Science.gov

Sample records for research trends intervention

  1. "Intervention" in Physical Education and Sport: Trends and Developments in a Decade of Francophone Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musard, Mathilde; Poggi, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this literature review were to characterize the communications presented during six Association for Research on "Intervention" in Sport (ARIS) French-speaking congresses from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the research trends between French and English research traditions. The definition of pedagogy is close to the…

  2. "Intervention" in Physical Education and Sport: Trends and Developments in a Decade of Francophone Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musard, Mathilde; Poggi, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this literature review were to characterize the communications presented during six Association for Research on "Intervention" in Sport (ARIS) French-speaking congresses from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the research trends between French and English research traditions. The definition of pedagogy is close to the…

  3. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  4. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  5. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  6. Time trends in ergonomic intervention research for improved musculoskeletal health and comfort in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil

    2005-03-01

    Studies on ergonomic intervention research aiming at improved musculoskeletal health published in Latin America in the past 20 years were reviewed. The tendencies observed over time in these studies show that interventions carried out are trying to deal with the changes occurring in the production processes in this period. Thus, more participative approaches have been used, involving different parts interested in the process. The previous transversal projects, more focused on the physical aspects of the work, are now substituted by studies including organizational and longitudinal designs. Despite this, some negative or unchanged outcomes have been obtained. Therefore, good quality intervention studies are needed to provide more generalizable data and improve our understanding on planning, implementing and sustaining effective measures for controlling work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  7. Meaning-based group counseling for bereavement: bridging theory with emerging trends in intervention research.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Christopher J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Henry, Melissa; Berish, Mel; Milman, Evgenia; Körner, Annett; Copeland, Laura S; Chochinov, Harvey M; Cohen, S Robin

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of scholarship has evaluated the usefulness of meaning-based theories in the context of bereavement counseling. Although scholars have discussed the application of meaning-based theories for individual practice, there is a lack of inquiry regarding its implications when conducting bereavement support groups. The objective of this article is to bridge meaning-based theories with bereavement group practice, leading to a novel intervention and laying the foundation for future efficacy studies. Building on recommendations specified in the literature, this article outlines the theoretical paradigms and structure of a short-term meaning-based group counseling intervention for uncomplicated bereavement.

  8. Genetics and Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Haworth, Claire M.A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this special section on genetics and behavioral intervention, we discuss the papers by McGue et al. and by Davey Smith. In the second half of our paper, we consider the integration of genetics and intervention research more broadly. The two papers describe ways to use genetic controls to infer causation from correlational (‘observational’) data without intervention. McGue et al. discuss the use of twins discordant for exposure, which is a variant of the co-twin control method. This method can show that the link between an exposure and outcome is not entirely mediated genetically. Davey Smith discusses a method called Mendelian randomization that uses DNA to draw causal inferences without the need for experimental intervention. Despite the possibilities for using genetic controls to infer causation from correlational data in order to attenuate the need for intervention studies, we are most excited about the opportunities for integrating genetics and intervention research, especially as new DNA technologies make it possible to incorporate genetics in any intervention research. PMID:25419226

  9. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  10. Research trends in biostratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Upshaw, C.F.

    1983-03-01

    Paleontology, as applied in biostratigraphy, has long been an indispensable part of petroleum exploration. However, rapidly improving technology in many disciplines and the limitations of traditional biostratigraphy based on tops and zones dictate the need for an improved technology. In response to this need new approaches have been suggested, including probabilistic stratigraphy, geohistory diagrams, no-space graphs, isotopic and fission track dating, radiometric geochronology, tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy, paleo-oceanographic geochemistry, and graphic correlation utilizing composite standards. One example of a research program for the 1990s and beyond includes the development of a paleontologic composite standards and the interactive capability for their use by graphic correlation; the development of computer data bases for morphologic, taxonomic, paleoecologic and paleogeographic research and the interactive capability for synthesis, analysis and display; and, the development of time-based primary sedimentary models for prediction of geologic conditions ahead of the drill. Refined and stable taxonomic data supplied by highly capable paleontologists are a prerequisite for success. Such a program clearly requires management commitment of manpower and resources necessary to develop the technology, and it requires the development of effective technology transfer mechanisms to implement the results in exploration programs. The reward for success will be multifold improvement in our understanding of geologic conditions and history.

  11. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  12. Recent Trends in Robotics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Masakazu

    My views on recent trends in the strategy and practice of Japan's robotics research are briefly introduced. To meet ever-increasing public expectations, robotics researchers and engineers have to be more seriously concerned about robots' intrinsic weaknesses. Examples of these are power-related and reliability issues. Resolving these issues will increase the feasibility of creating successful new industry, and the likelihood of robotics becoming a key technology for providing a safe and stress-free society in the future.

  13. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S; Leonard, Charles E; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178.

  14. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S.; Leonard, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178. PMID:27775954

  15. Tracking funded health intervention research.

    PubMed

    King, Lesley A; Newson, Robyn S; Cohen, Gillian E; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Redman, Selina; Rychetnik, Lucie; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-08-17

    To describe the research publication outputs from intervention research funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Analysis of descriptive data and data on publication outputs collected between 23 July 2012 and 10 December 2013 relating to health intervention research project grants funded between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007. Stages of development of intervention studies (efficacy, effectiveness, replication, adaptation or dissemination of intervention); types of interventions studied; publication output per NHMRC grant; and whether interventions produced statistically significant changes in primary outcome variables. Most of the identified studies tested intervention efficacy or effectiveness in clinical or community settings, with few testing the later stages of intervention development, such as replication, adaptation or dissemination. Studies focused largely on chronic disease treatment and management, and encompassed various medical and allied health disciplines. Equal numbers of studies had interventions that produced statistically significant results on primary outcomes, (27) and those that did not (27). The mean number of total published articles per grant was 3.3, with 2.0 articles per grant focusing on results, and the remainder covering descriptive, exploratory or methodological aspects of intervention research. Our study provides a benchmark for the publication outputs of NHMRC-funded health intervention research in Australia. Research productivity is particularly important for intervention research, where findings are likely to have more immediate and direct applicability to health policy and practice. Tracking research outputs in this way provides information on whether current research investment patterns match the need for evidence about health care interventions.

  16. Recent research trends in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shobha; Venkiteswaran, Annapurny; Baliga, Sudhindra M; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2017-01-01

    Research being an investigative process is employed to increase or revise the current knowledge. Scientific research involves the conduct of a methodical study to prove a hypothesis or give an answer to a specific question with the main aim of finding definitive answer. This paper aims to advance knowledge of research and develop interest in the postgraduate students. It also throws light on the existing and emerging research strengths within a "high-performance culture." The trends in dental research worldwide are looked at, in particular, a comparison between the publication status in two countries, namely India and Australia. The current themes in dental research are also discussed to facilitate future projects for the aspiring pediatric dentists. Stress is given to the importance of evidence-based dentistry as the current times call for high-quality and ethical papers which are devoid of plagiarism. The common reasons for failure of a research are explored and the strengthening factors are highlighted. Proper planning of a pertinent research project is beneficial to the researcher as well as the dental community.

  17. Sludge treatment: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Yingju; Lee, Yu-Jen

    2017-07-15

    Sludge is produced during wastewater treatment as a residue containing most insoluble and adsorbed soluble impurities in wastewaters. This paper summarized the currently available review papers on sludge treatments and proposed the research trends based on the points raised therein. On partition aspect, sludge production rate and the reduction of production rate and the fate and transformation of involved emergent contaminants including endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products are widely studied. On release aspect, development of thermal processes on sludge with migration and transformation of heavy metals in sludge during treatment is a research focus. The use of detailed fluid and biological reaction models and advanced instrumentation and control systems is studied to optimize treatment performances. On recovery part, co-digestion of sludge with co-substrates at mesophilic and hyperthermophilic conditions and the recovery of phosphorus at low costs are research highlights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlling Baseline Trend in Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Cryer, Judy; Byrns, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists commonly conduct interventions for individual students and evaluate their success through single-case research designs, most of which include a baseline observation period. However, concluding intervention effectiveness from a single-case design is problematic when pronounced baseline trend is evident. With positive baseline…

  19. A Family-Based Intervention for Preschoolers: Evaluating Sibling Outcomes. Data Trends #130

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" discusses family-based interventions and how they may have both direct and indirect effects. While the measurement of direct outcomes for a targeted group is important, a…

  20. Research testing of tailored interventions.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, Carol A; Richards, Kathy C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer rationale to support the argument for research testing of tailored interventions. The individualization of nursing interventions is used as a basis for discussion of the emergent need to test tailored interventions at the research rather than practice level. Both justification of efficacy and feasibility support the research testing of tailored interventions, in support of an evolving nursing process. In order to retain its patient-centered focus and yet meet scientific standards for practice, nursing must evaluate the individualization of care through more theory-based and systematic research processes. The testing of tailored interventions at the research level would provide a means to achieve these ends.

  1. Trends in Research in Chemical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornhauser, Aleksandra

    1979-01-01

    Presents summaries and evaluations of some 250 recent researches and developmental studies in chemical education. Identifies existing trends in the various research areas, and suggests future research needs and priorities. (GA)

  2. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  3. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  4. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  5. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  6. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  7. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  8. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  9. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  10. Monitoring Trends in Research Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Shah, Mahsood

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present approaches effectively used by a large multi-campus Australian university to improve the research student experience as a direct result of their feedback. These approaches include: identifying trends in the research student experience and areas needing improvement through the Research Student…

  11. Trends in Career and Technical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Asunda, Paul; Kim, Soo Jung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify current trends and issues in research focusing on career and technical education (CTE). The primary sources of literature for this review included all research articles published in three refereed scholarly journals--"Career and Technical Education Research," "Journal of Career and Technical…

  12. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  13. Trends in Array Antenna Research,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    is written: 81. Ruze, J. (1952) Physical Limitations on Antennas. MIT Research Lab . Electronics Tech. Rept. 248. 82. Miller, C. J. (19G4...MIT Radiation Lab ., Cambridge, MA, Hep 479. Ruze, J. (19f>5) Lateral feed displacement in a paraboloid, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation...field effects such U the use of a filter near small diffrating obstacles, and in the presence of fields with pseudo- random phase variations. The

  14. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  15. Future trends of AFRL cryocooler research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettyjohn, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Over the past year, Air Force Research Labs (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate, has significantly defined the science and technology (S&T) path forward for cryocoolers in support of Air Force space missions. There are two trends that are emerging for cryocooler S&T: the first is missile warning and the second is responsive space. Missile warning is moving towards larger Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which generate large heat loads. Responsive space is moving towards a cheap, fast alternative to augment, or reconstitute space capabilities. At first glance, these two trends require completely different approaches to cryocooler S&T. However, decreasing the size, weight, and power of cryocoolers supports both trends. This paper will discuss the technology path chosen by AFRL to meet the Air Force (AF) mission needs for cryocoolers to include AFRL's research path, and potential Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) opportunities to help support the research goals.

  16. Trends in publication of nursing informatics research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations.

  17. Trends in Publication of Nursing Informatics Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations. PMID:25954387

  18. Study on global cloud computing research trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feicheng; Zhan, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Since "cloud computing" was put forward by Google , it quickly became the most popular concept in IT industry and widely permeated into various areas promoted by IBM, Microsoft and other IT industry giants. In this paper the methods of bibliometric analysis were used to investigate the global cloud computing research trend based on Web of Science (WoS) database and the Engineering Index (EI) Compendex database. In this study, the publication, countries, institutes, keywords of the papers was deeply studied in methods of quantitative analysis, figures and tables are used to describe the production and the development trends of cloud computing.

  19. Challenges in intervention research on adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-12-01

    The field of intervention and prevention research is rapidly growing. In this general discussion of the studies in the special issue on intervention and prevention with adolescents, we highlight some of the challenges facing researchers in this field. One is the community perspective. Family and school are the primary settings for intervention research today, and this special issue covers various approaches to family- and school-based interventions. Taking a community perspective, the question becomes how these different interventions can be co-ordinated across contexts and be integrated in a local community's broader intervention policies and activities. Another challenge for intervention and prevention research is to use better designs in order to better understand how interventions into young peoples' lives affect their future health and adjustment. Overall, the studies in this special issue illustrate well the many challenges that intervention researchers face when they go from theory to practice.

  20. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  1. Future trends in research in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Dafna D

    2012-07-01

    Major advances have taken place in the study of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the past several decades. Future trends in research will likely be based on these advances and will span a wide spectrum of activities including further refinement of disease definition and particularly disease pattern. More precise definitions for axial and peripheral disease and in particular arthritis mutilans will be necessary for further genetic and biomarker studies. Early definition of PsA is crucial. Future research will concentrate on identifying genetic and other biomarkers for early diagnosis, disease expression, disease progression, and comorbidities. Newer therapies will be developed as well.

  2. Pharmacological Intervention Research for Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Ellis, Cynthia; Evans, Joseph H.

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the status and trends of pharmacological intervention research focused on the academic functioning of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-two studies involving 1,668 participants were included in the review. Results indicated: (1) information on participants is limited; (2)…

  3. Pharmacological Intervention Research for Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Ellis, Cynthia; Evans, Joseph H.

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the status and trends of pharmacological intervention research focused on the academic functioning of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-two studies involving 1,668 participants were included in the review. Results indicated: (1) information on participants is limited; (2)…

  4. Global trends and performances of acupuncture research.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Sheng; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the global scientific output of acupuncture research in the Science Citation Index-Expanded and to assess the tendencies and research performances of leading countries/territories and institutes. Articles referring to acupuncture were assessed by distribution of document types, languages, journals, subject categories, source countries, and source institutes. Results showed that 15 languages were represented in articles from 65 countries/territories. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine published the most articles, followed by American Journal of Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research which were listed in category of integrative & complementary medicine. In the study period of 1991-2009, USA was the top producing country, followed by China (mainland) with a sharply growth trend. In 2009, publication of China (mainland) ranked top one in the world. In addition, an acupuncture research trend was found in two phases in terms of the increase of number of SCI-expanded journals' articles. Among the acupuncture research, pain control has been the most prevalent direction of study, and brain imaging is attracting the most recent attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Keeping Students on Track to Graduate: A Synthesis of School Dropout Trends, Prevention, and Intervention Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…

  6. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  7. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  8. Hypersensitivity and nanoparticles: update and research trends

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, TEODORA; MATEA, CRISTIAN T.; IANCU, CORNEL; AGOSTON-COLDEA, LUCIA; MOCAN, LUCIAN; ORASAN, REMUS

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great promise for a wide range of medical-intent applications (diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of various diseases). Their advantages are due to their size, versatility and potential for multiple simultaneous applications. However, concerns have been formulated by scientific world due to insufficient data on toxicity of nanomaterials. One area of interest is represented by the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. We review herein reported data on hypersensitivity reactions. The role exerted by nanoparticles in both immunostimulation and immunosuppression in allergen-driven mechanisms was studied, as well as future trends in worldwide research. PMID:27152071

  9. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Hemming, Karla; Stevens, Andrew J; Lilford, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of service delivery interventions with contemporaneous controls often yield null results, even when the intervention appeared promising in advance. There can be many reasons for null results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a ‘rising tide’ phenomenon being a possible explanation of null results. We note that evaluations of service delivery interventions often occur when awareness of the problems they intend to address is already heightened, and pressure to tackle them is mounting throughout a health system. An evaluation may therefore take place in a setting where the system as a whole is improving – where there is a pronounced temporal trend or a ‘rising tide causing all vessels to rise’. As a consequence, control sites in an intervention study will improve. This reduces the difference between intervention and control sites and predisposes the study to a null result, leading to the conclusion that the intervention has no effect. We discuss how a rising tide may be distinguished from other causes of improvement in both control and intervention groups, and give examples where the rising tide provides a convincing explanation of such a finding. We offer recommendations for interpretation of research findings where improvements in the intervention group are matched by improvements in the control group. Understanding the rising tide phenomenon is important for a more nuanced interpretation of null results arising in the context of system-wide improvement. Recognition that a rising tide may have predisposed to a null result in one health system cautions against generalising the result to another health system where strong secular trends are absent. PMID:26442789

  10. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Hemming, Karla; Stevens, Andrew J; Lilford, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Evaluations of service delivery interventions with contemporaneous controls often yield null results, even when the intervention appeared promising in advance. There can be many reasons for null results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a 'rising tide' phenomenon being a possible explanation of null results. We note that evaluations of service delivery interventions often occur when awareness of the problems they intend to address is already heightened, and pressure to tackle them is mounting throughout a health system. An evaluation may therefore take place in a setting where the system as a whole is improving - where there is a pronounced temporal trend or a 'rising tide causing all vessels to rise'. As a consequence, control sites in an intervention study will improve. This reduces the difference between intervention and control sites and predisposes the study to a null result, leading to the conclusion that the intervention has no effect. We discuss how a rising tide may be distinguished from other causes of improvement in both control and intervention groups, and give examples where the rising tide provides a convincing explanation of such a finding. We offer recommendations for interpretation of research findings where improvements in the intervention group are matched by improvements in the control group. Understanding the rising tide phenomenon is important for a more nuanced interpretation of null results arising in the context of system-wide improvement. Recognition that a rising tide may have predisposed to a null result in one health system cautions against generalising the result to another health system where strong secular trends are absent.

  11. Innovation in Crop Protection: Trends in Research.

    PubMed

    Stetter; Lieb

    2000-05-15

    In the absence of the remarkable levels of growth in the yields of important crops, neither the rapid increase in living standards in industrialized countries nor the adequate standard of nutrition for the greater part of the world's population would have been possible. Alongside high-yielding varieties, improved agricultural techniques, and rapid mechanization, the chemical industry has also contributed substantially to progress in agriculture since roughly the middle of the nineteenth century. From the chemists "kitchens" came two "magic weapons": artificial fertilisers and chemical agents for crop protection. Today both have become indispensable to modern yield- and quality-orientated agriculture. This review spans the development of the crop-protection industry from its earliest beginnings to the present day and attempts to portray how the research-based crop-protection industry is prepared for current and future challenges. Considerable space is thus dedicated to the discussion of trends in research.

  12. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  13. Recent Research Trends in Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The use of meta-analysis (MA), which is placed on top of the evidence hierarchy, in studies has been increasing exponentially. MA has three effect size families. Using the category of effect size families, this paper introduces the important points in the MA process and highlights the recent research trends in this field, such as network MA, meta-analytic structural equation modeling, and diagnostic test accuracy MA. Several reporting standards were established for primary studies and MA. The critical assessment reviews demonstrated that the current quality of nursing MA reporting was low. The problematic areas of the current nursing MA include study search, study selection, risk of bias, publication bias, and additional analysis based on quality assessment. Directions for future research are also presented in this paper. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Patterns and trends of medical student research.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Dakshitha Praneeth; Perera, Chamila Sudarshi; Senarathna, Supun; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva

    2013-12-28

    Our study describes the change in the research output, trends and content of published research involving medical students over the last century. Pubmed® and Scopus® were searched for keywords 'Medical Student' in the affiliation field. The search results were combined in Endnote® and duplicate entries removed and the multiple variables described below were assessed. The combined searches after excluding duplicates yielded 416 results and 66 articles were excluded. There was an exponential increase in medical student research from 1980-2010. Medical student was the first author in 170 (48.6%) studies and 55 studies were authored by a single medical student. The 3 most common areas of research in descending order were Psychiatry (n = 26, 7.4%), General Medicine (n = 24, 6.9%) and Medical Education (n = 21, 6%). The commonest type of articles, in descending order were review articles (n = 48, 13.7%), Cross sectional studies (n = 47, 13.4%) and Case reports (n = 43, 12.3. The majority of these articles (n = 207, 59.1%) have never been cited subsequently. The trend of increasing number of articles was seen equally among all article types, fields and countries. There is an exponential increase in articles by medical students but the majority of articles have not been cited. The numbers of medical student authors per publication have remained static while the total numbers of authors have increased. The proportions in the type of articles, fields of study and country of origin have largely remained static. Publishers and authors should strive to enhance the quality and quantity of data available in indexing services.

  15. Patterns and trends of medical student research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study describes the change in the research output, trends and content of published research involving medical students over the last century. Methods Pubmed® and Scopus® were searched for keywords ‘Medical Student’ in the affiliation field. The search results were combined in Endnote® and duplicate entries removed and the multiple variables described below were assessed. Results The combined searches after excluding duplicates yielded 416 results and 66 articles were excluded. There was an exponential increase in medical student research from 1980–2010. Medical student was the first author in 170 (48.6%) studies and 55 studies were authored by a single medical student. The 3 most common areas of research in descending order were Psychiatry (n = 26, 7.4%), General Medicine (n = 24, 6.9%) and Medical Education (n = 21, 6%). The commonest type of articles, in descending order were review articles (n = 48, 13.7%), Cross sectional studies (n = 47, 13.4%) and Case reports (n = 43, 12.3. The majority of these articles (n = 207, 59.1%) have never been cited subsequently. The trend of increasing number of articles was seen equally among all article types, fields and countries. Conclusions There is an exponential increase in articles by medical students but the majority of articles have not been cited. The numbers of medical student authors per publication have remained static while the total numbers of authors have increased. The proportions in the type of articles, fields of study and country of origin have largely remained static. Publishers and authors should strive to enhance the quality and quantity of data available in indexing services. PMID:24373230

  16. Gender Bias: Recent Research and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 14 publications about recent research on gender bias and interventions to reduce gender bias in schools. The bibliography is divided into two sections: current research and intervention. The first includes descriptions of studies examining the following topics: gender bias in U.S. schools and its effects;…

  17. [Literature and schizophrenia. Research trends and research tasks].

    PubMed

    Kudszus, W G

    1979-01-01

    Research on schizophrenia and on the psychopathology of creativity is increasingly absorbing and transforming insights from literature (Büchner, Celan, Kafka, Proust) and literary aesthetics. This development is discussed against the background of the history of psychiatric research. Regarding contemporary research trends, special emphasis is placed on communication theory as presented by the Palo Alto group (double bind theory), anti-psychiatry (Cooper, Laing), French structuralism (Foucault, Lacan), and on schizoanalysis (Deleuze and Guattari). Traditional concepts of mental health and illness are called into question.

  18. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  19. Vocational Education Research Trends. Trends and Issues Alert No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    Vocational education research seeks to answer one form or another of a fundamental question: How can we best prepare youth and adults for today's workplace? Comprehensive national and international research programs typically attempt to ask and answer larger forms of that question. Recurring themes in the United States reflect change--what skills…

  20. Fidelity to Theory in PA Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Sidani, Souraya; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    Research using theory-based interventions to promote regular physical activity (PA) has increased substantially over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and summary of PA intervention research specific to fidelity to intervention theory, providing an overview of the concept of fidelity to intervention theory, defining the evaluative components of fidelity: (a) conceptualization of the problem, (b) operationalization of the theory, (c) specification of mediating processes, and (d) specification of outcome variables. Using journal scans and computerized literature database searches, the authors identified 470 PA activity intervention studies that incorporated a theoretical perspective. A validity framework explicated by was used to summarize intervention research in light of fidelity to intervention theory. In all, 15 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. Theoretical models for health behavior change, including social cognitive theory (SCT), cognitive behavioral theory (CBT), the transtheoretical model (TTM, the TTM combined with SCT), the reversal theory (theory of psychological reversals), and the disconnected values theory, were used as a basis for intervention design and evaluation.

  1. Ethical considerations for sleep intervention in organizational psychology research.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K

    2017-02-03

    Over the past several years, interest into the role of sleep in the workplace has grown. The theoretical shift from research questions examining sleep as an outcome to placing sleep as the independent variable has increased experimental approaches to manipulating sleep in organizational studies. This is an exciting trend that is likely to continue in the organizational sciences. However, sleep experimentation can also pose special challenges for organizational researchers unaccustomed to sleep science. In this commentary, I discuss five ethical considerations of conducting negative sleep interventions in organizational psychology research. I also provide recommendations for organizational researchers-or even other researchers in disciplines outside of sleep science-who wish to implement sleep interventions in their studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  3. Linking sustainability research to intervention types.

    PubMed

    Scheirer, Mary Ann

    2013-04-01

    Researchers, funders, and managers of health programs and interventions have become concerned about their long-term sustainability. However, most research about sustainability has not considered the nature of the program to be sustained. Health-related interventions may differ in their likelihood of sustainability and in the factors likely to influence continuation. I suggest a framework for analyzing the sustainability of 6 types of interventions: (1) those implemented by individual providers; (2) programs requiring coordination among multiple staff; (3) new policies, procedures, or technologies; (4) capacity or infrastructure building; (5) community partnerships or collaborations; and (6) broad-scale system change. Hypotheses for future research and strategies that program managers might use to achieve sustainability also differ by program or intervention type.

  4. Aversive Intervention: Research and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Deanna K.; Kohler, Patty

    2012-01-01

    From the beginning of time, there has been a pervasive interest in getting some members of the human race to conform to the wishes of other members of the human race. The use of positive as well as not so positive methods have been utilized, researched and espoused upon. The current paper presents a review of the vast literature on the history of…

  5. Mechanical Low Back Pain: Secular Trend and Intervention Topics of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Silvia; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on mechanical low back pain (MLBP) rehabilitation, the secular (i.e., long-term) trend, and the distribution of interventions studied. Methods: All included RCTs were extracted from all Cochrane systematic reviews focusing on rehabilitation therapies for MLBP, and two independent reviewers screened and analyzed the information on interventions. Results: After removal of duplicates, the data set consisted of 196 RCTs published between 1961 and 2010. The number of RCTs published increased consistently over time: 2 trials (1% of the total) were published in 1961–1970, 10 (5%) in 1971–1980, 41 (21%) in 1981–1990, 68 (35%) in 1991–2000, and 75 (38%) in 2001–2010. The intervention of interest in the majority of RCTs was exercise therapy (115/399; 29%), followed by spinal manipulation therapies (60/399; 15%). Conclusion: The number of RCTs focusing on MLBP has risen over time; of all interventions studied, exercise therapy has attracted the most research interest. PMID:27504049

  6. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  7. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  8. Improving the Reporting Quality of Nonrandomized Evaluations of Behavioral and Public Health Interventions: The TREND Statement

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Lyles, Cynthia; Crepaz, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Developing an evidence base for making public health decisions will require using data from evaluation studies with randomized and nonrandomized designs. Assessing individual studies and using studies in quantitative research syntheses require transparent reporting of the study, with sufficient detail and clarity to readily see differences and similarities among studies in the same area. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement provides guidelines for transparent reporting of randomized clinical trials. We present the initial version of the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND) statement. These guidelines emphasize the reporting of theories used and descriptions of intervention and comparison conditions, research design, and methods of adjusting for possible biases in evaluation studies that use nonrandomized designs. PMID:14998794

  9. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  10. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  11. Trends in eutrophication research and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Walter; Thornton, Jeffrey A.

