. The status of nuclear data with regard to the production of commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides is discussed. The new trends and data needs in the development of potentially useful radionuclides are outlined. They pertain to longer-lived positron emitters (e.g., 64Cu, 76Br, 124I) for studying slow metabolic processes, to positron emitters needed for quantification purposes (94mTc, 86Y, etc.) and to soft radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides (103Pd, 186Re, 225Ac, etc.). The imaging problems with new positron emitters are discussed. As regards radiation therapy, data on the formation of short-lived activation products in proton therapy are reported.

  20. Technology and science education: starting points, research programs, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    2003-06-01

    Over the past 25 years, information and communication technologies have had a convoluted but ultimately advantageous impact on science teaching and learning. To highlight the past, present, and future of technology in science education, this paper explores the trajectories in five areas: science texts and lectures; science discussions and collaboration; data collection and representation; science visualization; and science simulation and modeling. These trajectories reflect two overall trends in technological advance. First, designers have tailored general tools to specific disciplines, offering users features specific to the topic or task. For example, developers target visualization tools to molecules, crystals, earth structures, or chemical reactions. Second, new technologies generally support user customization, enabling individuals to personalize their modeling tool, Internet portal, or discussion board. In science education, designers have tailored instructional resources based on advances in understanding of the learner. More recently, designers have created ways for teachers and students to customize learning tools to specific courses, geological formations, interests, or learning preferences.

  1. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report - Year 1. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the first year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, a research program to devise and evaluate different aspects of educational intervention with children, ages 1-4 years, with moderate to severe development problems (primarily mental retardation). Described are the children who composed the intervention group,…

  2. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  3. Research Trends in the Use of Mobile Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This research was a systematic review of 36 studies in mobile learning in mathematics from the year 2000 onward. Eight new findings…

  4. Trends in Educational Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goktas, Yuksel; Hasancebi, Funda; Varisoglu, Behice; Akcay, Ahmet; Bayrak, Naci; Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on educational research papers published from 2005-2009 in journals listed in SSCI and the ULAKBIM database in Turkey. Study types, research methods, investigated specific topics, used data collection tools, employed data analysis methods, and utilized types of samples and sampling methods were analyzed. A total of 2115 papers…

  5. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  6. World population trends and their significance for contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Kegan, L R

    1982-01-01

    The total population of the world has grown from 2.5 billion in 1930 to 4.5 billion in 1982 and despite the fertility declines in developing countries world population is expected to increase another 2 billion to over 6 billion by the year 2000. This growth has caused in many countries food scarcity, unemployment, social unrest, political instability, and mass migration as well as inflation and environmental problems. There is an international consensus that access to contraceptive services is a basic human right. In the case of Indonesia, Thailand, China, and Sri Lanka, there is increasing evidence that government intervention can change fertility levels within a relatively short time, but progress in other places has been slower. Thus the fertility reductions to be achieved during the next 2 decades will require more intensive and expensive efforts in terms of education, motivation, and extension of services in rural areas. Contraceptive methods must be improved in terms of safety, acceptability, and effectiveness.

  7. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  8. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  9. New trends in combustion research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Research on combustion is being conducted to provide improved analytical models of the complex flow and chemical reaction processes which occur in the combustor of gas turbine engines, in order to enable engine manufacturers to reduce the development time of these concepts. The elements of the combustion fundamentals program is briefly discussed with examples of research projects described more fully. Combustion research will continue to emphasize the development of analytical models and the support of these models with fundamental flow experiments to assess the models accuracy and shortcomings.

  10. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  11. Trends to 1982 in Industrial Support of Basic Research. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report analyzes recent trends in company-funded basic research support and incorporates findings from a special mail survey and personal interviews with research and development (R&D) officials of 54 firms. The report also provides insight into industry/university cooperative basic research efforts. Following an introduction, the report…

  12. Methodological Status and Trends in Expository Text Structure Instruction Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohaty, Janet J.; Hebert, Michael A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Brown, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic descriptive historical review was conducted to examine the status and trends in expository text structure instruction efficacy research for first through twelfth grade students. The analysis included sixty studies, which spanned the years 1978 to 2014. Descriptive dimensions of the research included study type, research design,…

  13. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    PubMed

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations.

  14. Recent trends in research on teacher-child relationships.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Terri J; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on relationships between teachers and children relies on developmental systems theory as the foundational conceptual model, drawing heavily from basic work in attachment as well as research on social development. Recently, the focus on relational processes in effort to support children's development in the classroom has proliferated, with multiple disciplines and fields engaging in research on teacher-child relationship quality to understand and improve the experiences and learning of students. This paper updates the conceptual framework and continues the necessary integration between disciplines by exploring three areas of research: (1) concordance between children's relationships with teachers and parents; (2) the moderating role of teacher-child relationships for the development of at-risk children; and (3) training teachers from a relational perspective. Each of the three areas of research on teacher-child relationships is examined in light of recent findings and considers implications for understanding the nature and impact of relationships between teachers and children.

  15. Developmentally-Appropriate Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for Adolescents: Rationale, Review of Interventions, and Recommendations for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and

  16. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  17. From Dynamic Assessment of Cognitive Abilities to Educational Interventions: Trends in Cognitive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcíková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Having spent over two decades training teachers, Iveta Kovalcíková writes in this editorial that she has lately been attracted by ideas bridging the growing gap between neurological and psychological research findings and their practical application in practice. Here she argues that outcomes of research on learning processes are insufficiently…

  18. Conducting Intervention Research among Underserved Populations: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna I.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Blanchard, Jeanine; Florindez, Lucia; Clark, Florence A.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard in research design for establishing treatment efficacy. However, the rigorous and highly controlled conditions of RCTs can be difficult to attain when conducting research among individuals living with a confluence of disability, low socioeconomic status, and being a member of a racial/ethnic minority group, who may be more likely to have unstable life circumstances. Research on effective interventions for these groups is urgently needed, as evidence regarding approaches to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes is lacking. In this methodological paper we discuss the challenges and lessons learned in implementing the Lifestyle Redesign® for Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Spinal Cord Injury (LR-PUPS) study among a highly disadvantaged population. These issues are discussed in terms of strategies to enhance recruitment, retention, and intervention relevance to the target population. Recommendations for researchers seeking to conduct RCTs among socioeconomically disadvantaged, ethnically diverse populations are provided. PMID:23262157

  19. Recent trends in working with the private sector to improve basic healthcare: a review of evidence and interventions.

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine; Berman, Peter; Penn, Amy; Visconti, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The private sector provides the majority of health care in Africa and Asia. A number of interventions have, for many years, applied different models of subsidy, support and engagement to address social and efficiency failures in private health care markets. We have conducted a review of these models, and the evidence in support of them, to better understand what interventions are currently common, and to what extent practice is based on evidence. Using established typologies, we examined five models of intervention with private markets for care: commodity social marketing, social franchising, contracting, accreditation and vouchers. We conducted a systematic review of both published and grey literature, identifying programmes large enough to be cited in publications, and studies of the listed intervention types. 343 studies were included in the review, including both published and grey literature. Three hundred and eighty programmes were identified, the earliest having begun operation in 1955. Commodity social marketing programmes were the most common intervention type, with 110 documented programmes operating for condoms alone at the highest period. Existing evidence shows that these models can improve access and utilization, and possibly quality, but for all programme types, the overall evidence base remains weak, with practice in private sector engagement consistently moving in advance of evidence. Future research should address key questions concerning the impact of interventions on the market as a whole, the distribution of benefits by socio-economic status, the potential for scale up and sustainability, cost-effectiveness compared to relevant alternatives and the risk of unintended consequences. Alongside better data, a stronger conceptual basis linking programme design and outcomes to context is also required.

  20. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    PubMed Central

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  1. [Pathological gambling: review of the recent research trends].

    PubMed

    Körmendi, Attila; Kuritárné, Ildikmó Szabó

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reduce a significant gap in the gambling literature in Hungary by presenting existing models and available treatments. Although theoretical models of pathological gambling all have strengths and weaknesses, they do provide valuable insights into the development of pathological gambling. Evidence now exist that psychological, biological and social factors are all relevant in pathological gambling but as yet a comprehensive theoretical model that could adequately account for the complex interaction of the factors has to be developed. Some methodological problems in the area of research are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are included. It is hoped this paper will stimulate future research work in this field and support the work of clinical psychologists.

  2. Ontology Assisted Assessment of Worldwide Cyber Research Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-16

    created  within   Mendeley ,  a  researcher  tool  for  storing  and  sharing  technical  research  of  interest... Mendeley  was  also   used  as  the  repository  of  query  results,  and  was  accessed  programmatically  (through  a

  3. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    PubMed Central

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-01-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet. PMID:27877788

  4. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  5. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  6. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  7. Trends in ecosystem service research: early steps and current drivers.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Petteri; Rönkä, Mia; Walls, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 50 years, human beings have influenced ecosystems more rapidly than at any similar time in human history, drastically altering ecosystem functioning. Along with ecosystem transformation and degradation, a number of studies have addressed the functioning, assessment and management of ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed in the scientific literature since the end of the 1970s. However, ecosystem service research has focused on certain service categories, ecosystem types, and geographical areas, while substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning several aspects. We assess the development and current status of ecosystem service research on the basis of publications collected from the Web of Science. The material consists of (1) articles (n = 353) from all the years included in the Web of Science down to the completion of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and (2) more recent articles (n = 687) published between 2006 and 2008. We also assess the importance of international processes, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kyoto Protocol and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, as drivers of ecosystem service research. Finally, we identify future prospects and research needs concerning the assessment and management of ecosystem services.

  8. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  9. Measuring Change: Current Trends and Future Directions in Microgenetic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; Siegler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to research that adopts the microgenetic method in order to investigate change as it is happening. In this commentary we reflect on the diversity of the articles included in this special issue, and examine how the findings from these articles relate to five critical features of change: path, rate, breadth,…

  10. Campgrounds and Camping 1980: Trends, Research, Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The objectives of the reported conference were: 1) to determine what significant changes are occurring in campground management; 2) to view demonstration campground areas and discuss related information dissemination efforts; 3) to determine what campground research is presently underway, and whether more is needed; and, 4) to determine possible…

  11. Trends and Directions in Family Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue devoted to a review of research on marriage and the family over the past decade. Provides overview of marital issues, feminism, parent-child relationships, day care, divorce, remarriage, stepfamilies, adolescence, later life families, religion, Blacks, Hispanics, adolescent childbearing, health, employment,…

  12. Current and Future Trends in Adult Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)

  13. Values Education Research Trends in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beldag, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The present study makes a situation analysis of graduate theses on values education published between 1999 and 2015 in Turkey. It has a qualitative research design, wherein data is collected through document analysis. The form developed for this purpose is comprised of nine sections, each of which focuses on a different aspect: universities,…

  14. The Engaged Dissertation: Exploring Trends in Doctoral Student Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Tuchmayer, Jeremy B.; Morin, Shauna M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which doctoral students are conducting community-engaged scholarship and investigated the characteristics of their degree-granting institutions. The research utilized the most immediate work of doctoral students by examining completed dissertations. Analysis showed which graduate students are pursuing community…

  15. Trends in High School Graduation Rates. Research Brief. Volume 0710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale; Froman, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief addresses an outcome measure that is of paramount importance to senior high schools--graduation rate. Nationwide a student drops out of school approximately every nine seconds. The significance of this issue locally is exemplified by a recent American Civil Liberties Union filing of a class action law suit against the Palm…

  16. Modern trends in animal venom research - omics and nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Animal venom research is a specialized investigation field, in which a number of different methods are used and this array is constantly expanding. Thus, recently emerged omics and nanotechnologies have already been successfully applied to venom research. Animal venoms have been studied for quite a long time. The traditional reductionist approach has been to isolate individual toxins and then study their structure and function. Unfortunately, the characterization of the venom as a whole system and its multiple effects on an entire organism were not possible until recent times. The development of new methods in mass spectrometry and sequencing have allowed such characterizations of venom, encompassing the identification of new toxins present in venoms at extremely low concentrations to changes in metabolism of prey organisms after envenomation. In particular, this type of comprehensive research has become possible due to the development of the various omics technologies: Proteomics, peptidomics, transcriptomics, genomics and metabolomics. As in other research fields, these omics technologies ushered in a revolution for venom studies, which is now entering the era of big data. Nanotechnology is a very new branch of technology and developing at an extremely rapid pace. It has found application in many spheres and has not bypassed the venom studies. Nanomaterials are quite promising in medicine, and most studies combining venoms and nanomaterials are dedicated to medical applications. Conjugates of nanoparticles with venom components have been proposed for use as drugs or diagnostics. For example, nanoparticles conjugated with chlorotoxin - a toxin in scorpion venom, which has been shown to bind specifically to glioma cells - are considered as potential glioma-targeted drugs, and conjugates of neurotoxins with fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots may be used to detect endogenous targets expressed in live cells. The data on application of omics and

  17. Conceptualizing Changes in Behavior in Intervention Research: The Range of Possible Changes Model

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    An international movement has focused on identifying evidence-based interventions: Interventions that were developed to change psychological constructs, and have evidence from controlled studies on their behalf. However, inconsistent findings within individual intervention studies and among multiple studies of the same intervention raise critical problems for interpreting the evidence, and deciding when and whether an intervention is evidence-based. A theoretical and methodological framework (Range of Possible Changes [RPC] Model) is proposed to guide the study of change in intervention research. We recommend that future quantitative reviews of the research literature use the RPC Model to conceptualize, examine, and classify the available evidence for interventions. Further, future research should adopt the RPC Model to both develop theory-driven hypotheses and conduct examinations of the instances in which interventions may or may not change psychological constructs. PMID:16802881

  18. Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Kun Sei; Sim, Sung Bo; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary angioplasty has been replacing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because of the relative advantage in terms of recovery time and noninvasiveness of the procedure. Compared to other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Korea has experienced a rapid increase in coronary angioplasty volumes. Methods We analyzed changes in procedure volumes of CABG and of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from three sources: the OECD Health Data, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) surgery statistics, and the National Health Insurance claims data. Results We found the ratio of procedure volume of PCI to that of CABG per 100,000 population was 19.12 in 2014, which was more than triple the OECD average of 5.92 for the same year. According to data from NHIS statistics, this ratio was an increase from 11.4 to 19.3 between 2006 and 2013. Conclusion We found that Korea has a higher ratio of total procedure volumes of PCI with respect to CABG and also a more rapid increase of volumes of PCI than other countries. Prospective studies are required to determine whether this increase in absolute volumes of PCI is a natural response to a real medical need or representative of medical overuse. PMID:28035299

  19. Review of recent trends in cholera research and control

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, O.

    1966-01-01

    Since 1961 cholera El Tor has been sweeping through the Far East, and this dissemination of the disease has stimulated research not only in the countries afflicted but also in Europe and the Americas. New laboratories and workers have entered the field and many fresh ideas and concepts have emerged. The time seemed ripe, therefore, to survey the most important papers published since 1959, when the literature on cholera was thoroughly reviewed by Pollitzer, for the benefit both of those engaged in research and of those concerned with public health practice. This review covers history and incidence, causative agents (including the ”classical”, ”El Tor” and ”incomplete” forms), pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, mode of spreading and control measures (with particular reference to public health education and the International Sanitary Regulations). An annex, intended for laboratory use, contains selected procedures for the isolation and identification of cholera vibrios. PMID:5328492

  20. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance.

  1. Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Rachael; Wihak, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1) discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2) review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3) discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain. PMID:28165415

  2. Measuring the Burden—Current and Future Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a significant impact on health and well-being, from the beneficial aspects of moderate drinking to the detrimental effects of alcoholism. The broad implications of alcohol use on public health have been addressed through a wide range of epidemiological and clinical studies, many of which are described in this issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. Where chronic disease is involved, alcohol use can be a risk factor that not only affects the onset of various chronic diseases but also exacerbates the ongoing extent and severity of those diseases. Lifestyle choices and genetic influences also contribute to, or help to alleviate, that risk. PMID:24881334

  3. Recent trends in orexin research--2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Boss, Christoph; Roch, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Specific neurons in the lateral hypothalamus produce the orexin neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B). The orexin-peptides are transported to areas of the brain regulating sleep-wake cycles, controlling food intake or modulating emotional states such as panic or anxiety. The orexin system, consisting of the two orexin-neuropeptides and two G-protein-coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) is as well involved in reward and addictive behaviors. The review reflects on the most recent activities in the field of orexin research.

  4. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  5. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report-Year II. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the second year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, which uses experimental research to devise and evaluate educational intervention techniques with approximately 28 normal or developmentally delayed children 1- to 4-years-old and their families. Described are researchers/teachers relationships, behavioral…

  6. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  7. Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi

    2007-01-01

    The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.

