Science.gov

Sample records for research unit ura

  1. A novel method to design flexible URAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Haitao; Liu, Liren; Yang, Qingguo

    2007-05-01

    Aperture patterns play a vital role in coded aperture imaging (CAI) applications. In recent years, many approaches were presented to design optimum or near-optimum aperture patterns. Uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) are, undoubtedly, the most successful for constant sidelobe of their periodic autocorrelation function. Unfortunately, the existing methods can only be used to design URAs with a limited number of array sizes and fixed autocorrelation sidelobe-to-peak ratios. In this paper, we present a novel method to design more flexible URAs. Our approach is based on a searching program driven by DIRECT, a global optimization algorithm. We transform the design question to a mathematical model, based on the DIRECT algorithm, which is advantageous for computer implementation. By changing determinative conditions, we obtain two kinds of types of URAs, including the filled URAs which can be constructed by existing methods and the sparse URAs which have never been mentioned by other authors as far as we know. Finally, we carry out an experiment to demonstrate the imaging performance of the sparse URAs.

  2. A URA coded aperture camera for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.; Niki, H.; Yamada, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.

    1984-02-01

    A coded aperture camera using m-sequence URA (uniformly redundant arrays) pattern has been constructed for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) images. The URA camera is much brighter than a single pinhole camera, and then has high S/N. This URA camera has been successfully applied for the first time to take an X-ray image on a cannonball target. The tomographic capability of URA camera is improved by applying an iterative method.

  3. Urea enhances cell lysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ura4 mutants.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Kaino, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis. Ten kinds of compounds were detected in OXOID and BD yeast extracts, but not in Kyokuto yeast extract. Among them was urea, which was also present in polypeptone, and it clearly induced cell lysis. Deletion of the ure2 gene, which is responsible for utilizing urea, abolished the lytic effect of urea. The effect of urea was suppressed by deletion of pub1, and a similar phenotype was observed in the presence of polypeptone. Thus, urea is an inducer of cell lysis in S. pombe ∆ura4 cells.

  4. Directed mutagenesis in Candida albicans: one-step gene disruption to isolate ura3 mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Miller, S.M.; Kurtz, M.B.; Kirsch, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for introducing specific mutations into the diploid Candida albicans by one-step gene disruption and subsequent UV-induced recombination was developed. The cloned C. albicans URA3 gene was disrupted with the C. albicans ADE2 gene, and the linearized DNA was used for transformation of two ade2 mutants, SGY-129 and A81-Pu. Both an insertional inactivation of the URA3 gene and a disruption which results in a 4.0-kilobase deletion were made. Southern hybridization analyses demonstrated that the URA3 gene was disrupted on one of the chromosomal homologs in 15 of the 18 transformants analyzed. These analyses also revealed restriction site dimorphism of EcoRI at the URA3 locus which provides a unique marker to distinguish between chromosomal homologs. This enabled us to show that either homolog could be disrupted and that disrupted transformants of SGY-129 contained more than two copies of the URA3 locus. The A81-Pu transformants heterozygous for the ura3 mutations were rendered homozygous and Ura- by UV-induced recombination. The homozygosity of a deletion mutant and an insertion mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Both mutants were transformed to Ura+ with plasmids containing the URA3 gene and in addition, were resistant to 5-fluoro-orotic acid, a characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura3 mutants as well as of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase mutants of other organisms.

  5. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  6. New undersea research unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The first cold-water activity under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Undersea Research Program will begin in the Gulf of Maine in August, according to NOAA Administrator John V. Byrne. The prime objective of the new activity will be to survey ocean dumping grounds and to study the productivity of the area's valuable fish resources. (The World Court is currently deciding on the fishing boundary between the United States and Canada in and around the Gulf of Maine.)Detailed maps of dumpsites off Portland, Maine, and Boston, Mass., will be made, followed by an assessment of the effects dumping has on marine life. Dredge spoil is dumped offshore from Portland; a variety of material—from dredge spoil to munitions—is dumped off Boston.

  7. The Research Unit Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol Univ. (England). School of Education.

    This handbook describes research projects of the School of Education, University of Bristol. Eight current projects are briefly described, and references are listed for each. These projects include (1) a pilot project working with probationary teachers, (2) a study of teachers' support agencies, (3) a longitudinal study of language development in…

  8. The Incidence and Types of Occupational Role Stress among University Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsapis, Christine C. A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the types of stressors prevalent in the self-reports of university research administrators (URAs) and examined whether or not the degree or type of role stress was influenced by: a) the affiliation of their office unit within their institution, or b) their type. Randomly selected members of NCURA were invited via e-mail to…

  9. Influence of Transition Metal Cationization versus Sodium Cationization and Protonation on the Gas-Phase Tautomeric Conformations and Stability of Uracil: Application to [Ura+Cu]+ and [Ura+Ag]+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyemi, T. E.; Wu, R. R.; Nei, Y.-W.; Cunningham, N. A.; Roy, H. A.; Steill, J. D.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2017-09-01

    The gas-phase conformations of transition metal cation-uracil complexes, [Ura+Cu]+ and [Ura+Ag]+, were examined via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra were measured over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions. Structures and linear IR spectra of the stable tautomeric conformations of these complexes were initially determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The four most stable structures computed were also examined at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level to improve the accuracy of the predicted IR spectra. Two very favorable modes of binding are found for [Ura+Cu]+ and [Ura+Ag]+ that involve O2N3 bidentate binding to the 2-keto-4-hydroxy minor tautomer and O4 monodentate binding to the canonical 2,4-diketo tautomer of Ura. Comparisons between the measured IRMPD and calculated IR spectra enable elucidation of the conformers present in the experiments. These comparisons indicate that both favorable binding modes are represented in the experimental tautomeric conformations of [Ura+Cu]+ and [Ura+Ag]+. B3LYP suggests that Cu+ exhibits a slight preference for O4 binding, whereas Ag+ exhibits a slight preference for O2N3 binding. In contrast, MP2 suggests that both Cu+ and Ag+ exhibit a more significant preference for O2N3 binding. The relative band intensities suggest that O4 binding conformers comprise a larger portion of the population for [Ura+Ag]+ than [Ura+Cu]+. The dissociation behavior and relative stabilities of the [Ura+M]+ complexes, M+ = Cu+, Ag+, H+, and Na+) are examined via energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments. The IRMPD spectra, dissociation behaviors, and binding preferences of Cu+ and Ag+ are compared with previous and present results for those of H+ and Na+. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Influence of Transition Metal Cationization versus Sodium Cationization and Protonation on the Gas-Phase Tautomeric Conformations and Stability of Uracil: Application to [Ura+Cu](+) and [Ura+Ag]().

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, T E; Wu, R R; Nei, Y-W; Cunningham, N A; Roy, H A; Steill, J D; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T

    2017-09-11

    The gas-phase conformations of transition metal cation-uracil complexes, [Ura+Cu](+) and [Ura+Ag](+), were examined via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra were measured over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions. Structures and linear IR spectra of the stable tautomeric conformations of these complexes were initially determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The four most stable structures computed were also examined at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level to improve the accuracy of the predicted IR spectra. Two very favorable modes of binding are found for [Ura+Cu](+) and [Ura+Ag](+) that involve O2N3 bidentate binding to the 2-keto-4-hydroxy minor tautomer and O4 monodentate binding to the canonical 2,4-diketo tautomer of Ura. Comparisons between the measured IRMPD and calculated IR spectra enable elucidation of the conformers present in the experiments. These comparisons indicate that both favorable binding modes are represented in the experimental tautomeric conformations of [Ura+Cu](+) and [Ura+Ag](+). B3LYP suggests that Cu(+) exhibits a slight preference for O4 binding, whereas Ag(+) exhibits a slight preference for O2N3 binding. In contrast, MP2 suggests that both Cu(+) and Ag(+) exhibit a more significant preference for O2N3 binding. The relative band intensities suggest that O4 binding conformers comprise a larger portion of the population for [Ura+Ag](+) than [Ura+Cu](+). The dissociation behavior and relative stabilities of the [Ura+M](+) complexes, M(+) = Cu(+), Ag(+), H(+), and Na(+)) are examined via energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments. The IRMPD spectra, dissociation behaviors, and binding preferences of Cu(+) and Ag(+) are compared with previous and present results for those of H(+) and Na(+). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Uracil uptake in Escherichia coli K-12: isolation of uraA mutants and cloning of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, P S; Frees, D; Fast, R; Mygind, B