    1996-02-01

    Eutrophication is the natural ageing process of lakes. It is characterized by a geologically slow shift from in-lake biological production driven by allochthonous (external to the water body) loading of nutrients, to production driven by autochthonous (in-lake) processes. This shift typically is accompanied by changes in species and biotic community composition, as an aquatic ecosystem is ultimately transformed into a terrestrial biome. However, this typically slow process can be greatly accelerated by human intervention in the natural biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within a watershed; the resulting cultural eutrophication can create conditions inimical to the continued use of the water body for human-driven economic purposes. Excessive algal and rooted plant growth, degraded water quality, extensive deoxygenation of the bottom water layers and increased fish biomass accompanied by decreased harvest quality, are some features of this process.Following the Second World War, concern with cultural eutrophication achieved an intensity that spurred a significant research effort, culminating in the identification of phosphorus as the single most significant, and controllable, element involved in driving the eutrophication process. During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, much effort was devoted to reducing phosphorus in wastewater effluents, primarily in the developed countries of the temperate zone. These efforts generally resulted in the control of eutrophication in these countries, albeit with varying degrees of success. The present effort in the temperature zone, comprising mostly developed nations, has now shifted to the control of diffuse sources of a broader spectrum of contaminants that impact human water use.In the developing countries of the inter-tropical zone, however, rapidly expanding populations, a growing industrial economy and extensive urbanization have only recently reached an intensity at which cultural eutrophication can no longer be

  12. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  13. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  14. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  15. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  16. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  17. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  18. Declining trends in invasive orthopedic interventions for people with hemophilia enrolled in the Universal Data Collection program (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    TOBASE, P.; LANE, H.; SIDDIQI, A.-E-A.; INGRAM-RICH, R.; WARD, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent joint hemarthroses due to hemophilia (Factor VIII and Factor IX deficiency) often lead to invasive orthopedic interventions to decrease frequency of bleeding and/or to alleviate pain associated with end-stage hemophilic arthropathy. Aim Identify trends in invasive orthopedic interventions among people with hemophilia who were enrolled in the Universal Data Collection (UDC) program during the period 2000–2010. Methods Data were collected from 130 hemophilia treatment centers in the United States annually during the period 2000–2010, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The number of visits in which an invasive orthopedic intervention was reported was expressed as a proportion of the total visits in each year of the program. Invasive orthopedic interventions consisted of arthroplasty, arthrodesis, and synovectomy. Joints included in this study were the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Results A 5.6% decrease in all invasive orthopedic interventions in all joints of people with hemophilia enrolled in the UDC program over the 11-year study period was observed. Conclusions These data reflect a declining trend in invasive orthopedic interventions in people with hemophilia. Further research is needed to understand the characteristics that may influence invasive orthopedic interventions. PMID:27030396

  19. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  20. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  1. Is Educational Intervention Research on the Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined intervention studies that appeared in four educational psychology journals (Cognition & Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Education) and the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) in 1983 and from 1995 to 2004. The majority of…

  2. Is Educational Intervention Research on the Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined intervention studies that appeared in four educational psychology journals (Cognition & Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Education) and the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) in 1983 and from 1995 to 2004. The majority of…

  3. Use of videotaped interventions in research.

    PubMed

    Steinke, E E

    2001-10-01

    Evaluating conceptual and methodological issues are important considerations when developing a videotape for research intervention. The process of developing a videotape for research involves several critical steps to maintain scientific rigor during the project. Establishing content validity of the videotape script and maintaining scientific integrity while producing the videotape are key components. Issues such as copyright and intellectual property are important considerations. The use of videotape provides a consistent method of providing information to research subjects. Careful attention to the research process during each phase of development of the videotape will enhance the success of the project.

  4. Trends in US Autism Research Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per…

  5. Research Trends in Latin America: Seminario 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1981-01-01

    Describes a conference organized to examine the scope of educational research within Latin America. The article outlines the focus of current studies (education of disadvantaged children) and their design characteristics, regional information networks, local research organization and funding sources, and the socio-political impact of research in…

  6. Trends in US Autism Research Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per…

  7. Outdoor recreation trend research: making the possible probable

    Treesearch

    Geoffery Godbey

    1980-01-01

    Outdoor recreation research has largely ignored the fundamental requirement of science that findings be replicative. "The only way to establish replicability, of course, is to replicate." Because of this, we know practically nothing about outdoor recreation trends. "Trends, in statistics, (is) a steady change in a variable or set of related variables in...

  8. Trends in US autism research funding.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-05-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per year and a significant increase in the proportion of translational projects per year. The number of translational projects funded by the National Alliance for Autism Research and Cure Autism Now increased significantly, whereas the number of clinical projects significantly increased for the National Institutes of Health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the shifting landscape of autism research from basic science to clinical and translational research.

  9. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  10. Community Partners for Healthy Farming Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, J; Palermo, T

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the Community Partners for Healthy Farming Intervention Research (CPHF-IR) program is to implement and evaluate existing or new interventions for reduction of agriculture-related injuries, hazards, and illnesses. Objectives include the development of active partnerships between experienced researchers, communities, workers, managers, agricultural organizations, agribusinesses, and other stakeholders. Specific intervention projects were selected by the competitive review process in response to a request for proposals. The second series of projects (funded 2000-2003) targeted: improved ergonomics for handling grapes (CA) and for small-scale berry growers (WI, IA, MI, MN), engineering controls (KY, VA, SC) and training (IN) related to tractors, private-sector financial incentives for safety (IA, NE), and reducing eye injuries in Latino farmworkers (IL, MI, FL). Partners have provided their unique resources for accessing the target population, planning, implementation, dissemination, and evaluation. They have produced useful engineering controls, educational and motivational tools, and helped build infrastructure for promoting agricultural health as essential to sustainable agriculture. Additional outcomes have included: increased interest among participants in collaborating in further research, the feasibility of Latino lay health advisors as active partners in research, and the value of process evaluation of a partnership to enhance intervention sustainability. NIOSH is utilizing the model created for Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers, a document related to earlier CPHF-IR projects, for a comparable document for construction in both English and Spanish. This program has confirmed that such partnerships can produce not only sustainable interventions but also products and models with the potential to expand farther geographically than originally anticipated and even into other sectors, e.g., for primary prevention among healthcare workers and

  11. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  12. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  13. Trends in percutaneous coronary intervention from 2004 to 2013 according to the Portuguese National Registry of Interventional Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hélder; Teles, Rui Campante; Costa, Marco; da Silva, Pedro Canas; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; da Gama Ribeiro, Vasco; Santos, Ricardo; e Abreu, Pedro Farto; de Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne; Marques, Jorge; Fernandes, Renato; Brandão, Vítor; Martins, Dinis; Drummond, António; Pipa, João Luís; Seca, Luís; Calisto, João; Baptista, José; Matias, Fernando; Ramos, José Sousa; Pereira-Machado, Francisco; Silva, João Carlos; Almeida, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to report trends in Portuguese interventional cardiology from 2004 to 2013 and to compare them with other European countries. Based on the Portuguese National Registry of Interventional Cardiology and on official data from the Directorate-General of Health, we give an overview of developments in coronary interventions from 2004 to 2013. In 2013, 36 810 diagnostic catheterization procedures were performed, representing an increase of 34% compared to 2007 and a rate of 3529 coronary angiograms per million population. Coronary interventions increased by 65% in the decade from 2004 to 2013, with a total of 13 897 procedures and a rate of 1333 coronary interventions per million population in 2013. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) increased by 265% from 2004 to 2013 (1328 vs. 3524), an adjusted rate of 338 primary PCIs per million, representing 25% of total angioplasties. Stents were the most frequently used devices, drug-eluting stents being used in 73% in 2013. Radial access increased from 4.1% in 2004 to 57.9% in 2013. Interventional cardiology in Portugal has been expanding since 2004. We would emphasize the fact that in 2013 all Portuguese interventional cardiology centers were participating in the National Registry of Interventional Cardiology, as well as the growth in primary PCI and increased use of radial access.

  14. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    PubMed Central

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  15. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  16. Research Trends in the United States: EE to ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2007-01-01

    Research on education for sustainable development (ESD) is not a unified body of work and, much like the literature for environmental education (EE), research is published in many arenas. The trends, however, capture some of the major foci of the research that is emerging on ESD, especially in the early years of the Decade of Education for…

  17. Trends in Turkish Mathematics Education Research: From 1998 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Adnan; Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan; Akkan, Yasar; Cakiroglu, Unal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine trends in Turkish Mathematics Education on the basis of both master and doctoral theses involved. The researchers reviewed the online databases of the Higher Education Council and Proquest as well as the library of each university and examined 284 graduate theses in regard to research topic, research methods,…

  18. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  19. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  20. Anticipating Challenges: School-Based Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Muskat, Barbara; Cook, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research is vital for social work, as it aims to develop practice/program approaches and provide evidence to understand which interventions are effective and for whom. Despite growing attention, little social work research exists that evaluates interventions. Among the reasons for the dearth of intervention research within social work…

  1. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  2. Trends in nursery research and production

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    Forest nursery production is at an all-time high in the southern United States, and to maintain and increase this production capacity we need to integrate research and operational technology. Me must improve the technology to increase production of container southern pine seedlings, especially for longleaf pine. Bareroot nursery managers have challenges to maintain the...

  3. Strategies and Trends in Admissions Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the technical service rendered by the national testing agencies may be an undesirable tradeoff for the active involvement of admissions workers in admissions research, the author suggests that the use of decision theory, quasi-actuarial assessment, quasi-experimental design, and program evaluation strategies would place admissions…

  4. Trends in Poland in space psychology research.

    PubMed

    Terelak, J F

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the basic directions of research carried out in Poland during the years 1981-86 within the Polish Academy of Science project 06.7. The subject matter concerns: individual and situational determinants of human functioning in stress conditions; functioning of a human in extreme conditions; and load imposition through activities requiring risk-taking decisions.

  5. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  6. Trends in vehicle design research - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Velinsky, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 papers. Some of the titles are: Test rig design for hydrostatic accumulator energy-storage automobile research; Actively coordinated vehicle systems; Steady turning stability of partially filled tank vehicles with arbitrary tank geometry; Modeling and simulation of a supercharger; and Contributions of rider induced loads to bicycle frame stress.

  7. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  8. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  9. Multicenter neonatal databases: Trends in research uses.

    PubMed

    Creel, Liza M; Gregory, Sean; McNeal, Catherine J; Beeram, Madhava R; Krauss, David R

    2017-01-13

    In the US, approximately 12.7% of all live births are preterm, 8.2% of live births were low birth weight (LBW), and 1.5% are very low birth weight (VLBW). Although technological advances have improved mortality rates among preterm and LBW infants, improving overall rates of prematurity and LBW remains a national priority. Monitoring short- and long-term outcomes is critical for advancing medical treatment and minimizing morbidities associated with prematurity or LBW; however, studying these infants can be challenging. Several large, multi-center neonatal databases have been developed to improve research and quality improvement of treatments for and outcomes of premature and LBW infants. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe three multi-center neonatal databases. We conducted a literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar over the period 1990 to August 2014. Studies were included in our review if one of the databases was used as a primary source of data or comparison. Included studies were categorized by year of publication; study design employed, and research focus. A total of 343 studies published between 1991 and 2014 were included. Studies of premature and LBW infants using these databases have increased over time, and provide evidence for both neonatology and community-based pediatric practice. Research into treatment and outcomes of premature and LBW infants is expanding, partially due to the availability of large, multicenter databases. The consistency of clinical conditions and neonatal outcomes studied since 1990 demonstrates that there are dedicated research agendas and resources that allow for long-term, and potentially replicable, studies within this population.

  10. Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Kwan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2011-01-01

    A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng. PMID:23717084

  11. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  12. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  13. Recent trends in rehabilitation interventions for visual neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia following right hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kortte, Kathleen B; Hillis, Argye E

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the most recent findings regarding the rehabilitation interventions for the syndromes of visual neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia that occur following right hemisphere stroke. We review papers published in the past 4 years pertaining to therapeutic approaches for these two syndromes in order to identify the trends in the development of effective interventions. Overall, it appears well recognized that visual neglect syndromes and awareness syndromes frequently co-occur and both include complex, multifaceted impairments leading to significant difficulties in daily life functioning following stroke. Thus, the interventions for these syndromes must be multifaceted in order to address the complex interplay of cognitive–behavioral–emotional components. There appears to be a trend for using combination therapeutic interventions that address these components. PMID:21339836

  14. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students

  16. Trends and Tensions: Australian and International Research about Starting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper details and compares the discernible trends observed in a wide-ranging review of the recent starting school literature in Australia and beyond. More than half of the research reviewed considers children's readiness for school. This research is critiqued through a three-way view of readiness: child readiness, school readiness and support…

  17. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  18. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  19. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  20. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  1. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  2. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  3. The Use of Citation Counting to Identify Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Harry; Woodhead, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The analysis and application of manpower statistics to identify some long-term international research trends in economic entomology and pest conrol are described. Movements in research interests, particularly towards biological methods of control, correlations between these sectors, and the difficulties encountered in the construction of a…

  4. Trends and Challenges in Nigerian Extension Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gombe, Sani Yakubu; Bin Suandi, Turiman; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Omar, Zohara

    2016-01-01

    Research in extension education is a serious and challenging task facing Nigeria today because of new trends that keeps on emerging continuously. This paper seeks to examine some of the common research techniques used in extension education and describe their applicability and workability in helping people to help themselves. Most of the…

  5. The Use of Citation Counting to Identify Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Harry; Woodhead, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The analysis and application of manpower statistics to identify some long-term international research trends in economic entomology and pest conrol are described. Movements in research interests, particularly towards biological methods of control, correlations between these sectors, and the difficulties encountered in the construction of a…

  6. Trends and Features of Student Research Integration in Educational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinenko, Svetlana; Makarova, Elena; Andreassen, John-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This study examines trends and features of student research integration in educational program during international cooperation between Østfold University College in Norway and Southern Federal University in Russia. According to research and education approach the international project is aimed to use four education models, which linked student…

  7. A Trends Review of Geophysics Research in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinkard, M.; Maceira, M.; Arrowsmith, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Blom, P. S.; Ford, S. R.; Foxe, M. P.; MacCarthy, J.; Marcillo, O. E.; Merchant, B. J.; Orris, G. J.; Pasyanos, M.; Casey, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    As researchers strive to continuously expand our collective knowledge and capabilities, it is valuable to occasionally pause and observe the arcs of progress. Here we look over the body of research related to improving monitoring capabilities and highlight key trends in thought, approach, and execution. Trends are analyzed for four key research areas: source physics (how an earthquake or explosion transmits energy into seismic and infrasonic form, and how radionuclides are released), signal propagation (how seismic and infrasound waves, and radionuclides, propagate), sensors (how to improve sensing systems), and signal analysis (how to take the observations at sensors and obtain information about the source). In this work we discuss several significant trends, such as moving from 1D to 3D earth models, from pick-based methods to full waveform methods, and from separate analysis of sensor data to integrated analysis. For each trend we discuss the improvements enabled by this trend, key papers that advanced the science, and the benefits we expect this trend will yield in future years.

  8. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

  9. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  10. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  11. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended and…

  12. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  13. Explaining Recent Army and Navy Minority Recruiting Trends. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, the representation of blacks among high-quality Army recruits declined, while in the Navy, black representation remained stable; the representation of Hispanics among high-quality recruits in both the Army and Navy grew during this period. RAND researchers identified factors that explain these recruiting trends and found…

  14. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  15. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  16. Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…

  17. Trends Shaping Education 2013. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean for education that our societies are increasingly diverse? How is global economic power shifting towards new countries? In what ways are the skills required in the world of work changing? "Trends Shaping Education 2013" brings together international evidence to give policy makers, researchers, educational leaders, administrators…

  18. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  19. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  20. [Patient safety in clinical intervention research].

    PubMed

    Brekelmans, Cecile T M; Kenter, Marcel J H; Bouter, Lex M; Koëter, Gerard H

    2011-01-01

    In clinical intervention research, the monitoring of patient safety is essential. In December 2009, a symposium on the role of the different parties involved was organised. Research starts with a robust protocol with a section dealing with interim decision-making and procedures for reporting during the research. After the approval by an accredited Ethics Committee, the responsibility for the patient safety primarily lies with the investigators and sponsor (in the case of investigator-initiated research generally the Institutional Board of Directors). In addition, the appointment of a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) has become more frequent during recent years. This committee monitors the safety of patients by means of evaluation of interim results and advises the sponsor accordingly. The decision process concerning premature ending is a clinical decision, which should not exclusively be based on exceeding a statistical limit. The focus of the DSMC should be on safety issues; only in exceptional cases should a trial be discontinued because of clear efficacy, or the lack of it.

  1. Historical trend in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of aircraft design trends undertaken to determine the relationship between research, development, test and evaluation and aircraft mission capability, requirements and objectives. It is shown that while in some cases a performance objective was the primary research driver, research was the driver in the formulation of objectives in others. Among the topics discussed are: (1) speed considerations such as compressibility, propulsion and test techniques; (2) airframe considerations such as swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable-sweep planforms and mission commonality; (3) research aircraft; (4) the recent impact of computer-aided design; (5) Soviet aircraft development approaches and (6) a comparison of Soviet and U.S. military aircraft design trends. Attention is given to experimental and prototype aircraft programs which, although cancelled, anticipated significant subsequent developments.

  2. Designing Research Studies on Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence; Dawson, Geraldine; Guthrie, Donald; Lord, Catherine; Odom, Samuel; Rogers, Sally; Wagner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    To address methodological challenges in research on psychosocial interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a model was developed for systematically validating and disseminating interventions in a sequence of steps. First, initial efficacy studies are conducted to establish interventions as promising. Next, promising interventions are…

  3. Analyzing global trends of biomarker use in drug interventional clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Masuda, S; Kimura, H

    2012-04-01

    The trend of biomarker use in drug interventional clinical studies was analyzed using ClinicalTrials.gov to provide an overview of how biomarkers are used to streamline clinical studies and to examine regional differences. A total of 3,383 clinical study data was analyzed according to phase, region, sponsor, and therapeutic class. The number of clinical studies using biomarkers has been increasing constantly and is dependent on the number of Phase I and II studies. The majority of studies (58.5%) were sponsored by the United States, with the studies being conducted mainly in the sponsor's home region (80.3%). The use of biomarkers was prominent in the oncology area (37.1%). Although current data indicates some bias in the clinical use of biomarkers, it is expected that their use will increase in later phase studies or other therapeutic areas as biomarker development proceeds. In addition, limited regional use of biomarkers may lead to differences in biomarker use in drug development and in combination with political support may result in differences in competitiveness of drug development. Biomarkers would be a powerful tool against deteriorating research and development productivity when used more in appropriate clinical study conditions.

  4. Neuroscience nursing research: trend analysis from 1989 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Basone, Davide; Mestroni, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    This study extends an earlier investigation (DiIorio et al., 2004) regarding neuroscience studies published in four nursing journals over the period from 1989 to 2000. A literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2010 with the same search strategy performed by DiIorio from 1989 to 2000. A trend analysis comparing the articles published in the period of 2001-2008 with those published from 1993 to 2000 (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) was performed. From 1989 to 2010, a total of 607 articles were published, 2.2 articles per month. A significantly increased number of publications on neuroscience nursing research have emerged comparing 2001-2008 versus 1993-2000 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.22, 3.29]; p = .00). From 1989 to 2000, neurological problems were the predominant object of study (389 articles, 64.1%), followed by neurotrauma problems (156, 25.7%) and those neurosurgical problems (31, 5.1%). Moreover, a progressive reduction of studies focusing on neurological problems (OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.26, 0.68]; p = .00) has emerged comparing 2001-2008 versus 1993-2000. The setting chosen for the study from 1989 to 2000 was mainly hospitals (211, 34.8%) followed by long-term care (125, 20.6%) and the home environment (77, 12.7%). Over the years (2001- 2008 vs. 1993-2000), studies performed at the home level were lower (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.15, 0.47]; p = .00), whereas those carried out at the hospital level and at the long-term care level have increased. Research in neuroscience nursing has continued to grow in the last decade, involving more patients who are mainly women. In the coming years, quasiexperimental, experimental, or complex intervention designs, involving the various care settings and along the trajectories of illnesses of patients who have an acute phase but especially in a long-term phase, are needed.

  5. Nationwide Trends and Variations in Urological Surgical Interventions and Renal Outcome in Patients with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Lloyd, Jessica C; Wiener, John S; Routh, Jonathan C

    2016-04-01

    Bladder dysfunction in patients with spina bifida can lead to significant morbidity due to renal insufficiency. Indications for surgery vary among institutions and the impact is unclear. We examined trends and variations in urological interventions and chronic renal insufficiency in patients with spina bifida. We reviewed NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) for all patients with spina bifida treated from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological surgery and chronic renal insufficiency. We calculated the Spearman correlation coefficients between rates of spina bifida related bladder surgeries and rates of chronic renal insufficiency outcomes by state. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the associations between rates of spina bifida related surgery and chronic renal insufficiency across treatment years. We identified 427,616 spina bifida hospital admissions. Mean patient age was 26 years and 56% of patients were female. Of the admissions 35,249 (8%) were for chronic renal insufficiency and 11,078 (3%) were for surgery. During the study period chronic renal insufficiency rates doubled from 6% to 12% and surgery rates decreased from 2.0% to 1.8%. There was a moderately weak inverse association between surgery and chronic renal insufficiency rates with time (r = -0.3, p = 0.06) and by state (r = -0.3, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis higher rates of surgery were associated with the state in which the patient was treated (p <0.001), and with younger age (p <0.001) and hospital teaching status (p <0.001). In contrast, chronic renal insufficiency was not associated with spina bifida related surgery (p = 0.67). We observed a temporal and geographic trend toward decreasing urological surgery and increasing chronic renal insufficiency rates in spina bifida and a wide variation in urological surgical rates among states. Further study is needed to determine the factors behind these trends and variations in spina bifida management

  6. Leadership as a Health Research Policy Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Cochrane, Gavin; Manville, Catriona; Harte, Emma; Chataway, Joanna; Jones, Molly Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In early 2012, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) leadership programme was re-commissioned for a further three years following an evaluation by RAND Europe. During this new phase of the programme, we conducted a real-time evaluation, the aim of which was to allow for reflection on and adjustment of the programme on an on-going basis as events unfold. This approach also allowed for participants on the programme to contribute to and positively engage in the evaluation. The study aimed to understand the outputs and impacts from the programme, and to test the underlying assumptions behind the NIHR Leadership Programme as a science policy intervention. Evidence on outputs and impacts of the programme were collected around the motivations and expectations of participants, programme design and individual-, institutional- and system-level impacts. PMID:28083398

  7. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  8. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  9. Anesthesia Practice and Clinical Trends in Interventional Radiology: A European Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, Philip J.; Yap, Bernard; Mueller, Peter R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine current European practice in interventional radiology regarding nursing care, anesthesia, and clinical care trends.Methods: A survey was sent to 977 European interventional radiologists to assess the use of sedoanalgesia, nursing care, monitoring equipment, pre- and postprocedural care, and clinical trends in interventional radiology. Patterns of sedoanalgesia were recorded for both vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Responders rated their preferred level of sedoanalgesia for each procedure as follows: (a) awake/alert, (b) drowsy/arousable, (c) asleep/arousable, (d) deep sedation, and (e) general anesthesia. Sedoanalgesic drugs and patient care trends were also recorded. A comparison was performed with data derived from a similar survey of interventional practice in the United States.Results: Two hundred and forty-three of 977 radiologists responded (25%). The total number of procedures analyzed was 210,194. The majority (56%) of diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures were performed at the awake/alert level of sedation, 32% were performed at the drowsy/arousable level, and 12% at deeper levels of sedation. The majority of visceral interventional procedures were performed at the drowsy/arousable level of sedation (41%), 29% were performed at deeper levels of sedation, and 30% at the awake/alert level. In general, more sedoanalgesia is used in the United States. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported the use of a full-time radiology nurse, 67% used routine blood pressure/pulse oximetry monitoring, and 46% reported the presence of a dedicated recovery area. Forty-nine percent reported daily patient rounds, 30% had inpatient hospital beds, and 51% had day case beds.Conclusion: This survey shows clear differences in the use of sedation for vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Many, often complex, procedures are performed at the awake/alert level of sedation in Europe, whereas deeper levels of sedation are

  10. Investigating trends in acoustics research from 1970-1999.

    PubMed

    Viator, J A; Pestorius, F M

    2001-05-01

    Text data mining is a burgeoning field in which new information is extracted from existing text databases. Computational methods are used to compare relationships between database elements to yield new information about the existing data. Text data mining software was used to determine research trends in acoustics for the years 1970, 1980, 1990, and 1999. Trends were indicated by the number of published articles in the categories of acoustics using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) as the article source. Research was classified using a method based on the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS). Research was further subdivided into world regions, including North and South America, Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Australia/New Zealand. In order to gauge the use of JASA as an indicator of international acoustics research, three subjects, underwater sound, nonlinear acoustics, and bioacoustics, were further tracked in 1999, using all journals in the INSPEC database. Research trends indicated a shift in emphasis of certain areas, notably underwater sound, audition, and speech. JASA also showed steady growth, with increasing participation by non-US authors, from about 20% in 1970 to nearly 50% in 1999.