  8. Academic/Research Librarians with Subject Doctorates: Data and Trends 1965-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Thea; Gilman, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The topic of academic/research librarians with subject doctorates is largely unexplored in the literature, despite recent efforts to recruit them. Based on survey data gathered from non-LIS doctorate holders currently working in U.S. and Canadian academic/research libraries, this article highlights data and trends relating to these librarians,…

  9. Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu

    2001-01-01

    Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…

  10. Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in Distance Education: Communication, Pedagogy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Eby, Gulsun, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of distance education in the post-modern world, progressive research on the best methods, tools, and technologies in the field is necessary to continue to take advantage of the pedagogical opportunities and improvements offered through remote learning platforms. The "Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in…

  11. Higher Education Trends for the Next Century: A Research Agenda for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia S., Ed.; Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight position papers on a research agenda in higher education. The papers are based on a three-year analysis of trends and feedback deriving from conferences and Website presentations. Each paper ends with a list of specific proposed research questions. Following an introduction by Cynthia S. Johnson, the papers…

  12. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  13. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  14. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  15. The Nature and Trends in Research and Journal Literature in English Speaking Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba; Badu, Ellis

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study that examined three major international library science journals to investigate the nature and trends of library and information science research in Africa from 1990 through 1992. Highlights include status of authors, gender, affiliation, country, types of research, types of cited documents, subjects covered, and most cited…

  16. Principles of Early Intervention Reflected in Toddler Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Baker, Crystal; Hurwitz, Sarah; Benner, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This review examines how recommended practices for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are integrated into interventions in the first generation of research targeting toddlers with ASD. The purpose was not to review intervention effectiveness, which is addressed in other reviews; rather, it was to assess reported intervention methods in…

  17. Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Reichow, Brian; Tan, Paulo; Vaiouli, Potheini; Yildirim, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Recently emerging intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed through a systematic assessment of intervention outcomes, research rigor, and intervention features. The review includes published peer-reviewed experimental studies of toddlers with high risk for or diagnosis of ASD in which the majority of…

  18. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  19. Clinical interventions for venous leg ulcers: Proposals to improve the quality of clinical leg ulcer research.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Gerald S; Kirsner, Robert S; Zenilman, Jonathan; Valle, M Frances; Margolis, David J; Cullum, Nicky; Driver, Vickie R; Gould, Lisa; Lindsay, Ellie; Tunis, Sean; Marston, William; Bass, Eric; Ennis, William; Davidson, Jeffrey; Bowden, Jeremy

    2016-09-01

    The present status of clinical leg ulcer healing research was reviewed by 25 experts over 2 days on September 28 and 29, 2015. Multiple clinical effectiveness reviews were presented suggesting that published clinical wound healing research often does not meet present (2015) evidence based standards. Specific areas requiring remediation were highlighted and approaches to overcoming existing challenges were proposed. Participants using anonymous voting technology developed an action plan to resolve perceived deficiencies. Statements were accepted if 75% of participants agreed. Older patients with a high frequency of comorbid conditions posed particular difficulties in designing clinical research protocols and better diagnostic categorization is necessary A standardized model template for collecting information about diagnosis and evaluation of the effect of interventions on healing of all types of leg ulcers was considered a high priority. Such a model template could be modified depending on the specific etiology of the leg ulcers. Generally agreed on quantifiable standards to establish degree of morbidity was considered a high priority. There was universal agreement that sources of funding and conflicts of interest needed to be disclosed in presentations and all publications. All clinical research studies should be registered with appropriate authorities. There was substantial enthusiasm for a clinical research network with quality standards for membership and an advisory research core available to investigators. Such a network should be funded and actively managed to insure long-term viability. The governance of such an entity needs to be established by the wound care community. The present trend to integrate patients into the clinical research process was endorsed and there was enthusiasm to develop patient advocacy for wound healing research.

  20. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  1. Coaching with Parents in Early Intervention: An Interdisciplinary Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…

  2. Response to Intervention: A Research-Based Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Charles A.; Dexter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is an instructional framework through which schools can provide early intervention for students experiencing academic and behavioral difficulties. It is also promoted as an alternative to the IQ-discrepancy model for identifying students with learning disabilities. Most states have developed, or are developing,…

  3. Research into Interventions from a Cultural-Individual Innovation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Rudolf; Sleegers, Peter; Pelkmans, Ton

    2002-01-01

    Studied how teachers perceived the importance of the set of interventions of the teacher support program for the implementation of adaptive teaching. Nine schools and 129 teachers participated in the intervention; 36 of these participated in the evaluation. Data from questionnaires and interviews show that teachers attach considerable importance…

  4. A Systematic Review of the Free-Pour Assessment: Implications for Research, Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Kohn, Carolynn S; Schmerbauch, Megan; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-03-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major concern. Alcohol consumption data are typically collected via self-report questionnaires. However, research has suggested that individuals are unable to identify a standard drink size and that their self-report may be influenced by certain environmental conditions, calling into question the reliability and validity of self-report. The free-pour is an objective measure that may provide a clearer picture of current alcohol consumption trends, individuals' knowledge of standard drink sizes, and accuracy of self-report. This systematic review of existing free-pour assessment methods suggests that individuals are unable to identify and pour standard drink sizes, with the largest discrepancies occurring for liquor and wine pours and pours into larger and wider glasses. Additional variables that appear to influence pouring behavior are gender, pouring location (e.g., home or laboratory), pouring task (e.g., selecting a line or physically pouring), and drinking history; however, additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of these variables on pouring behavior. These findings have important implications for the accuracy of self-report measures, as well as clinical implications for alcohol use screenings, alcohol education courses, and brief interventions for alcohol use. The systematic review concludes with recommendations for practical applications and future research of the free-pour assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. The Use of Google Trends in Health Care Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sudhakar V.; Wayda, Brian; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Wang, Sisi; Dreyer, Rachel P.; Chen, Serene I.; Murugiah, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research. Methods and Findings PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers systematically identified studies utilizing Google Trends for health care research from MEDLINE and PubMed. Seventy studies met our inclusion criteria. Google Trends publications increased seven-fold from 2009 to 2013. Studies were classified into four topic domains: infectious disease (27% of articles), mental health and substance use (24%), other non-communicable diseases (16%), and general population behavior (33%). By use, 27% of articles utilized Google Trends for casual inference, 39% for description, and 34% for surveillance. Among surveillance studies, 92% were validated against a reference standard data source, and 80% of studies using correlation had a correlation statistic ≥0.70. Overall, 67% of articles provided a rationale for their search input. However, only 7% of articles were reproducible based on complete documentation of search strategy. We present a checklist to facilitate appropriate methodological documentation for future studies. A limitation of the study is the challenge of classifying heterogeneous studies utilizing a novel data source. Conclusion Google Trends is being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains in myriad ways. However, poor documentation of methods precludes the reproducibility of the findings. Such documentation would enable other researchers to determine the consistency of results provided by Google Trends for a well

  6. Usability, learnability and performance evaluation of Intelligent Research and Intervention Software: A delivery platform for eHealth interventions.

    PubMed

    Wozney, Lori; McGrath, Patrick J; Newton, Amanda; Huguet, Anna; Franklin, Marcia; Perri, Kaitlin; Leuschen, K; Toombs, Elaine; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of an eHealth platform, Intelligent Research and Intervention Software was undertaken via cross-sectional survey of staff users and application performance monitoring. The platform is used to deliver psychosocial interventions across a range of clinical contexts, project scopes, and delivery modalities (e.g. hybrid telehealth, fully online self-managed, randomized control trials, and clinical service delivery). Intelligent Research and Intervention Software supports persuasive technology elements (e.g. tailoring, reminders, and personalization) as well as staff management tools. Results from the System Usability Scale involving 30 Staff and Administrative users across multiple projects were positive with overall mean score of 70 ("Acceptable"). The mean score for "Usability" sub-scale was 82 and for "Learnability" sub-scale 61. There were no significant differences in perceptions of usability across user groups or levels of experience. Application performance management analytics (e.g. Application Performance Index scores) across two test sites indicate the software platform is robust and reliable when compared to industry standards. Intelligent Research and Intervention Software is successfully operating as a flexible platform for creating, delivering, and evaluating eHealth interventions.

  7. Data management for intervention effectiveness research: comparing deductive and inductive approaches.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Yu, Fang; Ramadoss, Vijay Kumar; Kerr, Madeleine J

    2009-12-01

    Management approaches are needed to prepare intervention data sets for research. We identified four management approaches and applied them to Omaha System intervention data from 15 home care agencies (621,385 interventions provided to 2,862 patients). Classifying intervention data created differing numbers of distinct groups for deductive approaches labeled as action category (four groups), theoretical (5), and clinical expert consensus (23). One inductive, data-driven approach generated 150 groups of interventions, of which 24 were meaningful and unique. Interventions in deductive groups were mutually exclusive, and approaches mapped readily according to intervention action terms. The novel, overlapping, inductive groups consisted of diverse actions for multiple problems. The four management approaches created meaningful intervention groups to be employed in future outcomes evaluation studies.

  8. Using Research Evidence to Inform and Evaluate Early Childhood Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    This article includes descriptions of a process used to conduct practice-based research syntheses and the manner in which synthesis findings are used to inform and evaluate early childhood intervention practices. The main focus of a practice-based research synthesis is the unbundling of an intervention practice to identify those practice…

  9. 76 FR 41771 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-Interventions To Promote...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center--Interventions To Promote Community... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 37336-37341) a notice inviting applications for a new award for the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (RRTC)--Interventions to Promote Community Living Among...

  10. Bridging Mental Health and Education in Urban Elementary Schools: Participatory Research to Inform Intervention Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Jackson, Daisy R.; Bilal, Caroline; Hamre, Bridget K.; Soule, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health…

  11. The Status of Intervention Research in HRD: Assessment of an Applied Discipline and Potential for Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Lindsay Elizabeth; Garza, Natalie M.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Dzirasa, Victor A.; Hutt, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the quantity, nature and frequency of intervention research published in Human Resource Development (HRD) journals. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology for this study was a literature review, analysis and synthesis with specific attention to locating intervention research in HRD journals.…

  12. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  13. Mathematics Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, C. J.; Powell, S. R.; King, S. A.; Davidson, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. Method: The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically…

  14. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Are the Costs and Benefits? Congressional Research Briefing Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Currie, Janet; Besharov, Douglas J.

    While recent research in cognitive development suggests that the period from birth to age 3 provides a unique opportunity for interventions to change the life-course of children, there is great disagreement regarding the best means of allocating public funds toward early childhood intervention. Further, there is little research into the long-term…

  15. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  16. Research-Based Family Interventions for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Susan L.; Bellack, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    Well-controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy of a number of family-based psychosocial interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia. Reviews seven studies with long term follow-up. (Author)

  17. Development of clinically meaningful complex interventions - the contribution of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Meyer, Gabriele; Hall, Elisabeth; Fegran, Liv; Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-06-01

    The debate about the "right" methods and designs for nursing research is on-going. According to international surveys, studies on the effectiveness and safety of nursing interventions are rare. Since nursing practice deals daily with interventions, nurses ostensibly expose hospital patients and nursing home residents frequently to unproven therapeutic and preventive nursing interventions. Nursing interventions are predominately of a complex nature, consisting of several components depending on and interacting with each other and their complex contextual factors. Thus, evaluation studies are often challenging and need especially careful development, ambitious designs and systematic evaluations. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) has proposed a framework, where qualitative and quantitative research rely on each other in order to develop theory-based complex interventions, prepare and conduct their optimal delivery, explain how the interventions work and which conditions contributed in case they did not work. The present essay outlines the points where qualitative research contributes towards the development and evaluation of complex interventions. First, the UK MRC framework is introduced, and secondly it is illustrated where qualitative research should necessarily be located using examples from a handful of qualitative studies. Future clinically meaningful and implementable nursing interventions should best be developed by research groups with both excellent qualitative and quantitative research skills.

  18. Job Satisfaction: Is There a Trend? Manpower Research Monograph No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.; And Others

    A detailed review is presented of some of the major research on job satisfaction conducted in the past 40 years. The information is discussed in five major sections, each introduced by a series of related questions, under the following headings: national trends in job satisfaction, 1958-73; distribution of job satisfaction in the work force (by…

  19. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  20. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  1. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  2. Research Trends and Issues in Educational Technology: A Content Analysis of TOJET (2008-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkaya, Mujgan; Aydin, Irem Erdem; Kumtepe, Evrim Genc

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the contents of articles published in the Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET) between 2008 and 2011. General aim of the study is to review on what trends, issues and research methods on which studies of educational technology have concentrated in the last four years. Thus, articles…

  3. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  4. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  5. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  6. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  7. Youth Who "Age Out" of Foster Care: Troubled Lives, Troubling Prospects. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard

    Noting that the population of foster children who "age out" of the foster care system may be even more at risk than other foster children, this research brief summarizes a longer report examining trends in foster care in the United States, the number and needs of those aging out of the system, and public policy implications. The brief indicates…

  8. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  9. What We Are Learning about Mathematics Interventions and Conducting Research on Mathematics Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on four studies that have greatly expanded the knowledge base on effective interventions in mathematics, and he provides four rigorous experimental studies of approaches for students likely to experience difficulties learning mathematics over a large grade-level span (pre-K to 4th grade). All of the…

  10. A Synthesis of Research on Informational Text Reading Interventions for Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ciullo, Stephen; Lo, Yu-Ling Sabrina; Wanzek, Jeanne; Reed, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Time Series Analysis of Trends in Malaria Cases and Deaths at Hospitals and the Effect of Antimalarial Interventions, 2001–2011, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aregawi, Maru; Lynch, Michael; Bekele, Worku; Kebede, Henok; Jima, Daddi; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Yenehun, Meseret Aseffa; Lilay, Abraham; Williams, Ryan; Thomson, Madeleine; Nafo-Traore, Fatoumata; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Gebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Coosemans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001–2011. Methods Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001–2005) and post-interventions (2006–2011) periods. Findings The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006–2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–79%) and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%–51%) compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%–94%) and 73% (CI, 48%–86%) respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission. Conclusions Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006–2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the

  12. A flow diagram to facilitate selection of interventions and research for health care.

    PubMed Central

    Irwig, L.; Zwarenstein, M.; Zwi, A.; Chalmers, I.

    1998-01-01

    Decisions about health care should be informed by systematic review of valid research evidence on the effects of interventions on health outcomes that matter. If systematic review suggests it is likely that a health care intervention does more good than harm in some settings, questions must be addressed about the local applicability of the intervention, its cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of implementation. If systematic review suggests that it is unlikely that an intervention does more good than harm in any setting, its use should be discouraged, while existing interventions are improved or alternative interventions developed. If it is uncertain whether an intervention does more good than harm, further analysis of existing data or new controlled trials are required. The article contains a flow diagram, which provides a structure for making such decisions. PMID:9615493

  13. A vision for chronic disease prevention intervention research: report from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Frederick D; Little, Julian; Ioannidis, John P A; Kreiger, Nancy; Palmer, Lyle J; Relton, Clare; Taylor, Peter

    2014-04-17

    The Population Studies Research Network of Cancer Care Ontario hosted a strategic planning workshop to establish an agenda for a prevention intervention research program in Ontario, including priority topics for investigation and design considerations. The two-day workshop included: presentations on background papers developed to facilitate participants' preparation for and discussions in the workshop; keynote presentations on intervention research concerning primary prevention of chronic diseases, design and study implementation considerations; a dedicated session on critical and creative thinking to stimulate participation and discussion topics; break out groups to identify, discuss and present study ideas, designs, implementation considerations; and a consensus process to discuss and identify recommendations for research priorities and next steps. The retreat yielded the following recommendations: 1) develop an intervention research agenda that includes working with existing large-scale cohorts; 2) develop an intervention research agenda that includes novel research designs that could target individuals or groups; and 3) develop an intervention research agenda in which studies collect data on costs, define stakeholders, and ensure clear strategies for stakeholder engagement and knowledge transfer. The Population Studies Research Network will develop options from these recommendations and release a call for proposals in 2014 for intervention research pilot projects that reflect these recommendations. Pilot projects will be evaluated based on their fit with the retreat's recommendations, and their potential to scale up to full studies and application in practice.

  14. Trends and predictors of smoking cessation after percutaneous coronary intervention (from Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1999 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Sochor, Ondrej; Lennon, Ryan J; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan Pablo; Bresnahan, John F; Croghan, Ivana; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Pack, Quinn; Thomas, Randal J

    2015-02-15

    Smoke-free ordinance implementation and advances in smoking cessation (SC) treatment have occurred in the past decade; however, little is known about their impact on SC in patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,306 consecutive patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota, who underwent their first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 1999 to 2009, and assessed the trends and predictors of SC after PCI. Smoking status was ascertained by structured telephone survey 6 and 12 months after PCI (ending in 2010). The prevalence of smoking in patients who underwent PCI increased nonsignificantly from 20% in 1999 to 2001 to 24% in 2007 to 2009 (p = 0.14), whereas SC at 6 months after PCI decreased nonsignificantly from 50% (1999 to 2001) to 49% (2007 to 2009), p = 0.82. The 12-month quit rate did not change significantly (48% in 1999 to 2001 vs 56% in 2007 to 2009, p = 0.38), even during the time periods after the enactment of smoke-free policies. The strongest predictor of SC at 6 months after PCI was participation in cardiac rehabilitation (odds ratio [OR] 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05 to 4.91, p <0.001), older age (OR 1.42 per decade, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.73, p <0.001), and concurrent myocardial infarction at the time of PCI (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.65, p = 0.006). One-year mortality was lower in the group of smokers compared with never smokers (3% vs 7%, p <0.001). In conclusion, SC rates have not improved after PCI over the past decade in our cohort, despite the presence of smoke-free ordinances and improved treatment strategies. Improvements in delivery of systematic services aimed at promoting SC (such as cardiac rehabilitation) should be part of future efforts to improve SC rates after PCI.