    1995-01-01

    Mutants defective in utilization of uracil at low concentrations have been isolated and characterized. The mutations in question (uraA) map close to the upp gene encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. By complementation analysis, a plasmid that complements the uraA mutation has been isolated. The uraA gene was shown to be the second gene in a bicistronic operon with upp as the promoter proximal gene. The nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined, and the gene encodes a hydrophobic membrane protein with a calculated Mr of 45,030. The UraA protein has been identified in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels in the membrane fraction of minicells harboring the uraA plasmids. PMID:7721693

  12. Educational Research and Development Units: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Robert A., Ed.

    Essays on the present and future states of research and development (R&D) units in colleges and universities are collected. The essays served as discussion papers for an annual meeting of heads of educational R&D units in Australia and New Zealand. "The Political Situation of Teaching-Research Units," by Terry Hore, encourages…

  13. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  14. Construction of Candida albicans Tet-on tagging vectors with a Ura-blaster cassette.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Chung; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Jian, Ting; Lee, Tai-Lin; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Shieh, Jia-Ching

    2011-03-01

    It has been difficult to develop molecular tools for studying the fungal pathogen Candida albicans because this species uses a non-standard genetic code and is diploid without a complete sexual cycle. Vector systems with regulatable promoters to produce conditional mutants, epitope tags for protein detection and recyclable selection markers are useful for functional study of genes. However, most currently available vectors contain only a subset of desired properties, which limits their application. To combine several useful properties in one vector, the vector pTET25 was initially modified into pTET25M, so that the URA3 gene flanked by dpl200 could be used repetitively. To enable more choices for cloning, a multiple cloning site was introduced at both ends of GFP in pTET25M. GFP expression was induced by doxycycline in a dose- and time-dependent manner when the plasmid was introduced into C. albicans with or without URA3. The applicability of the vectors was verified by constructing strains capable of expressing either the N-terminal GFP fusion of Cdc10 or the C-terminal GFP fusion of Cdc11. Additionally, by replacing the GFP gene of pTET25M with DNA sequence encoding Cdc10 with an epitope tag of six histidine residues at the C-terminus, doxycycline-induced expression of CDC10 was achieved when the expression vector was introduced into C. albicans. This new system allows for inducible expression of a desired C. albicans gene with the advantage of convenience of cloning. It also allows the presence of a recyclable URA3 marker and the detectable expression of fusion or epitope-tagged protein.

  15. Evaluation of the roles of four Candida albicans genes in virulence by using gene disruption strains that express URA3 from the native locus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, M Hong; Zhang, Zongde; Jia, Hongyan; Handfield, Martin; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2003-10-01

    Reintroducing URA3 to its native locus in Candida albicans not5, not3, bur2, and kel1 disruption mutants enabled us to directly compare strains with control strain CAI-12. We showed that URA3 position affected orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase activity, hyphal morphogenesis, adherence, and mortality in murine disseminated candidiasis. After URA3 was reintroduced to its native locus, only NOT5 could be conclusively ascribed a role in virulence.

  16. Evaluation of the Roles of Four Candida albicans Genes in Virulence by Using Gene Disruption Strains That Express URA3 from the Native Locus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, M. Hong; Zhang, Zongde; Jia, Hongyan; Handfield, Martin; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2003-01-01

    Reintroducing URA3 to its native locus in Candida albicans not5, not3, bur2, and kel1 disruption mutants enabled us to directly compare strains with control strain CAI-12. We showed that URA3 position affected orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase activity, hyphal morphogenesis, adherence, and mortality in murine disseminated candidiasis. After URA3 was reintroduced to its native locus, only NOT5 could be conclusively ascribed a role in virulence. PMID:14500538

  17. Scaling properties of European research units.

    PubMed

    Jamtveit, Bjørn; Jettestuen, Espen; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2009-08-11

    A quantitative characterization of the scale-dependent features of research units may provide important insight into how such units are organized and how they grow. The relative importance of top-down versus bottom-up controls on their growth may be revealed by their scaling properties. Here we show that the number of support staff in Scandinavian research units, ranging in size from 20 to 7,800 staff members, is related to the number of academic staff by a power law. The scaling exponent of approximately 1.30 is broadly consistent with a simple hierarchical model of the university organization. Similar scaling behavior between small and large research units with a wide range of ambitions and strategies argues against top-down control of the growth. Top-down effects, and externally imposed effects from changing political environments, can be observed as fluctuations around the main trend. The observed scaling law implies that cost-benefit arguments for merging research institutions into larger and larger units may have limited validity unless the productivity per academic staff and/or the quality of the products are considerably higher in larger institutions. Despite the hierarchical structure of most large-scale research units in Europe, the network structures represented by the academic component of such units are strongly antihierarchical and suboptimal for efficient communication within individual units.

  18. Natural water-purification system observed in a shallow coastal lagoon: Matsukawa-ura, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohata, Kunio; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Hagiwara, Tomiji

    2003-01-01

    Field surveys and in situ experiments were conducted in the shallow Matsukawa-ura in summer to evaluate the biological efficiencies of shallow-water areas for preserving coastal ecosystems. In Matsukawa-ura (5.8 km(2)), the suspension-feeding bivalves Ruditapes philippinarum and Crassostrea gigas were the dominant animals--their total biomasses (wet weight) were estimated to be 3.4 x 10(6) and 2.3 x 10(6) kg, respectively. Ulva sp. and Zostera marina were the dominant macrophyte species during the summer, with standing crops estimated to be 0.29 x 10(6) and 0.20 x 10(6) kg, respectively. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) uptake rates for Ulva sp. and Z. marina were determined by in situ experiments. An ecological model calculated on the basis of the observed dataset showed that, in comparison with tidal exchange, a significant amount of particulate organic matter was removed by bivalve filtration and a considerable quantity of DIN was removed by macrophyte species.

  19. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  20. SELECTED RESEARCH AT THE APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH UNIT, CAMBRIDGE, UNITED KINGDOM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is a report on research at the Applied Psychology Research Unit, Cambridge, that deals with human performance particularly in relation to environmental noise, sleep deprivation, short-term memory, and problems of vigilance.

  1. User Requirements Analyzer (URA) User’s Manual H6180/Multics/Version 3.3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    MulticsAersion ?. 3 . / Aup^MÄ. 1977-**r Jam Manum -— »78. i pfHinmiiM. one HFPOB- NuMBE* CDRL-«H<W» C30’ 7 ÄuTHÖSlil ISDOS Project l...2.2 Command Parameters 2.3 Sequence Of Commands .... 2.U The HELP Command q 9 5 5 3 . The UFA Environment 3.1 Initiating URA 3.2 Batch... 3 . The UFA Environment 106 4. Sp«»cifyinq Input "o UFA Commands *C7 4.1 Entering Data Into A Data S<»t IP? U.2 Specifying Input D*ta

  2. Interaction of Heat Shock Protein 90 and the Co-chaperone Cpr6 with Ura2, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Pyrimidine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Zuehlke, Abbey D.; Wren, Nicholas; Tenge, Victoria; Johnson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential protein required for the activity and stability of multiple proteins termed clients. Hsp90 cooperates with a set of co-chaperone proteins that modulate Hsp90 activity and/or target clients to Hsp90 for folding. Many of the Hsp90 co-chaperones, including Cpr6 and Cpr7, contain tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains that bind a common acceptor site at the carboxyl terminus of Hsp90. We found that Cpr6 and Hsp90 interacted with Ura2, a protein critical for pyrimidine biosynthesis. Mutation or inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in decreased accumulation of Ura2, indicating it is an Hsp90 client. Cpr6 interacted with Ura2 in the absence of stable Cpr6-Hsp90 interaction, suggesting a direct interaction. However, loss of Cpr6 did not alter the Ura2-Hsp90 interaction or Ura2 accumulation. The TPR domain of Cpr6 was required for Ura2 interaction, but other TPR containing co-chaperones, including Cpr7, failed to interact with Ura2 or rescue CPR6-dependent growth defects. Further analysis suggests that the carboxyl-terminal 100 amino acids of Cpr6 and Cpr7 are critical for specifying their unique functions, providing new information about this important class of Hsp90 co-chaperones. PMID:23926110

  3. United States Weather Research Program (USWRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhumralkar, Chandrakant

    1993-01-01

    After more than a decade of development by a broad cross-section of the U.S. atmospheric research community involved in planning for the National STORM Program, the Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research (SAR) of the Committee on Earth and Environmental Science (CEES) led the development of a strategic plan to realize the objectives of STORM so as to improve our nation's capability to provide accurate short-term forecasts of weather. This strategic plan will guide the planning and implementation of what is now called the United States Weather Research Program (USWRP). The USWRP is charged with achieving operational atmospheric prediction based on mesoscale observations and model results and establishing the scientific and technological basis for global atmospheric mesoscale prediction by the year 2000. The key scientific questions that are addressed under USWRP are discussed.