  11. Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by…

  12. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  13. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  14. Trends of triple negative breast cancer research (2007–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. Methods: TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA), and VOSviewer (Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands) software were used to analyze the trend of TNBC research. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Results: A total of 1695 papers were identified and were cited 34,078 times with a time limit of May 27, 2016. The United States accounted for 43.10% of the articles, 57.59% of the citations, and the highest H-index (64). China ranked second in total number of articles, but seventh in citation frequency (1998) and ninth in H-index (21). The journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment had the highest number of publications. The author, Narod SA, has published the most papers in this field (30). The keyword “receptor” was mentioned the most, 1489 times, and the word “myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1)” was the latest hot spot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth related to TNBC is expanding rapidly in recent years. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Newest progress of the TNBC research may be released by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment first. Narod SA, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, and Hortobagyi GN may be good candidates for collaborative research in this field. MCL-1 is an emerging topic that should be closely observed. PMID:27861384

  15. Trends in gambling studies research: quantifying, categorizing, and describing citations.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Stanton, Michael V; Nelson, Sarah E

    2006-12-01

    As opportunities to gamble have increased during the 20th century, so has gambling research. This study used new strategies, methods, and technology to examine citation trends and the growth of knowledge in the field of gambling studies. The sample included 2,246 citations that were published between 1903 and 2003. By using multiple keywords to classify each citation into distinct topic areas, this study yielded a more comprehensive analysis than was previously available. The results reveal that gambling-related research has grown at an exponential rate. The most prevalent topics explored within gambling studies citations have been pathology, risk-taking, decision-making and addiction. Between 1999 and 2003, studies addressing epidemiology, drug abuse, comorbidity and neuroscience have become increasingly prevalent. Based on these trends and their implications, this paper provides several recommendations for both future areas of inquiry within the field of gambling studies and better classification techniques for citations within all fields of psychology.

  16. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  17. The Research Status and Development Trend of Microbial Flocculant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao-jun, Jia; Jiang-mei, Yu

    Microbial flocculant is a kind of newly developed flocculant,For their biodegradability,high performance and harmless to environment,microbial flocculants has draw more and more attentions. This paper summarized a series of research and development on preparation of microbial flocculants. The factors that effect microbial flocculation and the optimization of the flocculation conditions were studied and discussed systematically. Also discussed the advantages and future trends of microbial flocculants in wastewater treatment.

  18. Bridging community intervention and mental health services research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kenneth; Miranda, Jeanne; Bruce, Martha L; Alegria, Margarita; Wallerstein, Nina

    2004-06-01

    This article explores the potential of community intervention perspectives for increasing the relevance, reach, and public health impact of mental health services research. The authors reviewed community intervention strategies, including public health and community development and empowerment interventions, and contrast community intervention with practice-based quality improvement and policy research. A model was proposed to integrate health services and community intervention research, building on the evidence-based strength of quality improvement and participatory methods of community intervention to produce complementary functions, such as linking community-based case finding and referral with practice-based quality improvement, enhanced by community-based social support for treatment adherence. The community intervention approach is a major paradigm for affecting public health or addressing health disparities. Despite challenges in implementation and evaluation, it represents a promising approach for extending the reach of mental health services interventions into diverse communities.

  19. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  20. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  1. Personality psychology: research trends for 1993-1995.

    PubMed

    Endler, N S; Speer, R L

    1998-10-01

    Articles published in five prominent personality journals for the three-year period 1993-1995 were reviewed in order to identify recent trends in personality research. Each article was assessed in terms of research methodology and content area. Research methodology has changed very little, the exceptions being a shift away from laboratory settings and a greater use of nonuniversity participants. Results for content demonstrate that over time certain topics emerge and fade from popularity. Current popular topics include traits, emotion/motivation, and health psychology. The general lack of advancement in methodology is discussed, and the current "hot topics" in content area are compared with those of the past. In addition, some comparisons are made between current personality research in North America versus research in Europe.

  2. Medical education: a particularly complex intervention to research.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of thinking about medical education as a complex intervention and to analyse medical education research to determine whether its collaborations and methodologies are becoming more like health services research. Research articles published in three journals over 2 years were analysed to determine the purpose of the research in relation to a framework for evaluating complex interventions, the degree of collaboration, and the methodology. Most studies aimed to develop theory or assess effectiveness and many categories of the complex interventions framework were not represented in the medical education research literature. Studies usually involved only one research site and were predominantly quantitative but not experimental or quasi-experimental. Whilst medical education research has not moved significantly in the direction of health services research over recent years, the complex interventions lens provided insights into why this might be so (namely the significant challenges associated with researching medical education). We recommend that medical education researchers work within a complex interventions framework and look to research fields with similar challenges (e.g. the study of chronic illness in a changing context) for ideas about theories, frameworks, methodologies and collaborations that can illuminate the field of medical education research.

  3. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  4. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  5. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  6. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  7. Recent trends and important developments in propolis research

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The newest developments in propolis pharmacological research are summarized. The problem regarding biological studies, caused by the chemical variability of propolis, is discussed. The most important trends and developments in recent propolis research are outlined: biological studies performed with chemically characterized samples, bioassay-guided studies of active principles and comparative biological studies of propolis of different origin and chemical composition. These types of studies are extremely valuable with respect to propolis standardization and practical applications in therapy. They will allow scientists to connect a particular chemical propolis type to a specific type of biological activity and formulate recommendations for practitioners. PMID:15841275

  8. National trends in lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions, and major amputations.

    PubMed

    Goodney, Philip P; Beck, Adam W; Nagle, Jan; Welch, H Gilbert; Zwolak, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    Advances in endovascular interventions have expanded the options available for the invasive treatment of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Whether endovascular interventions substitute for conventional bypass surgery or are simply additive has not been investigated, and their effect on amputation rates is unknown. We sought to analyze trends in lower extremity endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), lower extremity bypass surgery, and major amputation (above and below-knee) in Medicare beneficiaries between 1996 and 2006. We used 100% samples of Medicare Part B claims to calculate annual procedure rates of lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), and major amputation between 1996 and 2006. Using physician specialty identifiers, we also examined trends in the specialty performing the primary procedure. Between 1996 and 2006, the rate of major lower extremity amputation declined significantly (263 to 188 per 100,000; risk ratio [RR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-0.8). Endovascular interventions increased more than threefold (from 138 to 455 per 100,000; RR = 3.30; 95% CI: 2.9-3.7) while bypass surgery decreased by 42% (219 to 126 per 100,000; RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7). The increase in endovascular interventions consisted both of a growth in peripheral angioplasty (from 135 to 337 procedures per 100,000; RR = 2.49; 95% CI: 2.2-2.8) and the advent of percutaneous atherectomy (from 3 to 118 per 100,000; RR = 43.12; 95% CI: 34.8-52.0). While radiologists performed the majority of endovascular interventions in 1996, more than 80% were performed by cardiologists and vascular surgeons by 2006. Overall, the total number of all lower extremity vascular procedures almost doubled over the decade (from 357 to 581 per 100,000; RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.5-1.8). Endovascular interventions are now performed much more commonly than bypass surgery in the treatment of lower extremity PAD. These

  9. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  10. Establishing guidelines for executing and reporting Internet intervention research.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Judith; Klein, Britt; Barak, Azy; Carlbring, Per; Cuijpers, Pim; Lange, Alfred; Ritterband, Lee; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet interventions, guidelines for research, and evidence of effectiveness have been slower to follow. This article focuses on the quality standardization of research on Internet-delivered psychological and behavioural interventions. Although the science underpinning Internet interventions is just starting to be established, across research studies there are often conceptual and methodological difficulties. The authors argue that this situation is due to the lack of universally accepted operational guidelines and evaluation methods. Following a critical appraisal of existing codes of conduct and guidelines for Internet-assisted psychological and health interventions, the authors developed a framework of guidelines for Internet intervention research utilizing aspects of facet theory (Guttman & Greenbaum, 1998). The framework of facets, elements, and guidelines of best practice in reporting Internet intervention research was then sent to several leading researchers in the field for their comment and input, so that a consensus framework could be agreed on. The authors outline 12 key facets to be considered when evaluating and reporting Internet intervention studies. Each facet consists of a range of recommended elements, designed as the minimum features for reporting Internet intervention studies. The authors propose that this framework be utilized when designing and reporting Internet intervention research, so results across studies can be replicated, extended, compared, and contrasted with greater ease and clarity.

  11. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-06-08

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues, and to offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have been identified to develop administrative, environmental or personal engineering interventions to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as arbitrary sampling methods and unreliable instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. To bridge the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies.

  12. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Yang; CHAN, Albert Ping-chuen

    2017-01-01

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues, and to offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have been identified to develop administrative, environmental or personal engineering interventions to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as arbitrary sampling methods and unreliable instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. To bridge the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies. PMID:28111405

  13. Crisis Intervention: A Review of Outcome Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    Crisis intervention studies conducted in suicide prevention/crisis intervention programs, in psychiatric settings, and with surgical patients are critically evaluated, and the methodological shortcomings of studies in each of these settings are discussed. Available from: Order Department, American Psychological Association, Inc., 1200 Seventeenth…

  14. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  15. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of

  16. Structural Interventions: Concepts, Challenges and Opportunities for Research

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S. R.; Dworkin, S.; Mantell, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural interventions refer to public health interventions that promote health by altering the structural context within which health is produced and reproduced. They draw on concepts from multiple disciplines, including public health, psychiatry, and psychology, in which attention to interventions is common, and sociology and political economy, where structure is a familiar, if contested, concept. This has meant that even as discussions of structural interventions bring together researchers from various fields, they can get stalled in debates over definitions. In this paper, we seek to move these discussions forward by highlighting a number of critical issues raised by structural interventions, and the subsequent implications of these for research. PMID:16736355

  17. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiatives in California: notable trends, challenges, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Rawson, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    It is estimated that most substance users are not substance-dependent, yet they misuse alcohol and/or other drugs on a regular basis and are at risk in terms of health and further dependency. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is an intervention model that identifies at-risk substance users and then provides them a patient-centered intervention. A review of selected SBIRT initiatives in California revealed a number of positive trends: the involvement of healthcare settings in substance use prevention; an increase in the number of providers trained in substance use screening; greater use of standardized screening tools; indications of reduced substance use by individuals receiving SBIRT; and the establishment of statewide policy initiatives. Despite these positive trends, SBIRT projects continue to face challenges related to leadership support, staff resources, integration into ongoing protocols, screening, client retention, client confidentiality, and data collection. To assist projects to overcome these challenges and to ensure future adoption and sustainability of SBIRT, state and local authorities can benefit from (a) promoting SBIRT among healthcare leaders, (b) identifying and sharing successful SBIRT "models", (c) providing tailored trainings and ongoing technical assistance, (d) educating providers about patient confidentiality and reimbursement laws and regulations, and (e) creating benchmark measures and data collection protocols.

  18. Publication trends in Aeolian research: An analysis of the biblography of Aeolian research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Overall, results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. P...

  19. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a “paucity” of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s. PMID:22477630

  20. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, J W

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a "paucity" of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s.

  1. Participant Trends in the Geosciences Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, C. K.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Adams, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supports programs for undergraduate students to gain experience in research. In 2016, there were nearly 60 active Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) sites across the nation that provided research opportunities in Geosciences (GEO). At these REU sites, students carried out independent research projects and had the chance to present the information at national conferences. The participants often joined research groups that included other undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral scholars, and investigators. Between 2009 and 2016, there were over 26,000 applications to GEO REU sites and about 1,953 applicants were selected to participate. Data for GEO REU sites has been collected using two mechanisms, direct queries to the REU site managers (2009-2012, and 2016) and analysis of award progress reports (2014-2015). The information collected since 2009 has provided a temporal description of who is participating in the GEO REU sites (e.g. gender, demographics, academic level). The analysis of the trends in the REU sites has shown an increase of women participating in the research opportunities across all disciplines, to the point that in some sites there is need to increase the participation of men. The number of minority and underrepresented students has also increased. Throughout this period, the academic level of the participants in GEO REU sites has also changed; the number of students who have completed only the first or second year of college has increased. The trends in the data allow NSF to understand who is participating in the REUs and to incentivize the research community to engage students who will benefit from these experiences, but who are not currently participating.

  2. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping; Shen Liyin

    2011-04-15

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C and D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C and D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C and D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C and D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C and D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C and D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C and D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C and D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  3. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2011-04-01

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C&D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C&D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C&D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C&D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C&D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C&D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C&D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  4. Current trends in Internet- and cell phone-based HIV prevention and intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S

    2007-12-01

    As the reach of the Internet and cell phones increases, their use as health intervention and prevention tools has been increasingly researched. To identify recent advances in technology-based HIV prevention and intervention research, we conducted a literature search in the Spring of 2007. Only a handful of articles have been published in the last year describing evaluations of technology-based HIV programs. Nonetheless, many programs have recently been funded and are being developed or imminently evaluated. Results to date suggest the Internet and cell phones are feasible technologies to deliver HIV prevention and intervention programs for some target populations. Opportunities for future research are identified, including the development of programs for populations other than men who have sex with men who also are at risk for HIV (eg, adolescents, elderly), the integration of advances from other fields, examination of the potential for using text messaging to affect HIV behavior change, and applications of Internet-based programs in developing countries.

  5. Aircraft research and development trends in the US and USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development related to aircraft has shown significant progress in both the U.S. and the USSR. In some cases, the indications are that technological advances have resulted in new aircraft concepts and, in other cases, there are indications of particular national needs or objectives that have driven the required research and development to meet the need. The progression of aircraft development tends to reflect factors other than technology such as the political atmosphere, the world environment, and other contending national objectives. The trends in aircraft research and development in the U.S. and USSR will be traced from the early 1900's and, in a time-frame manner, will be related to other influencing factors.

  6. Aging in france: population trends, policy issues, and research institutions.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Viriot Durandal, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology research, and, finally, points to several emerging issues about aging. In France, these issues include active and healthy aging, the improvement of knowledge on specific vulnerable segments of the elderly population, and the adaptation of the urban landscape and infrastructure to an aging population. At the broadest level, one of the key points formulated in this article is that in France, aging research is dominated by the state, yet it is scattered and compartmentalized, posing a crucial challenge in an era dominated by European and other international networks and coordination efforts in aging policy and knowledge.

  7. Recent trends in energy research and development expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of this report is to analyze recent trends in industrial research and development (R and D) spending. Emphasis is on energy and energy conservation R and D expenditures. This objective was achieved by performing two tasks. The first task was to collect and assemble data on industrial R and D expenditures in the US from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Office of Industrial Studies. The second task was to graphically and numerically analyze recent trends in total, energy-related, and energy conservation R and D expenditures. Total R and D and energy R and D expenditures for the period 1975 to 1982 were analyzed for each of nine industries: chemicals, petroleum, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, aircraft and missiles, professional and scientific instruments, other manufacturing, nonmanufacturing. Energy conservation R and D expenditures for this period were analyzed for each of six industries: chemicals, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, other manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing. In addition, for all three types of R and D, trends in expenditures for all industries combined were analyzed.

  8. Epigenetic Research in Cancer Epidemiology: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L.; Schully, Sheri D.; Nelson, Stefanie; Su, L. Joseph; Ross, Sharon; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI’s grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  9. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  10. Intervention Adherence for Research and Practice: Necessity or Triage Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; Lentz, F. Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Intervention integrity or adherence describes qualities of carrying out an intervention plan and in research is fundamentally linked to experimental validity questions addressed by measurement of independent and dependent variables. Integrity has been well described in conceptual writing but has been a continuing thorny subject in research and…

  11. Intervention Adherence for Research and Practice: Necessity or Triage Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; Lentz, F. Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Intervention integrity or adherence describes qualities of carrying out an intervention plan and in research is fundamentally linked to experimental validity questions addressed by measurement of independent and dependent variables. Integrity has been well described in conceptual writing but has been a continuing thorny subject in research and…

  12. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  13. Intervention Research on School Bullying in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…

  14. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  15. Intervention Research on School Bullying in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…

  16. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results.

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Senechal, V A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a 2-year study describe tobacco use trends, perceptions, and prevention effects for 1,281 5th and 6th graders enrolled in 12 randomly selected Washington State elementary schools. Youths were pretested, then randomly divided by school into skills, discussion, and control groups. Preventive intervention curriculums for the skills and discussion groups included age-relevant information on smoked and smokeless tobacco use, peer testimonials, debates, games, and homework. Youths in the skills group also learned communication and problem-solving methods for handling difficult situations around tobacco use. Following intervention, youths were posttested, then retested semiannually for 2 years. During the 2-year study, three-quarters of all smokers and nonusers and half of all smokeless tobacco users maintained their statuses. Only 10 percent of all smokers and 3 percent of all smokeless users quit their habits. One in six reported new tobacco use, one-third of smokers began using smokeless tobacco, and two-thirds of all smokeless users began smoking during the study. Most youths at final measurement perceived smokeless tobacco as less of a health risk than smoking. Nearly one in two of all smokeless users intended to smoke, and two-thirds were actually smoking at 24-month followup. Both smoked and smokeless tobacco use rates increased in all groups, and youths in the skills intervention group consistently showed the lowest rates relative to the other groups. These findings demonstrate the potential of skills intervention methods for lowering tobacco use rates among adolescents. PMID:3090603

  17. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors.

  18. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research. Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed. A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML. There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article. PMID:27149452

  19. Research Trends in Non Point Source during 1975-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanhua, Zhuang; Thuminh, Nguyen; Beibei, Niu; ei, Shao; Song, Hong

    According to the samples of 2924 articles about non point source of SCI and SSCI databases from 1975 to 2010, this study analysed the articles in the growth trend of article outputs, subject categories and journals, international collaborations, geographic distribution and scientific research issues by using bibliometric analysis. The results showed that non point source research steadily increased over the past 35 years and the annual number of articles published in 2010 was 79 times of that in 1975. Non point source was involved into 67 kinds of subjects and appeared in 451 journals. The main study area was concentrated in North America and Europe, following by East Asia. There were 79 countries/territories participated in non point source research, and USA was the largest contributor in non point source research and had a central position in collaboration networks. A keyword analysis indicated that water quality, non point pollutions, and watershed were the hottest issues of non point source research; "GIS, "watershed management", "modeling", "simulation", "monitoring", and "remote sensing" were the most popular research methods; and "agriculture", "land use", "runoff", and "pollution" were the leading causes of non point pollution.

  20. Research trends of stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasa, O.

    1993-10-01

    In recent years, biological functions have been increasingly investigated on the molecular and/or atomic level. Synthesis and assemblies of various functional polymers have also been researched. In particular, research of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials having the function and efficiency of a biological system has been of interest. The materials are still in the embryonic period, but there are great expectations surrounding their progress. In this article, the research trends in Japan of stimuli-responsive polymer gel are summarized from the viewpoint of synthesis, fabrication, and applications. On synthesis, researches have been summarized on stimuli including light, heat or temperature, pH or ion, electric field, and chemicals. On fabrication, researches have been summarized on two types of fabrication methods: chemical methods, such as grafting and hybridization; and physical methods, such as blend, microgel, film, fiber and composite. On industrial applications, many attempts have been made in recent years concerning the released control of chemicals, especially drug delivery systems. Controls of adsorption, permeation, and enzyme reaction using stimuli-responsive polymer gels have also been attempted in the chemical engineering and bioengineering fields. On applications to actuators, the construction of some micro-actuating systems has been attempted. The stimuli-responsive polymer gels (chemomechanical gels) are very promising, both in the field of fundamental study and in the field of applied research.

  1. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  2. Trends of spinal tuberculosis research (1994–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Wang, Qijin; Zhu, Rongbo; Yang, Changwei; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming; Zhai, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Spinal tuberculosis is the most common form of skeletal tuberculosis. However, there were limited data to evaluate the trend of spinal tuberculosis research. This study aims to investigate the trend of spinal tuberculosis research and compare the contribution of research from different countries and authors. Methods: Spinal tuberculosis-related publications from 1994 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the search results for number of publications, cited frequency, H-index, and country contributions. Results: A total of 1558 papers were identified and were cited 16,152 times as of January 25, 2016. The United States accounted for 15.1% of the articles, 22.3% of the citations, and the highest H-index (33). China ranked third in total number of articles, fifth in citation frequency (815), and ranked seventh in H-index (13). The journal Spine (IF 2.297) had the highest number of publications. The author Jain A.K. has published the most papers in this field (20). The article titled “Tuberculosis of the spine: Controversies and a new challenge” was the most popular article and cited a total of 1138 times. The keyword “disease” was mentioned the most for 118 times and the word “bone fusion” was the latest hotspot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth in spinal tuberculosis is slowly expanding. Although publications from China are increasing, the quality of the articles still requires improvements. Meanwhile, the United States continues to be the largest contributor in the field of spinal tuberculosis. According to our bibliometric study, bone fusion may be an emerging topic within spinal tuberculosis research and is something that should be closely observed. PMID:27661044

  3. Intervention Development and Cultural Adaptation Research With Diverse Families

    PubMed Central

    BERNAL, GUILLERMO

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. The need for research on intervention development and on cultural adaptation of interventions is presented, followed by a discussion of frameworks on treatment development. Seven articles included in this special issue serve as examples of the stages of treatment and intervention development, and of the procedures employed in the cultural adaptation with diverse families. An overview of the seven articles is provided to illustrate the treatment development process and the use of pluralistic research methods. We conclude with a call to the field for creative and innovative intervention development research with diverse families to contribute to the body of evidence-based practice with these populations. PMID:16768015

  4. Trends in outcome and costs of coronary intervention in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Mahoney, E M; Ghazzal, Z M; King, S B; Culler, S D; Morris, D C; Douglas, J S

    2001-09-01

    Our objective was to examine trends in outcome and cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1990 and 1999. PCI has become the most common form of myocardial revascularization in recent years, rivaling the more established coronary artery bypass surgery. There has been increasing interest in improving outcome of PCI while also seeking to minimize cost. A total of 21,755 patients undergoing PCI were evaluated. Clinical data were gathered from the Emory Cardiovascular Database and financial data from the UB92 formulation of the hospital bill. Charges were reduced to cost using departmental cost-to-charge ratios. Costs were inflated to 1999 dollars using medical care inflation rates. Mortality varied without a significant trend from 0.63% to 0.44% (p = 0.64). The Q-wave myocardial infarction rate decreased from 0.68% to 0.40% (p = 0.0003). Emergent coronary surgery decreased from 3.50% to 1.25% (p <0.0001). Mean hospital inflation-adjusted cost decreased from $10,478 to $8,367 (p <0.0001). Length of stay after the procedure decreased from 2.8 to 1.8 days (p <0.0001). Outcome of PCI continues to improve, with a decrease in coronary surgery and Q-wave myocardial infarction but with no significant change in mortality. This was accomplished while also decreasing costs and length of stay. Whether these favorable trends will continue remains to be seen.

  5. Trends in nursing ethics research: Mapping the literature production.

    PubMed

    Blažun Vošner, Helena; Železnik, Danica; Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Janez; Završnik, Jernej

    2016-06-29

    There have been a number of debates in the field of nursing ethics. Researchers have focused on various aspects of nursing ethics, such as professional ethics, professional, nursing and ethical values. Within this research, a variety of literature reviews have been conducted, but to the best of our knowledge, bibliometric mapping has not yet been used. This article aims to analyse the production of literature within nursing ethics research. In order to examine publishing patterns, we focused on publishing dynamics, prolific research entities and the most-cited articles. We additionally visualised the content of the literature using a novel mixed-method approach, combining bibliometric analysis and mapping with thematic analysis. In our study, ethical review was not required. A total of 1416 information sources were found in the Scopus database. Overall, literature production has increased; however, in recent years, the quantity of published material has begun to decrease. The most prolific countries are the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, and the most prolific source titles are Nursing Ethics, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Nursing Times. Lately, research in the field of nursing ethics has been focused more on life care (providing for the basic needs of older residents), moral distress and community nursing. The dynamics of research literature production showed an exponential rise in the number of published information sources - a rise which started in the period between 1974 and 1998. Since that period, the trend has stabilised, which might indicate that nursing ethics research is starting a transition to a mature phase. The innovative use of bibliometric analysis and mapping, together with thematic analysis, is a useful tool for analysis of research production in the field of nursing ethics. The results presented can be an excellent starting point for literature reviews and more exhaustive data, information and knowledge seeking. © The Author

  6. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  7. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  8. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  9. Peripheral arterial interventions: trends in market share and outcomes by specialty, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Csikesz, Nicholas; Schanzer, Andres; Messina, Louis M

    2009-11-01

    Vascular surgeons (VS), interventional cardiologists (IC), and interventional radiologists (IR) perform peripheral arterial interventions (PAI). In this study, we reviewed market share trends and compared outcomes for each specialty using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patient discharges for PAI (1998-2005) were identified based on ICD9-CM procedure codes. The provider's specialty was identified by a specialty-specific algorithm and analyzed using SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Market share trends and distribution of cases at teaching versus non-teaching hospitals were evaluated. Primary outcome measures were in-hospital mortality and iatrogenic arterial injuries (IAI). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of post-procedure morbidity and mortality. The number of cases identified was 23,825. From 1998 to 2005, IR's market share decreased six-fold (1998: 33% to 2005: 5.6%) whereas VS market share increased from 27% to 43% and IC from 10% to 29% (P < .05). A similar but more pronounced trend was observed at teaching hospitals. In-hospital mortality rate was highest for IR (2.1 IR% vs 1.2% VS and 0.6% IC; P < .001). Post-procedure IAI was highest in the IC group (1.3% vs IR 0.9% and 0.5% VS; P < .05). Compared with VS, the mortality rate was 1.62 times higher for IR patients (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.24) and IAI was 2.44 times higher for IC (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.63-3.66) and 1.75 times higher for IR (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.08-2.81) patients. IR market share of PAI has precipitously declined while those of VS and IC have increased significantly. Vascular surgeons had the lowest overall morbidity and mortality of all groups. Increase in the number of endovascularly-trained VS with better access to fluoroscopy units may further increase VS's market share.