  15. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Ricky, Ed.

    This book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. It includes theoretical models of this relationship and examinations of its most important aspects, explorations of trauma-related assessment issues, and practical therapeutic interventions for use with juvenile delinquents. Chapters include: (1) "The Role…

  16. Mississippi's DUI Offender Intervention: 40 Years of Programming and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; Gardner, Sheena; Xu, Xiaohe; Chi, Guangqing; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (MASEP) is a court-mandated driving under the influence (DUI) intervention for persons convicted of DUI. This study describes the evolution of the curriculum, evaluates the effectiveness of MASEP in reducing recidivism, and examines whether recent program revisions have led to improvements in…

  17. Saturday Schools and Tutoring as Interventions. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Being clear about the reason for academic intervention programs is essential prior to establishing programs. Saturday School and tutoring are two approaches that can be helpful in student retention and increasing graduation rates but only if they are set up to meet the specific needs of the school's students. There are no common measures of the…

  18. 76 FR 37336 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-Interventions To Promote...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center--Interventions To Promote Community...-funded research and development activities in refereed journals. The percentage of new NIDRR grants that... and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and...

  19. Non-interventional research and usual care: definition, regulatory aspects, difficulties and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Ravoire, Sophie; Golinelli, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Non-interventional research is an essential approach to gathering data in different situations and it often complements other research methodologies, such as biomedical research and research aimed at evaluating usual care. Yet the legislative framework for this type of research is nonexistent, and this void poses a number of problems for non-interventional researchers, including an absence of any guarantee of quality and therefore of reliability, a limited recognition of the research beyond our borders, cumbersome administrative procedures, and a lack of visibility. In light of the growing demand for data, particularly in post marketing authorisation for drugs, which largely relies on non-interventional methods, the Round Table participants have issued a set of proposals for a future legislative framework for this type of research.

  20. International trends in health science librarianship part 17: a comparison of health science libraries with academic and research libraries.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 4 years this Regular Feature has looked at trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. Although there are still a few more regions to be covered in this series, this issue explores general trends in academic and research libraries with a view to discovering whether the trends identified for health science libraries are similar. Are health science libraries unique? Or do their experiences mirror those found in the wider world of academic and research libraries?

  1. Fidelity of Implementation and Instructional Alignment in Response to Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.; King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Partanen, Jane N.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn.…

  2. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  3. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  4. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper.

  5. Theory and Empiricism in Intervention Research: A Dialectic To Be Avoided.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews several central themes raised in Hughes' target article that are appropriate for further development of intervention research, including the beneficial aspects of empirically supported treatments (ESTs); importance of theory in intervention development; and models of developmental psychopathology. Comments on potential dialectic between…

  6. A Complex Quest: The Development and Research of Underachievement Interventions for Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Lisa Davia; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Mccoach, D. Betsy; Burton, Meredith Greene

    2012-01-01

    The seeming lack of motivation of many academically gifted students is an area of frustration and concern for many parents, teachers, and psychologists. This article explores two studies in which researchers designed interventions to improve academic achievement. Both interventions were created using the Achievement-Orientation Model. The first…

  7. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  8. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramana, Kharis Erasta Reza; Ertsen, Maurits Willem

    2016-10-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the form of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both the development of intervention and research, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the development of the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as hydrological research is often designed without adequate consideration of how to account for human agency and that these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning for hydrological research, based on evaluating three hydrological research efforts targeting small-scale water development initiatives in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three cases was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention initiatives, we propose two analysis steps, including (1) consideration of possible surprises and possible actions and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout small-scale hydrological intervention-based initiatives, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  9. History and Trends of "Personal Health Record" Research in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review history and trends of personal health record research in PubMed and to provide accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions. Methods For the search strategy, PubMed was queried for 'personal health record, personal record, and PHR' in the title and abstract fields. Those containing different definitions of the word were removed by one-by-one analysis from the results, 695 articles. In the end, total of 229 articles were analyzed in this research. Results The results show that the changes in terms over the years and the shift to patient centeredness and mixed usage. And we identified history and trend of PHR research in some category that the number of publications by year, topic, methodologies and target diseases. Also from analysis of MeSH terms, we can show the focal interest in regards the PHR boundaries and related subjects. Conclusions For PHRs to be efficiently used by general public, initial understanding of the history and trends of PHR research may be helpful. Simultaneously, accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions that can lead to the development and growth of PHRs will be valuable to their adoption and expansion. PMID:21818452

  10. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  11. Analysis of miRNA market trends reveals hotspots of research activity.

    PubMed

    Oosta, Gary; Razvi, Enal

    2012-04-01

    We have conducted an analysis of the miRNA research marketplace by evaluating the publication trends in the field. In this article, we present the results of our analysis which reveals that hotspots exist in terms of research activities in the miRNA space--these hotspots illustrate the areas in the miRNA research space where specific miRNAs have been extensively studied, and other areas that represent new territory. We frame these data into the context of areas of opportunity for miRNA content harvest versus segments of opportunity for the development of research tools. Also presented in this article are the primary market data from online surveys we have performed with researchers involved in miRNA research around the world. Taken together, these data frame the current state of the miRNA marketplace and provide niches of opportunity for new entrants into this space.

  12. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580

  13. Educating Low-SES and LEP Survivors About Breast Cancer Research: Pilot Test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J.; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n=12) demonstrated interest in learning about “health research.” All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed. PMID:24744119

  14. Practical suggestions for community interventions using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.

  15. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    PubMed

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  16. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  17. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez.…

  18. State of innovation in suicide intervention research with military populations.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Simons, Kelsey

    2015-06-01

    A systematic search was performed to identify active, externally funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that target suicidal ideation or behavior as a primary or secondary outcome among U.S. military service members, guard-reservists, and veterans. Twenty-three studies were identified, most funded by the U.S. Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Several innovations were identified based on departures from or modernizations of usual practices and included the targeting of suicide deaths or attempts as primary outcome, delivery of interventions through technology and/or outside clinical settings, and examinations of rarely studied treatments.

  19. New Clinical and Research Trends in Lower Extremity Management for Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348

  20. Community-based participatory research contributions to intervention research: the intersection of science and practice to improve health equity.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie

    2010-04-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR.

  1. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  2. Rethinking the Bar on Standards of Evidence for Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    The research reports by Boyd et al. and Herman et al. provide insights about intervention research with vulnerable populations that highlight often-neglected standards of evidence. This commentary describes linkages of nonspecific therapeutic factors critical to these outcome studies as illustrative of research to practice standards we must…

  3. An Effective Intervention in Research Methods That Reduces Psychology Majors' Sexist Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Mills, Aeriel S.; Raffa, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a course-long intervention in an undergraduate Research Methods course aimed toward reducing students' endorsement of hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS). Reading assignments illustrating diverse research methodologies, lecture examples, and a hands-on research project designed by student teams focused on…

  4. Joint attention and early social communication: implications for research on intervention with autism.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P; Crowson, M

    1997-12-01

    Highly structured, intensive early intervention may lead to significant developmental gains for many children with autism. However, a clear understanding of early intervention effects may currently be hampered by a lack of precision in outcome measurement. To improve the precision and sensitivity of outcome assessment it may be useful to integrate research on the nature of the social disturbance of autism with research on early intervention. In this regard, it may be that measures of nonverbal social communication skills are especially important in the study of preschool intervention programs. This is because these measures appear to tap into a cardinal component of the early social disturbance of autism, and because these measures have been directly related to neurological, cognitive, and affective processes that may play a role in autism. The research and theory that support the potential utility of these types of measures for early intervention research are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate how these types of measures may assist in addressing current issues and hypotheses about early intervention with autism including the "recovery hypothesis," the "pivotal skill hypothesis," and the relative effectiveness of discrete trial versus incidental learning approaches to early intervention. A cybernetic model of autism is also briefly described in an effort to better understand one potential component of early psychoeducational treatment effects with children with autism.

  5. Introduction to ecological description of a community intervention: building prevention through collaborative field based research.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth ages 12-18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science.

  6. Current state and research trend in light environment for plant factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Juro; Ohdoi, Katsuaki

    2013-05-01

    Plant factory has been attracting attention as a new system of food production, and there are approximately 130 commercially operated facilities in March 2012 in Japan. Currently, leafy vegetables are mainly produced in plant factory. However, not only year-round and agricultural chemical free production but new researches focused on high value-added vegetable production and raw material production for pharmaceutical compounds have been studied. This report outlines the recent trends in research on high-value-added plants using light environments.

  7. Twenty-year trends of authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2012-02-01

    This study documented the trends in authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and ISBS Proceedings. Original research articles of the 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009 volumes of these serials were reviewed, excluding reviews, modeling papers, technical notes, and editorials. Compared to 1989 volumes, the mean number of authors per paper significantly increased (35 and 100%, respectively) in the 2009 volumes, along with increased rates of hyperauthorship, and a decline in rates of single authorship. Sample sizes varied widely across papers and did not appear to change since 1989.

  8. Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis of Doctoral Research: Research Trends in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jason Kirtland

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated research topics of doctoral dissertations that examined issues in distance learning from 2000-2014. Twelve reviews of research on distance learning, spanning from 1997-2015, were identified. It was found that only one of these reviews of research (Davies, Howell, & Petri, 2010) looked at doctoral dissertations. The…

  9. Violence against psychiatric nurses: sensitive research as science and intervention.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Zeiss, Robert; Rierdan, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of workplace violence, much of which is perpetrated by patients. In a review of literature on prevalence, perpetrators, and impact of violence on psychiatric nurses, we note that workplace violence is a virtually normative experience for the nurse, rather than a rare occurrence. Verbal violence and sexual harassment, like physical violence, are common experiences; in contrast to physical violence, these are often initiated by co-workers. The emotional impact of violence on psychiatric nurses is studied less often than frequency of exposure; we discuss hypotheses for this paucity of relevant research. Finally, we reflect on the implications of current research, concluding with recommendations for future research on violence against psychiatric nurses. In particular, we elaborate on the role of violence research in the healthcare setting as "sensitive research"--a research process that in itself may have both direct and indirect beneficial effects for the nursing profession.

  10. Early Intervention in Europe: Organisation of Services and Support for Children and Their Families: Trends in 17 European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Victoria, Ed.

    This study describes how European countries deal with the issues and practicalities surrounding early intervention services. The current situation in relation to early intervention is examined in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Holland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Luxembourg, Iceland,…

  11. Twenty Years of Communication Intervention Research with Individuals who have Severe Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Martha E.; Brady, Nancy; McLean, Lee; Ogletree, Billy T.; Siegel, Ellin; Sylvester, Lorraine; Mollica, Beth M.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose

    2011-01-01

    This literature review was conducted to evaluate the current state of evidence supporting communication interventions for individuals with severe disabilities. Authors reviewed 116 articles published between 1987 and 2007 in refereed journals meeting three criteria: (a) described a communication intervention, (b) involved one or more participants with severe disabilities, and (c) addressed one or more areas of communication performance. Many researchers failed to report treatment fidelity or to assess basic aspects of intervention effects including generalization, maintenance, and social validity. The evidence reviewed indicates that 96% of the studies reported positive changes in some aspects of communication. These findings support the provision of communication intervention to persons with severe disabilities. Gaps in the research were reported with recommendations for future research. PMID:20687822

  12. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  13. Reading interventions with behavioral and social skill outcomes: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.

  14. Technology intervention research with deaf and hard of hearing learners: levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Cannon, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluated the research base relative to technology use with deaf and hard of hearing students, examining 29 peer-reviewed studies published January 2000-August 2013 that used technology-based intervention (multimedia instructional applications/software) and investigating its effects on academic variables (academic skills used in instructional settings). They then evaluated the studies according to quality indicators for evidence-based research, both individually and as a body of evidence supporting intervention for deaf and hard of hearing students (Gersten et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; Institute of Education Sciences, 2013; Kratochwill et al., 2010, 2013). One of 24 group design studies met all Essential Quality Indicators; 3 of 5 single-case design studies did (Horner et al., 2005). No reviewed technology intervention met criteria for an established evidence base. Interventions are presented across technology types and academic areas to facilitate discussion of implications for researchers and practitioners.

  15. Community-Based Participatory Research and Smoking Cessation Interventions: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Susan D.; Heath, Janie; Williams, Lovoria B.; Tingen, Martha S.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article presents a review of the evidence on the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and smoking cessation interventions. An overview of CBPR is provided, along with a description of the search methods and quality scoring. Research questions are explored to determine: if CBPR improves the quality of research methods and community involvement in cessation intervention studies; and, cessation outcomes when using CBPR approaches. Results of the review are provided along with a comprehensive table summarizing all included studies. Strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach are presented with recommendations for future research. PMID:22289400

  16. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  17. Therapeutic Recreation Interventions in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkin, Marjorie J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the effectiveness of therapeutic recreation in substance abuse treatment is either theory-based and programmatic or descriptive. This paper examines the research, noting multicultural and interdisciplinary issues. The few existing studies present generally positive results, though not always due solely to the therapeutic…

  18. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  19. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. Results A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and

  20. Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: the role of campus environments.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    An important next step for the field is to determine what setting-level factors beyond the individual are critical to fostering campus environments that support pro-social, helpful bystander intervention action to prevent sexual violence. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a research agenda to investigate key areas of the campus environment and their potential influence on bystander intervention. To create the research agenda, a number of steps were followed including: (1) systematically reviewing the larger bystander literature to identify key environmental areas, (2) assessing what research is available specific to college campuses and sexual assault in each of these areas, and (3) outlining future research to address each of these areas on college campuses and determine their applicability to sexual violence situations. Five main groups of factors were found to influence bystander intervention beyond the individual, group and situational levels, including: social norms, sense of community, pro-social modeling, policies, and the physical environment. Certain areas of research on environmental influences on bystander intervention are more developed such as social norms, with little research on areas such as policies and the physical environment. However, further research is needed in each of the identified five areas to help identify how college campuses can support bystander intervention.

  1. Effects of an educational intervention on female biomedical scientists' research self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Lori L; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M; Ward, Earlise C; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a short-term research training program coupled with an efficacy enhancing intervention for novice female biomedical scientists of diverse racial backgrounds would increase their research self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-three female biomedical scientists were randomized into a control or intervention group and 15 men participated as a control group. Research self-efficacy significantly increased for women who participated in the self-efficacy intervention workshop. Research self-efficacy within each group also significantly increased following the short-term research training program, but cross-group comparisons were not significant. These findings suggest that educational interventions that target sources of self-efficacy and provide domain-specific learning experiences are effective at increasing research self-efficacy for women and men. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal outcomes of this effort.

  2. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Female Biomedical Scientists’ Research Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M.; Ward, Earlise C.; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a short-term research training program coupled with an efficacy enhancing intervention for novice female biomedical scientists of diverse racial backgrounds would increase their research self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-three female biomedical scientists were randomized into a control or intervention group and 15 men participated as a control group. Research self-efficacy significantly increased for women who participated in the self-efficacy intervention workshop. Research self-efficacy within each group also significantly increased following the short-term research training program, but cross-group comparisons were not significant. These findings suggest that educational interventions that target sources of self-efficacy and provide domain-specific learning experiences are effective at increasing research self-efficacy for women and men. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal outcomes of this effort. PMID:19774477

  3. Sciatic nerve injury repair: a visualized analysis of research fronts and development trends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyao; Jiang, Rui; Jin, Yan

    2014-09-15

    A total of 3,446 publications regarding sciatic nerve injury repair and protection indexed by Web of Science during 2000-2004 were used for a detailed analysis of temporal-spatial distribution characteristics. Reference co-citation networks of the 100 top-cited publications as per the number of total citations were created using the Web of Science database and the information visualization tool, CiteSpaceIII. The key words that showed high frequency in these publications were included for analyzing the research fronts and development trends for sciatic nerve injury repair and protection. Through word frequency trend analysis, studies on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells combined with tissue-engineered scaffold material will become the forefronts in the field of sciatic nerve injury repair and protection in the near future.