  4. Designed construction of recombinant DNA at the ura3Δ0 locus in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tomoaki; Cha-Aim, Kamonchai; Hirakawa, Yuki; Sakai, Ryota; Kitagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Mikiko; Nonklang, Sanom; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant DNAs are traditionally constructed using Escherichia coli plasmids. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomal gene targeting is a common technique, implying that the yeast homologous recombination system could be applied for recombinant DNA construction. In an attempt to use a S. cerevisiae chromosome for recombinant DNA construction, we selected the single ura3Δ0 locus as a gene targeting site. By selecting this single locus, repeated recombination using the surrounding URA3 sequences can be performed. The recombination system described here has several advantages over the conventional plasmid system, as it provides a method to confirm the selection of correct recombinants because transformation of the same locus replaces the pre-existing selection marker, resulting in the loss of the marker in successful recombinations. In addition, the constructed strains can serve as both PCR templates and hosts for preparing subsequent recombinant strains. Using this method, several yeast strains that contained selection markers, promoters, terminators and target genes at the ura3Δ0 locus were successfully generated. The system described here can potentially be applied for the construction of any recombinant DNA without the requirement for manipulations in E. coli. Interestingly, we unexpectedly found that several G/C-rich sequences used for fusion PCR lowered gene expression when located adjacent to the start codon.

  5. Beryllium Technology Research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

    2005-02-01

    While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

  6. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  7. Current projects of the Application Technology Research Unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Application Technology Research Unit is the largest multidisciplinary research team in the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, conducting on-farm research studies on floricultural and nursery crops. Part of ATRU Mission is to conduct fundamental and developme...

  8. The ura5 gene of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Chevanton, L; Leblon, G

    1989-04-15

    We cloned the ura5 gene coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora by heterologous probing of a Sordaria genomic DNA library with the corresponding Podospora anserina sequence. The Sordaria gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli pyrE mutant strain defective for the same enzyme, and expression was shown to be promoted by plasmid sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the 1246-bp DNA fragment encompassing the region of homology with the Podospora gene has been determined. This sequence contains an open reading frame of 699 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 72% similarity with the corresponding Podospora protein.

  9. Effects of Inundation by the 14th November, 2016 Kaikōura Tsunami on Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Emily M.; Borrero, Jose; Whittaker, Colin N.; Bind, Jo; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Goring, Derek; Hoyle, Jo; Mueller, Christof; Power, William L.; Reid, Catherine M.; Williams, James H.; Williams, Shaun P.

    2017-05-01

    At 12:02:56 a.m. Monday, November 14 2016 NZDT (11:02:56 a.m., November 13 2016 UTC) a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck near Kaikōura on the north-eastern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. This earthquake caused a tsunami along New Zealand's east coast that was recorded on a number of sea level gauges. Outside of the Kaikōura region, north facing bays along Banks Peninsula were most affected by the tsunami. Of these, Little Pigeon Bay experienced extensive inundation and an unoccupied cottage was destroyed by the wave run-up. We report on the inundation extent and (inferred) flow directions at Little Pigeon Bay, including a study on temporal changes in the field evidence of this inundation. Preliminary modelling results indicate that the waves may have excited resonance in the bay. We also present results from inundation surveys of nearby, north-facing bays on Banks Peninsula. The excitation of resonance in Little Pigeon Bay provides an explanation for the more severe inundation and damage there in comparison to these nearby bays.

  10. Mutagenic specificity of the food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in Escherichia coli using the yeast URA3 gene as a target.

    PubMed

    Broschard, T H; Lebrun-Garcia, A; Fuchs, R P

    1998-02-01

    2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a strong mutagen/carcinogen, belongs to a group of heterocyclic amines that are formed (ng/g amounts) during the cooking of protein containing food. The mutational specificity of IQ in Escherichia coli was determined in a forward mutation assay using the yeast URA3 gene as a target. The plasmid pTU-AC, containing the target URA3, was randomly modified in vitro using N-hydroxy-IQ, and subsequently transformed into an E. coli pyrF strain (DB6656). Mutant clones were directly selected by their ability to grow on medium containing 5-fluoro-orotic acid which is toxic to URA3+ clones and thereby selects for URA3- mutants. Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) was used to map the mutation-containing regions of URA3, so that it was necessary to sequence only the relevant, mutation-containing fragment and not the entire gene. At a modification level of 7 IQ-lesions/URA3 gene, the predominant mutations were base substitutions (approximately 70%), followed by complex gene rearrangements (approximately 20%) and frameshifts (approximately 10%). More than 96% of the base substitutions occurred at G:C base pairs and were predominantly G:C-->A:T transitions, followed by G:C-->T:A and G:C-->C:G transversions. Next neighbour analysis revealed that deoxyguanosines situated within the sequence 5'-TGC were more susceptible to mutations induced by IQ. With one exception, all frameshift mutations were -1 deletions at runs of three consecutive dGs. At higher IQ-modification levels, predominantly complex sequence rearrangements were observed.

  11. ADVANCES IN DIETARY EXPOSURE RESEARCH AT THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Exposure Research Laboratory's (USEPA-NERL)dietary exposure research program investigates the role of diet, including drinking water, as a potential pathway of human exposure to environmental contaminants. A primary progr...

  12. The Cambridge University Library Management Research Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Philip W.

    1971-01-01

    A description of the Unit which has been set up at Cambridge University with an OSTI grant and whose work is to study methods leading to increased effectiveness and efficiency in academic libraries. Attention is focussed on practical investigations making use of O & M and related techniques. (Author)

  13. The Past, Present and Future of Geodemographic Research in the United States and United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alexander D.; Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an extensive comparative review of the emergence and application of geodemographics in both the United States and United Kingdom, situating them as an extension of earlier empirically driven models of urban socio-spatial structure. The empirical and theoretical basis for this generalization technique is also considered. Findings demonstrate critical differences in both the application and development of geodemographics between the United States and United Kingdom resulting from their diverging histories, variable data economies, and availability of academic or free classifications. Finally, current methodological research is reviewed, linking this discussion prospectively to the changing spatial data economy in both the United States and United Kingdom. PMID:25484455

  14. THE ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAZARSFELD, PAUL F.; SIEBER, SAM D.

    THE CHIEF TECHNICAL PROBLEM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO MEASURE THE NUMEROUS SOCIAL CONDITIONS WHICH MIGHT CONCEIVABLY IMPINGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH AND OF RESEARCHERS BY GRADUATE SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION. THE TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED INCLUDED (1) QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS OF EDUCATION DEANS, RESEARCH COORDINATORS, DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH UNITS, PROJECT…

  15. Research and Higher Education: The United Kingdom and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Thomas G., Ed.; Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes contributions from the United Kingdom and the United States on the research function of higher education. Part 1 considers the national systems, focusing on three subthemes: past and present trends, issues in funding research, and connections with industry. Papers include: "The Dynamics of…

  16. Research and Higher Education: The United Kingdom and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Thomas G., Ed.; Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes contributions from the United Kingdom and the United States on the research function of higher education. Part 1 considers the national systems, focusing on three subthemes: past and present trends, issues in funding research, and connections with industry. Papers include: "The Dynamics of…

  17. Space Research in the United Kingdom. An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-19

    AD-Ai55 334 SPACE RESEARCH IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AN RSSESSMENT(U) i/i OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON ( ENGLAND ) N F NESS 19 APR 85 ONRL-R-i-85...top, 01’ ONRL Report R18 C") Space Research in the United Kingdom : in An Assessment In Norman F. Ness 19 April 1985 DTIC EL ECTE JU 19 1985 B Approved...NO ACCESSION NO 11 T E (include Security Classification) Space Research in the United Kingdom : An Assessment * 2 OERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Norman F. Ness 3a

  18. Basic Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  19. Research on HOPE actuator power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Haruaki; Iida, Tooru; Ishii, Yasuo

    1992-08-01

    An Overview of the review conducted on Actuator Power Unit (APU) of HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane) based on a base line constructed combining conventional technologies are presented. Partial trial production and test on lubrication subsystems to acquire fundamental data on lubricant supply and retrieval system which is not affected by microgravity and gravity directions were conducted. The subject subsystem was constructed to facilitate visual observation from the side of gas and liquid separating conditions. The results of test conducted changing parameters such as void ratio, the ratio of lubricant to residual space (GN2 gas) in the gear box are shown. A lubrication system flow chart is shown.