  10. Research Priorities for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that investments in comprehensive and coordinated early intervention services will generate long-term benefits for children and families. Additional research is needed to continue to improve all aspects of service delivery in early intervention and early childhood special education, with a particular focus on conditions…

  11. Digital reconstructions of neuronal morphology: three decades of research trends.

    PubMed

    Halavi, Maryam; Hamilton, Kelly A; Parekh, Ruchi; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2012-01-01

    The importance of neuronal morphology has been recognized from the early days of neuroscience. Elucidating the functional roles of axonal and dendritic arbors in synaptic integration, signal transmission, network connectivity, and circuit dynamics requires quantitative analyses of digital three-dimensional reconstructions. We extensively searched the scientific literature for all original reports describing reconstructions of neuronal morphology since the advent of this technique three decades ago. From almost 50,000 titles, 30,000 abstracts, and more than 10,000 full-text articles, we identified 902 publications describing ∼44,000 digital reconstructions. Reviewing the growth of this field exposed general research trends on specific animal species, brain regions, neuron types, and experimental approaches. The entire bibliography, annotated with relevant metadata and (wherever available) direct links to the underlying digital data, is accessible at NeuroMorpho.Org.

  12. Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant

  13. Trends in animal use at US research facilities.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Justin; Chandna, Alka; Roe, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Minimising the use of animals in experiments is universally recognised by scientists, governments and advocates as an ethical cornerstone of research. Yet, despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not translate to humans, and the development of new research technologies, a number of countries have reported increased animal use in recent years. In the USA--one of the world's largest users of animals in experiments--a lack of published data on the species most commonly used in laboratories (eg, mice, rats and fish) has prevented such assessments. The current study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the use of all vertebrate animals by the top institutional recipients of National Institutes of Health research funds over a 15-year period. These data show a statistically significant 72.7% increase in the use of animals at these US facilities during this time period-driven primarily by increases in the use of mice. Our results highlight a need for greater efforts to reduce animal use. We discuss technical, institutional, sociological and psychological explanations for this trend. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. What Lies Within: Superscripting References to Reveal Research Trends.

    PubMed

    Anicich, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    Interpreting scholarly contributions solely on the basis of the number, and not nature, of citations is inherently flawed because contradictory as well as confirmatory findings feed into the same metric, capturing popularity at the expense of precision. I propose a citation and indexing procedure that would conveniently integrate information about research trends while imposing minimal burden on the producers and consumers of research. Under the proposed system, citations appearing in the reference list of research reports would be superscripted with letters corresponding to one of the following six categories: references to findings that are Consistent with the current findings, are Replicated by the current findings, are Inconsistent with the current findings, Failed to be replicated by the current findings, were used to build Theory, or were used to cite Methodologies. I explain how the resulting CRIF-TM data could be summarized and perpetually updated by an online indexing service. I provide an example to demonstrate how these superscripts could be conveniently and unobtrusively presented in the reference list of forthcoming articles. Finally, I examine the anticipated benefits, limitations, and implementation challenges of the proposed citation and indexing procedure.

  15. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  16. Stress and Reading Difficulties: Research, Assessment, Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Lance M.; McMillan, Merna M.

    Focusing on the personality of the reading disabled child, this booklet is designed to encourage researchers to move past the circular debate concerning student reading difficulties and to help teachers improve the reading performance of students with disabling stress reactions to reading. The first section examines research related to emotional…

  17. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  18. Stress and Reading Difficulties: Research, Assessment, Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Lance M.; McMillan, Merna M.

    Focusing on the personality of the reading disabled child, this booklet is designed to encourage researchers to move past the circular debate concerning student reading difficulties and to help teachers improve the reading performance of students with disabling stress reactions to reading. The first section examines research related to emotional…

  19. Storytelling in Community Intervention Research: Lessons Learned From the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    LeBron, Alana M. W.; Schulz, Amy J.; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socio economic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. Objectives To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. Methods We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. Lessons Learned After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. Conclusions A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities. PMID:25727980

  20. Storytelling in community intervention research: lessons learned from the walk your heart to health intervention.

    PubMed

    LeBron, Alana M; Schulz, Amy J; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities.

  1. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  2. [See the strabismus and amblyopia research development trend from the twelfth World Congress of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kanxing; Kang, Xiaoli; Liu, Hu; Wei, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The International strabismus association conference has a history of fifty years until now. It's the most influential academic communication forum for the worldwide doctors and related scientists or technical carers in strabismus and amblyopia area. The conference gathered the top-level experts. The latest clinical/research achievements of strabismus, amblyopia in the field of binocular vision and ocular motility have been showed. The breakthroughs in the etiology study of incomitant strabismus have been and are being transformed into new therapeutic concepts and techniques. Re-adjust the competition between dominant and amblyopic eye using binocular stimulation methods may overcome the existing defects of monocular occlusion therapy, expand new interventional methods to treat amblyopia, and represent the future trends of amblyopia therapy. In this paper, we will introduce the main contents of the XII ISA meeting and spread knowledge of strabismus/amblyopia promoting directions in order to provide reference ideas for the clinicians and research colleagues in this field.

  3. Multilevel Intervention Research: Lessons Learned and Pathways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    2012-01-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  4. Regional overview of maternal and child malnutrition: trends, interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Djazayery, A

    2004-11-01

    The proportions of underweight, wasted, and stunted children, as well as the infant and under-5 mortality rates, have all exhibited downward trends in the Region over the past 2 decades. This is in part attributable to maternal and child nutrition intervention programmes, especially those in which women were actively involved. Programmes which support and promote breastfeeding, such as the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, have also contributed to this trend, although the number of baby friendly hospitals varies considerably between countries. Available information also shows that anemia is quite common among women, many of whom also have a low weight and stature and seem to suffer from osteoporosis. In several countries of the Region a number of micronutrient deficiency control programmes are in progress, such as iron supplementation for pregnant women, fortification of flour and iodization of salt. Iodine deficiency disorders are under control in 2 countries of the Region and legislation for salt iodization is in place in 17 countries. Prevalence of severe malnutrition in children is much lower than that of milder levels, thus, promotion of the nutrition status of mildly to moderately malnourished children could lead to a sizeable reduction in child mortality.

  5. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-15

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  6. Current Trends and Research Challenges Regarding "Preparation for Oxidative Stress".

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel C; Oliveira, Marcus F; Liz-Guimarães, Lara; Diniz-Rojas, Nilda; Campos, Élida G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Survival under stress, such as exposure to hypoxia, anoxia, freezing, dehydration, air exposure of water breathing organisms, and estivation, is commonly associated to enhanced endogenous antioxidants, a phenomenon coined "preparation for oxidative stress" (POS). The regulation of free radical metabolism seems to be crucial under these selective pressures, since this response is widespread among animals. A hypothesis of how POS works at the molecular level was recently proposed and relies on two main processes: increased reactive species production under hypoxia, and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and signaling pathways, increasing the expression of antioxidants. The present paper brings together the current knowledge on POS and considers its future directions. Data indicate the presence of POS in 83 animal species (71.6% among investigated species), distributed in eight animal phyla. Three main research challenges on POS are presented: (i) to identify the molecular mechanism(s) that mediate/induce POS, (ii) to identify the evolutionary origins of POS in animals, and (iii) to determine the presence of POS in natural environments. We firstly discuss the need of evidence for increased RS production in hypoxic conditions that underlie the POS response. Secondly, we discuss the phylogenetic origins of POS back 700 million years, by identifying POS-positive responses in cnidarians. Finally, we present the first reports of the POS adaptation strategy in the wild. The investigation of these research trends and challenges may prove useful to understand the evolution of animal redox adaptations and how they adapt to increasing stressful environments on Earth.

  7. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  8. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  9. In search of yoga: Research trends in a western medical database.

    PubMed

    McCall, Marcy C

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of yoga practice as a preventative and treatment therapy for health outcomes in the western hemisphere is increasing rapidly. As the commercial success of yoga burgeons in popular culture, it is important to investigate the trends of yoga as a therapeutic intervention in academic literature. The free-access search engine, PubMed is a preeminent resource to identify health-related research articles published for academics, health practitioners and others. To report the recent yoga-related publications in the western healthcare context with particular interest in the subject and type of yoga titles. A bibliometric analysis to describe the annual trends in publication on PubMed from January 1950 to December 2012. The number of yoga-related titles included in the PubMed database is limited until a marked increase 2000 and steady surge since 2007. Bibliometric analysis indicates that more than 200 new titles are added per annum since 2011. Systematic reviews and yoga trials are increasing exponentially, indicating a potential increase in the quality of evidence. Titles including pain management, stress or anxiety, depression and cancer conditions are highly correlated with yoga and healthcare research. The prevalence of yoga research in western healthcare is increasing. The marked increase in volume indicates the need for more systematic analysis of the literature in terms of quality and results.

  10. AAC Interventions for Autism: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Debora R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six studies from 1980 to 2007 involving the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by individuals with autism were reviewed. The majority of the studies used single-subject research designs and emphasized language production skills. Many investigations were held in artificial language learning settings, and a few involved…

  11. Temporal Trends in and Factors Associated With Bleeding Complications Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Subherwal, Sumeet; Peterson, Eric D.; Dai, David; Thomas, Laine; Messenger, John C.; Xian, Ying; Brindis, Ralph G.; Feldman, Dmitriy N.; Senter, Shaun; Klein, Lloyd W.; Marso, Steven P.; Roe, Matthew T.; Rao, Sunil V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends in post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) bleeding among patients with elective PCI, unstable angina (UA)/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background The impact of bleeding avoidance strategies on post-PCI bleeding rates over time is unknown. Methods Using the CathPCI Registry, we examined temporal trends in post-PCI bleeding from 2005 to 2009 among patients with elective PCI (n = 599,524), UA/NSTEMI (n = 836,103), and STEMI (n = 267,632). We quantified the linear time trend in bleeding using 3 sequential logistic regression models: 1) clinical factors; 2) clinical + vascular access strategies (femoral vs. radial, use of closure devices); and 3) clinical, vascular strategies + antithrombotic treatments (anticoagulant ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor [GPI]). Changes in the odds ratio for time trend in bleeding were compared using bootstrapping and converted to risk ratio. Results An approximate 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding was seen (elective PCI: 1.4% to 1.1%; UA/NSTEMI: 2.3% to 1.8; STEMI: 4.9% to 4.5%). Radial approach remained low (<3%), and closure device use increased marginally from 44% to 49%. Bivalirudin use increased (17% to 30%), whereas any heparin + GPI decreased (41% to 28%). There was a significant 6% to 8% per year reduction in annual bleeding risk in UA/NSTEMI and elective PCI, but not in STEMI. Antithrombotic strategies were associated with roughly half of the reduction in annual bleeding risk: change in risk ratio from 7.5% to 4% for elective PCI, and 5.7% to 2.8% for UA/NSTEMI (both p <0.001). Conclusions The nearly 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding over time was largely due to temporal changes in antithrombotic strategies. Further reductions in bleeding complications may be possible as bleeding avoidance strategies evolve, especially in STEMI. PMID:22595404

  12. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990’s by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research. PMID:19794815

  13. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  14. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990's by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research.

  15. The health information national trends survey: research from the baseline.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Moser, Richard P; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Kreps, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    The decades surrounding the turn of the millennium will be remembered as a time of extraordinary opportunity in cancer communication. In 1990, the number of age-adjusted deaths due to cancer in the U.S. population began a slow steady decline after a century of disparaging increase. Reasons for this decline have been attributed to long-awaited successes in primary prevention, especially related to tobacco, and early detection for cervical, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers, as well as advances in treatment. This was also a time of unparalleled change in the cancer communication environment. Scientific health discoveries escalated with the completion of the Human Genome project in 2003, and penetration of the Internet made health information available directly to consumers. To seize the opportunity afforded by these changes, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Fielded for the first time in 2003, the HINTS is a nationally representative, general population survey of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States 18 years and older. This supplement contains a compilation of original research conducted using the data generated by the first administration of the HINTS telephone interviews. Covering topics in cancer knowledge, cancer cognition, risk perception, and information seeking, the articles represent an interdisciplinary view of cancer communication at the turn of the millennium and offer insight into the road ahead.

  16. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  17. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  18. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  19. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, 1995-1999. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta Coll., San Luis Obispo, CA. Matriculation and Research Services.

    This report contains 22 tables and 25 figures showing student characteristics and enrollment trends from 1995 to 1999 for Cuesta College. Section 1 presents five-year student characteristics and enrollment trends; Section 2 outlines enrollment by Cuesta College educational region, 1998-99. Both sections contain data on enrollment status, course…

  20. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  1. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Review: Bridging research and practice: relational interventions for maltreated children

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background Research has consistently demonstrated the deleterious consequences of child maltreatment, not only during childhood but also across the life course. In particular, maltreatment negatively affects child attachment, with high percentages of maltreated children developing insecure or disorganized attachments with their primary caregiver. Therefore, interventions informed by attachment theory are important to prevent enduring relational difficulties. Scope One such intervention, child–parent psychotherapy, has been shown to be efficacious in a number of randomized controlled trials. This article provides an overview of the evidence base for this intervention and the translation of this research into practice, particularly in community settings. Conclusion Increasingly, it is imperative that such evidence-based models of intervention be translated into community settings so that the most vulnerable children and families can benefit from them. PMID:23066350

  3. Temporal trend, geographic distribution, and publication quality in asbestos research.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Leoncini, Giacomo; Ratto, Giovanni Battista; Neri, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a well-known cause of cancer and respiratory diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific production in asbestos research evaluating temporal trend, geographic distribution, impact factor (IF) of published literature, and taking into account socioeconomic variables. The PubMed database was searched starting from 1970. Publication numbers and IF were evaluated as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). Six thousand nine hundred seven articles related to asbestos were retrieved. Publications grew steeply in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1980s, decreased in the 1990s, and then increased again. Mesothelioma, lung neoplasms, and occupational diseases are the most commonly used keywords. In the period of 1988-2011, 4220 citations were retrieved, 3187 of whom had an impact factor. The US, Italy, and the UK were the most productive countries. European countries published about 20 % more asbestos-related articles than the US, although the latter reached a higher mean IF, ranking second after Australia. When the national scientific production (sum of IF) was compared taking into account socioeconomic variables, Australia and Scandinavian countries performed very well, opposite to all main asbestos producers like Russia, China, and Brazil (except for Canada). The American Journal of Industrial Medicine and the Italian La Medicina del Lavoro published the highest numbers of articles. This study provides the first bibliometric analysis of scientific production in asbestos research. Interest appears to be higher in selected countries, with strong national features, and is growing again in the new millennium.

  4. Trends in Radiation Dosimetry: preliminary overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from 2011-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.

    2017-01-01

    The themes and trends of the radiation dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for the period from 2011 to 2015. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualization tool to generate cluster maps of radiation dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics.

  5. Methodological Issues in Research on Web-Based Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G; Seeley, John R

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based behavioral intervention research is rapidly growing. Purpose We review methodological issues shared across Web-based intervention research to help inform future research in this area. Methods We examine measures and their interpretation using exemplar studies and our research. Results We report on research designs used to evaluate Web-based interventions and recommend newer, blended designs. We review and critique methodological issues associated with recruitment, engagement, and social validity. Conclusions We suggest that there is value to viewing this burgeoning realm of research from the broader context of behavior change research. We conclude that many studies use blended research designs, that innovative mantling designs such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy and Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial methods hold considerable promise and should be used more widely, and that Web-based controls should be used instead of usual care or no-treatment controls in public health research. We recommend topics for future research that address participant recruitment, engagement, and social validity. PMID:19806416

  6. Decade-long trends in the timeliness of receipt of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Yang; Gore, Joel M; Lapane, Kate L; Yarzebski, Jorge; Person, Sharina D; Kiefe, Catarina I; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine decade-long trends (2001-2011) in, and factors associated with, door-to-balloon time within 90 minutes of hospital presentation among patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who received a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI who received a primary PCI at two major PCI-capable medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011 comprised the study population (n=629). Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes after emergency department (ED) arrival. The average age of this patient population was 61.9 years; 30.5% were women, and 91.7% were White. During the years under study, 50.9% of patients received a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival; this proportion increased from 2001/2003 (17.2%) to 2009/2011 (70.5%) (P<0.001). Having previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery, arriving at the ED by car/walk-in and during off-hours were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival. The likelihood of receiving a timely primary PCI in residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI at the major teaching/community medical centers increased dramatically during the years under study. Several groups were identified for purposes of heightened surveillance and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of failing to receive a timely primary PCI among patients acutely diagnosed with STEMI.

  7. Decade-long trends in the timeliness of receipt of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Yang; Gore, Joel M; Lapane, Kate L; Yarzebski, Jorge; Person, Sharina D; Kiefe, Catarina I; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine decade-long trends (2001–2011) in, and factors associated with, door-to-balloon time within 90 minutes of hospital presentation among patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who received a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI who received a primary PCI at two major PCI-capable medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011 comprised the study population (n=629). Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes after emergency department (ED) arrival. Results The average age of this patient population was 61.9 years; 30.5% were women, and 91.7% were White. During the years under study, 50.9% of patients received a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival; this proportion increased from 2001/2003 (17.2%) to 2009/2011 (70.5%) (P<0.001). Having previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery, arriving at the ED by car/walk-in and during off-hours were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival. Conclusion The likelihood of receiving a timely primary PCI in residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI at the major teaching/community medical centers increased dramatically during the years under study. Several groups were identified for purposes of heightened surveillance and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of failing to receive a timely primary PCI among patients acutely diagnosed with STEMI. PMID:27350759

  8. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research.

    PubMed

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  9. Understanding Systems and Rhythms for Minority Recruitment in Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Hines-Martin, Vicki; Speck, Barbara J.; Stetson, Barbara; Looney, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe one approach for recruitment and retention of minority individuals in intervention research using a systematic environmental perspective based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems (BES) model and the construct of temporality. An exemplar in a physical activity intervention study with low-income and primarily African American women is presented. The exemplar illustrates application of BES and temporality to enhance recruitment and retention in research focused on understanding and accommodating environmental influences. . Using this theory based approach resulted in successful recruitment and a high level of participant retention. PMID:19885838

  10. Intervention Research and Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.

    2003-01-01

    Getting research-based instructional practices into the hands of professionals who teach students with learning disabilities is one of the most significant challenges for educators. This paper describes some of the major factors accounting for the gaps that exist between the special education research and classroom practice and presents four major…

  11. Trends and Recent Estimates: Sexual Activity among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Cottingham, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenage sexual activity. In this brief, the authors provide trends through 2002 on multiple indicators of sexual experience and activity for males and females, members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. These new…

  12. A personal health information toolkit for health intervention research.

    PubMed

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Eckhoff, Randall; Weger, Stacey; Weeks, Adam; Brown, Janice; Bryant, Stephanie; Bakalov, Vesselina; Zhang, Yuying; Lyden, Jennifer; Spira, James

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of mobile health (mHealth) apps, there is a growing demand for better tools for developing and evaluating mobile health interventions. Recently we developed the Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT), a software framework which eases app implementation and facilitates scientific evaluation. PHIT integrates self-report and physiological sensor instruments, evidence-based advisor logic, and self-help interventions such as meditation, health education, and cognitive behavior change. PHIT can be used to facilitate research, interventions for chronic diseases, risky behaviors, sleep, medication adherence, environmental monitoring, momentary data collection health screening, and clinical decision support. In a series of usability evaluations, participants reported an overall usability score of 4.5 on a 1-5 Likert scale and an 85 score on the System Usability Scale, indicating a high percentile rank of 95%.

  13. Dementia Caregiver Intervention Research: In Search of Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; O’Brien, Alison; Czaja, Sara; Ory, Marcia; Norris, Rachel; Martire, Lynn M.; Belle, Steven H.; Burgio, Lou; Gitlin, Laura; Coon, David; Burns, Robert; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Stevens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed intervention studies that reported dementia caregiver outcomes published since 1996, including psychosocial interventions for caregivers and environmental and pharmacological interventions for care recipients. Our goal was to focus on issues of clinical significance in caregiver intervention research in order to move the field toward a greater emphasis on achieving reliable and clinically meaningful outcomes. Design and Methods MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health databases from 1996 through 2001 were searched to identify articles and book chapters mapping to two medical subject headings: caregivers and either dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Articles were evaluated on two dimensions, outcomes in four domains thought to be important to the individual or society and the magnitude of reported effects for these outcomes in order to determine if they were large enough to be clinically meaningful. Results Although many studies have reported small to moderate statistically significant effects on a broad range of outcomes, only a small proportion of these studies achieved clinically meaningful outcomes. Nevertheless, caregiving intervention studies have increasingly shown promise of affecting important public health outcomes in areas such as service utilization, including delayed institutionalization; psychiatric symptomatology, including the successful treatment of major and minor depression; and providing services that are highly valued by caregivers. Implications Assessment of clinical significance in addition to statistical significance is needed in this research area. Specific recommendations on design, measurement, and conceptual issues are made to enhance the clinical significance of future research. PMID:12351794

  14. Temporal trends in peripheral arterial interventions: Observations from the blue cross blue shield of michigan cardiovascular consortium (BMC2 PVI).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael P; Jung Park, Yeo; Grey, Scott; Schreiber, Theodore L; Gurm, Hitinder S; Leffler, Dale; Davis, Thomas P; Henke, Peter; Michael Grossman, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The aim is to examine trends in procedural indication, arterial beds treated, and device usage in peripheral arterial interventions (PVIs). There is little data on indication, vascular beds treated and devices utilized for peripheral arterial interventions. We used data from 43 hospitals participating in the BMC2 VIC registry. PVIs were separated by year and divided by arterial segment. Lower extremity PVIs were subclassified as having been performed for claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI). Yearly device usage was also included. A repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine trends. 44,650 PVIs were performed from 2006 to 2013. Renal interventions decreased from 18% of interventions in 2006 to 5.6% in 2013 (P < 0.001) and femoral-popliteal increased from 54.9% in 2006 to 64.5% in 2013 (P < 0.001). No significant trend was seen for aorta-iliac or below-the-knee interventions. 58.6% of PVIs were performed for claudication in 2006 and this decreased to 44.6% in 2013 (P = 0.025). Indications for CLI were 24.1% in 2006 and 47.5% in 2013 (P < 0.001). There were significant increases in the use of balloon angioplasty (P = 0.029) and cutting/scoring balloons (P < 0.001) while cryoballoon usage decreased (P < 0.001). No significant changes were found with stenting, atherectomy, and laser. There is a significant increase in patients presenting with CLI. Renal artery intervention rates are decreasing while femoral-popliteal interventions are increasing. Additionally, balloon angioplasty and cutting/scoring balloon usage is increasing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief, Publication #2009-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia; Burkhauser, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim; Collins, Ashleigh

    2009-01-01

    The number of U.S. children living in poverty increased in 2007--continuing an upward trend dating back to 2000: in 2007, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, up from 11.6 million children in 2000. The percentage of children living in families with incomes below the poverty line has increased from 16.2 percent in 2000 to 18.0 percent in…

  16. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief, Publication #2009-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia; Burkhauser, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim; Collins, Ashleigh

    2009-01-01

    The number of U.S. children living in poverty increased in 2007--continuing an upward trend dating back to 2000: in 2007, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, up from 11.6 million children in 2000. The percentage of children living in families with incomes below the poverty line has increased from 16.2 percent in 2000 to 18.0 percent in…

  17. Global competencies of regional stem cell research: bibliometrics for investigating and forecasting research trends.

    PubMed

    Watatani, Kenji; Xie, Zhongquan; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sengoku, Shintaro

    2013-09-01

    We employed a bibliometric approach to examine regional stem cell research in the USA, the UK, Japan and China based on publications from 2007 to 2011 with a co-citation clustering analysis to identify region-specific clusters of global competencies. We observed that there are clear differences in the number and interdisciplinary spread of competencies across regions: the USA retains the largest capacity and capability for pursuing medical and pharmaceutical applications; China has shown substantial growth through fusion approaches with chemistry and material sciences; Japan has been pursuing basic biology and is currently seeking further growth; and the UK has shown considerable growth and quality with a focus on medical research and the widest interdisciplinary spread. Furthermore, we discuss policy implications from these results in terms of industrial and clinical applications. These findings provide a rational way of evaluating research policies and forecasting research trends.

  18. Therapeutic Interventions for Foster Children: A Systematic Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Patricia Ann; Lee, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 30% of children in foster care have severe emotional, behavioral, or developmental problems. A systematic research synthesis of empirical studies was conducted in an attempt to identify and classify therapeutic interventions for foster children. Utilizing a treatment protocol classification system, empirical studies were classified…

  19. Use of family management styles in family intervention research.

    PubMed

    Alderfer, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    Family management styles (FMSs) explain some of the complexities embedded in a family with a child who has chronic illness. The FMS typologies provide descriptions of family adjustment and management of care. These 5 distinct patterns may be valuable in tailoring and evaluating family interventions in research.

  20. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  1. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  2. Action Research and Response to Intervention: Bridging the Discourse Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…

  3. Action Research and Response to Intervention: Bridging the Discourse Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…

  4. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  5. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  6. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  7. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  8. Trends Shaping Education 2016. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Did you ever wonder if education has a role to play in stemming the obesity epidemic sweeping across all OECD countries? Or what the impact of increasing urbanisation might be on our schools, families, and communities? Or whether new technologies really are fundamentally changing the way our children think and learn? "Trends Shaping…

  9. Trends Shaping Education 2016. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Did you ever wonder if education has a role to play in stemming the obesity epidemic sweeping across all OECD countries? Or what the impact of increasing urbanisation might be on our schools, families, and communities? Or whether new technologies really are fundamentally changing the way our children think and learn? "Trends Shaping…

  10. Publication trends in aeolian research: An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, John E.; Warren, Andrew; Gill, Thomas E.

    2009-04-01

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. Rates of publication have increased from only three publications in the 17th Century to nearly three publications per day in the 21st Century. The temporal distribution of publications follows a complex pattern that is influenced by many factors. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, publications appear as isolated clusters indicating limited interest in aeolian research and limited opportunities for individuals to contribute to scientific literature. With time, many new scientific societies are formed and many new scientific journals are established, opening new opportunities for scientists to contribute to scientific discourse. Landmark publications open up new research areas and define new directions for aeolian research. General advances in science and technology provide new techniques for sampling blowing sand and dust. In addition, clear signs exist that publication rates respond to major environmental and climatic events, especially large-scale disasters that focus attention on wind erosion and blowing dust. The Sirocco dust events of 1901-1903, the North American Dust Bowl of the1930s, and the recent sand and dust storm problems in China have all led to significant increases in the number of publications in aeolian research. Rates of publication are negatively influenced by major political and social upheavals, especially global conflicts such as World Wars I and II. Sudden shifts in government structure and support can also influence publication rates. A good example is the increased publication rates in China following the end of the Cultural Revolution, a trend that continues today.