  4. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  5. Trends in Psychotherapy Process Research: Samples, Measures, Researchers, and Classic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychotherapy studies published in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) and "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" (JCCP) between 1978 and 1992. Found that JCP published mostly process, outcome, and analogue research, whereas JCCP published mostly outcome research. Most process and process-outcome studies across journals were…

  6. [Analysis of researchers' implication in a research-intervention in the Stork Network: a tool for institutional analysis].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Mesquita, Luana Pinho de; Matumoto, Silvia; Monceau, Gilles

    2016-09-19

    This qualitative study is based on institutional analysis as the methodological theoretical reference with the objective of analyzing researchers' implication during a research-intervention and the interferences caused by this analysis. The study involved researchers from courses in medicine, nursing, and dentistry at two universities and workers from a Regional Health Department in follow-up on the implementation of the Stork Network in São Paulo State, Brazil. The researchers worked together in the intervention and in analysis workshops, supported by an external institutional analysis. Two institutions stood out in the analysis: the research, established mainly with characteristics of neutrality, and management, with Taylorist characteristics. Differences between researchers and difficulties in identifying actions proper to network management and research were some of the interferences that were identified. The study concludes that implication analysis is a powerful tool for such studies.

  7. Trends in conservation research and management in Hawai‘i over the past 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutra Elliott, Daniela; Fortini, Lucas; Cameron Duffy, David

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiʻi, an archipelago of the most isolated inhabited islands on the planet, faces unique and extreme challenges to its biodiversity. We examined how the conservation community has responded to these challenges and how the responses have changed over time, using twenty years of abstracts from the Hawaiʻi Conservation Conference, a yearly gathering of the majority of scientists, managers and the public in Hawaiʻi. Of the 2145 abstracts considered, 60% percent reported research results; 40.0% reported information on conservation and resource management programmes and institutions (i.e., non-research abstracts). Initially, applied research abstracts predominated, but in recent years the number of basic research abstracts has become similar. Across taxonomic groups, terrestrial plants, mammals and birds were the dominant research subjects, fish, algae and fungi were noticeably less studied relative to their diversity in Hawaiʻi. Bird and fish species studied were mostly native; research on most other taxa was evenly divided between native and non-native species. Topics have oscillated in frequency over the years, but there have been no dramatic trends, with the exception of climate change and Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK). Although there is an increasing trend in LEK and cross-disciplinary studies, the number of related abstracts have remained uncommon through the period, accounting for less than 5.0% of total research abstracts analyzed. Our results offer an oportunity for the conservation community to take a closer look at reported effort to better address key conservation questions for Hawaiʻi.

  8. What qualitative research can contribute to a randomized controlled trial of a complex community intervention.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Goering, Paula

    2015-11-01

    Using the case of a large-scale, multi-site Canadian Housing First research demonstration project for homeless people with mental illness, At Home/Chez Soi, we illustrate the value of qualitative methods in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a complex community intervention. We argue that quantitative RCT research can neither capture the complexity nor tell the full story of a complex community intervention. We conceptualize complex community interventions as having multiple phases and dimensions that require both RCT and qualitative research components. Rather than assume that qualitative research and RCTs are incommensurate, a more pragmatic mixed methods approach was used, which included using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand program implementation and outcomes. At the same time, qualitative research was used to examine aspects of the intervention that could not be understood through the RCT, such as its conception, planning, sustainability, and policy impacts. Through this example, we show how qualitative research can tell a more complete story about complex community interventions.

  9. Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Das, Smita; Tonelli, Makenzie; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice.

  10. Data to Action: Using Formative Research to Develop Intervention Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Steckler, Allan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Saunders, Ruth P.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Lytle, Leslie A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Formative research is used to inform intervention development, but the processes of transmitting results to intervention planners and incorporating information into intervention designs are not well documented. The authors describe how formative research results from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were transferred to planners to…

  11. Using the World Wide Web in health-related intervention research. A review of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Sallie E; Lewis, Frances M

    2004-01-01

    A review of published controlled trials was conducted to evaluate components, utility, and efficacy of Web-based healthcare interventions. Nine studies met the established review criteria. Knowledge gains were the most commonly reported significant changes; rarely were there measures or significant changes on behavioral outcomes. Studies varied in format of personal contact with participants, in the structure or sequence of intervention content, and in design features. Dosage was inconsistently measured and process evaluation was relatively absent. Despite limitations, several studies reported significant effects. Based on best evidence-to-date, elements of technologically mediated interventions important to future research are summarized. Taken together, research suggests that Web-based interventions may be an efficacious delivery system, especially for those with chronic conditions amenable to self-management and to those with various limitations to accessing healthcare.

  12. From Qualitative Work to Intervention Development in Pediatric Oncology Palliative Care Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L.; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers. PMID:23632900

  13. Political interventions in U.S. human embryo research: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Green, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, beginning with the Reagan administration's refusal to support and provide oversight for embryo research, and continuing to the present in congressionally imposed limits on funding for such research, progress in infertility medicine and the development of stem cell therapies has been seriously delayed by a series of political interventions. In almost all cases, these interventions result from a view of the moral status of human embryo premised largely on religious assumptions. Although some believe that these interventions are valid expressions of religious values in the public sector, it is argued here that they, in fact, contradict Rawls's conception of public reasoning. Both the prohibition of research involving the human embryo as well as bans on federal funding for embryo-related research place the particular religious views of some citizens above the pressing health needs of almost all, and thus violate the ideal of civility implicit in the Rawlsian standard.

  14. A content analysis of intervention research in social work doctoral dissertations.

    PubMed

    Horton, E Gail; Hawkins, Michele

    2010-10-01

    It is imperative for the social work profession that the on-going schism between researchers and practitioners commented on in the literature for the past 40 years be effectively addressed. Doctoral programs are in a unique position to affect the production of research focusing on intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine if social work doctoral programs are currently successful in encouraging their doctoral candidates to engage in intervention research. A content analysis was conducted on 252 dissertation abstracts produced by social work doctoral students in 2006. Only 13.49% of the abstracts indicated a focus on social work intervention. The researchers argue that this finding indicates a need for a paradigm shift in social work education and practice.

  15. Recent trends in humanoid robotics research: scientific background, applications, and implications.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jorge; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2010-11-01

    Even though the market size is still small at this moment, applied fields of robots are gradually spreading from the manufacturing industry to the others as one of the important components to support an aging society. For this purpose, the research on human-robot interaction (HRI) has been an emerging topic of interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies are especially focused on behavioral and cognitive aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. As a part of these studies, the term of "roboethics" has been introduced as an approach to discuss the potentialities and the limits of robots in relation to human beings. In this article, we describe the recent research trends on the field of humanoid robotics. Their principal applications and their possible impact are discussed.

  16. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  17. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miraji, H; Othman, O C; Ngassapa, F N; Mureithi, E W

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning.

  18. [Trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research: a bibliometric study].

    PubMed

    Thonon, Frédérique; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Nerfie, Alexia; Delaloge, Suzette

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a bibliometric study carried out in order to describe the trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research from 2003 to 2013. The results show an increase in the number of publications, especially international publications coordinated by non-French institutions. The most visible topics, in terms of number of publications by keywords, are related to biology, clinical trials and genetics. Most publications are written by authors affiliated to comprehensive cancer centres, followed by universities, research centres, university hospitals and governmental agencies. The importance of publications by topic varies throughout the years: there has been an increase of the number of publications related to targeted therapies or genomics. The importance of institutions or country affiliation of authors varies with the topics. This study, especially the analysis by keywords, enables the coordinators of research programs to identify the predominant actors and themes.

  19. Meta-analyses of Theory use in Medication Adherence Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Enriquez, Maithe; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chan, Keith C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate primary research that examined theory- or model-linked medication adherence interventions. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies were used to locate trials testing interventions with medication adherence behavior outcomes measured by electronic event monitoring, pharmacy refills, pill counts, and self-reports. Random-effects model analysis was used to calculate standardized mean difference effect sizes for medication adherence outcomes. Results Codable data were extracted from 146 comparisons with 19,348 participants. The most common theories and models were social cognitive theory and motivational interviewing. The overall weighted effect size for all interventions comparing treatment and control participants was 0.294. The effect size for interventions based on single-theories was 0.323 and for multiple-theory interventions was 0.214. Effect sizes for individual theories and models ranged from 0.041 to 0.447. The largest effect sizes were for interventions based on the health belief model (0.477) and adult learning theory (0.443). The smallest effect sizes were for interventions based on PRECEDE (0.041) and self-regulation (0.118). Conclusion These findings suggest that theory- and model-linked interventions have a significant but modest effect on medication adherence outcomes. PMID:26931748

  20. Interventions for healthy aging among mature Black lesbians: Recommendations gathered through community-based research.

    PubMed

    Seelman, Kristie L; Adams, Mary Anne; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-12-27

    Black lesbians have unique needs for gerontological services that reflect their experiences of intersectional oppression and resilience. Yet there is a major knowledge gap about interventions that promote healthy aging in this population, as voiced by Black lesbians themselves. To address this need, 100 Black lesbians, ranging in age from 41 to 91, participated in focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia, to discuss their experiences of aging, health needs, and recommendations for interventions. Through thematic analysis, we identified six themes related to suggested approaches for healthy aging interventions. We discuss implications of these findings for aging practice and future research.

  1. Early Intervention in Reading: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Holly M.; Mahdavi, Jennifer N.; Lewis, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented: (a) A system of progress monitoring was used to assess student progress and skill acquisition; (b) instruction was characterized by high intensity through the use of…

  2. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  3. Inference Instruction for Struggling Readers: A Synthesis of Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Colby S.

    2016-01-01

    Skill in generating inferences predicts reading comprehension for students in the elementary and intermediate grades even after taking into account word reading, vocabulary knowledge, and cognitive ability (Cain et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology, 96," 671-81, 2004; Kendeou et al., "Journal of Research in Reading," 31,…

  4. An Evaluation of Research Students' Writing Support Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Barry; Verezub, Elena; Dalrymple, John; Bertone, Santina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving quality standards in postgraduate education, particularly among Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students, can be challenging. In addition to the diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of these students, thesis writing frequently involves the development of new skills associated with the comprehension of a large volume of…

  5. Understanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers: Major Questions and Appropriate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a workshop, supported by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Health, that examines the current state of research about interventions that could significantly influence the participation of underrepresented minorities in pursuing research careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and other…

  6. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  7. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  8. Intensive Behavioural Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Research-Based Service Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Diane W.; Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Outcome research has shown that early and intensive behavioural intervention (ABA) may improve intellectual, language and adaptive functioning in children with autism. However, research has also indicated that not all ABA provisions are equally effective. Therefore, it may be beneficial to describe the key variables that are common to programmes…

  9. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  10. Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

  11. Researching Early Intervention and Young Children's Perspectives--Developing and Using a "Listening to Children Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige-Smith, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article, by Alice Paige-Smith and Jonathan Rix, considers the current context of early intervention in England from the perspective and experiences of two families and in particular focuses on two young children identified as having Down syndrome. This case study research has emerged from previous research conducted by the authors, both of…

  12. Early Intervention Efficacy Research: What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article describes conceptual and methodological limitations of existing research on the efficacy of early intervention programs. Recent studies using meta-analytic techniques to generate testable hypotheses are reviewed. Recommendations for greater precision in measurement and for improved research design are offered. (DB)

  13. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR) workforce

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the “STEM” workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications. PMID:28166252

  14. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  15. Review of Research Trends and Methods in Nano Environmental, Health, and Safety Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erbis, Serkan; Ok, Zeynep; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Benneyan, James C; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2016-08-01

    Despite the many touted benefits of nanomaterials, concerns remain about their possible environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risks in terms of their toxicity, long-term accumulation effects, or dose-response relationships. The published studies on EHS risks of nanomaterials have increased significantly over the past decade and half, with most focused on nanotoxicology. Researchers are still learning about health consequences of nanomaterials and how to make environmentally responsible decisions regarding their production. This article characterizes the scientific literature on nano-EHS risk analysis to map the state-of-the-art developments in this field and chart guidance for the future directions. First, an analysis of keyword co-occurrence networks is investigated for nano-EHS literature published in the past decade to identify the intellectual turning points and research trends in nanorisk analysis studies. The exposure groups targeted in emerging nano-EHS studies are also assessed. System engineering methods for risk, safety, uncertainty, and system reliability analysis are reviewed, followed by detailed descriptions where applications of these methods are utilized to analyze nanomaterial EHS risks. Finally, the trends, methods, future directions, and opportunities of system engineering methods in nano-EHS research are discussed. The analysis of nano-EHS literature presented in this article provides important insights on risk assessment and risk management tools associated with nanotechnology, nanomanufacturing, and nano-enabled products.

  16. Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Wayne F; Aguinis, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific subareas in the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Results revealed that (a) some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and (b) there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I-O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I-O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I-O psychology is not likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. In the aggregate, the changes address the broad challenge of how to narrow the academic-practitioner divide.

  17. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J.; Jones, Rachel A.; Collins, Clare E.; Hesketh, Kylie D.; Young, Myles D.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Magarey, Anthea M.; Brown, Helen L.; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A.; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C.; Campbell, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed. PMID:27834820

  18. Designing AAC Research and Intervention to Improve Outcomes for Individuals with Complex Communication Needs.

    PubMed

    Light, Janice; Mcnaughton, David

    2015-06-01

    There is a rapidly growing body of research that demonstrates the positive effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on the communication of children and adults with complex communication needs. Despite the positive impact of many AAC interventions, however, many individuals with complex communication needs continue to experience serious challenges participating in educational, vocational, healthcare, and community environments. In this paper, we apply the framework proposed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to illustrate the need to re-think AAC intervention to improve outcomes for individuals with complex communication needs, and to foster a new generation of intervention research that will provide a solid foundation for improved services. Specifically, the paper emphasizes the need to take a more holistic view of communication intervention and highlights the following key principles to guide AAC intervention and research: (a) build on the individual's strengths and focus on the integration of skills to maximize communication, (b) focus on the individual's participation in real-world contexts,

  19. Understanding process and context in breastfeeding support interventions: The potential of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Dawn; Marshall, Joyce; Locke, Abigail

    2017-02-14

    Considerable effort has been made in recent years to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of different interventions for supporting breastfeeding. However, research has tended to focus primarily on measuring outcomes and has paid comparatively little attention to the relational, organizational, and wider contextual processes that may impact delivery of an intervention. Supporting a woman with breastfeeding is an interpersonal encounter that may play out differently in different contexts, despite the apparently consistent aims and structure of an intervention. We consider the limitations of randomized controlled trials for building understanding of the ways in which different components of an intervention may impact breastfeeding women and how the messages conveyed through interactions with breastfeeding supporters might be received. We argue that qualitative methods are ideally suited to understanding psychosocial processes within breastfeeding interventions and have been underused. After briefly reviewing qualitative research to date into experiences of receiving and delivering breastfeeding support, we discuss the potential of theoretically informed qualitative methodologies to provide fuller understanding of intervention processes by focusing on three examples: phenomenology, ethnography, and discourse analysis. The paper concludes by noting some of the epistemological differences between the broadly positivist approach of trials and qualitative methodologies, and we suggest there is a need for further dialog as to how researchers might bridge these differences in order to develop a fuller and more holistic understanding of how best to support breastfeeding women.

  20. Patient-centered outcomes research in radiology: trends in funding and methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    The creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presents new opportunities for funding patient-centered comparative effectiveness research (CER) in radiology. We provide an overview of the evolution of federal funding and priorities for CER with a focus on radiology-related priority topics over the last two decades, and discuss the funding processes and methodological standards outlined by PCORI. We introduce key paradigm shifts in research methodology that will be required on the part of radiology health services researchers to obtain competitive federal grant funding in patient-centered outcomes research. These paradigm shifts include direct engagement of patients and other stakeholders at every stage of the research process, from initial conception to dissemination of results. We will also discuss the increasing use of mixed methods and novel trial designs. One of these trial designs, the pragmatic trial, has the potential to be readily applied to evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic imaging procedures and imaging-based interventions among diverse patient populations in real-world settings.

  1. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  2. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  3. Mixed Research in Gifted Education: A Mixed Research Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of mixed research techniques in empirical studies published in gifted education journals. During Phase 1, empirical full-text databases and relevant electronic bibliographic databases related to gifted education were searched during a time span of 10 to 18 years, resulting in the…

  4. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research.Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed.A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML.There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article.

  5. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  6. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Change: Past Trends and Challenges for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlon, J. R.; Mitchell, R.

    2009-12-01

    Interdisciplinary research is crucial to understanding complex and urgent environmental problems, particularly climate change. Universities are increasingly hosting trans-, multi-, and inter-disciplinary workshops and conferences and developing innovative interdisciplinary training programs (e.g., NSF’s IGERT program) to foster such research. Yet, much doctoral training remains highly disciplinary with very little evidence of graduate training producing transformative research that bridges the natural/social-science divide. Indeed, strong cultural and institutional obstacles often deter or preclude doctoral students from conducting such research. Here we analyze the past three decades of climate-change related dissertation abstracts to assess the balance between disciplinary and interdisciplinary scholarship among young climate change scholars. We analyze trends in the number of dissertations in natural vs. social science disciplines and code the abstracts of over 500 recent dissertations to assess how many dissertations reference one or more disciplines beyond the PhD-granting one. This research is sponsored by the Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS).