  20. Descriptive Research in Adult Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1982-01-01

    Describes study designed to (1) determine frequency of use of descriptive research in adult education in the United States, (2) identify range of topics examined by descriptive research, (3) identify data collection procedures, and (4) determine if there is a trend in the publication of descriptive research. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe,…

  1. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  2. Patents and University Research in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Brad

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of evolving patent issues in university research in the United Kingdom focuses on three points: (1) attitudes within universities toward ownership and management of patents; (2) who has the right to patent inventions generated during university research; and (3) the impact patenting will have on research in the future. (MSE)

  3. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  4. Marine Ecology Research Resource Units Grades 7-9. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa County Dept. of Education, Pleasant Hill, CA.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological unit designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The teachers are also involved with MER through inservice participation and materials preparation. The unit is designed to be incorporated within the existing science curriculum. Specifically, the activities concern…

  5. Collaboration with the United Kingdom on Air Quality Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To initiate research collaboration among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Unitd Kingdom's (UK) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) on exposure science

  6. Increasing yields: Research opportunities and challenges. Role of the Sunflower Research Unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit in Fargo, ND, conducts research to enhance sunflower yield by reducing losses to insects and diseases. The unit is composed of seven research scientists, each with expertise in a different scientific discipline. The disciplines are genetics, cytogenetics, molec...

  7. Archaeomagnetic research in the United States midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Stacey Nicole

    This dissertation combines archaeomagnetic and independent chronometric data from 240 archaeological features to develop a regional secular variation curve for the U.S. midcontinent. These data were obtained from features located between 31.5--40.5° N latitude and 82.5--93.5° W longitude that have been dated to between 60 and 10,700 cal BP. The archaeomagnetic samples were collected from 41 sites within this region over the past 35 years under the direction of four different researchers: Robert DuBois (University of Oklahoma), Daniel Wolfman (University of Arkansas and New Mexico State Museum), Wulf Gose (University of Texas at Austin), and myself. In this project, the data are initially smoothed through the moving windows method to form the first approximation of the curve. Outlier analyses and pairwise statistical comparisons are utilized to refine the smoothed curve, and the results are compared to other Holocene-aged secular variation records from North America. These analyses indicate that the final curve should be treated as three distinct segments with different precision and use recommendations. First, the 850--75 cal BP segment can be used to date archaeomagnetic sample from the project area with expected temporal precision of 100--200 years. Second, the 2528--850 cal BP segment can be used cautiously to date archaeomagnetic samples with an expected temporal precision of 200--300 years. Third, the 9755--4650 cal BP segment should be used for contextual dating purposes only, in that an undated sample can be put into a regional context through comparison with the segment's constituent samples. Finally, three archaeological problems are addressed through the archaeomagnetic data. First, archaeomagnetic data are used to resolve the temporal conflict between an eastern Tennessee structure's morphology and a much earlier radiocarbon date obtained for the structure. Then, archaeomagnetic data are used to address a number of internal chronology questions

  8. A survey on financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi-Hao; Ren, Wei-Min; Qu, Li; Wang, Yue; Carline, Jan D; Fang, Guo-En

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the current situation of financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China. A total of 46 individuals in 46 medical schools completed a questionnaire including information about affiliation of the unit, financial support, published articles and achievement awards of the units. Of the 46 schools, 24 had independent medical education research units, 36 had financial support, and 30 had research funding. The mean number of published articles was 2.53 per staff. The mean number of achievement awards was 3.80 per unit. There was a significant difference in funding and published articles between independent medical education research units and other types of units; and in published articles and achievement awards between the units with funding and without funding. The financial support from the school was the main source of medical education research units in China. More attention should be paid to the development of medical education research units, to their ability to produce high quality research and support the improvement of medical care in China.

  9. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  10. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  11. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  12. Cloning and functional analysis of the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene (PbrURA3) of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Cristina; Sorais, Françoise; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A; Fermiñán, Encarnación; San-Blas, Gioconda; Domínguez, Angel

    2005-07-15

    A genomic clone encoding the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase gene (PbrURA3) was isolated by screening a subgenomic plasmid DNA library of this fungus, using a PCR amplification product of the gene as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene contains an open reading frame of 855 bp with a single intron (162 bp), and encodes a putative 285 amino acids polypeptide of estimated molecular weight 31.1 kDa and isoelectric point 6.5. The deduced amino acid sequence predicted a 73.4% identity with orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase of Aspergillus nidulans. Functionality of the gene was demonstrated by transformation into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura3 null mutant.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Bacterial UraA H+-Uracil Symporter in Lipid Bilayers Reveal a Closed State and a Selective Interaction with Cardiolipin

    PubMed Central

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli UraA H+-uracil symporter is a member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) family of proteins, and is responsible for the proton-driven uptake of uracil. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of the UraA symporter in phospholipid bilayers consisting of: 1) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC); 2) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE); and 3) a mixture of 75% POPE, 20% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG); and 5% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-diphosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin (CL) to mimic the lipid composition of the bacterial inner membrane, were performed using the MARTINI coarse-grained force field to self-assemble lipids around the crystal structure of this membrane transport protein, followed by atomistic simulations. The overall fold of the protein in lipid bilayers remained similar to the crystal structure in detergent on the timescale of our simulations. Simulations were performed in the absence of uracil, and resulted in a closed state of the transporter, due to relative movement of the gate and core domains. Anionic lipids, including POPG and especially CL, were found to associate with UraA, involving interactions between specific basic residues in loop regions and phosphate oxygens of the CL head group. In particular, three CL binding sites were identified on UraA: two in the inner leaflet and a single site in the outer leaflet. Mutation of basic residues in the binding sites resulted in the loss of CL binding in the simulations. CL may play a role as a “proton trap” that channels protons to and from this transporter within CL-enriched areas of the inner bacterial membrane. PMID:25729859

  14. Highly variable coastal deformation in the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake reflects rupture complexity along a transpressional plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K. J.; Nissen, E. K.; Howarth, J. D.; Hamling, I. J.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Ries, W. F.; Jones, K.; Goldstien, S.; Cochran, U. A.; Villamor, P.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Mueller, C.; Berryman, K. R.; Strong, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Coseismic coastal deformation is often used to understand slip on offshore faults in large earthquakes but in the 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake multiple faults ruptured across and sub-parallel to the coastline. Along ∼110 km of coastline, a rich dataset of coastal deformation comprising airborne lidar differencing, field surveying and satellite geodesy reveals highly variable vertical displacements, ranging from -2.5 to 6.5 m. These inform a refined slip model for the Kaikōura earthquake which incorporates changes to the slip on offshore faults and inclusion of an offshore reverse crustal fault that accounts for broad, low-amplitude uplift centered on Kaikōura Peninsula. The exceptional detail afforded by differential lidar and the high variability in coastal deformation combine to form the highest-resolution and most complex record of coseismic coastal deformation yet documented. This should prompt reassessment of coastal paleoseismic records that may not have considered multi-fault ruptures and high complexity deformation fields.

  15. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Distribution automation field research and planning at United Power Association

    SciTech Connect

    Lebakken, T.M.; Gasal, J.; Goodin, J.L.; Nikula, R.

    1995-12-31

    United Power Association (UPA) has undertaken three concurrent efforts to set direction and test distribution automation approaches at UPA and its fifteen member distribution cooperatives. The first is a distribution automation and communications research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), Rural Electric Research and United Power Association. The project advances innovative approaches to automation, such as the Utility Communications Architecture (UCA), through field implementation research. The research project goals include achieving greater plug and play between multi-vendor field devices, communication systems, databases and applications. The field research project examines and tests key concepts to lead two concurrent planning activities: a Distribution Automation Master Plan and a Telecommunications Plan. These plans will use the mid-1995 results of the research project to set the automation direction for UPA and its member cooperatives. The research project focuses on representative portions of the UPA system yet the planning studies cover the entire service territory from the Minneapolis/St. Paul suburbs to the Canadian border. This case study and panel discussion will review the implications of the research project and key aspects of the integrated automation planning projects. The panelists will reflect on their role in the projects and what other utilities may learn from these activities.