  11. Research Library Trends II: 35 Libraries in the 1970's and Beyond. A Sequel to Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Warren F.; And Others

    This study is based on the annual statistics of 35 institutions, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. For 17 of the libraries, the statistics cover 1969-1988; for the rest, they cover 1976-1988. Procedurally, the study parallels both its 1987 ancestor ("Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond") and the earlier…

  12. Research Library Trends II: 35 Libraries in the 1970's and Beyond. A Sequel to Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Warren F.; And Others

    This study is based on the annual statistics of 35 institutions, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. For 17 of the libraries, the statistics cover 1969-1988; for the rest, they cover 1976-1988. Procedurally, the study parallels both its 1987 ancestor ("Research Library Trends, 1951-1980 and Beyond") and the earlier…

  13. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  14. Using simulations and standardized patients in intervention research.

    PubMed

    Gates, D M; Fitzwater, E; Telintelo, S

    2001-11-01

    Caregiving is both an art and a science; both knowledge and skills are necessary to improve the quality of care that professionals provide. Researchers are often limited in their assessment of skill performance due to inadequate and unrealistic measurement options. Simulation using standardized patients offers researchers an objective method to evaluate skill performance. This article describes the use of simulations by researchers in their quest to measure changes in violence prevention skills after an intervention program given to nurse assistants working in long-term care facilities.

  15. Bilingual and Home Language Interventions With Young Dual Language Learners: A Research Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Durán, Lillian K; Hartzheim, Daphne; Lund, Emily M; Simonsmeier, Vicki; Kohlmeier, Theresa L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what bilingual or home language interventions have been found to be effective for 2- to 6-year-old dual language learners who have language impairment (LI) or are at risk for LI. We conducted ancestral searches and searches of electronic databases, hand-searched article bibliographies, and searched 19 journals for experimental, quasiexperimental, or single-subject studies. The review yielded 26 studies that were coded for quality, frequency and duration of the intervention, number of participants, location of intervention, interventionist, language(s) of intervention, and reported or calculated effect sizes. Studies were grouped by those that focused specifically on at-risk populations and those that focused on children with LI. Emerging trends provide support for bilingual and/or home language interventions for both children with LI and those at risk for LI. There were relatively few studies that met inclusion criteria, and the average quality rating for a study was 6.8 out of 9.0 possible points. More high-quality research is needed, particularly with populations that speak languages other than Spanish. Clinicians need more evidence-based recommendations to improve the language and literacy outcomes of the diverse range of dual language learners served in the United States and abroad.

  16. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  17. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  18. Intervention Fidelity: Aspects of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Research

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gwen; Sikorskii, Alla; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Victorson, David; Adams, Lora

    2010-01-01

    Background The Treatment Fidelity Workgroup (TFW) established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides a 5-point structure for intervention fidelity: dosing, interventionists’ consistency, intervention delivery, receipt and enactment of the intervention. Using our reflexology trial, we apply the first three points. Objectives Study objectives are to: 1) evaluate key dosage dimensions associated with CAM research; 2) evaluate approaches to interventionists’ consistency of delivery of CAM protocols; and 3) evaluate and discuss data that reflect CAM intervention fidelity. Intervention Women with late stage breast cancer (N=318) were randomly assigned to either 4 weeks of reflexology, placebo, or standard care. Results Dosing consists of three dimensions: frequency (4-sessions), duration (30 minutes), and interval between sessions (5–9 days). Interventionist consistency revealed over a 90% accuracy rate in following the protocol; 84% and 89% completion rate of the 4 session in the reflexology and placebo groups respectively; and no differences in attrition after randomization between reflexology and placebo groups (17% and 15%, respectively). Intervention delivery, examined through debriefing data, indicated a significantly higher rate of correct guesses on group assignment in the reflexology group as compared to the placebo (82% versus 46%, p-value=.0002). Conclusions This study points out the relevance of dosing, interventionists’ consistency, and delivery data within a CAM clinical trial, as well as the challenges of blinding. Implications Monitoring intervention fidelity by using the key areas identified by the BCC ensures that findings from a clinical trial are meaningful and have the potential to be translated to clinical practice. PMID:20467309

  19. Intervention Research and Program Evaluation in the School Setting: Issues and Alternative Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties in conducting intervention research or evaluating intervention programs in a school setting. In particular, the problems associated with randomization and obtaining control groups are examined. The use of quasi-experimental designs, specifically a paired comparison design using the individual as his or her…

  20. Mixed Research in Counseling: Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a content analysis of the articles published in the leading counseling journal, "Journal of Counseling & Development", between 2002 and 2010 are presented. The authors present a brief description of mixed research to encourage counseling researchers to explore mixed research as a viable research tool. (Contains 3 tables and 1…

  1. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia

    Noting that the U.S. child poverty rate is no longer declining, this research brief uses 2001 Census data to present a statistical portrait of poor children in the United States. The research brief also highlights some consequences of poverty for children and considers promising approaches for decreasing poverty among low-income children and their…

  2. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia

    Noting that the U.S. child poverty rate is no longer declining, this research brief uses 2001 Census data to present a statistical portrait of poor children in the United States. The research brief also highlights some consequences of poverty for children and considers promising approaches for decreasing poverty among low-income children and their…

  3. Trends in Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Teens. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer

    The current research and policy debate over why teen pregnancy and birth rates have declined in the 1990s has focused on whether increased abstinence or increased contraceptive use is primarily responsible. This research brief indicates that both factors appear to be contributing factors. It finds that: (1) the percentage of teens who reported…

  4. Meeting the Challenges of Intervention Research in Health Science: An Argument for a Multimethod Research Approach.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-06-01

    Research within health science is often based on developing, implementing and evaluating interventions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, with patients or other health care users as the target group. The results of RCTs can have limited generalizability. Since a trial often takes place in a controlled setting, it may be difficult to implement the results in other settings. Successful implementation in practice requires knowledge of the context and the social mechanisms and processes through which an intervention works. It is therefore important to secure such knowledge of high quality. The aim of this paper was to present and discuss how intervention research in RCT designs can be developed and strengthened by using a multimethod research approach. First, we focus on four considerations relating to the use of RCTs, namely objectivity and linearity, contextual dimensions, generalizability, and complex interventions. Second, a multimethod research approach including the terms 'research style' and 'forms of integration' is presented to address the four considerations. Third, a Danish intervention study is presented in order to discuss the potential of this multimethod research approach. We conclude by suggesting that future intervention studies should consider the potential for combining different research styles and forms of integration to the benefits of the patients and other health care users as the target group.

  5. Trends in Doctoral Research on English Language Teaching in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özmen, Kemal Sinan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik; Kinik, Betül

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the doctoral research in Turkey completed between 2010 and 2014 in the area of English language teaching and learning. All of the dissertations (N = 137) indexed in the National Theses Database have been included in order to analyze dissertations' subject areas, research paradigms/techniques, and research contexts as well as…

  6. Trends in Educational Administration Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver

    It is useful to place the development of educational research within the context of the historical development of scientific research as a whole. The work of Whitehead, Northrop, Toulmin, and, especially, Kuhn suggests the value of viewing research as a social process through which ideas and intellectual techniques are diffused. It is useful for…

  7. Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkurt, Aras; Akgun-Ozbek, Ela; Yilmazel, Sibel; Erdogdu, Erdem; Ucar, Hasan; Guler, Emel; Sezgin, Sezan; Karadeniz, Abdulkadir; Sen-Ersoy, Nazife; Goksel-Canbek, Nil; Dincer, Gokhan Deniz; Ari, Suleyman; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to explore the current trends in the field of distance education research during the period of 2009-2013. The trends were identified by an extensive review of seven peer reviewed scholarly journals: "The American Journal of Distance Education" (AJDE), "Distance Education" (DE), "The European Journal of…

  8. Research and Trends in the Studies of Homeschooling Practices: A Review on Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The practice of homeschooling still receives contrasting responses on its relevancy and effectiveness. The current study is aimed to map the trends in the selected eleven studies from various educational journals. The analysis focuses on mapping the trends on: a) research settings, b) target sample, c) method or instrument used, d) common focus or…

  9. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  10. Neutron Imaging Facility Development and Research Trend at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, M.; Hussey, D. S.; Baltic, E. M.; Jacobson, D. L.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)maintains a sustained focus in the development of advanced neutron imaging facilities and hardware components to enable breakthrough research with vastly improved spatial and temporal resolutions, and to identify and employ research practices important to a wide variety of industrial and scientific applications. NIST's main focus is to enable research with broad appeal and commercial impacts. In this article we will give a brief overview of the NIST facility, select examples of current research, and finally comment on emerging technologies including advance manufacturing where neutron imaging has the potential to play an important role.

  11. Improving psychotherapy research: The example of mindfulness based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number and sophistication of available psychotherapies suggests that a critical appraisal of the methodological issues of psychotherapy studies is highly needed. Several key questions regarding the efficacy of a given intervention, the understanding of whether positive effects observed following the delivery of a psychotherapeutic intervention are specifically attributable to the intervention itself or to other “non specific” factors, such as benefit expectations, therapist attention and support, and the possibility of improving psychotherapy research need an answer. This, in turn, could provide clinicians with more rigorous information about psychotherapy outcomes and could properly address several shortcomings that are frequently observed in current psychotherapy studies. Accordingly, in this editorial I will highlight some of the most important critical issues that a well designed psychotherapy study should take into account, including the need for appropriate control groups, appropriate randomization and blinding procedures, and the importance of performing appropriately powered studies that include a sufficiently long follow-up period. Finally, I will build on my expertise in the field of mindfulness based interventions, in particular mindfulness based stress reduction and mindfulness based cognitive therapy, to show how such issues have been and can be successfully implemented in the design of future psychotherapy studies. PMID:25237607

  12. Intervention research: Appraising study designs, interpreting findings and creating research in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ebbels, Susan H

    2017-01-13

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are increasingly required to read, interpret and create evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions. This requires a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different intervention study designs. This paper aims to take readers through a range of designs commonly used in speech-language pathology, working from those with the least to most experimental control, with a particular focus on how the more robust designs avoid some of the limitations of weaker designs. It then discusses the factors other than research design which need to be considered when deciding whether or not to implement an intervention in clinical practice. The final section offers some tips and advice on carrying out research in clinical practice, with the hope that more SLPs will become actively involved in creating intervention research.

  13. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  14. New Trends in Nuclear Data Research for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-24

    Nuclear methods play an important role in medicine, both in diagnosis and therapy. The status of nuclear data with regard to the production of commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides is discussed. The new trends and data needs in the development of potentially useful radionuclides are outlined. They pertain to longer-lived positron emitters (e.g., 64Cu, 76Br, 124I) for studying slow metabolic processes, to positron emitters needed for quantification purposes (94mTc, 86Y, etc.) and to soft radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides (103Pd, 186Re, 225Ac, etc.). The imaging problems with new positron emitters are discussed. As regards radiation therapy, data on the formation of short-lived activation products in proton therapy are reported.

  15. New Trends in Nuclear Data Research for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Nuclear methods play an important role in medicine, both in diagnosis and therapy. The status of nuclear data with regard to the production of commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides is discussed. The new trends and data needs in the development of potentially useful radionuclides are outlined. They pertain to longer-lived positron emitters (e.g., 64Cu, 76Br, 124I) for studying slow metabolic processes, to positron emitters needed for quantification purposes (94mTc, 86Y, etc.) and to soft radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides (103Pd, 186Re, 225Ac, etc.). The imaging problems with new positron emitters are discussed. As regards radiation therapy, data on the formation of short-lived activation products in proton therapy are reported.

  16. Technology and science education: starting points, research programs, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    2003-06-01

    Over the past 25 years, information and communication technologies have had a convoluted but ultimately advantageous impact on science teaching and learning. To highlight the past, present, and future of technology in science education, this paper explores the trajectories in five areas: science texts and lectures; science discussions and collaboration; data collection and representation; science visualization; and science simulation and modeling. These trajectories reflect two overall trends in technological advance. First, designers have tailored general tools to specific disciplines, offering users features specific to the topic or task. For example, developers target visualization tools to molecules, crystals, earth structures, or chemical reactions. Second, new technologies generally support user customization, enabling individuals to personalize their modeling tool, Internet portal, or discussion board. In science education, designers have tailored instructional resources based on advances in understanding of the learner. More recently, designers have created ways for teachers and students to customize learning tools to specific courses, geological formations, interests, or learning preferences.

  17. Trends in Educational Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goktas, Yuksel; Hasancebi, Funda; Varisoglu, Behice; Akcay, Ahmet; Bayrak, Naci; Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on educational research papers published from 2005-2009 in journals listed in SSCI and the ULAKBIM database in Turkey. Study types, research methods, investigated specific topics, used data collection tools, employed data analysis methods, and utilized types of samples and sampling methods were analyzed. A total of 2115 papers…

  18. Research Trends in the Use of Mobile Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This research was a systematic review of 36 studies in mobile learning in mathematics from the year 2000 onward. Eight new findings…

  19. Investigatory Trends in Emerging Facebook Research: Implications for Communication Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Christopher J.; Pitrowski, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Since the advent of Facebook, researchers across academic disciplines have examined the nature and scope of scholarship regarding this SNS. Based on a content analysis approach, Piotrowski (2012) reported that many popular issues in the media on the topic of Facebook are largely ignored by research investigators. Due to the proliferation of…

  20. Research Trends in the Use of Mobile Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This research was a systematic review of 36 studies in mobile learning in mathematics from the year 2000 onward. Eight new findings…

  1. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  2. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  3. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  4. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  5. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  6. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  7. Tiered Intervention: History and Trends in Finland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku; Itkonen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the similarities and differences of relatively newly established tiered intervention models for the support of students with special needs in the United States (response to intervention) and in Finland (learning and schooling support). The current models in both countries consist of several tiers with fairly similar…

  8. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  9. The Peculiar Institution: New Trends and Controversies in Researching and Teaching Slavery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how, because of its richness and controversy, the study of slavery has captured the interest and imagination of many different theorists. Today, with new technologies and research trends, the study of slavery is entering an accelerated cycle. (EV)

  10. Trends in Folklore Studies Development in the Research and Education Space at Ukrainian and Foreign Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vovk, Myroslava

    2017-01-01

    Trends in development of folklore studies in the research and education space at Ukrainian and foreign universities have been analyzed. They are fundamentalization, synthesis of academic science and educational practice, professionalization, institutionalization, humanitarization, anthropoligization, interdisciplinarity. It has been defined that…

  11. Published versus Unpublished Dissertations in Psycho-Oncology Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne; Schneider, Stefan; Knapp-Oliver, Sarah K.; Sohl, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are conflicting views regarding whether gray literature, including unpublished doctoral dissertations, should be included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although publication status frequently is used as a proxy for study quality, some research suggests that dissertations are often of superior quality to published studies. Methods We examined 107 projects involving doctoral dissertations (42 published, 65 unpublished) that studied psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. Results Published dissertations were more likely to be supported by research funding but were not more likely than unpublished dissertations to examine specific types of interventions. Across several indices of methodological quality there were minimal differences. Dissertations with significant findings tended to be more likely to be published than those without significant findings. Conclusions Unpublished dissertations focusing on psychosocial interventions for cancer patients are not necessarily of vastly inferior quality to those that eventually are published. Because doctoral dissertations are easy to access relative to other forms of gray literature, are free from some types of bias, and are reported thoroughly, they merit inclusion in comprehensive literature reviews. PMID:19353515

  12. Team knowledge research: emerging trends and critical needs.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Jessica L; Thayer, Amanda L; Pavlas, Davin; Salas, Eduardo; Stewart, John E; Howse, William R

    2012-02-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the team knowledge literature and guidance for further research. Recent research has called attention to the need for the improved study and understanding of team knowledge. Team knowledge refers to the higher level knowledge structures that emerge from the interactions of individual team members. We conducted a systematic review of the team knowledge literature, focusing on empirical work that involves the measurement of team knowledge constructs. For each study, we extracted author degree area, study design type, study setting, participant type, task type, construct type, elicitation method, aggregation method, measurement timeline, and criterion domain. Our analyses demonstrate that many of the methodological characteristics of team knowledge research can be linked back to the academic training of the primary author and that there are considerable gaps in our knowledge with regard to the relationships between team knowledge constructs, the mediating mechanisms between team knowledge and performance, and relationships with criteria outside of team performance, among others. We also identify categories of team knowledge not yet examined based on an organizing framework derived from a synthesis of the literature. There are clear opportunities for expansion in the study of team knowledge; the science of team knowledge would benefit from a more holistic theoretical approach. Human factors researchers are increasingly involved in the study of teams. This review and the resulting organizing framework provide researchers with a summary of team knowledge research over the past 10 years and directions for improving further research.

  13. New trends in combustion research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Research on combustion is being conducted to provide improved analytical models of the complex flow and chemical reaction processes which occur in the combustor of gas turbine engines, in order to enable engine manufacturers to reduce the development time of these concepts. The elements of the combustion fundamentals program is briefly discussed with examples of research projects described more fully. Combustion research will continue to emphasize the development of analytical models and the support of these models with fundamental flow experiments to assess the models accuracy and shortcomings.

  14. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  15. World population trends and their significance for contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Kegan, L R

    1982-01-01

    The total population of the world has grown from 2.5 billion in 1930 to 4.5 billion in 1982 and despite the fertility declines in developing countries world population is expected to increase another 2 billion to over 6 billion by the year 2000. This growth has caused in many countries food scarcity, unemployment, social unrest, political instability, and mass migration as well as inflation and environmental problems. There is an international consensus that access to contraceptive services is a basic human right. In the case of Indonesia, Thailand, China, and Sri Lanka, there is increasing evidence that government intervention can change fertility levels within a relatively short time, but progress in other places has been slower. Thus the fertility reductions to be achieved during the next 2 decades will require more intensive and expensive efforts in terms of education, motivation, and extension of services in rural areas. Contraceptive methods must be improved in terms of safety, acceptability, and effectiveness.

  16. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  17. Recent trends in research on teacher-child relationships.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Terri J; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on relationships between teachers and children relies on developmental systems theory as the foundational conceptual model, drawing heavily from basic work in attachment as well as research on social development. Recently, the focus on relational processes in effort to support children's development in the classroom has proliferated, with multiple disciplines and fields engaging in research on teacher-child relationship quality to understand and improve the experiences and learning of students. This paper updates the conceptual framework and continues the necessary integration between disciplines by exploring three areas of research: (1) concordance between children's relationships with teachers and parents; (2) the moderating role of teacher-child relationships for the development of at-risk children; and (3) training teachers from a relational perspective. Each of the three areas of research on teacher-child relationships is examined in light of recent findings and considers implications for understanding the nature and impact of relationships between teachers and children.

  18. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    PubMed

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations.

  19. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  20. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  1. Trends to 1982 in Industrial Support of Basic Research. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report analyzes recent trends in company-funded basic research support and incorporates findings from a special mail survey and personal interviews with research and development (R&D) officials of 54 firms. The report also provides insight into industry/university cooperative basic research efforts. Following an introduction, the report…

  2. Methodological Status and Trends in Expository Text Structure Instruction Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohaty, Janet J.; Hebert, Michael A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Brown, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic descriptive historical review was conducted to examine the status and trends in expository text structure instruction efficacy research for first through twelfth grade students. The analysis included sixty studies, which spanned the years 1978 to 2014. Descriptive dimensions of the research included study type, research design,…

  3. Methodological Status and Trends in Expository Text Structure Instruction Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohaty, Janet J.; Hebert, Michael A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Brown, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic descriptive historical review was conducted to examine the status and trends in expository text structure instruction efficacy research for first through twelfth grade students. The analysis included sixty studies, which spanned the years 1978 to 2014. Descriptive dimensions of the research included study type, research design,…

  4. The Underlying Message in LD Intervention Research: Findings from Research Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Gersten, Russell; Chard, David J.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the critical findings of recent research syntheses concerning intervention with students who have learning disabilities. The syntheses examined research on higher-order processing and problem- solving, reading comprehension, written expression, and grouping practices associated with improved outcomes in reading. Principles…

  5. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  6. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    PubMed Central

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  7. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study.

    PubMed

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-12-01

    This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under 'reproductive techniques, assisted' (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998-2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world's richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs.

  8. [Pathological gambling: review of the recent research trends].

    PubMed

    Körmendi, Attila; Kuritárné, Ildikmó Szabó

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reduce a significant gap in the gambling literature in Hungary by presenting existing models and available treatments. Although theoretical models of pathological gambling all have strengths and weaknesses, they do provide valuable insights into the development of pathological gambling. Evidence now exist that psychological, biological and social factors are all relevant in pathological gambling but as yet a comprehensive theoretical model that could adequately account for the complex interaction of the factors has to be developed. Some methodological problems in the area of research are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are included. It is hoped this paper will stimulate future research work in this field and support the work of clinical psychologists.

  9. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics and trends of radiology research: a survey of original articles published in AJR and Radiology between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Baek, Sora; Gu, Dong Hyeon; Yoon, Soo Jeong; Han, Ari; Ku, You Jin; Kim, Sam Soo

    2012-09-01

    To determine the characteristics and trends of the original articles published in two major American radiology journals, AJR American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) and Radiology, between 2001 and 2010. This was a retrospective bibliometric analysis that did not involve human subjects and was exempt from institutional review board approval. All 6542 original articles published in AJR and Radiology between 2001 and 2010 were evaluated. The following information was abstracted from each article: radiologic subspecialty, radiologic technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, affiliation of the first author, and country of the first author. In addition, all the variables examined were presented along with the trend over time. The most common subspecialty of study was abdominal (1219 of 6542, 18.6%), followed by vascular/interventional (804 of 6542, 12.3%). A total of 3744 (57.2%) original articles used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or computed tomography (CT), 5495 (84.1%) were clinical research articles, 3060 (46.8%) had sample size of more than 50, 4087 (62.5%) were retrospective, 4714 (72.1%) performed statistical analysis, 6225 (95.2%) showed positive study outcome, 4784 (73.1%) were not funded, 3942 (60.3%) had four to seven authors, and 5731 (87.6%) were written by the primary author who was from a department of radiology or radiology-related specialties. The United States published 45.5% (2975 of 6542) of the articles, followed by Japan (n = 525, 8.0%), Germany (n = 485, 7.4%), and South Korea (n = 455, 7.0%). In the time trend analysis, the following variables showed a significantly positive trend: cardiac subspecialty, CT and MR imaging as the radiologic techniques, type of research as other (nonbasic, nonclinical), sample size of more than 50, four to seven as the number of authors, medicine-related department of the first author, and South Korea and Italy as

  11. Substance abuse by men in partner abuse intervention programs: current issues and promising trends.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Larry W

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses key studies linking intervention for co-occurring substance abuse and partner abuse. Findings are grouped into three areas: (a) the effect of addictions treatment on partner violence; (b) application of transtheoretical, motivational, and culturally focused approaches to improve engagement and prevent attrition; and (c) assessment-based matching of services. Finally, the relative value of serial, coordinated, and integrated substance abuse programs and partner abuse intervention programs are considered. We reached three primary conclusions: (a) Addiction treatment alone reduces the risk for future domestic violence in a subset of men who batter, (b) screening and assessment for substance abuse by all men in partner abuse intervention programs is a standard of practice but needs to extend beyond "intake" and occur periodically, and (c) coordinated and integrated substance abuse and domestic violence programs probably offer more safety than traditional serial substance abuse treatment followed by partner abuse intervention.

  12. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    PubMed Central

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-01-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet. PMID:27877788

  13. Ontology Assisted Assessment of Worldwide Cyber Research Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-16

    created  within   Mendeley ,  a  researcher  tool  for  storing  and  sharing  technical  research  of  interest... Mendeley  was  also   used  as  the  repository  of  query  results,  and  was  accessed  programmatically  (through  a

  14. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    PubMed

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  15. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  16. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-07-01

    Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, it has also been used clinically as a therapeutic intervention. A bibliometric analysis on the biomedical journal literature involving research on the clinical application of yoga has revealed an increase in publication frequency over the past 3 decades with a substantial and growing use of randomized controlled trials. Types of medical conditions have included psychopathological (e.g. depression, anxiety), cardiovascular (e.g. hypertension, heart disease), respiratory (e.g. asthma), diabetes and a variety of others. A majority of this research has been conducted by Indian investigators and published in Indian journals, particularly yoga specialty journals, although recent trends indicate increasing contributions from investigators in the U.S. and England. Yoga therapy is a relatively novel and emerging clinical discipline within the broad category of mind-body medicine, whose growth is consistent with the burgeoning popularity of yoga in the West and the increasing worldwide use of alternative medicine.

  17. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  18. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  19. Trends in High School Graduation Rates. Research Brief. Volume 0710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale; Froman, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief addresses an outcome measure that is of paramount importance to senior high schools--graduation rate. Nationwide a student drops out of school approximately every nine seconds. The significance of this issue locally is exemplified by a recent American Civil Liberties Union filing of a class action law suit against the Palm…

  20. Educational Research and Development: Trends, Issues and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Governments urgently need better national information bases for determining educational policy and practice in an increasingly interconnected world. This report, from the first phase of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), presents a framework for improved international cooperation in improving the knowledge base for…

  1. The Engaged Dissertation: Exploring Trends in Doctoral Student Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Tuchmayer, Jeremy B.; Morin, Shauna M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which doctoral students are conducting community-engaged scholarship and investigated the characteristics of their degree-granting institutions. The research utilized the most immediate work of doctoral students by examining completed dissertations. Analysis showed which graduate students are pursuing community…

  2. Current and Future Trends in Adult Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)

  3. Postgraduate Research in Pacific Education: Interpretivism and Other Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines research by postgraduate students in education at the University of the South Pacific (USP) between 1968 and 2009. These experienced educators, who later return to their original education sector to influence policy and practice in some way, are producing new knowledge intimately connected to Pacific education systems. The…

  4. Values Education Research Trends in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beldag, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The present study makes a situation analysis of graduate theses on values education published between 1999 and 2015 in Turkey. It has a qualitative research design, wherein data is collected through document analysis. The form developed for this purpose is comprised of nine sections, each of which focuses on a different aspect: universities,…

  5. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  6. Trends in Australian Higher Edcuation Research: A General Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, David G.