  8. Trisomy 18: A single-center evaluation of management trends and experience with aggressive obstetric or neonatal intervention.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Akila; Jacobs, Adam P; Tang, Ying; Neely, Cherry; Philips, Joseph B; Biggio, Joseph R; Robin, Nathaniel H; Edwards, Rodney K

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all prenatal and postnatal diagnoses of trisomy 18 (T18) from 2004 to 2014 at a single tertiary referral center in the southern United States to evaluate the natural history and perinatal outcomes associated with T18 over the past decade. We analyzed pregnancy outcome, mode of delivery, and for live-births, the number and types of neonatal interventions, and characterized interventions as aggressive or non-aggressive. Survival analyses were conducted based on mode of delivery and aggressive compared to non-aggressive interventions. A total of 167 cases of T18 were identified, 150 with available records. There were 141 (94.0%) with full T18; the remainder had mosaicism (1.3%), a translocation (0.7%), or an isochromosome 18 (4.0%). Most diagnoses were prenatal (73.3%, n = 110). Of the 150 patients, there were 54 live births: 21 (38.9%) delivered vaginally, 32 (59.3%) delivered by cesarean, and mode of delivery could not be ascertained for one. Median duration of survival was 12 days (interquartile range 3-90 days). Over time, there were no changes toward increased intervention (obstetric or neonatal). For the 49 neonates who received some intervention, there was no significant difference in survival time between neonates receiving aggressive (n = 36, median survival 24 days, interquartile range 6-247) and non-aggressive (n = 13, median survival 30 days, interquartile range 8-148) intervention (P = 0.90). There was similarly no difference in neonatal survival based on mode of delivery (P = 0.79). Survival of infants with T18 is not improved with aggressive obstetric or neonatal care.

  9. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples.

  10. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  11. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  12. Theoretical influences on research on language development and intervention in individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Abbeduto, Leonard; Boudreau, Donna

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we consider the theoretical debates and frameworks that have shaped research on language development and intervention in persons with mental retardation over the past four decades. Our starting point is the nativist theory, which has been espoused most forcefully by Chomsky. We also consider more recent alternatives to the nativist approach, including the social-interactionist and emergentist approaches, which have been developed largely within the field of child language research. We also consider the implications for language development and intervention of the genetic syndrome-based approach to behavioral research advocated by Dykens and others. We briefly review the impact and status of the debates spurred by the nativist approach in research on the course of language development in individuals with mental retardation. In addition, we characterize some of the achievements in language intervention that have been made possible by the debates spurred by nativism and the various alternatives to it. The evidence we consider provides support for all three alternatives to the nativist approach. Moreover, successful interventions appear to embody elements of several of these approaches as well as other theoretical approaches (e.g., behaviorism). We conclude that language intervention must be theoretically eclectic in its approach, with different strategies appropriate for teaching different features of language, at different points in development, and for children displaying different characteristics or learning histories.

  13. Trends in Research on Energy Balance Supported by the National Cancer Institute

    PubMed Central

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; Berrigan, David A.; Ross, Sharon A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Dowling, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance–related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy-balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population and energy-balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance–relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI’s total research project grants budget was allocated to energy-balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01), and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy-balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI’s investment in energy-balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics and disciplines—growth that reflects new directions in this field. PMID:23498109

  14. [Literature of so-called "clinical research": structure and trends, 1991-2010].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-11-30

    The authors studied trends and patterns in the literature of research labeled as clinical (i.e., having the word "clinical" in their title) in the period between 1991 and 2010. The main findings are: 1. The growth of the literature under study was somewhat stronger than that of the overall medical literature. 2. The dominance of the USA is strong but is challenged by some of the most rapidly developing countries (particularly in the Far-East region: China, Korea) in total production, and by the developed European countries in highly cited publications. The eminence of Italy is remarkable. 3. In comparing the medical fields, the most striking tendencies are the increase of oncology and the attenuation of internal medicine. Surgery is steadily growing in size but decreasing in its citation influence. 4. Word frequency studies support the ever growing weight of oncology and also of genetics. 5. Beyond the thematic changes, word frequency studies also reveal a substantial change in attitude: in the period under study more and more effort was made on emphasizing the usefulness, efficiency and risks of the results in contrast with the more descriptive, investigative approach of the past. The role of therapy is growing, the role of diagnostics is decreasing. The knowledge of these trends and patterns may orient health and science policy makers to cope appropriately with the ever changing world of clinical research.

  15. Trends in radar: a U.S. Army Research Laboratory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Eric; Dietlein, Charles; Hedden, Abigail; Martone, Anthony; Mitchell, Gregory; Zaghloul, Amir; Ranney, Kenneth; Dogaru, Traian; Gallagher, Kyle; Govoni, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Today's military radars are being challenged to satisfy multiple mission requirements and operate in complex, dynamic electromagnetic (EM) environments. They are simultaneously constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Tomorrow's radars need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Radar research supports this shift toward more agile and efficient radar systems, and current trends include modular hardware and software development for multi-purpose, scalable radio frequency (RF) solutions. Software-defined radios (SDRs) and other commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are being used for flexible waveform generation, signal processing, and nontraditional radar applications. Adaptive RF technology, including apertures and other front-end components, are being developed for multi-purpose functionality and resiliency. Together, these research trends will result in a technology framework for more robust future systems that are capable of implementing cognitive processing techniques and adapting their behavior to meet the demands of a congested and contested EM environment.

  16. Measurement of religiosity/spirituality in adolescent health outcomes research: trends and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sian; McGrady, Meghan E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures.

  17. Research Trends of Soft Actuators based on Electroactive Polymers and Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneto, K.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial muscles (or soft actuators) based on electroactive polymers (EAPs) are attractive power sources to drive human-like robots in place of electrical motor, because they are quiet, powerful, light weight and compact. Among EAPs for soft actuators, conducting polymers are superior in strain, stress, deformation form and driving voltage compared with the other EAPs. In this paper, the research trends of EAPs and conducting polymers are reviewed by retrieval of the papers and patents. The research activity of EAP actuators showed the maximum around 2010 and somehow declining now days. The reasons for the reducing activity are found to be partly due to problems of conducting polymer actuators for the practical application. The unique characteristics of conducting polymer actuators are mentioned in terms of the basic mechanisms of actuation, creeping, training effect and shape retention under high tensile loads. The issues and limitation of conducting polymer soft actuators are discussed.

  18. Analysis on the hot spot and trend of the foreign assembly building research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoqing; Luo, Yanbing

    2017-03-01

    First of all, the paper analyzes the research on the front of the assembly building in the past 15 years. This article mainly adopts the method of CO word analysis, construct the co word matrix, correlation matrix, and then into a dissimilarity matrix, and on this basis, using factor analysis, cluster analysis and multi scale analysis method to study the structure of prefabricated construction field display. Finally, the results of the analysis are discussed, and summarized the current research focus of foreign prefabricated construction mainly concentrated in 7 aspects: embankment construction, wood construction, bridge construction, crane layout, PCM wall and glass system, based on neural network test, energy saving and recycling, and forecast the future trend of development study.

  19. Research design issues for evaluating complex multicomponent interventions in neighborhoods and communities.

    PubMed

    Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-03-01

    Major advances in population health will not occur unless we translate existing knowledge into effective multicomponent interventions, implement and maintain these in communities, and develop rigorous translational research and evaluation methods to ensure continual improvement and sustainability. We discuss challenges and offer approaches to evaluation that are key for translational research stages 3 to 5 to advance optimized adoption, implementation, and maintenance of effective and replicable multicomponent strategies. The major challenges we discuss concern (a) multiple contexts of evaluation/research, (b) complexity of packages of interventions, and (c) phases of evaluation/research questions. We suggest multiple alternative research designs that maintain rigor but accommodate these challenges and highlight the need for measurement systems. Longitudinal data collection and a standardized continuous measurement system are fundamental to the evaluation and refinement of complex multicomponent interventions. To be useful to T3-T5 translational research efforts in neighborhoods and communities, such a system would include assessments of the reach, implementation, effects on immediate outcomes, and effects of the comprehensive intervention package on more distal health outcomes.

  20. Effectiveness of iterative interventions to increase research productivity in one residency program

    PubMed Central

    Alweis, Richard; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Donato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success. PMID:26653689

  1. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Methods Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10–12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. Conclusions These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable. PMID:24485389

  2. Implementing the foundations of learning project: considerations for preschool intervention research.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Chrishana M; Morris, Pamela A; Portilla, Ximena A

    2014-01-01

    While studies have documented the importance of strong implementation in intervention studies (e.g., see Durlak & Dupre, 2008 ), more information is needed about how to ensure strong fidelity and quality of program implementation when delivering interventions under "real world conditions" and on a large scale. In this article, key lessons in implementing a demonstration and evaluation project known as the Foundations of Learning (FOL) demonstration are presented. Our discussion highlights several key components to the success of the project, including the building of effective coalitions before, and during, the delivery of the intervention to support the implementation process, as well as intensive, collaborative, and multilayered technical assistance provided as the intervention was delivered. Key lessons learned over the course of this project represent some that are highly consistent with prior research on this topic, as well as some that are unique, thus representing new areas for exploration in this burgeoning area of study.

  3. Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Felipe S; Brito, Daniel; Solé, Mirco

    2014-12-01

    The number of papers on biology of amphibians has increased in the recent years. A detailed overview of the publications on amphibians can be very useful in assessing the status of our knowledge about this taxonomic group. Due to the large number of articles published, we aimed to assess the scientific contribution of herpetological researches carried out between the years 2001 and 2010 on Brazilian amphibians, considering the diversity patterns, the threats and the research topics that have been published most often. We applied scientometric attention indexes in the reviewed studies from seven scientific databases. To examine the relationship between the numbers of species recorded locally and regionally at different spatial scales, we used an additive partitioning of diversity in three hierarchical levels (i.e., states, geographic regions and biomes). We evaluated 892 articles and 914 species, which showed that 65 % of the total diversity of Brazilian amphibian species was represented by the beta diversity among the biomes. We identified many differences in the allocation of research efforts for taxonomic groups, threats categories, geographic regions, and research topics, highlighting the main research trends conducted and the priority themes for investigation of further papers on Brazilian amphibians.

  4. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  5. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined.

  6. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  7. Characteristics and Methodological Quality of 25 Years of Research Investigating Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne; Sohl, Stephanie J.; Knapp-Oliver, Sarah K.; Schneider, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The considerable amount of research examining psychosocial interventions for cancer patients makes it important to examine its scope and methodological quality. This comprehensive overview characterizes the field with as few exclusions as possible. A systematic search strategy identified 673 reports comprising 488 unique projects conducted over a 25-year time span. Although the literature on this topic has grown over time, the research was predominantly conducted in the United States (57.0%), largely with breast cancer patients (included in 70.5% of the studies). The intervention approach used most frequently was cognitive behavioral (32.4%), the treatment goal was often improving quality of life generally (69.5%), and the professionals delivering the interventions were typically nurses (29.1%) or psychologists (22.7%). Overall, there was some discrepancy between the types of interventions studied and the types of supportive services available to and sought by cancer patients. Strengths of this research include using randomized designs (62.9%), testing for baseline group equivalence (84.5%), and monitoring treatment, which rose significantly from being used in 48.1% to 64.4% of projects over time. However, deficiencies in such areas as examining treatment mechanisms and the adequacy of reporting of methodology, essential for useful syntheses of research on these interventions, remain to be addressed. Methodological challenges related to the complexity of this applied research, such as participants seeking treatment outside of research, contamination, and reactions to randomization, also were apparent. Future research could benefit from closer interactions between academic and voluntary sectors and expanding the diversity of participants. PMID:19264411

  8. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

  9. Community-Based Participatory Research Contributions to Intervention Research: The Intersection of Science and Practice to Improve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR. PMID:20147663

  10. Climate change and human health: what are the research trends? A scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Niamh; Bar-Hen, Avner; Verner, Glenn; Fischer, Helen; Sauerborn, Rainer; Depoux, Anneliese; Flahault, Antoine; Schütte, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For 28 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been assessing the potential risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Although interest in climate change and health is growing, the implications arising from their interaction remain understudied. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be key step in inciting some of the changes necessary to decelerate global warming. A long-term and broad overview of the existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed. In this paper we outline our methods to conduct a scoping review of the published peer-reviewed literature on climate change and health between 1990 and 2015. Methods and analysis A detailed search strategy will be used to search the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria will be applied in order to capture the most relevant literature in the time frame chosen. Data will be extracted, categorised and coded to allow for statistical analysis of the results. Ethics and dissemination No ethical approval was required for this study. A searchable database of climate change and health publications will be developed and a manuscript will be complied for publication and dissemination of the findings. We anticipate that this study will allow us to map the trends observed in publications over the 25-year time period in climate change and health research. It will also identify the research areas with the highest volume of publications as well as highlight the research trends in climate change and health. PMID:28011805

  11. Articles Published in Six School Psychology Journals from 2005-2009: Where's the Intervention Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; McCormick, Anita S.; Simek, Amber; Yoon, Hyunhee

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a content analysis of six school psychology journals spanning the years 2005-2009, with a particular focus on published intervention research. The analysis showed that (a) research articles were the most frequently published, with the largest category being descriptive research; (b) the percentage of intervention studies…

  12. Research on culturally tailored interventions aimed at improving chronic disease risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Dorrejo, Xiomara M; Wilson, Paula

    2012-10-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a worldwide epidemic with health and economic consequences. Although there is a growing body of knowledge, treatment options, and clinical guidelines, a small percentage of people with hypertension (HTN) achieve optimal control. In addition, HBP disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities. Strategies to address the management of HTN among specific populations remain scarce. Evidence shows that successful management of HTN requires pharmacological, educational, and self-care approaches. The first 3 summaries here profile research addressing this issue. The research focuses on the tailoring of interventions for racial and ethnic minority groups, specifically African Americans and Korean Americans. The fourth summary profiles an intervention targeted at a low-literacy group to improve diet. Readers are encouraged to access the full articles to learn more details about the intervention strategies and outcomes of these initiatives.

  13. Evaluation of Policy and Research Interventions in Science and Technology: Consequence Assessment of Regulatory and Technology Transfer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Mary Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    This research contributes to efforts in assessment studies related to science and technology interventions. The work presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effects of policies that influence science and technology interventions, and determining the impact of science and technology interventions themselves. Chapter 1 explores how…

  14. Global trends of research on emerging contaminants in the environment and humans: a literature assimilation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wei, Yan-Li; Yao, Yao; Ruan, Qin-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-02-01

    Available literature data on five typical groups of emerging contaminants (EMCs), i.e., chlorinated paraffins (CPs), dechlorane plus and related compounds (DPs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), phthalate esters, and pyrethroids, accumulated between 2003 and 2013 were assimilated. Research efforts were categorized by environmental compartments and countries, so that global trends of research on EMCs and data gaps can be identified. The number of articles on the target EMCs ranged from 126 to 1,379 between 2003 and 2013. The numbers of articles on CPs, DPs, HBCDs, and pyrethroids largely followed the sequence of biota > sediment ≥ air > water ≥ soil > human tissue, whereas the sequence for phthalate esters was water > sediment > soil > human tissue ≥ biota ≥ air. Comprehensive studies on the target EMCs in biological samples and human tissues have been conducted worldwide. However, investigations into the occurrence of the target EMCs in soil of background areas and water are still scarce. Finally, developed and moderately developed countries, such as the USA, China, Canada, Japan, and Germany, were the main contributors to the global research efforts on EMCs, suggesting that economic prosperity may be one of the main factors propelling scientific research on EMCs.

  15. Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: trends, challenges, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-04-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies.

  16. Developing Internet-Based Health Interventions: A Guide for Public Health Researchers and Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Ecklund, Alexandra M; Hunt, Shanda L; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers and practitioners interested in developing online health interventions most often rely on Web-based and print resources to guide them through the process of online intervention development. Although useful for understanding many aspects of best practices for website development, missing from these resources are concrete examples of experiences in online intervention development for health apps from the perspective of those conducting online health interventions. Objective This study aims to serve as a series of case studies in the development of online health interventions to provide insights for researchers and practitioners who are considering technology-based interventional or programmatic approaches. Methods A convenience sample of six study coordinators and five principal investigators at a large, US-based land grant university were interviewed about the process of developing online interventions in the areas of alcohol policy, adolescent health, medication adherence, and human immunodeficiency virus prevention in transgender persons and in men who have sex with men. Participants were asked questions that broadly addressed each of the four phases of the User-Centered Design Process Map from the US Department of Health and Human Services' Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Qualitative codes were developed using line-by-line open coding for all transcripts, and all transcripts were coded independently by at least 2 authors. Differences among coders were resolved with discussion. Results We identified the following seven themes: (1) hire a strong (or at least the right) research team, (2) take time to plan before beginning the design process, (3) recognize that vendors and researchers have differing values, objectives, and language, (4) develop a detailed contract, (5) document all decisions and development activities, (6) use a content management system, and (7) allow extra

  17. Ancillary care in public health intervention research in low-resource settings: researchers' practices and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W; Mullany, Luke C

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about researchers' practices regarding the provision of ancillary care (AC) in public health intervention studies they have conducted and the factors that influence their decisions about whether to provide ancillary care in low-resource settings. We conducted 52 in-person in-depth interviews with public health researchers. Data analysis was iterative and led to the identification of themes and patterns among themes. We found that researchers who conduct their research in the community setting are more likely to identify and plan for the AC needs of potential research subjects before a study begins, whereas those affiliated with a permanent facility are more likely to deliver AC to research subjects on an ad hoc basis. Our findings suggest that on the whole, at least for public health intervention research in low-resource settings, researchers conducting research in the community setting confront more complex ethical and operational challenges in their decision-making about AC than do researchers conducting facility-based studies.