  17. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  18. New Sunflower Rust Projects in the USDA Sunflower Research Unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower rust Puccinia helianthi is a serious disease that has been increasingly prevalent in much of the North America sunflower producing region. To effectively control this disease, three independent but complementary projects were initiated in the Sunflower Research Unit. One was evaluation of ...

  19. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  20. Vocational Research Coordinating Unit. A Handbook of Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Samuel Paul, Jr., Comp.

    This manual describes the program improvement responsibilities of the Research Coordinating Unit (RCU) of South Carolina's Office of Vocational Education. Following the introduction, the organization and functions of the RCU are briefly presented. The remainder of the booklet is comprised of eight short sections, each discussing an RCU function in…

  1. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  2. LEADERSHIP IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS--SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGE, CARL J.

    THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…

  3. Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis R. Becker; Susan Stevens Hummel; Ellen M. Donoghue; R. James Barbour; Kenneth A. Kilborn; David L. Nicholls; Joe Roos; Randall A. Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States are examined in this problem analysis. Key focal areas include: A. Changes in forest management actions and policies affect forest conditions and people, which in turn affect wood quality and wood utilization opportunities. B. Effects of natural disturbances (e.g., wildfire, insect outbreaks) on...

  4. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  5. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  6. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  7. Trauma research in the United Arab Emirates: reality and vision.

    PubMed

    Eid, H O; Lunsjo, K; Torab, F C; Abu-Zidan, F M

    2008-10-01

    Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates, and it is the second leading cause of death. Research can help us find solutions for this problem. We evaluated the published literature on trauma from United Arab Emirates to define research areas which need improvement. A MEDLINE search for articles on trauma and injury from the United Arab Emirates covering the period 1960-2005 was performed. The content of articles was studied, classified and summarised. 32 articles were found, of which 18 were published in the last six years. 18 articles were on prevention and epidemiology, ten on clinical management and four on education. The first author was affiliated to the university in 19 articles. There were no articles on pre-hospital care, experimental work, trauma systems, trauma registry or post-hospital rehabilitation. There is a need for a strategic plan to support research in areas like pre-hospital care, implementation of trauma systems, trauma registries and post-hospital rehabilitations to reduce the socioeconomic impact of trauma in the United Arab Emirates.

  8. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  10. Operational Research to Improve HIV Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681

  11. Operational research to improve HIV prevention in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W; Painter, Thomas M; Gelaude, Deborah J; Fasula, Amy M; Raiford, Jerris L; Freeman, Arin E; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H; Purcell, David W

    2012-04-15

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities.

  12. Column flotation research at United Coal looks to pay off

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, P.

    1988-07-01

    Column flotation technology, designed to recover coal fines, has been the focus of research in private, university, and government laboratories for several years. While the potential of this technology continues to be scrutinized by scientists, the first commercial-size units have also been quietly placed on-line in two eastern preparation plants. The recently installed cells at both plants have gone through debugging procedures and are now achieving substantial recoveries of fine coal formerly lost to waste. For Tanoma that added production is 10.4 tph of fine coal; for United Coal, fine coal recovery exceeds 15 tph, an amount expected to rise to perhaps as much as 25 tph. The author describes how column flotation works and the systems at Tanoma Mining and United Coal.

  13. Intensive care unit research ethics and trials on unconscious patients.

    PubMed

    Gillett, G R

    2015-05-01

    There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.

  14. The northern california perinatal research unit: a hybrid model bridging research, quality improvement and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Terhilda; Barbeau, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente (KP) has a long-standing commitment to conduct research and report publicly. Simultaneously, it faces a different imperative: harnessing information systems to leverage internal improvements in outcomes, efficiency, and costs. Now that KP HealthConnect, the KP electronic health record, is fully implemented, research challenges at KP are moving away from issues of data access and toward the mechanisms through which raw data create meaningful clinical knowledge that is based on rigorous research. In this report we describe a model for research-the Northern California Division of Research Perinatal Research Unit-that leverages internal and external resources to fulfill these twin missions.

  15. Fraud in scientific research - birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research "Concordat", a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research.

  16. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  17. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUME I, THE RESEARCH MODEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF AN OVERALL EVALUATION OF ITS EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM, THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, IN 1964, COMMISSIONED THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES TO PROVIDE SYSTEMATIC AND COHERENT PROFILES OF COMMUNICANTS, YOUTH, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND MINISTERS. THIS RESEARCH WAS BASED ON THE INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO…

  18. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUME I, THE RESEARCH MODEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF AN OVERALL EVALUATION OF ITS EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM, THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, IN 1964, COMMISSIONED THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES TO PROVIDE SYSTEMATIC AND COHERENT PROFILES OF COMMUNICANTS, YOUTH, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND MINISTERS. THIS RESEARCH WAS BASED ON THE INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO…

  19. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  20. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  1. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  2. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  3. The United States of America and scientific research.

    PubMed

    Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-08-16

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  4. The United States of America and Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: “What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?”; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: “How will the US continue to foster its strengths?” PMID:20808949

  5. Toxic Hazards Research Unit annual technical report, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1971 through May 1972 are reviewed in this report. Acute inhalation toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas and aerosol, ethyl bromide (C2H5Br), hydrogen bromide (HBr), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), chlorine (CL2), and silane (SiH4). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and coal tar volatiles. Further toxicity studies of subacute and chronic responses to inhaled monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  6. Exploring the SCOAP3 Research Contributions of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.

  7. Strengthening clinical cancer research in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Stead, M; Cameron, D; Lester, N; Parmar, M; Haward, R; Kaplan, R; Maughan, T; Wilson, R; Campbell, H; Hamilton, R; Stewart, D; O'Toole, L; Kerr, D; Potts, V; Moser, R; Darbyshire, J; Selby, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 1999, 270 000 cases of cancer were registered in the United Kingdom, placing a large burden on the NHS. Cancer outcome data in 1999 suggested that UK survival rates were poorer than most other European countries. In the same year, a Department of Health review noted that clinical trials accrual was poor (<3.5% of incident cases) and hypothesised that increasing research activity might improve outcomes and reduce the variability of outcomes across England. Thus, the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established to increase participation in cancer clinical research. Methods: The NCRN was established in 2001 to provide a robust infrastructure for cancer clinical research and improvements in patient care. Remit of NCRN is to coordinate, support and deliver cancer clinical research through the provision of research support staff across England. The NCRN works closely with similar networks in Scotland, Wales and the Northern Ireland. A key aim of NCRN is to improve the speed of research and this was also assessed by comparing the speed of study delivery of a subset of cancer studies opening before and after NCRN was established. Results: Patient recruitment increased through NCRN, with almost 32 000 (12% of annual incident cases) cancer patients being recruited each year. Study delivery has improved, with more studies meeting the recruitment target – 74% compared with 39% before NCRN was established. Conclusion: The coordinated approach to cancer clinical research has demonstrated increased accrual, wide participation and successful trial delivery, which should lead to improved outcomes and care. PMID:21364584

  8. Tsunami runup and tide-gauge observations from the 14 November 2016 M7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, William; Clark, Kate; King, Darren N.; Borrero, Jose; Howarth, Jamie; Lane, Emily M.; Goring, Derek; Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Williams, James; Reid, Catherine; Whittaker, Colin; Mueller, Christof; Williams, Shaun; Hughes, Matthew W.; Hoyle, Jo; Bind, Jochen; Strong, Delia; Litchfield, Nicola; Benson, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    The 2016 M w 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes in New Zealand's historical record, and it generated the most significant local source tsunami to affect New Zealand since 1947. There are many unusual features of this earthquake from a tsunami perspective: the epicentre was well inland of the coast, multiple faults were involved in the rupture, and the greatest tsunami damage to residential property was far from the source. In this paper, we summarise the tectonic setting and the historical and geological evidence for past tsunamis on this coast, then present tsunami tide gauge and runup field observations of the tsunami that followed the Kaikōura earthquake. For the size of the tsunami, as inferred from the measured heights, the impact of this event was relatively modest, and we discuss the reasons for this which include: the state of the tide at the time of the earthquake, the degree of co-seismic uplift, and the nature of the coastal environment in the tsunami source region.

  9. Current projects of the Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) USDA-ARS, Wooster/Toledo, Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) is the largest multidisciplinary research team in the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, conducting studies on floricultural and nursery crops. On-farm research is a major approach to the mission of this Unit. The...

  10. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  11. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi-agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS’ central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include, among many others, the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers’ Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), and the annual Arctic Forum conference. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  12. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broad science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi-agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program and providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS' central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers' Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), the annual Arctic Forum conference, and many others. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at www.arcus.org.