    1987-01-01

    A review of Australian higher education research examines the institutional and social circumstances of the field of study and looks at such topics as participation, individual and group differences, senior high school retention, women's participation in higher education, recent enrollment downturns and recovery, economics and student finances,…

  7. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  8. Trends in ecosystem service research: early steps and current drivers.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Petteri; Rönkä, Mia; Walls, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 50 years, human beings have influenced ecosystems more rapidly than at any similar time in human history, drastically altering ecosystem functioning. Along with ecosystem transformation and degradation, a number of studies have addressed the functioning, assessment and management of ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed in the scientific literature since the end of the 1970s. However, ecosystem service research has focused on certain service categories, ecosystem types, and geographical areas, while substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning several aspects. We assess the development and current status of ecosystem service research on the basis of publications collected from the Web of Science. The material consists of (1) articles (n = 353) from all the years included in the Web of Science down to the completion of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and (2) more recent articles (n = 687) published between 2006 and 2008. We also assess the importance of international processes, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kyoto Protocol and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, as drivers of ecosystem service research. Finally, we identify future prospects and research needs concerning the assessment and management of ecosystem services.

  9. Campgrounds and Camping 1980: Trends, Research, Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The objectives of the reported conference were: 1) to determine what significant changes are occurring in campground management; 2) to view demonstration campground areas and discuss related information dissemination efforts; 3) to determine what campground research is presently underway, and whether more is needed; and, 4) to determine possible…

  10. Trends and Directions in Family Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue devoted to a review of research on marriage and the family over the past decade. Provides overview of marital issues, feminism, parent-child relationships, day care, divorce, remarriage, stepfamilies, adolescence, later life families, religion, Blacks, Hispanics, adolescent childbearing, health, employment,…

  11. Measuring Change: Current Trends and Future Directions in Microgenetic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; Siegler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to research that adopts the microgenetic method in order to investigate change as it is happening. In this commentary we reflect on the diversity of the articles included in this special issue, and examine how the findings from these articles relate to five critical features of change: path, rate, breadth,…

  12. Modern trends in animal venom research - omics and nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-02-26

    Animal venom research is a specialized investigation field, in which a number of different methods are used and this array is constantly expanding. Thus, recently emerged omics and nanotechnologies have already been successfully applied to venom research. Animal venoms have been studied for quite a long time. The traditional reductionist approach has been to isolate individual toxins and then study their structure and function. Unfortunately, the characterization of the venom as a whole system and its multiple effects on an entire organism were not possible until recent times. The development of new methods in mass spectrometry and sequencing have allowed such characterizations of venom, encompassing the identification of new toxins present in venoms at extremely low concentrations to changes in metabolism of prey organisms after envenomation. In particular, this type of comprehensive research has become possible due to the development of the various omics technologies: Proteomics, peptidomics, transcriptomics, genomics and metabolomics. As in other research fields, these omics technologies ushered in a revolution for venom studies, which is now entering the era of big data. Nanotechnology is a very new branch of technology and developing at an extremely rapid pace. It has found application in many spheres and has not bypassed the venom studies. Nanomaterials are quite promising in medicine, and most studies combining venoms and nanomaterials are dedicated to medical applications. Conjugates of nanoparticles with venom components have been proposed for use as drugs or diagnostics. For example, nanoparticles conjugated with chlorotoxin - a toxin in scorpion venom, which has been shown to bind specifically to glioma cells - are considered as potential glioma-targeted drugs, and conjugates of neurotoxins with fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots may be used to detect endogenous targets expressed in live cells. The data on application of omics and

  13. Modern trends in animal venom research - omics and nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Animal venom research is a specialized investigation field, in which a number of different methods are used and this array is constantly expanding. Thus, recently emerged omics and nanotechnologies have already been successfully applied to venom research. Animal venoms have been studied for quite a long time. The traditional reductionist approach has been to isolate individual toxins and then study their structure and function. Unfortunately, the characterization of the venom as a whole system and its multiple effects on an entire organism were not possible until recent times. The development of new methods in mass spectrometry and sequencing have allowed such characterizations of venom, encompassing the identification of new toxins present in venoms at extremely low concentrations to changes in metabolism of prey organisms after envenomation. In particular, this type of comprehensive research has become possible due to the development of the various omics technologies: Proteomics, peptidomics, transcriptomics, genomics and metabolomics. As in other research fields, these omics technologies ushered in a revolution for venom studies, which is now entering the era of big data. Nanotechnology is a very new branch of technology and developing at an extremely rapid pace. It has found application in many spheres and has not bypassed the venom studies. Nanomaterials are quite promising in medicine, and most studies combining venoms and nanomaterials are dedicated to medical applications. Conjugates of nanoparticles with venom components have been proposed for use as drugs or diagnostics. For example, nanoparticles conjugated with chlorotoxin - a toxin in scorpion venom, which has been shown to bind specifically to glioma cells - are considered as potential glioma-targeted drugs, and conjugates of neurotoxins with fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots may be used to detect endogenous targets expressed in live cells. The data on application of omics and

  14. Review of recent trends in cholera research and control

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, O.

    1966-01-01

    Since 1961 cholera El Tor has been sweeping through the Far East, and this dissemination of the disease has stimulated research not only in the countries afflicted but also in Europe and the Americas. New laboratories and workers have entered the field and many fresh ideas and concepts have emerged. The time seemed ripe, therefore, to survey the most important papers published since 1959, when the literature on cholera was thoroughly reviewed by Pollitzer, for the benefit both of those engaged in research and of those concerned with public health practice. This review covers history and incidence, causative agents (including the ”classical”, ”El Tor” and ”incomplete” forms), pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, mode of spreading and control measures (with particular reference to public health education and the International Sanitary Regulations). An annex, intended for laboratory use, contains selected procedures for the isolation and identification of cholera vibrios. PMID:5328492

  15. Reducing neurodevelopmental disorders and disability through research and interventions.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Kakooza, Angelina M; Warf, Benjamin C; Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-11-19

    We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture. We provide examples of advances in the prevention and treatment of, and the rehabilitation of those with, neurodevelopment disorders in low- and middle-income countries, along with opportunities for further strategic research initiatives. Our examples are not the only possibilities for strategic research, but they illustrate problems that, when solved, could have a considerable impact in low-resource settings. In each instance, research in low- and middle-income countries led to innovations in identification, surveillance and treatment of a neurodevelopmental disorder. These innovations have also been integrated with genotypic mapping of neurodevelopmental disorders, forming important preventative and rehabilitative interventions with the potential for high impact. These advances will ultimately allow us to understand how epigenetic influences shape neurodevelopmental risk and resilience over time and across populations. Clearly, the most strategic areas of research opportunity involve cross-disciplinary integration at the intersection between the environment, brain or behaviour neurodevelopment, and genetic and epigenetic science. At these junctions a robust integrative cross-disciplinary scientific approach is catalysing the creation of technologies and interventions for old problems. Such approaches will enable us to achieve and sustain the United Nations moral and legal mandate for

  16. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in primary angioplasty in Portugal from 2002 to 2013 according to the Portuguese National Registry of Interventional Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hélder; Campante Teles, Rui; Costa, Marco; Canas da Silva, Pedro; da Gama Ribeiro, Vasco; Brandão, Vítor; Martins, Dinis; Matias, Fernando; Pereira-Machado, Francisco; Baptista, José; Farto E Abreu, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo; Drummond, António; Cyrne de Carvalho, Henrique; Calisto, João; Silva, João Carlos; Pipa, João Luís; Marques, Jorge; Sousa, Paulino; Fernandes, Renato; Cruz Ferreira, Rui; Ramos, Sousa; Oliveira, Eduardo; Almeida, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to report trends in coronary angioplasty for the treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Portugal. Prospective multicenter data from the Portuguese National Registry of Interventional Cardiology (RNCI) and official data from the Directorate-General for Health (DGS) were studied to analyze percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures for STEMI from 2002 to 2013. In 2013, 3524 primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) procedures were performed (25% of all procedures), an increase of 315% in comparison to 2002 (16% of all interventions). Between 2002 and 2013 the rate increased from 106 to 338 p-PCIs per million population per year. Rescue angioplasty decreased from 70.7% in 2002 to 2% in 2013. During this period, the use of drug-eluting stents grew from 9.9% to 69.5%. After 2008, the use of aspiration thrombectomy increased, reaching 46.7% in 2013. Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor use decreased from 73.2% in 2002 to 23.6% in the last year of the study. Use of a radial approach increased steadily from 8.3% in 2008 to 54.6% in 2013. During the reporting period there was a three-fold increase in primary angioplasty rates per million population. Rescue angioplasty has been overtaken by p-PCI as the predominant procedure since 2006. New trends in the treatment of STEMI were observed, notably the use of drug-eluting stents and radial access as the predominant approach. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Trend of HIV/AIDS Prevalence and Related Interventions Administered in Prisons of Iran -13 Years’ Experience

    PubMed Central

    SHAHBAZI, Mohammad; FARNIA, Marzieh; RAHMANI, Khaled; MORADI, Ghobad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users in Iran. Like many other countries with HIV/AIDS concentrated epidemic, prisons are high risk areas for spreading HIV/AIDS. The aim of this paper was to study the trend of HIV/AIDS prevalence and related interventions administered in prisons of Iran during a 13 years period Methods This cross sectional study was conducted using the data collected from the sentinel sites in all prisons in the country and it also used the data about Harm Reduction interventions which has been implemented by Iran Prisons Organization. To evaluate the correlation between the prevalence and each of administered interventions in prisons the Correlation Coefficient Test was used for the second half of the mentioned time period Results The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in prisons had increased rapidly in the early stages of epidemic, so that in 2002 the prevalence raised to 3.83%. Followed by the expansion of Methadone Maintenance Therapy and development of Triangular Clinics, HIV/AIDS prevalence in prisons declined. There was a relationship between interventions and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion In regions and countries where the epidemic is highly prevalent among injecting drug users and prisoners, Methadone Maintenance Therapy and development of Triangular Clinics can be utilized to control HIV/AIDS epidemic quickly. PMID:26005657

  19. Recent trends in orexin research--2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Boss, Christoph; Roch, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Specific neurons in the lateral hypothalamus produce the orexin neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B). The orexin-peptides are transported to areas of the brain regulating sleep-wake cycles, controlling food intake or modulating emotional states such as panic or anxiety. The orexin system, consisting of the two orexin-neuropeptides and two G-protein-coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) is as well involved in reward and addictive behaviors. The review reflects on the most recent activities in the field of orexin research.

  20. Measuring the Burden—Current and Future Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a significant impact on health and well-being, from the beneficial aspects of moderate drinking to the detrimental effects of alcoholism. The broad implications of alcohol use on public health have been addressed through a wide range of epidemiological and clinical studies, many of which are described in this issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. Where chronic disease is involved, alcohol use can be a risk factor that not only affects the onset of various chronic diseases but also exacerbates the ongoing extent and severity of those diseases. Lifestyle choices and genetic influences also contribute to, or help to alleviate, that risk. PMID:24881334

  1. Exploring the therapeutic family intervention of commendations: insights from research.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Lori Houger; Wright, Lorraine M

    2006-08-01

    Offered in this article are interpretations that emerged in a qualitative, interpretive study focused on the family intervention called a "commendation." The tradition of philosophical hermeneutics informs and shapes the analysis of the data. Research participants include a heterosexual couple and a nurse who engaged in therapeutic conversations focused on difficulties with Internet pornography. Data sources include videotapes of clinical sessions, documentation, and research interviews. Isolated segments of clinical videotape are shared with the couple to prompt their memory of commending practices that emerged in clinical sessions. Commendations are not experienced by this couple as gentle and warm but instead as extremely provocative, albeit constructive. This study illuminates the complex, contextual nature of commending practice and suggests that the noticing of strengths and resources contains much more than the spoken word.

  2. Basic research methods and current trends of dental implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Granjeiro, José M; Romanos, George E; Suzuki, Marcelo; Silva, Nelson R F; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe; Thompson, Van P; Lemons, Jack E

    2009-02-01

    Among dental implant design alterations, surface modifications have been by far the most investigated topic. Regarding implant surface research, the lack of hierarchical approaches relating in vitro, in vivo, clinical trials, and ex vivo analyses has hindered biomaterials scientists with clear informed rationale guidelines for implant surface design. This manuscript provides a critical hierarchical overview of the in vitro, laboratory in vivo, clinical, and ex vivo methodologies used to investigate the performance of novel biomaterials aiming to allow dental professionals to better evaluate the past, present, and future dental implant surface research. This manuscript also contains an overview of the commercially available surface texture and chemistry modifications including novel nanotechnology-based fabrication processes. Over the last decade, surface texturing has been the most utilized parameter for increasing the host-to-implant response. Recently, dental implant surfaces utilizing reduced length scale physico/chemical features (atomic and nanometric) have shown the potential to synergistically use both texture and the inclusion of bioactive ceramic components on the surface. Although surface modifications have been shown to enhance osseointegration at early implantation times, information concerning its long-term benefit to peri-implant tissues is lacking due to the reduced number of controlled clinical trials. Given the various implants/surfaces under study, the clinician should ask, founded on the basic hierarchical approach described for the in vitro, laboratory in vivo data, as well as the results of clinical studies to effectiveness before use of any dental implant.

  3. Overcoming recruitment challenges in construction safety intervention research.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Pamela; Parshall, Mark; Wojcik, Susan; Struttmann, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Recruiting workers in small construction companies and securing their participation in voluntary safety programs or safety research poses unique challenges. Worker turnover and worksite changes contribute to difficulties in locating and enrolling participants. Economic pressures and time demands potentially threaten ongoing participation. Six simulation exercises designed to reduce back and fall injuries in small construction companies were developed based on data from focus groups of workers and company owners. Working with a workers' compensation insurer, we had access to owner-operators of general, heavy, and special trade construction companies reporting less than $10,000 in payroll expenses. Recruitment methods included a participation incentive, mailed invitations followed by phone contacts, and follow-up reminders. Despite using recruitment methods recommended in the literature, participation rates were low over a 2-year intervention period. Because of these difficulties, factors affecting participation or nonparticipation became an additional research focus. Owners' perceptions of already having a good safety record and of the time demands of participation were the most commonly cited reasons for not participating. Literature on recruitment emphasizes processes and procedures under investigator control rather than understanding potential participants' judgments about the adequacy of their existing practices and the potential benefits of intervention participation relative to potential time and productivity trade-offs. Greater attention to such judgments may enhance recruitment and participation in under-studied and difficult to access populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi

    2007-01-01

    The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.

  5. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  6. How do health behaviour interventions take account of social context? A literature trend and co-citation analysis.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel; Lynch, Rebecca; Reeves, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, health behaviour interventions have received a great deal of attention in both research and policy as a means of encouraging people to lead healthier lives. The emphasis of such interventions has varied over time, in terms of level of intervention (e.g. individual vs community) and drawing on different disciplinary perspectives. Recently, a number of critiques have focused on how health behaviour interventions sometimes sideline issues of social context, framing health as a matter of individual choice and, by implication, a personal responsibility. Part of this criticism is that health behaviour interventions often do not draw on alternative social science understandings of the structured and contextual aspects of behaviour and health. Yet to our knowledge, no study has attempted to empirically assess the extent to which, and in what ways, the health behaviour intervention field has paid attention to social context. In this article, we undertake this task using bibliometric techniques in order to map out the health behaviour intervention field. We find that the number of health behaviour interventions has grown rapidly in recent years, especially since around 2006, and that references to social science disciplines and concepts that foreground issues of social context are rare and, relatively speaking, constitute less of the field post 2006. More quantifiable concepts are used most, and those more close to the complexities of social context are mentioned least. The document co-citation analysis suggests that pre 2006, documents referring to social context were relatively diffuse in the network of key citations, but post 2006 this influence had largely diminished. The journal co-citation analysis shows less disciplinary overlap post 2006. At present, health behaviour interventions are continuing to focus on individualised approaches drawn from behavioural psychology and behavioural economics. Our findings lend empirical support to a number of recent

  7. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  8. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  9. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  10. Higher Education Trends for the Next Century: A Research Agenda for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia S., Ed.; Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight position papers on a research agenda in higher education. The papers are based on a three-year analysis of trends and feedback deriving from conferences and Website presentations. Each paper ends with a list of specific proposed research questions. Following an introduction by Cynthia S. Johnson, the papers…

  11. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  12. Recent research trends in the use of predators for biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We focus on recent interesting research trends in biological control using predators by selecting four areas of current research: 1) Intraguild predation (IGP): defined as the “killing and eating of species that use similar resources and are thus potential competitors”. In biological control, the si...

  13. Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in Distance Education: Communication, Pedagogy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Eby, Gulsun, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of distance education in the post-modern world, progressive research on the best methods, tools, and technologies in the field is necessary to continue to take advantage of the pedagogical opportunities and improvements offered through remote learning platforms. The "Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in…

  14. Academic/Research Librarians with Subject Doctorates: Data and Trends 1965-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Thea; Gilman, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The topic of academic/research librarians with subject doctorates is largely unexplored in the literature, despite recent efforts to recruit them. Based on survey data gathered from non-LIS doctorate holders currently working in U.S. and Canadian academic/research libraries, this article highlights data and trends relating to these librarians,…

  15. Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in Distance Education: Communication, Pedagogy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Eby, Gulsun, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of distance education in the post-modern world, progressive research on the best methods, tools, and technologies in the field is necessary to continue to take advantage of the pedagogical opportunities and improvements offered through remote learning platforms. The "Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in…

  16. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  17. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  18. Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu

    2001-01-01

    Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…

  19. The Nature and Trends in Research and Journal Literature in English Speaking Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba; Badu, Ellis

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study that examined three major international library science journals to investigate the nature and trends of library and information science research in Africa from 1990 through 1992. Highlights include status of authors, gender, affiliation, country, types of research, types of cited documents, subjects covered, and most cited…

  20. Procedural intervention for arthrofibrosis after ACL reconstruction: trends over two decades.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas L; Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Bryan, Andrew J; Kremers, Walter K; Stuart, Michael J; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-02-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a rare complication after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to (1) report a population-based incidence of arthrofibrosis (as defined by manipulation under anaesthesia or surgical lysis of adhesions) following ACL injury and reconstruction, (2) identify risk factors associated with development of arthrofibrosis, and (3) report outcomes of intervention for arthrofibrosis. This was a historical cohort study performed in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) was used to identify a population-based cohort of individuals with new-onset, isolated ACL tears between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2010. The REP database provides access to all medical records for each resident of Olmsted County, regardless of the facility where the care was delivered. A total of 1841 individuals were identified with new-onset, isolated ACL tears and were confirmed with chart review. The intervention incidence for arthrofibrosis was then calculated, and various predictive factors including age, sex, calendar year, and meniscal injury were investigated. During follow-up, 5 patients (1.0 %) in the non-operative cohort and 23 patients (1.7 %) in the ACL reconstruction cohort received intervention for arthrofibrosis, corresponding to an incidence of 0.7 per 1000 person-years in the non-operative cohort and 1.9 per 1000 person-years in the ACL reconstruction cohort. Female patients were 2.5 times more likely to have arthrofibrosis than males. The mean preoperative range of motion was -8° to 83° and improved to a mean of -2° to 127° post-operatively. Arthrofibrosis remains a rare but potentially devastating complication after ACL reconstruction, and roughly 2 % of patients had post-operative stiffness that required intervention. Female patients are at higher risk of arthrofibrosis. However, when patients develop severe motion complications after ACL injury, interventions are generally effective in

  1. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  2. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  3. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  4. Advancing Intervention Research in School Psychology: Finding the Balance between Process and Outcome for Social and Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…

  5. Conducting Intervention Research among Underserved Populations: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna I.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Blanchard, Jeanine; Florindez, Lucia; Clark, Florence A.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard in research design for establishing treatment efficacy. However, the rigorous and highly controlled conditions of RCTs can be difficult to attain when conducting research among individuals living with a confluence of disability, low socioeconomic status, and being a member of a racial/ethnic minority group, who may be more likely to have unstable life circumstances. Research on effective interventions for these groups is urgently needed, as evidence regarding approaches to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes is lacking. In this methodological paper we discuss the challenges and lessons learned in implementing the Lifestyle Redesign® for Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Spinal Cord Injury (LR-PUPS) study among a highly disadvantaged population. These issues are discussed in terms of strategies to enhance recruitment, retention, and intervention relevance to the target population. Recommendations for researchers seeking to conduct RCTs among socioeconomically disadvantaged, ethnically diverse populations are provided. PMID:23262157

  6. Short hospitalization after early intervention in managing grade III pancreatic injuries in children: a possible new trend.

    PubMed

    Al-Jazaeri, Ayman H

    2011-01-01

    The presence of ductal disruption in pancreatic trauma is a major indicator of severity leading to higher morbidities and prolonged hospital stay. However, the adoption of early interventional approach in selected cases of documented grade III pancreatic trauma could result in shorter hospitalization and early recovery. We are describing our approach of early presentation-tailored interventions in managing two consecutive children diagnosed with grade III pancreatic injuries, which constitute the two main ends of the presentations' spectrum. For the early presenter a spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed, while for the late presenter with large symptomatic pseudocyst endoscopic drainage was attempted. Both early and late presenting children had quick and uneventful recoveries leading to 5 and 6 days of hospitalization, respectively. Both cases continued to be asymptomatic at 4 and 12 months post procedure. In the pseudocyst case, the gastro-cystostomy stents were removed after 10 weeks, and 2.5 months later a completely healed pancreas was demonstrated by magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Unlike other abdominal solid organ injuries in children, adopting early presentation-tailored intervention can be associated with quicker recovery and short hospitalization for grade III pancreatic injuries. While the series is still small, achieving such remarkable outcomes in two consecutive cases is possible and could set a new trend in managing these injuries in children.

  7. The Use of Google Trends in Health Care Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sudhakar V.; Wayda, Brian; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Wang, Sisi; Dreyer, Rachel P.; Chen, Serene I.; Murugiah, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research. Methods and Findings PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers systematically identified studies utilizing Google Trends for health care research from MEDLINE and PubMed. Seventy studies met our inclusion criteria. Google Trends publications increased seven-fold from 2009 to 2013. Studies were classified into four topic domains: infectious disease (27% of articles), mental health and substance use (24%), other non-communicable diseases (16%), and general population behavior (33%). By use, 27% of articles utilized Google Trends for casual inference, 39% for description, and 34% for surveillance. Among surveillance studies, 92% were validated against a reference standard data source, and 80% of studies using correlation had a correlation statistic ≥0.70. Overall, 67% of articles provided a rationale for their search input. However, only 7% of articles were reproducible based on complete documentation of search strategy. We present a checklist to facilitate appropriate methodological documentation for future studies. A limitation of the study is the challenge of classifying heterogeneous studies utilizing a novel data source. Conclusion Google Trends is being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains in myriad ways. However, poor documentation of methods precludes the reproducibility of the findings. Such documentation would enable other researchers to determine the consistency of results provided by Google Trends for a well

  8. The use of google trends in health care research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sudhakar V; Wayda, Brian; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Wang, Sisi; Dreyer, Rachel P; Chen, Serene I; Murugiah, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers systematically identified studies utilizing Google Trends for health care research from MEDLINE and PubMed. Seventy studies met our inclusion criteria. Google Trends publications increased seven-fold from 2009 to 2013. Studies were classified into four topic domains: infectious disease (27% of articles), mental health and substance use (24%), other non-communicable diseases (16%), and general population behavior (33%). By use, 27% of articles utilized Google Trends for casual inference, 39% for description, and 34% for surveillance. Among surveillance studies, 92% were validated against a reference standard data source, and 80% of studies using correlation had a correlation statistic ≥0.70. Overall, 67% of articles provided a rationale for their search input. However, only 7% of articles were reproducible based on complete documentation of search strategy. We present a checklist to facilitate appropriate methodological documentation for future studies. A limitation of the study is the challenge of classifying heterogeneous studies utilizing a novel data source. Google Trends is being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains in myriad ways. However, poor documentation of methods precludes the reproducibility of the findings. Such documentation would enable other researchers to determine the consistency of results provided by Google Trends for a well-specified query over time. Furthermore, greater

  9. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report - Year 1. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the first year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, a research program to devise and evaluate different aspects of educational intervention with children, ages 1-4 years, with moderate to severe development problems (primarily mental retardation). Described are the children who composed the intervention group,…

  10. From Dynamic Assessment of Cognitive Abilities to Educational Interventions: Trends in Cognitive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcíková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Having spent over two decades training teachers, Iveta Kovalcíková writes in this editorial that she has lately been attracted by ideas bridging the growing gap between neurological and psychological research findings and their practical application in practice. Here she argues that outcomes of research on learning processes are insufficiently…

  11. From Dynamic Assessment of Cognitive Abilities to Educational Interventions: Trends in Cognitive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcíková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Having spent over two decades training teachers, Iveta Kovalcíková writes in this editorial that she has lately been attracted by ideas bridging the growing gap between neurological and psychological research findings and their practical application in practice. Here she argues that outcomes of research on learning processes are insufficiently…

  12. Trends in antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery following community and health facility systems strengthening interventions in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality remains high in Uganda; largely due to inadequate antenatal care (ANC), low skilled deliveries and poor quality of other maternal health services. In order to address both the demand and quality of ANC and skilled deliveries, we introduced community mobilization and health facility capacity strengthening interventions. Methods Interventions were introduced between January 2010 and September 2011. These included: training health workers, provision of medical supplies, community mobilization using village health teams, music dance and drama groups and male partner access clubs. These activities were implemented at Kitgum Matidi health center III and its catchment area. Routinely collected health facility data on selected outcomes in the year preceding the interventions and after 21 months of implementation of the interventions was reviewed. Trend analysis was performed using excel and statistical significance testing was performed using EPINFO StatCal option. Results The number of pregnant women attending the first ANC visit significantly increased from 114 to 150 in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.39–2.12) and to 202 in the third quarter of 2011(OR 11.41; 95% CI 7.97–16.34). The number of pregnant women counselled, tested and given results for HIV during the first ANC attendance significantly rose from 92 (80.7%) to 146 (97.3%) in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 and then to 201 (99.5%) in the third quarter of 2011. The number of male partners counseled, tested and given results together with their wives at first ANC visit rose from 13 (16.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 130 (89%) in the fourth quarter of 2010 and to 180 (89.6%) in the third quarter of 2011. There was a significant rise in the number of pregnant women delivering in the health facility with provision of mama-kits (delivery kits), from 74 (55.2%) to 149 (99.3%) in the second and fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions

  13. Current trends in BPD research as indicative of a broader sea-change in psychiatric nosology.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD. This paper discusses how these trends (Dimensions, Biology, and Development) are challenging the nature and form of BPD as we know it, and may be indicative of a broader sea-change in psychiatric nosology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  15. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  16. Developmentally-Appropriate Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for Adolescents: Rationale, Review of Interventions, and Recommendations for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and

  17. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  18. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  19. What Does Research Tell Us about Trends in Dissertations on PBL?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Tolga

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the research trends in dissertations on PBL from 2002 to 2015 in Turkey. For this purpose, the master's and doctorate dissertations in the National Thesis Database of Council of Higher Education (CoHE) were selected for rigorous content analysis. The analysis was utilized to classify the type of study, the…

  20. Trend of Increasingly Higher Units Attempted by Students Continues. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2005-01-01

    This July 2005 Research presents an analysis of the changing picture of average units attempted by students who attend the four Los Rios colleges in Sacramento, California--American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and Sacramento City College. Beginning in 2000 a six-year trend of declining average units attempted by Los…

  1. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  2. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  3. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research: Providing Trended Nurse-Sensitive Patient Outcome Data Across Entities.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Karen H; Reeder, Blaine; Bondy, Jessica; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Weiss, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Nurse leaders lack timely access to trended electronic health record (EHR) data to drive decision making. Robust nurse-sensitive patient outcome data are difficult to locate in EHRs and largely absent across entities. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research is currently testing a federated data system to get nurse leaders the information they need, when they need it.