  18. Dietetics trends as reflected in various primary research projects, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Dick

    2012-03-01

    At the behest of the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) Workforce Demand Task Force, a retrospective examination and reanalysis of 12 primary research projects (sponsored by CDR and/or the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics between 1995 and 2011) was undertaken to identify trends in supply of and demand for registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs). The analysis suggests that supply of RDs (and possibly DTRs) lags slightly behind demand-although, in the case of DTRs, that does not necessarily imply that demand is growing (supply was shrinking throughout most of the study period). The population of both groups is aging, and the number of RDs and DTRs reporting expected retirement in the near future is sure to affect supply/demand relationships. Neither group reflects the US population as a whole in terms of either sex or racial/ethnic diversity, and the trend lines in these areas are essentially flat. RD practice is seen to be moving incrementally toward the clinical arena, in inpatient and (increasingly) outpatient settings. The proportion of RDs in clinical long-term-care, as well as in food/nutrition management and consultation/business practice, is decreasing; a longer-term trend away from foodservice is noted. There is small growth in both the prevalence and the compensation of clinical specialists in areas like renal, pediatrics, and weight management at the expense of more general clinical practitioners. In a trend likely related to the increase in clinical practice, RD positions are gradually losing managerial responsibility. DTRs have experienced a similar phenomenon. For almost all RD positions in the clinical arena, registration as an RD is a requirement for employment, suggesting that clinical employment should continue to grow along with the increasing health care demand from an aging population. The DTR credential is not required at similarly high rates. A major supply issue is the relative shortage of DTRs in

  19. Moving beyond Efficacy and Effectiveness in Child and Adolescent Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This Special Section of the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" focuses on research that extends beyond documenting the efficacy and effectiveness of specific psychological treatments or preventive interventions for children and youths. In the past 30 years, there have been remarkable advances in the development and evaluation of…

  20. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  1. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies research: cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  2. Instructional Engineering Principles to Frame the Future of Reading Intervention Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I outline thoughts regarding the complexities and possibilities of the next generation of reading intervention for students who do not benefit from typical instructional practices. I ground my recommendations in school-based research and observations conducted primarily in kindergarten through third grade and more recently in…

  3. Use of Movement Imagery in Neurorehabilitation: Researching Effects of a Complex Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…

  4. Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; McCoy, Dacia; Wahl, Elaine; Shier, Ashley; Denune, Hilary; Kimener, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of guidance on the methodological details needed for measuring and sampling the independent variable or actual intervention occurrences in research and practice. Furthermore, the planning and support necessary to document the independent variable in both circumstances may be considerable. The current study extends prior…

  5. A comprehensive process evaluation of a community based participatory research intervention, Fit for Life Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps (FFLS), a community based participatory research (CBPR) influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health in residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta. A comprehensive framework f...

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Interventions That Promote Successful Transitions from High School. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This research brief examines the challenges and opportunities presented in evaluating whether an intervention achieves defined goals of increasing students' educational attainment, employment, and earnings after high school. The report concludes that evaluations should: (1) Distinguish between gross outcomes (such as how many young people attend…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…

  8. Social Skills Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams White, Susan; Keonig, Kathleen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Social reciprocity deficits are a core feature of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review summarizes the state of research in group-based social skills training programs for school-age children and adolescents with ASD. All published studies of group social skills interventions between 1985 and 2006 were reviewed, as well as dissertations…

  9. Technology Intervention Research with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Learners: Levels of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Cannon, Joanna E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated the research base relative to technology use with deaf and hard of hearing students, examining 29 peer-reviewed studies published January 2000-August 2013 that used technology-based intervention (multimedia instructional applications/software) and investigating its effects on academic variables (academic skills used in…

  10. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  11. A Meta-Evaluation of Nutrition Education Intervention Research among Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Neal Richard, Jr.; Windsor, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    Meta-analysis of five studies advocating nutrition education for pregnant women led to recommendations for research: (1) define nutrition education to aid replication; (2) describe the intervention thoroughly; (3) use experimental designs; (4) collect follow-up data; and (5) describe baseline demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of…

  12. Proceedings: Early Childhood Intervention Research Conference (University of South Florida, Tampa, March 5 and 6, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa.

    What experiences and knowledge acquired during the first five years of life will enable children to take full advantage of a formal education system during their growing years? The Conference on Early Childhood Intervention and Research examined available data within the theme "Programming Parents to Program Children." Topics and…

  13. Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Basic Mathematics Computation in Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Neiman, Cheryl; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interventions for addition and subtraction that were implemented through single-case design (SCD) research studies. We attempted to extend prior SCD meta-analyses by examining differences in effect sizes across several moderating variables and by including a novel index of effect, improvement rate difference (IRD). We also…

  14. Intervention Research to Benefit People with Autism: How Old Are the Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Watkins, Erin E.; Lotfizadeh, Amin D.; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We determined the reported ages of participants with autism (or autism spectrum disorders) in 146 intervention research studies published recently in four prominent journals. Most participants were between two and eight years of age and only 1.7% of them were 20 or more years of age. These findings suggest that the special needs of older people…

  15. Using Action Research Interventions to Improve the Effectiveness of an Executive Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth investigation of an executive team, to determine which internal and external factors impacted the team and to determine in what ways action research interventions improved the team's effectiveness. Methodology: The subjects in this study were seven members of a school district…

  16. Interventions to Alleviate Symptoms Related to Breast Cancer Treatments and Areas of Needed Research

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C; Mustian, Karen M; Peppone, Luke J; Sprod, Lisa K; Shayne, Michelle; Mohile, Supriya; Chandwani, Kavita; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Treatments for breast cancer produce a host of side effects, which can become debilitating. Some cancer treatment-related side effects occur in up to 90% of patients during treatment and can persist for months or years after treatment has ended. As the number of breast cancer survivors steadily increases, the need for cancer control intervention research to alleviate side effects also grows. This review provides a general overview of recent clinical research studies of selected topics in the areas of symptom management for breast cancer with a focus on cognitive difficulties, fatigue, cardiotoxicity, bone loss, insomnia, and cancer pain. We review both pharmacological and behavioral intervention clinical research studies, conducted with breast cancer patients and survivors. Additionally, clinical perspectives on symptom management and recommendations for areas of needed research are provided. PMID:22855701

  17. Directions for the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII).

    PubMed

    Ritterband, Lee M; Andersson, Gerhard; Christensen, Helen M; Carlbring, Per; Cuijpers, Pim

    2006-09-29

    In 2004, the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII) was formed to encourage eHealth researchers to collaborate in their efforts to further the science behind developing, testing, and disseminating Web-based treatment programs. The group held its second meeting (April 2006) to clarify the Society's direction and identify key issues that need addressing in the field. These issues are identified and examined in the current paper. Given the success of using the Internet to treat a range of medical and mental health problems, and the growing need for better dissemination of health care, Internet interventions will almost certainly play a prominent role in global health. ISRII plans to provide the necessary venue to ensure the science driving this field is strong, enabling researchers to conduct the highest quality research and permitting meaningful conclusions from completed studies.

  18. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  19. [Endemic, Trend, Research and Direction of Food-borne Parasitic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-bing

    2015-12-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are exhibiting new epidemiological characteristics in such society that is filled with economic development, ecological environmental changes, more frequent population flow, as well as diversities of dietary source and style. The food-borne parasitic diseases have become a major risk factor for food safety and health care, and a global public health problem. In this review, we will give an overview on the epidemiological information of some major food-borne parasitic diseases both in China and in the world, and summarize their emerging characteristics and epidemiological trends. Research on the prevention techniques and pathogenesis of the diseases is reviewed as well. Finally, perspectives are given on the diagnosis/detection, basic mechanisms of the diseases, and the strategies for prevention and transmission interruption.

  20. Adolescent Sleep and Cellular Phone Use: Recent Trends and Implications for Research

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sue K.; Daly, Jennifer F.; Williford, Desireé N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent sleep needs range from 8.5–10 hours per night, with older adolescents requiring less sleep than younger adolescents. On average, however, American adolescents receive between 7.5–8.5 hours of sleep per night, with many sleeping fewer than 6.5 hours on school nights. Cellular phone use is emerging as an important factor that interferes with both sleep quality and quantity, particularly as smartphones become more widely available to teens. This review paper has three objectives. First, we will describe adolescent sleep patterns and the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescent physical and mental health. Second, we will describe current trends in technology use among adolescents, making associations to how technology impacts sleep. Lastly, we will discuss some of the methodological barriers of conducting sleep and technology research with adolescents and young adults and offer suggestions for overcoming those barriers. We will also discuss implications for healthcare providers. PMID:25114565

  1. Some current trends in Milky Way research (the Henry Norris Russell Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1983-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the Milky Way Galaxy research trends that have recently established a far greater mass and a greater outward extent for the Galaxy than would have been considered likely only 7-8 years ago. The maximum radius of the Galaxy circa 1975 was believed to be of the order of 20 kpc. The new radius is at least three times, and possibly as much as five times, greater than the earlier value. Attention is given to such pertinent topics as the general luminosity function near the central plane of the disk, space densities at different distances from the galactic plane, the galactic corona, spiral structure studies, giant molecular clouds, and bipolar ejections.

  2. Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzetta, Kerry; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenagers' patterns of contraceptive use during heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. In this brief, the authors examine these patterns for males and females, for members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. Among the…

  3. Increasing the prevalence of successful children: The case for community intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.; Ary, Dennis V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper makes a case for research on community interventions on child rearing. Sufficient evidence has accumulated about the development of children's problem behavior to justify evaluating efforts to reduce the prevalence of these problems in whole communities. The contextual risk factors for diverse child behavior problems are well understood, and interventions to ameliorate individual risk factors have been developed and evaluated. Because interventions with individual children have proven to be efficacious, it is now appropriate to direct energy toward reducing the prevalence of children with behavior problems. At the same time, existing interventions have limitations. Community interventions may be needed to modify the larger social context for families. This paper enumerates possible components of a community intervention to improve child-rearing outcomes. Existing evidence indicates that communities would benefit from making parent training and family support programs available to parents. Validated methods of identifying and remediating academic and behavioral problems in schools are available, but influencing schools to adopt them remains a problem. Community organizing could mobilize communities to allocate the resources necessary to support such parenting and schooling programs as well as encourage their adoption. Media campaigns could foster community support and directly influence parenting practices. Efforts to modify peer influences to use illicit substances have received empirical support; similar efforts may be relevant to preventing other problems. The development of a science of community interventions on child rearing is hampered by overreliance on randomized control trials. For this reason, two examples of time-series experimental evaluations of community intervention components are described here. PMID:22478196

  4. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  5. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  6. Visualization analysis of research frontiers and trends in nerve regeneration and osseoperception in the repair of tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Tang, Tian; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Leilei; Ding, Yin

    2014-11-15

    This study analyzed 85 articles indexed by the Web of Science concerning nerve regeneration and osseoperception during tooth loss repair. Using the Web of Science database and Citespace III software, a document co-citation network map was drawn by document co-citation analysis and word frequency analysis methods. Combined with emergent node secondary literature retrieval, subject headings with apparent changing word frequency trends were retrieved so as to identify research frontiers and development trends. Research frontiers and hotspots for neuronal calcium sensor protein were quantitatively explored to forecast future research developments in nerve regeneration and osseoperception during repair of tooth loss.

  7. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    PubMed

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation.

  8. Delimiting the Problem of Generalizability of Research Results: An Example from a Trend Study of a Citizenship Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Grant, Evelyn T.

    1984-01-01

    How social studies researchers can use National Assessment of Educational Progress Public Use Data File tapes to delimit the problem of generalizability of research results is described. An example using data from a trend study of a citizenship education project is used to demonstrate the procedure. (Author/RM)

  9. Research Trends in Science Education from 2008 to 2012: A Systematic Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the third study of research trends in science education. In this review, a total of 990 papers published in the "International Journal of Science Education," the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching," and "Science Education" from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed. The results indicate that in the…

  10. Experiences in implementation and publication of operations research interventions: gaps and a way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kalibala, Samuel; Woelk, Godfrey B; Gloyd, Stephen; Jani, Nrupa; Kay, Lynnette; Sarna, Avina; Okal, Jerry; Ndwiga, Charity; Haberland, Nicole; Sinai, Irit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to UNAIDS, the world currently has an adequate collection of proven HIV prevention, treatment and diagnostic tools, which, if scaled up, can lay the foundation for ending the AIDS epidemic. HIV operations research (OR) tests and promotes the use of interventions that can increase the demand for and supply of these tools. However, current publications of OR mainly focus on outcomes, leaving gaps in reporting of intervention characteristics, which are essential to address for the utilization of OR findings. This has prompted WHO and other international public health agencies to issue reporting requirements for OR studies. The objective of this commentary is to review experiences in HIV OR intervention design, implementation, process data collection and publication in order to identify gaps, contribute to the body of knowledge and propose a way forward to improve the focus on “implementation” in implementation research. Discussion Interventions in OR, like ordinary service delivery programmes, are subject to the programme cycle, which continually uses insights from implementation and the local context to modify service delivery modalities. Given that some of these modifications in the intervention may influence study outcomes, the documentation of process data becomes vital in OR. However, a key challenge is that study resources tend to be skewed towards documentation and the reporting of study outcomes to the detriment of process data, even though process data is vital for understanding factors influencing the outcomes. Conclusions Interventions in OR should be viewed using the lens of programme evaluation, which includes formative assessment (to determine concept and design), followed by process evaluation (to monitor inputs and outputs) and effectiveness evaluation (to assess outcomes and effectiveness). Study resources should be equitably used between process evaluation and outcome measurement to facilitate inclusion of data about

  11. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  12. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences - Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Roland; Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors' teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  13. A coping intervention for mothers of children diagnosed with cancer: connecting theory and research.

    PubMed

    Peek, Gloanna; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2014-08-01

    There are approximately 13,500 children diagnosed with cancer every year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Mothers of children newly diagnosed with cancer often exhibit symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety (Dunn et al., 2012; Fedele, Mullins, Wolfe-Christensen, & Carpentier, 2011; Felicity et al., 2009). This article describes the theoretical framework of a study which, coupled with previous research, was used to design a coping intervention to facilitate coping in mothers' of children newly diagnosed with cancer. The intervention is entitled Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment- Parents of Children with Cancer (COPE-PCC).

  14. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Var, Chivorn

    2016-01-01

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming. PMID:28009812

  15. Research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Marianne E; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to use a scoping review to investigate the extent, range, and nature of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsychINFO) and reference lists of the included articles were searched. Authors were emailed when possible for unavailable articles. A total of 897 titles and abstracts were retrieved. Thirty-three articles were included. There were 27 different rehabilitation interventions delivered by 18 professions. The studies were completed in four different countries. Most studies were published in 2008. A randomized-controlled trial was the most used method. The nature of the studies was analyzed according to the three-core concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: 28 studies addressed impairments; six studies addressed activity limitations; and 14 studies addressed participation restrictions. This scoping study advances the knowledge of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. More research on rehabilitation interventions is needed in sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income and middle-income countries to ensure that these individuals are receiving the best possible care. There is a need for the HIV field to recognize the important contribution of rehabilitation toward the HIV care continuum.

  16. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A; Var, Chivorn

    2016-12-21

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  17. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions.

  18. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Margaret E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term impacts on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of the individual's fullest potential therefore requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than twenty years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component to the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study—the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate integrated interventions. PMID:24673167

  19. Designing interventions that include delayed reinforcement: implications of recent laboratory research.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; McComas, J J; Rehfeldt, R A

    2000-01-01

    The search for robust and durable interventions in everyday situations typically involves the use of delayed reinforcers, sometimes delivered well after a target behavior occurs. Integrating the findings from laboratory research on delayed reinforcement can contribute to the design and analysis of those applied interventions. As illustrations, we examine articles from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior that analyzed delayed reinforcement with respect to response allocation (A. M. Williams & Lattal, 1999), stimulus chaining (B. A. Williams, 1999), and self-control (Jackson & Hackenberg, 1996). These studies help to clarify the conditions under which delayed reinforcement (a) exercises control of behavior, (b) entails conditioned reinforcement, and (c) displaces the effects of immediate reinforcement. The research has applied implications, including the development of positive social behavior and teaching people to make adaptive choices. DESCRIPTORS: delayed reinforcement, response allocation, stimulus chains, self-control, integration of basic and applied research PMID:11051582

  20. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  1. Scoping Review of Research on the Effectiveness of Food-Safety Education Interventions Directed at Consumers.