  13. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi- agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS" central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include, among many others, the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers" Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), and the annual Arctic Forum conference. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  14. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, K. R.; Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi-agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS’ central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include, among many others, the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers’ Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), and the annual Arctic Forum conference. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  15. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic.

  16. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  17. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, K. R.; Fox, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  18. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  19. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  20. VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. JADICK

    2010-05-26

    FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 AND 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, Niskayuna, New York 0496-SR-03-0. The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  1. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  2. Commentary: The Relative Research Unit: An Approach to Measuring and Encouraging Clinician Participation in Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Tsevat, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Recent nationwide initiatives to accelerate clinical and translational research, including comparative effectiveness research, increasingly will require clinician participation in research-related activities at the point-of-care, activities such as participant recruitment for clinical research studies and systematic data collection. A key element to the success of such initiatives that has not yet been adequately addressed is how to provide incentives to clinicians for the time and effort that such participation will require. Models to calculate the value of clinical care services are commonly used to compensate clinicians, and similar models have been proposed to calculate and compensate researchers’ efforts. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no such model has been proposed for calculating the value of research-related activities performed by non-investigator clinicians, be they in academic or community settings. In this commentary, the authors propose a new model for doing just that. They describe how such a relative research unit model could be used to provide both direct and indirect incentives for clinician participation in research activities. Direct incentives could include financial compensation, while indirect incentives could include credit towards promotion and tenure and towards the maintenance of specialty board certification. The authors discuss the principles behind this relative research unit approach as well as ethical, funding, and other considerations to fully developing and deploying such a model, across academic environments first and then more broadly across the health care community. PMID:22201633

  3. Status of reactor shielding research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bartine, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Shielding research in the United States continues to place emphasis on: (1) the development and refinement of shielding design calculational methods and nuclear data; and (2) the performance of confirmation experiments, both to evaluate specific design concepts and to verify specific calculational techniques and input data. The successful prediction of the radiation levels observed within the now-operating Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has demonstrated the validity of this two-pronged approach, which has since been applied to US fast breeder reactor programs and is now being used to determine radiation levels and possible further shielding needs at operating light water reactors, especially under accident conditions. A similar approach is being applied to the back end of the fission fuel cycle to verify that radiation doses at fuel element storage and transportation facilities and within fuel reprocessing plants are kept at acceptable levels without undue economic penalties.

  4. Operations research in intensive care unit management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2016-08-12

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a crucial and expensive resource largely affected by uncertainty and variability. Insufficient ICU capacity causes many negative effects not only in the ICU itself, but also in other connected departments along the patient care path. Operations research/management science (OR/MS) plays an important role in identifying ways to manage ICU capacities efficiently and in ensuring desired levels of service quality. As a consequence, numerous papers on the topic exist. The goal of this paper is to provide the first structured literature review on how OR/MS may support ICU management. We start our review by illustrating the important role the ICU plays in the hospital patient flow. Then we focus on the ICU management problem (single department management problem) and classify the literature from multiple angles, including decision horizons, problem settings, and modeling and solution techniques. Based on the classification logic, research gaps and opportunities are highlighted, e.g., combining bed capacity planning and personnel scheduling, modeling uncertainty with non-homogenous distribution functions, and exploring more efficient solution approaches.

  5. Overview of water quality and water resource research in the Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, Oxford, MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit (WQERU) is part of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Sedimentation Laboratory located in Oxford, Mississippi. The stated research mission of the WQERU is to “address issues of water quality/quan...

  6. Key Considerations for the Success of Medical Education Research and Innovation Units in Canada: Unit Director Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of…

  7. Key Considerations for the Success of Medical Education Research and Innovation Units in Canada: Unit Director Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of…

  8. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS – ‘25 years of research through partnerships’

    PubMed Central

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    2015-01-01

    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south. PMID:25354929

  9. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS--'25 years of research through partnerships'.

    PubMed

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    2015-02-01

    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south.

  10. THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUME III, RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS AND TABULATIONS OF RESEARCH DATA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. VOLUME III OF ITS REPORT IS THE STUDY APPENDIXES. THERE ARE MARGINAL TABULATIONS ON THE SAMPLE CHURCHES AND COMMUNITY BACKGROUND, WHICH INCLUDE SUCH INFORMATION AS MEMBERSHIP, BUDGET,…

  11. THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUME III, RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS AND TABULATIONS OF RESEARCH DATA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. VOLUME III OF ITS REPORT IS THE STUDY APPENDIXES. THERE ARE MARGINAL TABULATIONS ON THE SAMPLE CHURCHES AND COMMUNITY BACKGROUND, WHICH INCLUDE SUCH INFORMATION AS MEMBERSHIP, BUDGET,…

  12. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr.

  13. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  14. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  15. Technology of research of hydroturbine unit work using seismic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Liseikin, A. V.; Gromyko, P. V.; Soloviev, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    On August, 17, 2009 one of the most significant accident in hydropower engineering was happened at Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station. Specialists of Geophysical Survey SB RAS took part in the State Committee on investigation of the accident cause at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS. It was determined, that the cause of the accident was a break of stud-bolts on the turbine cover. Why stud-bolts did not stand a load? There were assumptions that hydraulic shock provoked the accident. But, if it is so, seismic station "Cheremushky", situated in 4 km away from the HPS, should has a record of this event. First of all, investigating the record, got at the seismic station in the moment of the accident, it was determined that strength of seismic waves, recorded at the moment of the accident, did not exceed strength of waves got at trotyl explosion of 500 g at a distance to 4 km. The version of hydraulic shock was not proved. There were distinguished low-frequency oscillations and it was determined that the hydroturbine unit (HU) had been raised up more then 10 m in height for 10 sec. Analyzing the seismic station records during the period of more than a year before the accident and records of operating modes of different HU, there was determined that oscillations radiated by second (damaged) HU were approximately 1.5 times more intense than oscillations from all other HU. After the accident at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS hydroturbine units were started in turns: at first there were started hydroturbine units of old construction (3, 4, 5, 6), then HP of new construction (1, 7, 8, 9). We installed 10 - 15 three-component seismic stations in different points around a HU and studied field of seismic oscillations from it's work. It was determined, that HU radiates a set of monochromatic oscillations divisible by speed of rotation equal to 2.381 Hz. Change of these signals amplitude is connected with change of HU operation modes. Research of changes in oscillations spectral

  16. Research of intelligent substation merging unit calibration equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhan; Cai, Xia; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Ning; Su, Yongchun

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes the structure and principle of the merging unit. Considering the effect of merging unit device performance of metering device and electrical protection, determines the inspection items and technical indicators. Combined with the merging unit related performance detection technology and related standards and rules, the paper uses system integration technology and automatic control technology to studied synchronization method in a separate network and the operation of SV for IEEE1588. Merging unit field calibration device was developed with advantages of high quality, good performance, reliable, and the device was used for field testing at some intelligent substation merge cells, its validity was proved.

  17. Sea Fog Research in the United Kingdom and United States: A Historical Essay Including Outlook.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.; Korain, D.; Redmond, K. T.

    2004-03-01

    A historical review of research on sea fog is presented. The period of interest is essentially the twentieth century, beginning with the celebrated work of G. I. Taylor in the aftermath of the Titanic tragedy. It has been argued that relative maxima in fog frequency over the North Atlantic (including the Brit-ish Isles and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland) and the North Pacific (including the U.S. West Coast) has led to major contributions by scientists in England and the United States. The early work (pre World War II) tended to be phenomenological—that is, conceptual with broad inference from statistical summaries. Yet, this early work laid the foundation for the numerical modeling that came with the advent of computers in the postwar period. The subtleties associated with sea fog formation and maintenance are explored by analyzing some of the results from the numerical simulations. The essay ends with a speculative view on our prospects for a more complete understanding of sea fog in light of the earlier contributions.

  18. Research on Anoplophora glabripennis in the United States

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    In the mid-1990s it was estimated that more than 400 exotic (non-native) forest insects had already become established in the United States (HAACK and BYLER, 1993; MATTSON et al., 1994; NIEMELA and MATTSON, 1996). This number has continued to grow with new exotics discovered annually in the United States (HAACK, 2002; HAACK and POLAND, 2001; HAACK et al., 2002). One...