  4. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  5. Research Trends and Issues in Educational Technology: A Content Analysis of TOJET (2008-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkaya, Mujgan; Aydin, Irem Erdem; Kumtepe, Evrim Genc

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the contents of articles published in the Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET) between 2008 and 2011. General aim of the study is to review on what trends, issues and research methods on which studies of educational technology have concentrated in the last four years. Thus, articles…

  6. Trends and Issues in Educational Technologies: A Review of Recent Research in TOJET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Ayfer; Gulbahar, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to investigate the articles published between 2003-2007 in "Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology" ("TOJET") in order to reveal the trends and issues addressed in this electronic journal for the field of educational technology. The specific purposes of this article are to reveal: (1) the methodologies…

  7. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  8. An Analysis of Research Trends in Articles on Video Usage in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslibeyaz, Elif; Aydemir, Melike; Karaman, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    Using technology in medical education has drawn the attention of researchers in the last several years. Especially, videos have been found to promote effective learning in medical education. This study aims to examine general trends and results of articles investigating video usage in medical education and published in SSCI and ERIC journals from…

  9. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  10. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  11. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  12. Current Topics and Trends in Military Dental Research: A Tri-Service Panel Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-09

    submitted for review and approval.) NIA 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: CURRENT TOPICS AND TRENDS IN MJLITA RY DENTAL RESEARCH: A... NIA 43. DATE RECEIVED 1 44. SENIOR AUTHOR NOTIFIED BY PHONE OF APPROVAL OR DISAPPROVAL D YES D NO D COULD NOT BE REACHED D LEFT MESSAGE 45

  13. Job Satisfaction: Is There a Trend? Manpower Research Monograph No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.; And Others

    A detailed review is presented of some of the major research on job satisfaction conducted in the past 40 years. The information is discussed in five major sections, each introduced by a series of related questions, under the following headings: national trends in job satisfaction, 1958-73; distribution of job satisfaction in the work force (by…

  14. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  15. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  16. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  17. Youth Who "Age Out" of Foster Care: Troubled Lives, Troubling Prospects. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard

    Noting that the population of foster children who "age out" of the foster care system may be even more at risk than other foster children, this research brief summarizes a longer report examining trends in foster care in the United States, the number and needs of those aging out of the system, and public policy implications. The brief indicates…

  18. Methodological Trends in Secondary Education and Transition Research: Looking Backward and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Brock, Matthew E.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Bartholomew, Audrey; Boehm, Thomas L.; Cease-Cook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing policy and practice in the field of transition emphasizes the importance of designing services and supports based on research-based practices. We reviewed every article published across the 35-year history of "Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals" (CDTEI) to document methodological trends in research…

  19. Novel data sources for women's health research: mapping breast screening online information seeking through Google trends.

    PubMed

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C; Hall, Kelli S; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2014-09-01

    Millions of people use online search engines everyday to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker's behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows Internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information-seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. To capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the Web search query "dense breast" was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information-seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of "dense breast". Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for "dense breast" on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical interventions for venous leg ulcers: Proposals to improve the quality of clinical leg ulcer research.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Gerald S; Kirsner, Robert S; Zenilman, Jonathan; Valle, M Frances; Margolis, David J; Cullum, Nicky; Driver, Vickie R; Gould, Lisa; Lindsay, Ellie; Tunis, Sean; Marston, William; Bass, Eric; Ennis, William; Davidson, Jeffrey; Bowden, Jeremy

    2016-09-01

    The present status of clinical leg ulcer healing research was reviewed by 25 experts over 2 days on September 28 and 29, 2015. Multiple clinical effectiveness reviews were presented suggesting that published clinical wound healing research often does not meet present (2015) evidence based standards. Specific areas requiring remediation were highlighted and approaches to overcoming existing challenges were proposed. Participants using anonymous voting technology developed an action plan to resolve perceived deficiencies. Statements were accepted if 75% of participants agreed. Older patients with a high frequency of comorbid conditions posed particular difficulties in designing clinical research protocols and better diagnostic categorization is necessary A standardized model template for collecting information about diagnosis and evaluation of the effect of interventions on healing of all types of leg ulcers was considered a high priority. Such a model template could be modified depending on the specific etiology of the leg ulcers. Generally agreed on quantifiable standards to establish degree of morbidity was considered a high priority. There was universal agreement that sources of funding and conflicts of interest needed to be disclosed in presentations and all publications. All clinical research studies should be registered with appropriate authorities. There was substantial enthusiasm for a clinical research network with quality standards for membership and an advisory research core available to investigators. Such a network should be funded and actively managed to insure long-term viability. The governance of such an entity needs to be established by the wound care community. The present trend to integrate patients into the clinical research process was endorsed and there was enthusiasm to develop patient advocacy for wound healing research.

  1. Recent trends in working with the private sector to improve basic healthcare: a review of evidence and interventions.

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine; Berman, Peter; Penn, Amy; Visconti, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The private sector provides the majority of health care in Africa and Asia. A number of interventions have, for many years, applied different models of subsidy, support and engagement to address social and efficiency failures in private health care markets. We have conducted a review of these models, and the evidence in support of them, to better understand what interventions are currently common, and to what extent practice is based on evidence. Using established typologies, we examined five models of intervention with private markets for care: commodity social marketing, social franchising, contracting, accreditation and vouchers. We conducted a systematic review of both published and grey literature, identifying programmes large enough to be cited in publications, and studies of the listed intervention types. 343 studies were included in the review, including both published and grey literature. Three hundred and eighty programmes were identified, the earliest having begun operation in 1955. Commodity social marketing programmes were the most common intervention type, with 110 documented programmes operating for condoms alone at the highest period. Existing evidence shows that these models can improve access and utilization, and possibly quality, but for all programme types, the overall evidence base remains weak, with practice in private sector engagement consistently moving in advance of evidence. Future research should address key questions concerning the impact of interventions on the market as a whole, the distribution of benefits by socio-economic status, the potential for scale up and sustainability, cost-effectiveness compared to relevant alternatives and the risk of unintended consequences. Alongside better data, a stronger conceptual basis linking programme design and outcomes to context is also required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Conceptualizing Changes in Behavior in Intervention Research: The Range of Possible Changes Model

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    An international movement has focused on identifying evidence-based interventions: Interventions that were developed to change psychological constructs, and have evidence from controlled studies on their behalf. However, inconsistent findings within individual intervention studies and among multiple studies of the same intervention raise critical problems for interpreting the evidence, and deciding when and whether an intervention is evidence-based. A theoretical and methodological framework (Range of Possible Changes [RPC] Model) is proposed to guide the study of change in intervention research. We recommend that future quantitative reviews of the research literature use the RPC Model to conceptualize, examine, and classify the available evidence for interventions. Further, future research should adopt the RPC Model to both develop theory-driven hypotheses and conduct examinations of the instances in which interventions may or may not change psychological constructs. PMID:16802881

  3. Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Rachael; Wihak, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1) discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2) review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3) discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain. PMID:28165415

  4. Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Kun Sei; Sim, Sung Bo; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary angioplasty has been replacing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because of the relative advantage in terms of recovery time and noninvasiveness of the procedure. Compared to other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Korea has experienced a rapid increase in coronary angioplasty volumes. Methods We analyzed changes in procedure volumes of CABG and of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from three sources: the OECD Health Data, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) surgery statistics, and the National Health Insurance claims data. Results We found the ratio of procedure volume of PCI to that of CABG per 100,000 population was 19.12 in 2014, which was more than triple the OECD average of 5.92 for the same year. According to data from NHIS statistics, this ratio was an increase from 11.4 to 19.3 between 2006 and 2013. Conclusion We found that Korea has a higher ratio of total procedure volumes of PCI with respect to CABG and also a more rapid increase of volumes of PCI than other countries. Prospective studies are required to determine whether this increase in absolute volumes of PCI is a natural response to a real medical need or representative of medical overuse. PMID:28035299

  5. Emerging medical informatics research trends detection based on MeSH terms.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Peng-Hui; Yao, Qiang; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Shi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the research trends of medical informatics over the last 12 years. A new method based on MeSH terms was proposed to identify emerging topics and trends of medical informatics research. Informetric methods and visualization technologies were applied to investigate research trends of medical informatics. The metric of perspective factor (PF) embedding MeSH terms was appropriately employed to assess the perspective quality for journals. The emerging MeSH terms have changed dramatically over the last 12 years, identifying two stages of medical informatics: the "medical imaging stage" and the "medical informatics stage". The focus of medical informatics has shifted from acquisition and storage of healthcare data by integrating computational, informational, cognitive and organizational sciences to semantic analysis for problem solving and clinical decision-making. About 30 core journals were determined by Bradford's Law in the last 3 years in this area. These journals, with high PF values, have relative high perspective quality and lead the trend of medical informatics.

  6. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.

  7. Can Genetics Research Benefit Educational Interventions for All?

    PubMed

    Asbury, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pretty much everyone knows that our genes have at least something to do with how able or how high achieving we are. Some believe that we should not speak of this common knowledge, nor inquire into how genetic influence works or what it might mean. If we do not keep an open mind to the fact of genetic influence on academic achievement, however, then we cannot explore its possible implications. And if we do not consider the implications, then we cannot, as a society, harness any potential benefits or avoid possible pitfalls. So that's what this essay is about-exploring what behavioral genetics research might be able to offer to educational theory, policy, and practice. We cannot yet use biological information to make accurate predictions for all children. We do know, however, that academic achievement is heritable, which is to say that differences between individuals are influenced by differences in their DNA. If genes are part of the problem for some pupils (to take the negative spin on this), then it seems likely that studying them could be part of a solution. And that's what behavioral geneticists are trying to do-to chart and understand pathways from DNA to behavior and to identify interventions that can maximize outcomes for all. The fact is, though, that we have an awfully long way to go. © 2015 The Hastings Center.

  8. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report-Year II. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the second year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, which uses experimental research to devise and evaluate educational intervention techniques with approximately 28 normal or developmentally delayed children 1- to 4-years-old and their families. Described are researchers/teachers relationships, behavioral…

  9. A Systematic Review of the Free-Pour Assessment: Implications for Research, Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Kohn, Carolynn S; Schmerbauch, Megan; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-03-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major concern. Alcohol consumption data are typically collected via self-report questionnaires. However, research has suggested that individuals are unable to identify a standard drink size and that their self-report may be influenced by certain environmental conditions, calling into question the reliability and validity of self-report. The free-pour is an objective measure that may provide a clearer picture of current alcohol consumption trends, individuals' knowledge of standard drink sizes, and accuracy of self-report. This systematic review of existing free-pour assessment methods suggests that individuals are unable to identify and pour standard drink sizes, with the largest discrepancies occurring for liquor and wine pours and pours into larger and wider glasses. Additional variables that appear to influence pouring behavior are gender, pouring location (e.g., home or laboratory), pouring task (e.g., selecting a line or physically pouring), and drinking history; however, additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of these variables on pouring behavior. These findings have important implications for the accuracy of self-report measures, as well as clinical implications for alcohol use screenings, alcohol education courses, and brief interventions for alcohol use. The systematic review concludes with recommendations for practical applications and future research of the free-pour assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Global scientific trends on exosome research during 2007-2016: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiran; Wang, Qijin; Wei, Xianzhao; Shao, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Zicheng; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie; Li, Ming; Zhai, Xiao

    2017-07-18

    Exosomes are small vesicles of endosomal origin, and they can be used for the diagnosis and the treatment. However, limited data were for the evaluation of the trend of exosome researches. This study aims to investigate the trend of exosome researches and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations and authors. Exosome related publications from 2007 to 2016 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel, GraphPad Prism 5 and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the research trend. A total of 1852 papers were identified and were cited 62967 times. The United States accounted for 38.8% of the articles, 42.0% of the citations, and the highest H-index (76). China ranked the second in the number of articles, but the sixth in citation frequency (4337) and the fourth in H-index (36). The journals, PLoS ONE and J Biol Chem had the highest number of publications. The author, Gabrielsson S., has published the most papers in this field (22). The keyword "ribonucleic acid" was mentioned the most at 746 times, and the words, "stem cell", "drug resistance" and "monocyte cell factor" were the latest hotspots appeared around 2015. Literature growth related to exosome is expanding rapidly. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Recent studies focus on the relationship with tumor, and "stem cell", "drug resistance" and "michigan cancer foundation-7" may be the newest topics that should be closely followed in exosome research.

  11. Response to Intervention: A Research-Based Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Charles A.; Dexter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is an instructional framework through which schools can provide early intervention for students experiencing academic and behavioral difficulties. It is also promoted as an alternative to the IQ-discrepancy model for identifying students with learning disabilities. Most states have developed, or are developing,…

  12. Research into Interventions from a Cultural-Individual Innovation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Rudolf; Sleegers, Peter; Pelkmans, Ton

    2002-01-01

    Studied how teachers perceived the importance of the set of interventions of the teacher support program for the implementation of adaptive teaching. Nine schools and 129 teachers participated in the intervention; 36 of these participated in the evaluation. Data from questionnaires and interviews show that teachers attach considerable importance…

  13. Coaching with Parents in Early Intervention: An Interdisciplinary Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…

  14. Coaching with Parents in Early Intervention: An Interdisciplinary Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…

  15. Practical Applications of Response-to-Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Amy-Jane; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Parson, Lorien B.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2006-01-01

    Several approaches to response to intervention (RTI) described in the literature could be blended into an RTI model that would be effective in the schools. An effective RTI model should employ three fundamental variables: (a) systematic data collection to identify students in need, (b) effective implementation of interventions for adequate…

  16. Truancy Interventions: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphen, Richard D.; Ford, Janet P.; Flaherty, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the literature on evaluative studies of truancy interventions. Method: Included studies evaluating truancy interventions appearing in peer-reviewed academic journals from 1990 to 2007. Findings: In total, 16 studies were assessed. Eight studies used group comparison designs and eight studies…

  17. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  18. Principles of Early Intervention Reflected in Toddler Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Baker, Crystal; Hurwitz, Sarah; Benner, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This review examines how recommended practices for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are integrated into interventions in the first generation of research targeting toddlers with ASD. The purpose was not to review intervention effectiveness, which is addressed in other reviews; rather, it was to assess reported intervention methods in…

  19. Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Klingbeil, David A.; McKinley, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    Peer management intervention is a subtype of peer-mediated intervention that involves training individuals to implement standardized intervention protocols to modify the behavior of their peers. This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management…

  20. Principles of Early Intervention Reflected in Toddler Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Baker, Crystal; Hurwitz, Sarah; Benner, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This review examines how recommended practices for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are integrated into interventions in the first generation of research targeting toddlers with ASD. The purpose was not to review intervention effectiveness, which is addressed in other reviews; rather, it was to assess reported intervention methods in…

  1. Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Reichow, Brian; Tan, Paulo; Vaiouli, Potheini; Yildirim, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Recently emerging intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed through a systematic assessment of intervention outcomes, research rigor, and intervention features. The review includes published peer-reviewed experimental studies of toddlers with high risk for or diagnosis of ASD in which the majority of…

  2. [The radical psychiatry trend and intervention with women (a Californian experience).].

    PubMed

    Legault, G

    1983-01-01

    It was in the wake of the movement for a critical psychiatry, originated by Eric Berne, that the Radical psychiatry collective developed in Berkely California at the beginning of the 70's. Starting with an analysis of the dominant therapeutic intervention, which was seen alienating, and its resultant, an oppression of which the individual is unaware, the Collective teaches a new practice represented by the following equation : consciousness of one's oppression + contact with other in the same situation + action = liberation. This equation is intended to reply to the preceeding formula : oppression + unawareness of one's oppression + isolation = alienation. Utilizing the personality composant concepts elaborated in transactional analysis, that is the ego state : the Parent, the Adult, and the Child, the Collective shows that certain aspects of social Males, learned through socialization, are unequally and differently developed in men and women. Consequently, a harmonious meeting of man and woman is impossible. To resolve these difficulties, the Collective runs mixed therapeutic help, and women's groups. The latter, developed primarily by Hogie Wyckoff, take into consideration the specific oppression of women and help them to work on those qualities wich are insufficiently developed or undervalued by an inequitable capitalist society. The thrust of radical psychiatry associates the fundamental characteristics of capitalist society, principally human relation, and the problems of everyday individual experience. It also demonstrates the logical ordeming of social males - limiting and unsatisfactory by functional -in such a society. The approach is highly interesting in relation to therapeutic practice with women in general, and more specifically, with social and health service clients. Nevertheless, the approach should not be limited to the sole consideration of the concrete and interactional factors involved in the relation between an intervener from the educated

  3. Trends in gel dosimetry: Preliminary bibliometric overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s 1984 paper onwards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.

    2017-05-01

    John Gore’s seminal 1984 paper on gel dosimetry spawned a vibrant research field ranging from fundamental science through to clinical applications. A preliminary bibliometric study was undertaken of the gel dosimetry family of publications inspired by, and resulting from, Gore’s original 1984 paper to determine active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s paper up to and including 2016. Themes and trends of the gel dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for all relevant papers from 1984 to 2016. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualisation tool to generate cluster maps of gel dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics in gel dosimetry.

  4. Trends in National Institutes of Health-Funded Congenital Heart Disease Research from 2005 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kristin M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schramm, Charlene A; Pearson, Gail D; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2017-06-01

    In an era of ongoing need for research to enable evidence-based care for the expanding population with congenital heart disease (CHD), economic fluctuations have impacted research funding. We characterize trends in NIH-funded CHD research from 2005 to 2015. We searched the NIH RePORTER database from 2005 to 2015 using the terms "congenital heart" and "cardiac morphogenesis". Projects were characterized by year, institute, mechanism, costs, type and topic, and funding trends were analyzed. From 2005 to 2015, NIH funded 633 CHD research projects with total costs of $991 million. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute funded 83% of CHD projects (528, $857 million). The R01 mechanism was used for 45% of projects (288, $421 million). Projects were 70% basic/early translational research, 27% clinical research, and 3% both. Cardiac developmental biology was the most common topic (52%), followed by technology/therapy development (15%), and diagnosis/management (12%). The total number of CHD projects ranged from 153 to 221 per year (30-58 new projects/year), and costs per year ranged from $58 to $116 million. The number of projects and total costs increased until 2012, but decreased again thereafter. CHD research did not experience as much erosion as overall NIH purchasing power; in constant dollars, CHD research funding levels in 2015 were $12 million higher than those in 2005. The NIH supported a diverse portfolio of CHD projects from 2005 to 2015. Support of CHD research projects trended upward until 2012, but declined thereafter due to fiscal austerity measures.

  5. History and Trends of "Personal Health Record" Research in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review history and trends of personal health record research in PubMed and to provide accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions. Methods For the search strategy, PubMed was queried for 'personal health record, personal record, and PHR' in the title and abstract fields. Those containing different definitions of the word were removed by one-by-one analysis from the results, 695 articles. In the end, total of 229 articles were analyzed in this research. Results The results show that the changes in terms over the years and the shift to patient centeredness and mixed usage. And we identified history and trend of PHR research in some category that the number of publications by year, topic, methodologies and target diseases. Also from analysis of MeSH terms, we can show the focal interest in regards the PHR boundaries and related subjects. Conclusions For PHRs to be efficiently used by general public, initial understanding of the history and trends of PHR research may be helpful. Simultaneously, accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions that can lead to the development and growth of PHRs will be valuable to their adoption and expansion. PMID:21818452

  6. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior Accepted for publication in Current HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  7. Trends of triple negative breast cancer research (2007-2015): A bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie

    2016-11-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA), and VOSviewer (Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands) software were used to analyze the trend of TNBC research. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. A total of 1695 papers were identified and were cited 34,078 times with a time limit of May 27, 2016. The United States accounted for 43.10% of the articles, 57.59% of the citations, and the highest H-index (64). China ranked second in total number of articles, but seventh in citation frequency (1998) and ninth in H-index (21). The journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment had the highest number of publications. The author, Narod SA, has published the most papers in this field (30). The keyword "receptor" was mentioned the most, 1489 times, and the word "myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1)" was the latest hot spot by 2015. Literature growth related to TNBC is expanding rapidly in recent years. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Newest progress of the TNBC research may be released by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment first. Narod SA, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, and Hortobagyi GN may be good candidates for collaborative research in this field. MCL-1 is an emerging topic that should be closely observed.

  8. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  9. Analysis of miRNA market trends reveals hotspots of research activity.

    PubMed

    Oosta, Gary; Razvi, Enal

    2012-04-01

    We have conducted an analysis of the miRNA research marketplace by evaluating the publication trends in the field. In this article, we present the results of our analysis which reveals that hotspots exist in terms of research activities in the miRNA space--these hotspots illustrate the areas in the miRNA research space where specific miRNAs have been extensively studied, and other areas that represent new territory. We frame these data into the context of areas of opportunity for miRNA content harvest versus segments of opportunity for the development of research tools. Also presented in this article are the primary market data from online surveys we have performed with researchers involved in miRNA research around the world. Taken together, these data frame the current state of the miRNA marketplace and provide niches of opportunity for new entrants into this space.

  10. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580

  11. Research trends in studies of medical students’ characteristics: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate domestic and international research trends in studies of medical students’ characteristics by using the scoping review methods. This study adopted the scoping review to assess papers on the characteristics of medical students. The procedure of research was carried out according to the five steps of the scoping review. The full texts of 100 papers are obtained and are read closely, after which suitable 88 papers are extracted by us for this research. The review is mapped by the year of the study, source, location, author, research design, research subject, objective, and key results. The frequency is analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. We found 70 papers (79.5%) on a single medical school, 15 (17.0%) on multiple medical schools, and three (3.4%) on mixed schools, including medical and nonmedical schools. Sixty-nine (79.5%) were cross-sectional studies and 18 (20.5%) were longitudinal studies. Eighty-two papers (93.2%) adopted questionnaire surveys. We summarized research trends of studies on medical students in Korea and overseas by topic, and mapped them into physical health, mental health, psychological characteristics, cognitive characteristics, social characteristics, and career. This study provides insights into the future directions of research for the characteristics of medical students. PMID:28870017

  12. Research trends in studies of medical students' characteristics: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Kwi Hwa; Roh, HyeRin; Yune, So Jung; Lee, Geon Ho; Chun, Kyunghee

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate domestic and international research trends in studies of medical students' characteristics by using the scoping review methods. This study adopted the scoping review to assess papers on the characteristics of medical students. The procedure of research was carried out according to the five steps of the scoping review. The full texts of 100 papers are obtained and are read closely, after which suitable 88 papers are extracted by us for this research. The review is mapped by the year of the study, source, location, author, research design, research subject, objective, and key results. The frequency is analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. We found 70 papers (79.5%) on a single medical school, 15 (17.0%) on multiple medical schools, and three (3.4%) on mixed schools, including medical and nonmedical schools. Sixty-nine (79.5%) were cross-sectional studies and 18 (20.5%) were longitudinal studies. Eighty-two papers (93.2%) adopted questionnaire surveys. We summarized research trends of studies on medical students in Korea and overseas by topic, and mapped them into physical health, mental health, psychological characteristics, cognitive characteristics, social characteristics, and career. This study provides insights into the future directions of research for the characteristics of medical students.

  13. Research-Based Family Interventions for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Susan L.; Bellack, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    Well-controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy of a number of family-based psychosocial interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia. Reviews seven studies with long term follow-up. (Author)

  14. Trends in published meta-analyses in cancer research, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Ximena V; Clyne, Mindy; Lam, Tram Kim; Khoury, Muin J; Schully, Sheri D

    2017-01-01

    In order to capture trends in the contribution of epidemiology to cancer research, we describe an online meta-analysis database resource for cancer clinical and population research and illustrate trends and descriptive detail of cancer meta-analyses from 2008 through 2013. A total of 4,686 cancer meta-analyses met our inclusion criteria. During this 6-year period, a fivefold increase was observed in the yearly number of meta-analyses. Fifty-six percent of meta-analyses concerned observational studies, mostly of cancer risk, more than half of which were genetic studies. The major cancer sites were breast, colorectal, and digestive. This online database for Cancer Genomics and Epidemiology Navigator will be continuously updated to allow investigators to quickly navigate the meta-analyses emerging from cancer epidemiology studies and cancer clinical trials.