    PubMed

    Sivaramalingam, Bhairavi; Young, Ian; Pham, Mai T; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Improper food handling by consumers at home is a major cause of foodborne illness. Therefore, effective education strategies are essential to change consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and characterize primary literature examining the effectiveness of consumer food-safety education interventions. Ten bibliographic databases were searched using a comprehensive search strategy. Citations were identified; two reviewers screened them for relevance and characterized relevant articles. To ensure results would be applicable to end users, stakeholders were engaged to provide input on the review scope, methods, and results. We identified 246 relevant articles, of which 150 were quantitative, 66 qualitative, and 30 mixed-method research studies. Most studies (64.2%) were published in the United States, using an uncontrolled before-and-after study design (31.3%), and investigated the effectiveness of community-based training sessions and workshops (52.0%). Research gaps were found in the number of randomized controlled studies conducted, academic- and school-based courses and curricula investigated, and interventions targeting high-risk populations (e.g., pregnant women, those who are immunocompromised) and using new media channels (e.g., social media). Key opportunities to enhance the utility of future primary research investigating consumer food-safety interventions include the following: using studies based on behavior-change theories and formative research; engaging the target population in the research; using validated instruments to measures outcomes; and reporting intervention characteristics and outcomes completely. Results of this review can be used to prioritize future primary research and decision-making in this area.

  2. Research Status and Development Trend of Remote Sensing in China Using Bibliometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Niu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing was introduced into China in 1970s and then began to flourish. At present, China has developed into a big remote sensing country, and remote sensing is increasingly playing an important role in various fields of national economic construction and social development. Based on China Academic Journals Full-text Database and China Citation Database published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, this paper analyzed academic characteristics of 963 highly cited papers published by 16 professional and academic journals in the field of surveying and mapping from January 2010 to December 2014 in China, which include hot topics, literature authors, research institutions, and fundations. At the same time, it studied a total of 51,149 keywords published by these 16 journals during the same period. Firstly by keyword selection, keyword normalization, keyword consistency and keyword incorporation, and then by analysis of high frequency keywords, the progress and prospect of China's remote sensing technology in data acquisition, data processing and applications during the past five years were further explored and revealed. It can be seen that: highly cited paper analysis and word frequency analysis is complementary on subject progress analysis; in data acquisition phase, research focus is new civilian remote sensing satellite systems and UAV remote sensing system; research focus of data processing and analysis is multi-source information extraction and classification, laser point cloud data processing, objectoriented high resolution image analysis, SAR data and hyper-spectral image processing, etc.; development trend of remote sensing data processing is quantitative, intelligent, automated, and real-time, and the breadth and depth of remote sensing application is gradually increased; parallel computing, cloud computing and geographic conditions monitoring and census are the new research focuses to be paid attention to.

  3. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    PubMed Central

    Verner, Glenn; Schütte, Stefanie; Knop, Juliane; Sankoh, Osman; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively) until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively), which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014). However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly. Raising the interest

  4. Recent Directions in Telemedicine: Review of Trends in Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laurence S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare is now routinely delivered by telecommunications-based services in all developed countries and an increasing number of developing countries. Telemedicine is used in many clinical specialities and across numerous healthcare settings, which range from mobile patient-centric applications to complex interactions amongst clinicians in tertiary referral hospital settings. This paper discusses some recent areas of significant development and progress in the field with the purpose of identifying strong trends in both research and practice activities. Methods To establish the breadth of new ideas and directions in the field, a review of literature was made by searching PubMed for recent publications including terms (telemedicine OR telehealth) AND (challenge OR direction OR innovation OR new OR novel OR trend), for all searchable categories. 3,433 publications were identified that have appeared since January 1, 2005 (2,172 of these since January 1, 2010), based on a search conducted on June 1, 2015. Results The current interest areas in these papers span both synchronous telemedicine, including intensive care, emergency medicine, and mental health, and asynchronous telemedicine, including wound and burns care, dermatology and ophthalmology. Conclusions It is concluded that two major drivers of contemporary tele medicine development are a high volume demand for a particular clinical service, and/or a high criticality of need for clinical exper tise to deliver the service. These areas offer promise for further study and enhancement of applicable telemedicine methods and have the potential for large-scale deployments internationally, which would contribute significantly to the advancement of healthcare. PMID:26618026

  5. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others.

  6. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues-readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article.

  7. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  8. Lifestyle intervention to prevent obesity during pregnancy: Implications and recommendations for research and implementation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-09-28

    Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system.

  9. Using ethnography in implementation research to improve nutrition interventions in populations

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract ‘Implementation research in nutrition’ is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence‐based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view – the insider's perspective – and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the ‘emic’ (insider's) perspective.Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography.Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the ‘black box’ in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. PMID:26778802

  10. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  11. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people’s well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research. PMID:26163456

  12. Theory-Based Formative Research on an Anti-Cyberbullying Victimization Intervention Message.

    PubMed

    Savage, Matthew W; Deiss, Douglas M; Roberto, Anthony J; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Cyberbullying is a common byproduct of the digital revolution with serious consequences to victims. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of empirically based methods to confront it. This study used social cognitive theory to design and test an intervention message aimed at persuading college students to abstain from retaliation, seek social support, save evidence, and notify authorities-important victim responses identified and recommended in previous research. Using a posttest-only control group design, this study tested the effectiveness of an intervention message in changing college students' perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of cyberbullying as well as their self-efficacy, response efficacy, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward each recommended response in future episodes of cyberbullying. Results indicated that the intervention message caused participants in the experimental condition to report significantly higher susceptibility, but not perceived severity, to cyberbullying than those in the control condition. The intervention message also caused expected changes in all outcomes except self-efficacy for not retaliating and in all outcomes for seeking social support, saving evidence, and notifying an authority. Implications for message design and future research supporting evidence-based anti-cyberbullying health communication campaigns are discussed.

  13. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Geke D S; van Rompay, Thomas J L; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people's well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research.

  14. Nonpharmacological Interventions for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in India: A Comprehensive and Comparative Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Sujata; Choudhary, Vandana; Sharma, Renu; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The nonpharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have witnessed a sea change from a rudimentary and haphazard psychosocial to cognitive interventions to social and behavioral skills to body oriented interventions to more sophisticated neurocognitive interventions. As the objective of each treatment varied, the method or procedure of each treatment also differed across studies. Indian research although not very rigorous, did witness changes emphasizing on exploring interventions in reducing symptoms and improving overall behavior. The research literature between 2005 and 2015 was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, IndMED, MedIND, ResearchGate, and other indexed databases. Results of 110 studies were organized into five broad categories of themes of interventions such as psychosocial, body-focused, cognitive/neuro-cognitive, and cognitive behavioral. Effects of ADHD on cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes were also highlighted before the themes of intervention to establish linkage with discussion. However, a limited number (n = 9) of reported Indian studies focusing either on the impact of ADHD on the function of children or on interventions were found, suggesting a huge gap between global and Indian research in the area of children with ADHD. It also highlights the need for development and efficacy testing of indigenous intervention program in different areas of intervention for research and clinical practice. PMID:27833218

  15. Nonpharmacological Interventions for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in India: A Comprehensive and Comparative Research Update.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Sujata; Choudhary, Vandana; Sharma, Renu; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The nonpharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have witnessed a sea change from a rudimentary and haphazard psychosocial to cognitive interventions to social and behavioral skills to body oriented interventions to more sophisticated neurocognitive interventions. As the objective of each treatment varied, the method or procedure of each treatment also differed across studies. Indian research although not very rigorous, did witness changes emphasizing on exploring interventions in reducing symptoms and improving overall behavior. The research literature between 2005 and 2015 was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, IndMED, MedIND, ResearchGate, and other indexed databases. Results of 110 studies were organized into five broad categories of themes of interventions such as psychosocial, body-focused, cognitive/neuro-cognitive, and cognitive behavioral. Effects of ADHD on cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes were also highlighted before the themes of intervention to establish linkage with discussion. However, a limited number (n = 9) of reported Indian studies focusing either on the impact of ADHD on the function of children or on interventions were found, suggesting a huge gap between global and Indian research in the area of children with ADHD. It also highlights the need for development and efficacy testing of indigenous intervention program in different areas of intervention for research and clinical practice.

  16. Engaging patients with heart failure into the design of health system interventions: Impact on research methods.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Robin P; Johantgen, Meg; Thomas, Sue A; Trocky, Nina M; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl; Cheon, Jooyoung; Miller, Wanda; Gray, Tracy; Pruitt, Robin

    2017-02-19

    The purpose of this study was to engage patients with heart failure (HF) to assess if changes are needed in a research study design, methods and outcomes when transferring interventions used in urban/community hospitals to rural hospital settings. A qualitative structured interview was conducted with eight patients with a diagnosis of HF admitted to two rural hospitals. Patients validated the study design, measures and outcomes, but identified one area that should be added to the study protocol, symptom experience. Results validated that the intervention, methods and outcomes for the planned study were important, but modifications to the study protocol resulted. Patient engagement in the conceptualization of research is essential to guide patient-centered studies.

  17. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  18. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    in most other regions and countries. Conclusions Bibliographic data reflect the demographic changes affecting veterinary medicine worldwide and provide insight into current and changing global research capacity, specialization, and interdisciplinary affiliations. A more detailed analysis of species-specific trends is warranted and could contribute to a better understanding of educational and workforce needs in veterinary medicine. PMID:23758872

  19. Research Review: Social motivation and oxytocin in autism – implications for joint attention development and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile

  20. Strategies for mHealth research: lessons from 3 mobile intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Schueller, Stephen M.; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Kane, John M.; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies to propel healthcare forward is directly linked to the quality of mobile interventions developed through careful mHealth research. mHealth research entails several unique characteristics, including collaboration with technologists at all phases of a project, reliance on regional telecommunication infrastructure and commercial mobile service providers, and deployment and evaluation of interventions “in the wild”, with participants using mobile tools in uncontrolled environments. In the current paper, we summarize the lessons our multi-institutional/multi-disciplinary team has learned conducting a range of mHealth projects using mobile phones with diverse clinical populations. First, we describe three ongoing projects that we draw from to illustrate throughout the paper. We then provide an example for multidisciplinary teamwork and conceptual mHealth intervention development that we found to be particularly useful. Finally, we discuss mHealth research challenges (i.e. evolving technology, mobile phone selection, user characteristics, the deployment environment, and mHealth system “bugs and glitches”), and provide recommendations for identifying and resolving barriers, or preventing their occurrence altogether. PMID:24824311

  1. Integrating basic research with prevention/intervention to reduce risky substance use among college students

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Hancock, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project “Spit for Science” examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use. PMID:25999878

  2. It's Not My Place: Formative Evaluation Research to Design a Bystander Intervention Campaign.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Grzejdziak, Maja; Booth, Kathleen; Adams, Helen; Gabel, Colby; Cabot, Jeri

    2015-10-07

    Sexual misconduct remains a problem on college campuses despite years of documentation and research, and program development and implementation. The purpose of this study was to conduct systematic theory-based formative audience research to understand how college women and men make meaning of sexual assault and bystander intervention. A total of 69 men and women aged 18 to 24 years participated in eight gender-specific focus group discussions. A grounded theory approach was used to identify patterns and themes across the data. Themes emerging from the data included the following: (a) female participants' experiences of sexism and misogyny, (b) the myth that rape is falsely reported, (c) complex understandings of consent and entitlement, (d) the reluctance to stop someone from having a "good time," (e) the role of alcohol as a moderating factor in sexual misconduct and bystander intervention, and (f) preference for direct and impactful messaging. This study informs researchers and practitioners about college students' perceptions of, and experiences with, bystander intervention and sexual assault. Practitioners can use this information to develop effective mixed media, campus-wide social marketing campaigns.

  3. Strategies for mHealth research: lessons from 3 mobile intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Schueller, Stephen M; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Kane, John M; Mohr, David C

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies to propel healthcare forward is directly linked to the quality of mobile interventions developed through careful mHealth research. mHealth research entails several unique characteristics, including collaboration with technologists at all phases of a project, reliance on regional telecommunication infrastructure and commercial mobile service providers, and deployment and evaluation of interventions "in the wild", with participants using mobile tools in uncontrolled environments. In the current paper, we summarize the lessons our multi-institutional/multi-disciplinary team has learned conducting a range of mHealth projects using mobile phones with diverse clinical populations. First, we describe three ongoing projects that we draw from to illustrate throughout the paper. We then provide an example for multidisciplinary teamwork and conceptual mHealth intervention development that we found to be particularly useful. Finally, we discuss mHealth research challenges (i.e. evolving technology, mobile phone selection, user characteristics, the deployment environment, and mHealth system "bugs and glitches"), and provide recommendations for identifying and resolving barriers, or preventing their occurrence altogether.

  4. Status and trends of dam removal research in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, James; Duda, Jeff; Craig, Laura; Greene, Samantha L.; Torgersen, Christian; Collins, Mathias J.; Vittum, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aging infrastructure coupled with growing interest in river restoration has driven a dramatic increase in the practice of dam removal. With this increase, there has been a proliferation of studies that assess the physical and ecological responses of rivers to these removals. As more dams are considered for removal, scientific information from these dam-removal studies will increasingly be called upon to inform decisions about whether, and how best, to bring down dams. This raises a critical question: what is the current state of dam-removal science in the United States? To explore the status, trends, and characteristics of dam-removal research in the U.S., we searched the scientific literature and extracted basic information from studies on dam removal. Our literature review illustrates that although over 1200 dams have been removed in the U.S., fewer than 10% have been scientifically evaluated, and most of these studies were short in duration ( < 4 years) and had limited (1–2 years) or no pre-removal monitoring. The majority of studies focused on hydrologic and geomorphic responses to removal rather than biological and water-quality responses, and few studies were published on linkages between physical and ecological components. Our review illustrates the need for long-term, multidisciplinary case studies, with robust study designs, in order to anticipate the effects of dam removal and inform future decision making.

  5. Trends in Aortic Dissection Hospitalizations, Interventions, and Outcomes among Medicare Beneficiaries in the United States, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Purav S.; Wang, Yun; Geirsson, Arnar; Kim, Nancy; Desai, Mayur M.; Gupta, Aakriti; Dodson, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of aortic dissection (AD) has not been well-described among older persons in the United States. It is not known whether advancements in AD care over the last decade have been accompanied by changes in outcomes. Methods and Results The Inpatient Medicare data from 2000 to 2011 were used to determine trends in hospitalization rates for AD. Mortality rates were ascertained through corresponding vital status files. A total of 32,057 initial AD hospitalizations were identified between 2000 and 2011. The overall hospitalization rate for AD remained unchanged at 10 per 100,000 person-years. For 30-day and 1-year mortality associated with AD, the observed rate decreased from 31.8% to 25.4% (difference, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2–6.5; adjusted, 6.4%; 95% CI, 5.7–6.9) and from 42.6% to 37.4% (difference, 5.2%; 95% CI, 5.1–5.2; adjusted, 6.2%; 95% CI, 5.3–6.7) respectively. For patients undergoing surgical repair for type A dissections, the observed 30-day mortality decreased from 30.7% to 21.4% (difference, 9.3%; 95% CI, 8.3–10.2; adjusted, 7.3%; 95% CI, 5.8–7.8) and the observed 1-year mortality decreased from 39.9% to 31.6% (difference, 8.3%; 95% CI, 7.5–9.1%; adjusted, 8.2%; 95% CI, 6.7 – 9.1). The 30-day mortality decreased from 24.9% to 21% (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 3.5–4.2; adjusted, 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.7–4.4) and 1-year decreased from 36.4% to 32.5% (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 3.3–4.3; adjusted, 3.9%; 95% CI, 2.5–6.3) for surgical repair of type B dissection. Conclusions While AD hospitalization rates remained stable, improvement in mortality was noted, particularly in patients undergoing surgical repair. PMID:25336626

  6. Trends and Issues in Vocational Education; Implications for Vocational Education Research and Development. Occasional Paper No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Reginald E.