  19. Learning to become graduate students: Japanese women's experience in the research unit in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2010-12-01

    Based on the analysis of 16 interviews with women first-year master's students at two national engineering schools in Japan, this article examines the socialisation role of compulsory undergraduate research experience in Japanese women's decisions to pursue graduate education and choices of the programme. The findings suggest that research experiences in a small independent research unit within the major department convinced Japanese women engineering students of their academic and social success as graduate students in the current environment. Although participants generally adapted themselves to the research unit through their research, there is a variation in the degree to which they were smoothly integrated into the research unit, reflecting organisational and individual differences.

  20. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  1. LIS Research in the United Kingdom: Reflections and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the development of academic research in the LIS domain and the purpose of LIS research. It is argued that there are several constituent parts of the research tradition, both theoretical and empirical, and that this has created tensions and misunderstandings between researchers and practitioners. Against this background, the…

  2. LIS Research in the United Kingdom: Reflections and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the development of academic research in the LIS domain and the purpose of LIS research. It is argued that there are several constituent parts of the research tradition, both theoretical and empirical, and that this has created tensions and misunderstandings between researchers and practitioners. Against this background, the…

  3. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS): Connecting Arctic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. H.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.; Sheffield Guy, L.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will highlight the recent activities of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) to connect Arctic research. ARCUS is a nonprofit membership organization of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at

  4. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT IN THE CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIGHTHAND, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT WAS ESTABLISHED TO ENCOURAGE VOCATIONAL RESEARCH THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH RESOURCES, PERSONNEL, AND TECHNIQUES. IN ADDITION, THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSALS FOR THE CONDUCT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH BY LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS, COLLEGES, AND UNIVERSITIES WAS ENCOURAGED. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO DATE…

  5. Tribal wilderness research needs and issues in the United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    Dan McDonald; Tom McDonald; Leo H. McAvoy

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents a dialogue between tribal wilderness managers and researchers on the primary research needs of tribal wilderness in the United States and Canada. The authors identify a number of research priorities for tribal wildlands. The paper also discusses some major issues and challenges faced by researchers conducting research in areas that are culturally...

  6. The Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Unit: research program update and status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To accomplish the continuing research mission of the Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Unit (ABADRU) in solving major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock, the Unit has completed the move to Manhattan, KS. The ABADRU is one of five units at the Center for Grain a...

  7. University Research Funding: The United States Is Behind and Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Stewart, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development drives innovation and innovation drives long-run economic growth, creating jobs and improving living standards in the process. University-based research is of particular importance to innovation, as the early-stage research that is typically performed at universities serves to expand the knowledge pool from which the…

  8. Research Trends in the United States: EE to ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2007-01-01

    Research on education for sustainable development (ESD) is not a unified body of work and, much like the literature for environmental education (EE), research is published in many arenas. The trends, however, capture some of the major foci of the research that is emerging on ESD, especially in the early years of the Decade of Education for…

  9. The status of forest management research in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Donald G. Hodges; Pamela J. Jakes; Frederick W. Cubbage

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, the USDA Forest Service invested nearly $30 million in forest management research, forest industry invested $19 million, and universities invested at least $17 million. Investments in this research have been declining since then. Forest Service data indicate that the public sector is the largest beneficiary of forest management research.

  10. Trends in Educational Administration Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver

    It is useful to place the development of educational research within the context of the historical development of scientific research as a whole. The work of Whitehead, Northrop, Toulmin, and, especially, Kuhn suggests the value of viewing research as a social process through which ideas and intellectual techniques are diffused. It is useful for…

  11. Key considerations for the success of Medical Education Research and Innovation units in Canada: unit director perceptions.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2014-08-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of these units. We conducted qualitative interviews with the directors of 12 MERI units across Canada. Data were analyzed using qualitative description (Sandelowski in Res Nurs Health 23:334-340, 2000). Final analysis drew on Bourdieu's (Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1977; Media, culture and society: a critical reader. Sage, London, 1986; Language and symbolic power. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991) concepts of field, habitus, and capital, and more recent research investigating the field of MERI (Albert in Acad Med 79:948-954, 2004; Albert et al. in Adv Health Sci Educ 12:103-115, 2007). When asked about the metrics by which they define their success, directors cited: teaching, faculty mentoring, building collaborations, delivering conference presentations, winning grant funding, and disseminating publications. Analyzed using Bourdieu's concepts, these metrics are discussed as forms of capital that have been legitimized in the MERI field. All directors, with the exception of one, described success as being comprised of elements (capital) at both ends of the service-research spectrum (i.e., Albert's PP-PU structure). Our analysis highlights the forms of habitus (i.e., behaviors, attitudes, demeanors) directors use to negotiate, strategize and position the unit within their local context. These findings may assist institutions in developing a new-or reorganizing an existing-MERI unit. We posit that a better understanding of these complex social structures can help units become savvy participants in the MERI field. With such insight, units can improve their academic output and

  12. Gene order in a 10 275 bp fragment of Yarrowia lipolytica, including adjacent YlURA5 and YlSEC65 genes conserved in four yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Domínguez, A

    2001-06-30

    We have determined the sequence of a 10275 bp DNA segment of Yarrowia lipolytica located on chromosome VI. The sequence contains six complete open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids and two more partial ORFs at both ends. Two of the ORFs encode for the well-characterized genes YlURA5 (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase) and YlSEC65 (encoding a subunit of the signal recognition particle). These two genes show an identical organization-located on opposite strands and in opposite orientations-in four yeast species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and Y. lipolytica. One ORF and the two partial ORFs code for putative proteins showing significant homology with proteins from other organisms. YlVI-108w (partial) and YlVI-103w show 39% and 54% identity, respectively, with YDR430c and YHR088w from S. cerevisiae. YlVI-102c (partial) shows significant homology with a matrix protein, lustrin A from Haliotis rufescens, and with the PGRS subfamily (Gly-rich proteins) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three remaining ORFs show weak or non-significant homology with previously sequenced genes. The nucleotide sequence has been submitted to the EMBL database under Accession No. AI006754.

  13. Research and Curriculum Development Coordinating Unit. Annual Report, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Research and Curriculum Development Coordinating Unit.

    This document highlights the activities and accomplishments of the Puerto Rican Research and Curriculum Development Coordinating Unit during the 1971-72 year. The Unit includes the following components: (1) Educational Research, (2) Curriculum Development, (3) Information and Dissemination, and (4) Planning and Evaluation. Included is information…

  14. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MISSISSIPPI RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT FOR VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALL, JAMES E.

    ACTIVITIES OF THE UNIT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 1965, TO MARCH 31, 1967, ARE REPORTED. TO STIMULATE RESEARCH THE UNIT ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RESEARCH PROPOSALS FOR THE STUDIES--(1) A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CONTENT IN PUBLIC POST-HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRY, (2) FIVE PILOT PROJECTS…

  15. Between the Local and the Global: Organized Research Units and International Collaborations in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Organized research units--also known as centers, institutes, and laboratories--are increasingly prominent in the university. This paper examines how ORUs emerge to promote global agendas and international collaborations in an academic health center in North America. The roles these units play in helping researchers work across institutional and…

  16. United Kingdom health research analyses and the benefits of shared data.

    PubMed

    Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S

    2016-06-24

    To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a

  17. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  18. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Current impacts and future prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which employs scientists to conduct basic and applied research aimed to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and to ensure food...

  19. The cooperative research unit program and wildlife education: Historic development, future challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Leslie, David M.; Nordstrom, L.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1932, J. N. 'Ding' Darling proposed a 3-year tripartite arrangement between the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, Iowa State University, and himself to establish the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. Three years later, the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program was broadened to include 9 land-grant colleges representing recognized ecoregions in the United States. In 1960, the Units were given statutory recognition by Public Law 86-686 that also included provision for establishing Cooperative Fishery Units. The Cooperative Research Unit idea has evolved to 39 Units in 2000. Today, the main cooperators of the Unit program are the land-grant university, the state fish and game or conservation agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Wildlife Management Institute. The Cooperative Units mission, as stated in Public Law 86-686, remains: 'To facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government, colleges and universities, and private organizations for cooperative unit programs of research and education relating to fish and wildlife and for other purposes.' Graduate research and education continue to be the program's primary missions. In any given year >600 graduate and post-graduate students are involved. Post-graduate employment of Unit-afffiliated students is >90%. Perhaps the primary benefit to the education process is the Units' formal connection to the state cooperator and to their federal agency that might not otherwise be available to university faculty and students. Units are conduits to state and federal funding for research projects conducted by university faculty and students. The CRU program is well positioned to educate a multitalented, ethnically diverse cadre of graduate students who will be prepared not only for their first professional job but also for their career by having been instilled with a desire for life-long professional accomplishment.