  15. Trends in unintentional injury mortality in Canadian children 1950-2009 and association with selected population-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sarah A; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Lokku, Armend; Macpherson, Alison; Howard, Andrew; Macarthur, Colin

    2016-12-27

    To examine unintentional injury mortality rates in children (0-19 years) in Canada from 1950 to 2009 against national population-level injury prevention interventions. Injury mortality rates were age and sex adjusted. Changes in trend and level of mortality rates were assessed at pre-specified intervention periods using segmented linear regression analyses for interrupted time series. Maximum likelihood estimation was used with a second order autoregressive error process. From 1950 to 2009, the overall unintentional injury mortality rate decreased by 86%. Males had consistently higher mortality rates compared to females; however, the standardized rate ratio decreased from 2.37:1 in 1950 to 1.97:1 in 2009. Substantial declines in choking/suffocation deaths were noted in children less than 1 year of age, predominantly during the period 1970-1988 when the Hazardous Products Act and Crib Regulations were implemented. For burns, significant changes in slope were noted comparing 1972-1994 to pre-1971 (introduction of the Hazardous Products Act - Flammability Regulations), where the greatest decline was noted in children ages 1-4 years (Est. = -0.03, 95% CI = -0.02, -0.04). For 15-19 year olds, there was a 408% increase in motor vehicle collision-related mortality rates between 1950 and 1971; however a significant change in slope was noted during the period 1978-1985, compared to 1972-1977 (Est. = -0.10, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.007) across all age groups. While this study is not a cause and effect analysis, there is a strong association with implementation of safety campaigns and legislative changes related to child safety and a dramatic decline in childhood fatalities related to injury.

  16. Temporal Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Associated Acute Cerebrovascular Accident (From the 1998–2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample [NIS] Database)

    PubMed Central

    Shivaraju, Anupama; Yu, Changhong; Kattan, Michael W.; Xie, Hui; Shroff, Adhir R.; Vidovich, Mladen I.

    2014-01-01

    Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008 was utilized to identify 1,552,602 PCIs performed for ACS and CAD. We assessed temporal trends in the incidence, predictors and prognostic impact of CVA in a broad range of patients undergoing PCI. The overall incidence of CVA was 0.56% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55%–0.57%). The incidence of CVA remained unchanged over the study period (adjusted p for trend = 0.2271). The overall mortality in the CVA group was 10.76% (95% CI, 10.1%–11.4%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of CVA for in-hospital mortality was 7.74 (95% CI, 7.00–8.57; p<0.0001); this remained high but decreased over the study period (adjusted p for trend <0.0001). Independent predictors of CVA included older age (OR, 1.03, 95% CI, 1.02–1.03; p<0.0001), disorder of lipid metabolism (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.24–1.38; p<0.001), history of tobacco use (OR, 1.21, 95% CI, 1.10–1.34; p=0.0002), coronary atherosclerosis (OR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.43–1.71; p<0.0001), and IABP use (OR 1.39, 95% CI, 1.09–1.77; p=0.0073). A nomogram for predicting the probability of CVA achieved a concordance index of 0.73 and was well calibrated. In conclusion, the incidence of CVA associated with PCI has remained unchanged from 1998–2008 in face of improved equipment, techniques and adjunctive pharmacology. The risk of CVA associated in-hospital mortality is high; however, this risk has declined over the study period. PMID:24952927

  17. Temporal trends in percutaneous coronary intervention--associated acute cerebrovascular accident (from the 1998 to 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database).

    PubMed

    Shivaraju, Anupama; Yu, Changhong; Kattan, Michael W; Xie, Hui; Shroff, Adhir R; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2014-07-15

    Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome and coronary artery disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008 was used to identify 1,552,602 PCIs performed for acute coronary syndrome and coronary artery disease. We assessed temporal trends in the incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of CVA in a broad range of patients undergoing PCI. The overall incidence of CVA was 0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.57). The incidence of CVA remained unchanged over the study period (adjusted p for trend=0.2271). The overall mortality rate in the CVA group was 10.76% (95% CI 10.1 to 11.4). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of CVA for in-hospital mortality was 7.74 (95% CI 7.00 to 8.57, p<0.0001); this remained high but decreased over the study period (adjusted p for trend<0.0001). Independent predictors of CVA included older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03, p<0.0001), disorder of lipid metabolism (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.38, p<0.001), history of tobacco use (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.34, p=0.0002), coronary atherosclerosis (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.71, p<0.0001), and intra-aortic balloon pump use (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.77, p=0.0073). A nomogram for predicting the probability of CVA achieved a concordance index of 0.73 and was well calibrated. In conclusion, the incidence of CVA associated with PCI has remained unchanged from 1998 to 2008 in face of improved equipment, techniques, and adjunctive pharmacology. The risk of CVA-associated in-hospital mortality is high; however, this risk has decreased over the study period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Visualization of e-Health Research Topics and Current Trends Using Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jeong, Senator; Kang, Byeong-Gwon; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    2015-05-01

    E-health has been grown rapidly with significant impact on quality and safety of healthcare. However, there is a large gap between the postulated and empirically demonstrated benefits of e-health technologies and a need for a clearer mapping of its conceptual domains. Therefore, this study aimed to critically review the main research topics and trends of international e-health through social network analysis. Medical subject heading terms were used to retrieve 3,023 research articles published from 1979 through 2014 in the PubMed database. We extracted n-grams from the corpus using a text analysis program, generated co-occurrence networks, and then analyzed and visualized the networks using Pajek software. The hub and authority measures identified the most important research topics in e-health. Newly emerging topics by 4-year period units were identified as research trends. The most important research topics in e-health are personal health records (PHR), health information technology, primary care, mobile health, clinical decision support systems (CDSS), and so on. The eight groups obtained through ego network analysis can be divided into four semantically different areas, as follows: information technology, infrastructure, services, and subjects. Also, four historical trends in e-health research are identified: the first focusing on e-health and telemedicine; the second, PHR and monitoring; the third, CDSS and alert; and the fourth, mobile health and health literacy. This study promotes a systematic understanding of e-health by identifying topic networks, thereby contributing to the future direction of e-health research and education.

  19. Trends in Food Research and Development: A Survey of the Commercial Food Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    panies. The survey response rate of 68% compared favorably with another survey of many of the same companies by Food Processing Magazine , which...Security Classification) TRENDS IN FOOD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: A SURVEY OF THE COMMERICAL FOOD INDUSTRY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) STEPHEN A. REI 13a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 16. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RATIONS FOOD

  20. [Research status and development trends of the heart valve mechanical properties].

    PubMed

    Li, Yusheng; Zeng, Pei; Ren, Guorong

    2014-10-01

    The study of mechanical properties on heart valves can provide an important theoretical basis for doctors to repair heart valves and prosthetic valve materials research. In this paper, we present the current status of the mechanical property study methods of heart valve, expound the methods and special requirements about uniaxial tensile test and biaxial tensile test of the heart valve, and further discuss several establishment methods of heart valve constitutive models. We also discuss the development trend of heart valve mechanics.

  1. Usability, learnability and performance evaluation of Intelligent Research and Intervention Software: A delivery platform for eHealth interventions.

    PubMed

    Wozney, Lori; McGrath, Patrick J; Newton, Amanda; Huguet, Anna; Franklin, Marcia; Perri, Kaitlin; Leuschen, K; Toombs, Elaine; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of an eHealth platform, Intelligent Research and Intervention Software was undertaken via cross-sectional survey of staff users and application performance monitoring. The platform is used to deliver psychosocial interventions across a range of clinical contexts, project scopes, and delivery modalities (e.g. hybrid telehealth, fully online self-managed, randomized control trials, and clinical service delivery). Intelligent Research and Intervention Software supports persuasive technology elements (e.g. tailoring, reminders, and personalization) as well as staff management tools. Results from the System Usability Scale involving 30 Staff and Administrative users across multiple projects were positive with overall mean score of 70 ("Acceptable"). The mean score for "Usability" sub-scale was 82 and for "Learnability" sub-scale 61. There were no significant differences in perceptions of usability across user groups or levels of experience. Application performance management analytics (e.g. Application Performance Index scores) across two test sites indicate the software platform is robust and reliable when compared to industry standards. Intelligent Research and Intervention Software is successfully operating as a flexible platform for creating, delivering, and evaluating eHealth interventions.

  2. Elaborating Developmental Contextualism in Adolescent Research and Intervention: Paradigm Contributions from Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined shared paradigm assumptions between developmental contextualism and community psychology, including: models for understanding social context; sociocultural influences; research methods for investigating relations between people and contexts; empowerment; and ethical issues in research and intervention. Purpose was to promote discussion…

  3. Artificial lungs: current state and trends of clinical use and research and development.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2007-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the field of artificial lungs, centering on the current state and trends in clinical use and research and development. Trends in the recent clinical use in Japan can be found in shipment-number-based surveys as well as in the questionnaire surveys for clinical extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS). It is likely that the use of artificial lungs for open-heart surgery has peaked, and this can be attributed to the rapid expansion and popularization of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. In contrast, the increase in the number of artificial lungs used in assisted circulation cases is showing significant growth. Along with such clinical trends, research and development toward next-generation systems is active in the field of assisted circulation, focusing on emergency or long-term use of PCPS or ECMO. Approaches include enhancing the performance of conventional systems in terms of long-term durability and hemocompatibility, developing a novel device by integrating the oxygenator with the blood pump, and developing an implantable type of artificial lung such as an intravenous oxygenator. Next-generation devices not only will benefit a multitude of patients but also represent an important target with the prospect for expansion of the market for artificial lungs. In the future, further expansion of research and development in this field, as well as progress in practical and clinical applications of innovative devices, is expected.

  4. Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis of Doctoral Research: Research Trends in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jason Kirtland

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated research topics of doctoral dissertations that examined issues in distance learning from 2000-2014. Twelve reviews of research on distance learning, spanning from 1997-2015, were identified. It was found that only one of these reviews of research (Davies, Howell, & Petri, 2010) looked at doctoral dissertations. The…

  5. Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis of Doctoral Research: Research Trends in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jason Kirtland

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated research topics of doctoral dissertations that examined issues in distance learning from 2000-2014. Twelve reviews of research on distance learning, spanning from 1997-2015, were identified. It was found that only one of these reviews of research (Davies, Howell, & Petri, 2010) looked at doctoral dissertations. The…

  6. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Are the Costs and Benefits? Congressional Research Briefing Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Currie, Janet; Besharov, Douglas J.

    While recent research in cognitive development suggests that the period from birth to age 3 provides a unique opportunity for interventions to change the life-course of children, there is great disagreement regarding the best means of allocating public funds toward early childhood intervention. Further, there is little research into the long-term…

  7. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  8. Bridging Mental Health and Education in Urban Elementary Schools: Participatory Research to Inform Intervention Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Jackson, Daisy R.; Bilal, Caroline; Hamre, Bridget K.; Soule, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health…

  9. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  10. Mathematics Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, C. J.; Powell, S. R.; King, S. A.; Davidson, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. Method: The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically…

  11. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether and to what extent researchers addressed intervention fidelity in research of after-school programs serving at-risk students. Method: Systematic review procedures were used to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies for this review. Fifty-five intervention studies were assessed on the following…

  12. Research on Animal-Assisted Intervention and Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2012-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2017-01-01

    Including animals in autism intervention is growing in both research and practice. A systematic literature review was conducted to collate and synthesize all empirical research on animal-assisted intervention (AAI) for autism published from 2012 to 2015. Findings from 28 included studies revealed that AAI programs generally include one animal per…

  13. Mathematics Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, C. J.; Powell, S. R.; King, S. A.; Davidson, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. Method: The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically…

  14. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  15. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  16. Bridging Mental Health and Education in Urban Elementary Schools: Participatory Research to Inform Intervention Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Jackson, Daisy R.; Bilal, Caroline; Hamre, Bridget K.; Soule, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health…

  17. The Status of Intervention Research in HRD: Assessment of an Applied Discipline and Potential for Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Lindsay Elizabeth; Garza, Natalie M.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Dzirasa, Victor A.; Hutt, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the quantity, nature and frequency of intervention research published in Human Resource Development (HRD) journals. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology for this study was a literature review, analysis and synthesis with specific attention to locating intervention research in HRD journals.…

  18. The Status of Intervention Research in HRD: Assessment of an Applied Discipline and Potential for Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Lindsay Elizabeth; Garza, Natalie M.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Dzirasa, Victor A.; Hutt, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the quantity, nature and frequency of intervention research published in Human Resource Development (HRD) journals. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology for this study was a literature review, analysis and synthesis with specific attention to locating intervention research in HRD journals.…

  19. Using Research Evidence to Inform and Evaluate Early Childhood Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    This article includes descriptions of a process used to conduct practice-based research syntheses and the manner in which synthesis findings are used to inform and evaluate early childhood intervention practices. The main focus of a practice-based research synthesis is the unbundling of an intervention practice to identify those practice…

  20. [Trends of research articles in the Korean Journal of Medical Education by social network analysis].

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Shin, Sein

    2015-12-01

    This aim of this study is to examine trends in medical education research in the Korean Journal of Medical Education(KJME) and suggest improvements for medical education research. The main variables were keywords from research papers that were published in KJME. Abstracts of papers (n=499) that were published from 1991 through 2015 were analyzed by social network analysis (NetMiner 4.0) a common research methodfor trends in academic subjects. The most central keywords were "medical education," "clinical competence," "medical student," and "curriculum." After introduction into graduate medical school, newly appearing keywords were "professional behavior," "medical humanities," "communication,"and "physician-patient relation." Based on these results, we generated a schematic of the network, in which the five groups before introduction to graduate medical school expanded to nine groups after introduction. Medical education research has been improving qualitatively and quantitatively, and research subjects have been expanded, subdivided, and specific. While KJME has encompassed medical education studies comprehensively, studies on medical students have risen in number. Thus, the studies that are published in KJME were consistent with the direction of journal and a new study on the changes in medical education is being conducted.

  1. Knowledge structure and theme trends analysis on general practitioner research: A Co-word perspective.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang; Yao, Qiang; Yang, Ying; Feng, Jun-Jian; Wu, Shu-de; Ji, Wen-Xue; Yao, Lan; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-29

    General practitioners (GPs) are the most important providers of primary health care, as proven by related research published several decades ago. However, the knowledge structure and theme trends of such research remain unclear. Accordingly, this study aimed to provide an overview of the development of research on GPs over the period of 1999 to 2014. Studies on GPs conducted from 1999 to 2014 were retrieved from PubMed. In this work, co-word, social network analysis, and theme trends analyses were conducted to reveal the knowledge structures and thematic evolution of research on GPs. The number of conducted studies on GPs increased. However, growth speed slowed down during the past 16 years. A total of 27 high-frequency keywords were identified in 1999 to 2003, and more new and specific high-frequency keywords emerged in the subsequent periods. The dynamic of this field was first divergent and then considered convergent. Specifically, network centralization is 19.77%, 19.09%, and 13.04% in 1999 to 2003, 2004 to 2008 and 2009 to 2014, respectively. The major topics of research on GPs completed from 1999 to 2014 were "physician/family,"attitude of health personnel," and "primary health care," and "general practitioner" communities, and so on. The research themes on GPs are relatively stable at the beginning of the 21(st) century. However, the thematic evolution and research topics of research on GPs are changing dynamically in recent years. Themes related to the roles and competencies of GPs, and the relations between general practitioner and patients/others have become research foci on GPs. In addition, more substantial research especially on comprehensive approaches and holistic modeling, which have been defined in the European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, are expected to be accomplished.

  2. Spatial and temporal overview of research in pediatric and congenital cardiology: trends and global challenges.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Martina; Kempny, Aleksander; Radke, Robert; Baumgartner, Helmut; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Available information on the global distribution of research output in pediatric cardiology (PC) is sparse. This study took a bibliometric approach to characterize research output, assess the level of competition, describe the geographic distribution of the leading research centers in the field, and investigate determinants of research output. In addition, the study characterized the journals publishing PC research and identified temporal trends in research interest over time. Publications presenting original research in PC between 1995 and 2011 were identified. A total of 9,410 relevant articles were identified based on a PubMed search followed by subsequent electronic filtering and manual review. A dramatic increase in PC publications was seen during the study period (from 309 in 1995 to 1,075 in 2011). This was accompanied by an increase in impact factors and an overproportional rise in PC contributions relative to the general PubMed trend. Research in PC was shown to be highly competitive and becoming increasingly so (Herfindahl-Hirschman index of 1.64%). Research output correlated with gross domestic product, national levels of corruption, education, urbanization, geography, and presence of national centers of excellence. The data presented in this report allow benchmarking of different cities and countries and provide insights into the potential determinants of high-quality publications and the spectrum of publishing journals. The report also highlights the central role of subspecialty journals and shows that PC research output is related to national wealth, surrogates of appropriate use of resources, an adequate workforce, and education. Additionally, it emphasizes the potential beneficial effects of establishing centers of excellence in the field.

  3. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Collins, Clare E; Hesketh, Kylie D; Young, Myles D; Burrows, Tracy L; Magarey, Anthea M; Brown, Helen L; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-11-08

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the 'Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being' stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.

  4. Data management for intervention effectiveness research: comparing deductive and inductive approaches.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Yu, Fang; Ramadoss, Vijay Kumar; Kerr, Madeleine J

    2009-12-01

    Management approaches are needed to prepare intervention data sets for research. We identified four management approaches and applied them to Omaha System intervention data from 15 home care agencies (621,385 interventions provided to 2,862 patients). Classifying intervention data created differing numbers of distinct groups for deductive approaches labeled as action category (four groups), theoretical (5), and clinical expert consensus (23). One inductive, data-driven approach generated 150 groups of interventions, of which 24 were meaningful and unique. Interventions in deductive groups were mutually exclusive, and approaches mapped readily according to intervention action terms. The novel, overlapping, inductive groups consisted of diverse actions for multiple problems. The four management approaches created meaningful intervention groups to be employed in future outcomes evaluation studies.

  5. Current state and research trend in light environment for plant factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Juro; Ohdoi, Katsuaki

    2013-05-01

    Plant factory has been attracting attention as a new system of food production, and there are approximately 130 commercially operated facilities in March 2012 in Japan. Currently, leafy vegetables are mainly produced in plant factory. However, not only year-round and agricultural chemical free production but new researches focused on high value-added vegetable production and raw material production for pharmaceutical compounds have been studied. This report outlines the recent trends in research on high-value-added plants using light environments.

  6. Twenty-year trends of authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2012-02-01

    This study documented the trends in authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and ISBS Proceedings. Original research articles of the 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009 volumes of these serials were reviewed, excluding reviews, modeling papers, technical notes, and editorials. Compared to 1989 volumes, the mean number of authors per paper significantly increased (35 and 100%, respectively) in the 2009 volumes, along with increased rates of hyperauthorship, and a decline in rates of single authorship. Sample sizes varied widely across papers and did not appear to change since 1989.

  7. Development of clinically meaningful complex interventions - the contribution of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Meyer, Gabriele; Hall, Elisabeth; Fegran, Liv; Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-06-01

    The debate about the "right" methods and designs for nursing research is on-going. According to international surveys, studies on the effectiveness and safety of nursing interventions are rare. Since nursing practice deals daily with interventions, nurses ostensibly expose hospital patients and nursing home residents frequently to unproven therapeutic and preventive nursing interventions. Nursing interventions are predominately of a complex nature, consisting of several components depending on and interacting with each other and their complex contextual factors. Thus, evaluation studies are often challenging and need especially careful development, ambitious designs and systematic evaluations. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) has proposed a framework, where qualitative and quantitative research rely on each other in order to develop theory-based complex interventions, prepare and conduct their optimal delivery, explain how the interventions work and which conditions contributed in case they did not work. The present essay outlines the points where qualitative research contributes towards the development and evaluation of complex interventions. First, the UK MRC framework is introduced, and secondly it is illustrated where qualitative research should necessarily be located using examples from a handful of qualitative studies. Future clinically meaningful and implementable nursing interventions should best be developed by research groups with both excellent qualitative and quantitative research skills.

  8. Commentary: New Directions in Developmentally Informed Intervention Research for Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Whipps, Mackenzie D M; Rojas, Natalia M

    2017-03-01

    This special section of Child Development brings together experts in developmental science and intervention research to incorporate current evidence on resilience for vulnerable populations and give concrete suggestions for action and research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of the articles, noting themes such as simultaneous attention to multiple risk, protective, and promotive processes; integrating new principles from clinical and therapeutic interventions; and adapting intervention approaches for new populations. It then describes additional directions for interventions to maximize resilience, including approaches that address social psychological processes, issues related to demographic and other forms of diversity, policy-related individual behaviors, and sequenced interventions across the life span. It also gives suggestions for integrating implementation science on expansion and scale with behavioral intervention science. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Distribution and trends of hematology and oncology research in Latin America: A decade of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Andrés M; Gómez, Alexandra; Becerra, Henry A; Ríos, Ana P; Zambrano, Paula C; Obando, Evelyn P; Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos A; Otero, Jorge M; Reveiz, Ludovic; Cardona, Andrés F

    2014-04-15

    Although hematology and oncology research is a highly relevant and evolving field, research contributions by Latin American countries, apart from Brazil, remain unclear. The authors performed a bibliometric analysis through a methodical search of the Latin American abstracts presented at 4 main hematology and oncology annual scientific meetings from 2000 to 2010. Latin American regional and national productivity was described through distribution and trend analyses; the subsequent percentage of full-text publications was also determined. In total, 2871 abstracts were identified, of which 1972 abstracts (68.7%) were determined to be original Latin American research and were included in the analysis. Brazil produced by far the most abstracts, with 51.1% of the total, followed by Argentina, Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Uruguay. Together, these 6 countries accounted for 95.2% of the abstracts. Latin America had a positive trend, registering an average increase of 21.5 abstracts per year (P < .001). Significant positive growth trends were observed for Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. Argentina and Uruguay were the most productive countries when considering the rate of abstract presentation per population. The full-text publication rate was 17.9%, and the median time to publication after presentation was 1 year. Brazil prevailed as the leading publishing country (60%), followed by Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Chile, and Cuba, all of which together published 96% of the full-text articles. Hematology and oncology research is increasing in Latin America, but this contribution remains limited to a few countries. There is also a low rate of full-text articles derived from annual scientific meetings. More extensive research is recommended. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Global trends of municipal solid waste research from 1997 to 2014 using bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haibin; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Yu; Yang, Yan; Man, Xin

    2015-10-01

    This study uses a bibliometric approach to identify global trends related to the municipal solid waste (MSW). It applies related literature in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (CPCI-SSH), retrieved from the ISI Web of Science. The data used covers the period from 1997 to 2014. Analyzed aspects included document type, and publication output as well as distribution of journals, subject category, countries, institutions, title-words, author keywords, and keywords plus. An evaluating indicator, citation score, was applied to characterize the MSW publications. The research outputs of MSW had steadily increased in the field of energy fuels, engineering chemical and biotechnology applied microbiology, especially environmental sciences and engineering environmental. The predominance of Chinese institutions in terms of article count and a predominance of industrialized countries' institutions in terms of citation score were compared. Finally, author keywords, words in title, and keywords plus were analyzed to provide research emphasis, with the developing trends and recent hotspots provided. A systematic overview of scientific literature dealing with municipal solid waste (MSW) is provided by a bibliometric analysis. The analysis of author keywords helps in drawing the research trends in a special perspective. Research studies on food waste, life cycle assessment (LCA), and renewable energy tend to be a new research focus in the area of MSW. The conclusions could provide a reference to the decision making and policy of MSW management for the government to some extent.

  11. New Clinical and Research Trends in Lower Extremity Management for Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348

  12. Trends in publication of general surgical research in New Zealand, 1996-2015.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cameron I; Robertson, Jason P; O'Grady, Gregory; Bissett, Ian P

    2017-01-01

    Recent analyses of the surgical literature have suggested a general trend towards increasing numbers of published articles and an improved quality of evidence produced. The aim of this bibliometric analysis was to identify trends in the publication of general surgical research in New Zealand from 1996 to 2015. Ovid MEDLINE was searched for general surgical publications by New Zealand authors. Two investigators screened results, and a range of data were collected for included articles. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data and identify significant trends. A total of 601 articles were identified, with a progressive increase in the number of publications from 1996 to 2015. Randomized trials and systematic reviews accounted for 33 and 97 publications, respectively. The median number of authors per paper rose from 3.0 to 5.0 (P < 0.001). There was an exponential increase in the publication of randomized trials (P = 0.001) and systematic reviews (P < 0.001), while publication of basic science articles remained relatively steady (P = 0.22). The median impact factor for published articles increased from 1.5 to 2.6, which was equivalent to organic growth of the journal impact factors over the 20-year period. The quality and quantity of surgical research in New Zealand has substantially increased over the past two decades. These results reflect the successful growth of a culture of academic surgery and the ongoing support of partner organizations. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. What We Are Learning about Mathematics Interventions and Conducting Research on Mathematics Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on four studies that have greatly expanded the knowledge base on effective interventions in mathematics, and he provides four rigorous experimental studies of approaches for students likely to experience difficulties learning mathematics over a large grade-level span (pre-K to 4th grade). All of the…

  14. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  15. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  16. Trends in Psychotherapy Process Research: Samples, Measures, Researchers, and Classic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychotherapy studies published in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) and "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" (JCCP) between 1978 and 1992. Found that JCP published mostly process, outcome, and analogue research, whereas JCCP published mostly outcome research. Most process and process-outcome studies across journals were…

  17. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. Results A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and

  18. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM

  19. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Ricky, Ed.

    This book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. It includes theoretical models of this relationship and examinations of its most important aspects, explorations of trauma-related assessment issues, and practical therapeutic interventions for use with juvenile delinquents. Chapters include: (1) "The Role…

  20. Interventions Promoting Educators' Use of Data: Research Insights and Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In recent years, states, districts, schools, and external partners have recognized the need to proactively foster the use of data to guide educational decision-making and practice. Understanding that data alone will not guarantee use, individuals at all levels have invested in interventions to support better access to,…