    Examining the trends and issues in vocational education, this speech focuses on the historical basis for vocational education, the current situation in vocational education, vocational education in the 1980's, the role of vocational education in economic development, and research related to these topics. Issues which are currently being discussed…

  7. Methodological Trends in Disability and Higher Education Research: Historical Analysis of the Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faggella-Luby, Michael; Lombardi, Allison; Lalor, Adam R.; Dukes, Lyman, III

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the status of the research base that informs "what works" for students with disabilities in higher education, it is necessary to conduct an examination of the methodologies used in the literature. The authors of the current study analyzed the methodological trends across the thirty-year lifespan of the "Journal of…

  8. Poor Families in 2001: Parents Working Less and Children Continue To Lag Behind. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard

    With increasing unemployment in the United States, the nation has seen a drop in the percentage of children in poverty with one or more parents in the workforce, a reverse of trends evident in the late 1990s. This research brief presents a statistical snapshot of working poor families with children in 2001. Analyses revealed that in 2001 children…

  9. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  10. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  11. A mixed methods study of the factors that influence whether intervention research has policy and practice impacts: perceptions of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Milat, Andrew J; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Cohen, Gillian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate researchers’ perceptions about the factors that influenced the policy and practice impacts (or lack of impact) of one of their own funded intervention research studies. Design Mixed method, cross-sectional study. Setting Intervention research conducted in Australia and funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council between 2003 and 2007. Participants The chief investigators from 50 funded intervention research studies were interviewed to determine if their study had achieved policy and practice impacts, how and why these impacts had (or had not) occurred and the approach to dissemination they had employed. Results We found that statistically significant intervention effects and publication of results influenced whether there were policy and practice impacts, along with factors related to the nature of the intervention itself, the researchers’ experience and connections, their dissemination and translation efforts, and the postresearch context. Conclusions This study indicates that sophisticated approaches to intervention development, dissemination actions and translational efforts are actually widespread among experienced researches, and can achieve policy and practice impacts. However, it was the links between the intervention results, further dissemination actions by researchers and a variety of postresearch contextual factors that ultimately determined whether a study had policy and practice impacts. Given the complicated interplay between the various factors, there appears to be no simple formula for determining which intervention studies should be funded in order to achieve optimal policy and practice impacts. PMID:26198428

  12. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume II. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  13. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume I. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  14. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  15. Reading comprehension interventions for students with autism spectrum disorders: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    El Zein, Farah; Solis, Michael; Vaughn, Sharon; McCulley, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    The authors synthesized reading intervention studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 with K-12 students identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nine single-subject design studies, one quasi-experimental study, and two single-group design studies met the criteria for inclusion. Findings from the studies indicate that modifying instructional interventions associated with improved comprehension for students with reading difficulties may improve reading comprehension in students with ASD. Four studies implemented strategy instruction that included (a) question generation; (b) graphic organizers; and (c) making predictions. Two studies utilized anaphoric cueing instruction, three implemented explicit instruction, and three examined student grouping practices. Among the reviewed studies, the majority (n = 9) measured reading comprehension through researcher-developed probes, and two studies reported results from standardized measures.

  16. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Disruptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbeil, David A.; Fischer, Aaron J.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bloomfield, Bradley S.; Polakoff, Ben; Willenbrink, Jessica B.; Copek, Rebecca A.; Chan, Kai Tai

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is growing rapidly in schools. Decisions regarding the use of these interventions must be based on empirical evidence. There is robust evidence for the use of MBIs with adults, but research on MBIs with youth is nascent. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to add to the literature…

  17. Use of the Medical Research Council Framework to Develop a Complex Intervention in Pediatric Occupational Therapy: Assessing Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah N.; Bennett, Sheila; Hecimovich, Catherine; Gaines, Robin; DeCola, Cindy; Cairney, John; Russell, Dianne; Molinaro, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom Medical Research Council recommends use of a conceptual framework for designing and testing complex therapeutic interventions. "Partnering for Change" (P4C) is an innovative school-based intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that was developed by an interdisciplinary team who were…

  18. Rural hospitals: trends, challenges, and a future research and policy analysis agenda.

    PubMed

    Moscovice, Ira; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Previous reviews of the status of rural hospitals conclude that rural hospitals play a major role in ensuring the provision of health services in rural areas, are an essential part of the social and economic identity of rural communities, have had mixed success in their ability to respond to environmental threats, and are very sensitive to public policies due, in part, to their small size. The evolving hospital paradigm in the United States and a turbulent economic and health care environment have created an uncertain future for the rural hospital. Hospitals are being forced to shift their emphasis from filling acute inpatient care beds to providing a more diversified set of services through linkages with other institutions and provider groups. This presents challenges for rural hospitals, which often serve as the foundation for health care delivery in rural communities yet struggle to overcome the effects of troubled local economies, shortages of health professionals, and public policy inequities. This article reviews key trends and challenges facing rural hospitals from the perspective of their structure and organization, financial sustainability, quality of care provided, and strategic linkages with other entities. It concludes with the presentation of a research and policy analysis agenda that addresses the feasibility of the role of the rural hospital as the hub or coordinator of the rural health care delivery system, the fiscal viability of the rural hospital in the post-Balanced Budget Act period, strategies for measuring and improving the quality of care provided by rural hospitals, and the structure and value of horizontal and vertical linkages of rural hospitals.

  19. International Trends in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation: Future Directions for Australian Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Uzzell, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, heritage and environmental interpretation shifted from technical emphasis to social perspective, reflected in five international trends: growing concern with theory, increasing ecotourism and consequent changes in environmental interpretation, reactions to globalization (homogeneity versus uniqueness), interpretation of…

  20. Demographic Trends in the United States: A Review of Research in the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Cherlin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Demographic trends in the 2000s showed the continuing separation of family and household due to factors such as childbearing among single parents, the dissolution of cohabiting unions, divorce, repartnering, and remarriage. The transnational families of many immigrants also displayed this separation, as families extended across borders. In addition, demographers demonstrated during the decade that trends such as marriage and divorce were diverging according to education. Moreover, demographic trends in the age structure of the population showed that a large increase in the elderly population will occur in the 2010s. Overall, demographic trends produced an increased complexity of family life and a more ambiguous and fluid set of categories than demographers are accustomed to measuring. PMID:22399825

  1. Intervention programs for perpetrators of intimate partner violence: conclusions from a clinical research perspective.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Murphy, Christopher; Black, Danielle; Suhr, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider the empirical status of batterer intervention programs (BIPs) for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent reviews have reported only small average effect sizes for BIPs, with the small number of randomized trials showing little benefit of BIP attendance in preventing future abuse. The most widely adopted BIP intervention model has little empirical justification to support this dominance, yet states with standards governing the content of BIPs often mandate this approach as a contingency for state funding. Little data exist concerning the moderators and mediators of BIP effects on IPV recidivism, and a variety of factors threaten to impede future design advancements, including "turf" battles regarding the causes of IPV and limited funding outlets. Given this discouraging summary, the authors argue that research efforts concerning BIP effectiveness should borrow the design strategies and programmatic research efforts that have proven successful in psychotherapy research, in which significant advances have been made with regard to the evaluation and validation of empirically supported treatments for a wide variety of mental health problems. They conclude by calling for a new generation of IPV researchers to work across professional boundaries in a multidisciplinary manner to design the sophisticated evaluation studies that funding agencies would readily support, and that would provide the substantive answers to the many IPV-related public health questions that remain.

  2. Research Trends in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis of More than 50 Years of Publication Data

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bui The; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Hung, Le Phi; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Van Hieu, Mai; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Rafidinarivo, Herizo Fabien; Anh, Nguyen Ky; Hawkes, David; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has developed as the dominant paradigm of assessment of evidence that is used in clinical practice. Since its development, EBM has been applied to integrate the best available research into diagnosis and treatment with the purpose of improving patient care. In the EBM era, a hierarchy of evidence has been proposed, including various types of research methods, such as meta-analysis (MA), systematic review (SRV), randomized controlled trial (RCT), case report (CR), practice guideline (PGL), and so on. Although there are numerous studies examining the impact and importance of specific cases of EBM in clinical practice, there is a lack of research quantitatively measuring publication trends in the growth and development of EBM. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis was constructed to determine the scientific productivity of EBM research over decades. Methods NCBI PubMed database was used to search, retrieve and classify publications according to research method and year of publication. Joinpoint regression analysis was undertaken to analyze trends in research productivity and the prevalence of individual research methods. Findings Analysis indicates that MA and SRV, which are classified as the highest ranking of evidence in the EBM, accounted for a relatively small but auspicious number of publications. For most research methods, the annual percent change (APC) indicates a consistent increase in publication frequency. MA, SRV and RCT show the highest rate of publication growth in the past twenty years. Only controlled clinical trials (CCT) shows a non-significant reduction in publications over the past ten years. Conclusions Higher quality research methods, such as MA, SRV and RCT, are showing continuous publication growth, which suggests an acknowledgement of the value of these methods. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of research method publication trends in EBM. PMID:25849641

  3. Epidemiology to public health intervention for preventing cardiovascular diseases: The role of translational research

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anand; Yadav, Kapil; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant progress in medical research, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the largest contributors of morbidity and mortality both in developed and developing countries. The status of public health interventions related to CVDs prevention was reviewed to identify actions that are required to bridge the existing gap between the evidence and the policy. We used a framework comprising two steps - “bench to bedside” and from “bedside to community” to evaluate translational research. Available literature was reviewed to document the current status of CVD prevention and control at national level in India. Case studies of risk factor surveillance, tobacco control and blood pressure measurement were used to understand different aspects of translational research. National level initiatives in non-communicable diseases surveillance, prevention and control are a recent phenomena in India. The delay in translation of research to policy has occurred primarily at the second level, i.e., from ‘bedside to community’. The possible reasons for this were: inappropriate perception of the problem by policy makers and programme managers, lack of global public health guidelines and tools, and inadequate nationally relevant research related to operationalization and cost of public health interventions. Public health fraternity, both nationally and internationally, needs to establish institutional mechanisms to strengthen human resource capacity to initiate and monitor the process of translational research in India. Larger public interest demands that focus should shift to overcoming the barriers at community level translation. Only this will ensure that the extraordinary scientific advances of this century are rapidly translated for the benefit of more than one billion Indians. PMID:21150018

  4. Integrating worksite health protection and health promotion: A conceptual model for intervention and research.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Glorian; McLellan, Deborah L; Sabbath, Erika L; Dennerlein, Jack T; Nagler, Eve M; Hurtado, David A; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Wagner, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the value added by integrating traditionally separate efforts to protect and promote worker safety and health. This paper presents an innovative conceptual model to guide research on determinants of worker safety and health and to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of integrated approaches to promoting and protecting worker health. This model is rooted in multiple theories and the premise that the conditions of work are important determinants of individual safety and health outcomes and behaviors, and outcomes important to enterprises such as absence and turnover. Integrated policies, programs and practices simultaneously address multiple conditions of work, including the physical work environment and the organization of work (e.g., psychosocial factors, job tasks and demands). Findings from two recent studies conducted in Boston and Minnesota (2009-2015) illustrate the application of this model to guide social epidemiological research. This paper focuses particular attention on the relationships of the conditions of work to worker health-related behaviors, musculoskeletal symptoms, and occupational injury; and to the design of integrated interventions in response to specific settings and conditions of work of small and medium size manufacturing businesses, based on a systematic assessment of priorities, needs, and resources within an organization. This model provides an organizing framework for both research and practice by specifying the causal pathways through which work may influence health outcomes, and for designing and testing interventions to improve worker safety and health that are meaningful for workers and employers, and responsive to that setting's conditions of work.

  5. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  6. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research.

    PubMed

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John

    2016-09-01

    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world.

  7. Translating basic psychopathology research to preventive interventions: A tribute to John Abela

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine E.; Larkin, Silvia Samanez

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela’s research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative response style), interpersonal (e.g., reassurance seeking, attachment, dependency), personality (e.g., neuroticism, self-criticism), and contextual (e.g., stress, parental depression). He introduced important methodological advances to the study of the hopelessness model of depression, especially in children, including the “weakest link” approach, cognitive priming, and idiographic measurement of stress. We briefly review what is currently known about the prevention of depression regarding intervention targets, content, outcomes, effect sizes, moderators, mediators, specificity, and durability. Next, we summarize several of Abela’s contributions that are most relevant to the prevention of depression. We describe the implications of Abela’s work for the development, implementation, and testing of programs aimed at preventing depression, and discuss important challenges such as the transfer of training to and the personalization of interventions so as to capitalize on individuals’ strengths versus compensate for their weaknesses. PMID:22891820

  8. Translating basic psychopathology research to preventive interventions: a tribute to john R. Z. Abela.

    PubMed

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative response style), interpersonal (e.g., reassurance seeking, attachment, dependency), personality (e.g., neuroticism, self-criticism), and contextual (e.g., stress, parental depression). He introduced important methodological advances to the study of the hopelessness model of depression, especially in children, including the "weakest link" approach, cognitive priming, and idiographic measurement of stress. We briefly review what is currently known about the prevention of depression regarding intervention targets, content, outcomes, effect sizes, moderators, mediators, specificity, and durability. Next, we summarize several of Abela's contributions that are most relevant to the prevention of depression. We describe the implications of Abela's work for the development, implementation, and testing of programs aimed at preventing depression and discuss important challenges such as the transfer of training to and the personalization of interventions so as to capitalize on individuals' strengths versus compensate for their weaknesses.

  9. Delivering happiness: translating positive psychology intervention research for treating major and minor depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Layous, Kristin; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Wang, Lihong; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2011-08-01

    Despite the availability of many treatment options, depressive disorders remain a global public health problem. Even in affluent nations, 70% of reported cases either do not receive the recommended level of treatment or do not get treated at all, and this percentage does not reflect cases of depression that go unreported due to lack of access to health care, stigma, or other reasons. In developing countries, the World Health Organization estimates that <10% receive proper depression care due to poverty, stigma, and lack of governmental mental health resources and providers. Current treatments do not work for everyone, and even people who achieve remission face a high risk of recurrence and residual disability. The development of low-cost effective interventions that can serve either as initial therapy for mild symptoms or as adjunctive therapy for partial responders to medication is an immense unmet need. Positive activity interventions (PAIs) teach individuals ways to increase their positive thinking, positive affect, and positive behaviors. The majority of such interventions, which have obtained medium-size effect sizes, have been conducted with nondepressed individuals, but two randomized controlled studies in patients with mild clinical depression have reported promising initial findings. In this article, the authors review the relevant literature on the effectiveness of various types of PAIs, draw on social psychology, affective neuroscience and psychophamacology research to propose neural models for how PAIs might relieve depression, and discuss the steps needed to translate the potential promise of PAIs as clinical treatments for individuals with major and minor depressive disorders.

  10. Worldwide trends in the use of animals in research: the contribution of genetically-modified animal models.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2009-02-01

    The Three Rs--Reduction, Replacement and Refinement--which were first proposed in 1959 by Russell and Burch, have become widely accepted principles in the governance of humane animal research. However, there is substantial variation in the ways in which different countries document the numbers and types of research animals used, making it difficult to determine how effectively the Three Rs are being implemented. Here, we provide the first data illustrating worldwide trends in animal use for research purposes. To document global trends in animal use, we sampled 2691 articles from 24 countries, published between 1983 and 2007, in four scientific journals. We show that the percentage of articles reporting animal use has risen in the past 15 years. The rising popularity of genetic modification methods has contributed to this trend: reported genetically-modified animal use has more than doubled since 1997. We also show that mice are the most commonly-used species for genetic modification, and that, even in 2007, relatively inefficient random integration methods were still widely used to achieve genetic modification. These results illustrate shortcomings in the effort to implement the Three Rs in animal research.

  11. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    PubMed

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  12. Assessing the impact of de novo social ties within health intervention settings: New questions for health behavior intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally-occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? PMID:26577514

  13. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention?

  14. Confronting Challenges in Intervention Research with Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: The USC Well Elderly II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder

  15. Mindfulness Interventions.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  16. Comprehending childhood bereavement by parental suicide: a critical review of research on outcomes, grief processes, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Natalie C; Rabin, Laura A

    2009-09-01

    The experience of bereavement by parental suicide is not well understood, as evidenced by the lack of empirically supported interventions for this underserved population. This article reviews quantitative and qualitative research on the psychopathological outcomes and thematic characteristics of childhood and adolescent suicide survivorship and moderating variables such as life stressors, stigma, the manner of communication about the suicide, and the surviving parent's functioning. The authors outline several approaches to intervention and address conceptual and methodological challenges within the field. With the ultimate goal of efficacious intervention, recommendations for future priorities and the use of unconventional research methods are offered.

  17. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal

  18. Demographic Trends in the United States: A Review of Research in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic trends in the 2000s showed the continuing separation of family and household because of factors such as childbearing among single parents, the dissolution of cohabiting unions, divorce, repartnering, and remarriage. The transnational families of many immigrants also displayed this separation, as families extended across borders. In…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  20. Subject Trends in Library and Information Science Research, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes subject trends from 1975-84 in nine influential journals in library and information science. Thirty-two subjects which constitute 89 percent of the subjects published are discussed under five categories according to their distribution characteristics: (1) boom topics; (2) declining topics; (3) roller coaster issues; (4) stable subjects;…