  20. A History of Forestry Research in the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    H.R. Josephson

    1989-01-01

    The great progress in southern forestry during the past half century must be attributed in part to research scientists who provided scientific knowledge and practical technology for forest protection, management, and utilization. Research has pointed the way to better control and use of fire and to more effective methods for regenerating desirable tree species....

  1. USDA-ARS-SPA Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit Annual Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Report on the research activities of the Small Grains and other Crops Research Unit of the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, was compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Stillwater, Oklahoma, February 24-26, 2009. Research summaries included predicting the...

  2. USDA-ARS-SPA Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit annual report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Report on the research activities of the Small Grains and other Crops Research Unit of the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, was compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, September 2010. Research summaries included predicting the impa...

  3. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  4. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review postcard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.

  5. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The research of high voltage switchgear detecting unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tong; Xie, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinbo

    2017-07-01

    In order to understand the status of the high voltage switch in the whole life circle, you must monitor the mechanical and electrical parameters that affect device health. So this paper gives a new high voltage switchgear detecting unit based on ARM technology. It can measure closing-opening mechanical wave, storage motor current wave and contactor temperature to judge the device’s health status. When something goes wrong, it can be on alert and give some advice. The practice showed that it can meet the requirements of circuit breaker mechanical properties temperature online detection.

  7. Bosch CO2 reduction unit research and development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; Keller, E. E.; King, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Development of Bosch CO2 reduction units for manned spacecraft application has been in progress for a decade. The Bosch process catalytically reacts CO2 with H2 to produce water and carbon. The water may then be electrolyzed to close the biological oxygen and process hydrogen loops. A critical problem has been to confine the reaction so that carbon does not block flow and stop the process. Reaction isolation within a replaceable catalyst cartridge has been successfully demonstrated. Objectives of the current development program are a 25% reduction in operating power, an 80% reduction in expendable weight, and minimized resupply volume.

  8. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall 1991, volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on international activities, including the environment, research ships, and the Bering Sea region's history and resources.

  9. Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K.

    2005-07-15

    Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Operations Research and the US (United States) Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-07

    COMPLETING FORM REPRT UMBR2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TTLE and ubtilo)S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Operations Research Arnd...cost analysts are considered a part of the financial management arena and are not included in Figure 1 nor in this discussion. Also excluded were

  11. Biosurveillance at the United States Meat Animal Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...

  12. Research-Based Unit and Lesson Planning: Maximizing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Marie

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the best of current research and practice in curriculum planning this book presents that comprehensive topic in a manageable form. Examples throughout are representative of different grade levels and subjects areas. It should be understood at the outset that the content offered for curriculum planning is not a rigid prescriptive…

  13. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  14. HIV/AIDS-Associated Cryptococcosis in Portugal Spanning the Pre- to Post-HAART Era: A Retrospective Assessment at the Genotypic Level Based on URA5-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Maduro, A P; Gonçalves, L; Inácio, J; Faria, N C G; Martins, M L; Teles, F R R

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcosis caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic mycosis, infecting mainly immunodepressed individuals. Molecular epidemiology studies of cryptococcosis in Europe are limited. This paper presents a retrospective study of cryptococcosis in 105 cryptococcal isolates from two hospitals in Lisbon, Portugal, among HIV/AIDS patients, from 1991 to 2007. Among these patients, the number of cases of cryptococcosis increased from 5.1 to 6.9 cases per year from the pre- to post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. As expected, the median age of the patients increased, from 32 (mean: 33 ± 8) to 39 (mean: 41 ± 10) years, and the ratio of male to female patients remained high (7.7 and 7.6, respectively). Strain genotyping based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the orotidine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase (URA5-RFLP) gene showed that, in general, the relative frequencies of the genotypes VNI-IV are similar to those from other European countries. These frequencies were, respectively, for the pre- and post-HAART periods: 41.7 and 43.5 % for VNI; 2.8 and 17.4 % for VNII; 38.9 and 30.4 % for VNIII; 16.7 and 7.2 % for VNIV and 0 and 1.4 % for VGII. Some apparent although statistically insignificant differences among these values were observed between both periods. The genotypic frequencies were not also statistically different according to the patients' gender or age range. Of note are the high proportion of VNIII isolates (common in Europe) and the high increase in the frequency of the VNII genotype in the post-HAART. Ultimately, these results may have implications in disease therapy, management and control.

  15. Fraud in scientific research – birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research “Concordat”, a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research. PMID:24262890

  16. Cultural Mechanisms in Neighborhood Effects Research in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.; Hepburn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current state of the U.S. literature on cultural mechanisms in neighborhood effects research. We first define what we mean by neighborhood effects and by cultural mechanisms. We then review and critique two theoretical perspectives on the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods that are explicitly integrated into recent neighborhood effects literature in the U.S.: “deviant subculture” and “cultural heterogeneity.” We then draw on other related U.S. literatures from urban studies, cultural sociology, and culture and inequality to suggest some other conceptualizations that may be useful in advancing our understanding of the role of culture in neighborhood effects. We discuss the conceptual and methodological issues that will have to be grappled with in order to move this literature forward and conclude by offering concrete suggestions, both short-term and long-term, for a research agenda. PMID:26504263

  17. Online Public Access Catalog Research in the United Kingdom: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Janet; Bryant, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent and current research and development projects in the United Kingdom dealing with online information systems. Main areas of research (systems design, impact on user behavior and organizational structure, ergonomics and bibliographic factors) and research techniques (features analysis, transaction log analysis, surveys and comparative…

  18. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  19. The Research Foundations of Graduate Education: Germany, Britain, France, United States, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R., Ed.

    This book examines the capacity of universities in Germany, England, France, the United States, and Japan to operate as centers of research, as places for research training, and as institutions where even students destined for nonresearch careers will learn something of the nature of research. The volume is organized by country with each section…

  20. The Research Foundations of Graduate Education: Germany, Britain, France, United States, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R., Ed.

    This book examines the capacity of universities in Germany, England, France, the United States, and Japan to operate as centers of research, as places for research training, and as institutions where even students destined for nonresearch careers will learn something of the nature of research. The volume is organized by country with each section…

  1. Watershed research and management in the lake states and northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Elton S. Verry; James W. Hornbeck; H. Albert

    2000-01-01

    We present a brief synopsis of the beginnings of watershed management research and practice in the Lake States and Northeastern United States, followed by a summary of significant research findings on many aspects of watershed management, and finally, a review of four examples of how watershed management research has been incorporated into national forest management...

  2. Online Public Access Catalog Research in the United Kingdom: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Janet; Bryant, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent and current research and development projects in the United Kingdom dealing with online information systems. Main areas of research (systems design, impact on user behavior and organizational structure, ergonomics and bibliographic factors) and research techniques (features analysis, transaction log analysis, surveys and comparative…

  3. Conceptions of Research and Development for Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzner, Burkart; Salmon-Cox, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    Characterizes attempts to provide a research and development base for education in the United States on the basis of organizational development in the University of Pittsburgh's Learning Research and Development Center. Article reprint may be ordered from the Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh,…

  4. 21 CFR 814.15 - Research conducted outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.15 Research... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Research conducted outside the United States. 814... paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, as applicable. (b) Research begun on or after effective date. FDA...

  5. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Technical Report: 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    the Respiratory System of Control and Hydrazine Exposed Female Rats Sacrificed at Two Years 30 12. Incidence of Nasal Epithelial Tumors in Con- trol and...Hydrazine Exposed Male Fischer 344 Rats 32 7 LIST OF TABLES (CONT’D) Table Page 13. Incidence of Nasal Epithelial Tumors in Con- trol and Hydrazine...the fall. November was selected to avoid travel funding prob- lems for many government workers who attend this conference. SECTION II RESEARCH PROGRAM

  6. A multi-disciplinary approach to sugarcane research at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mission of the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) is to provide research-based solutions that enhance the viability of domestic sugarcane industry. To accomplish this mission, SRU uses a multidisciplinary approach to develop improved varieties and environmentally friendly production strategies. Cons...

  7. Developing a clinical trial unit to advance research in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-11-01

    Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Clinic. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection of health research participants in the United States: a review of two cases.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Alison; Crampton, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Two research-related deaths and controversies in the United States during recent years have raised public concern over the safety of research participants. This paper explores the reasons why, in two studies, there was a failure of ethical oversight. The issues exposed by these failures have international relevance as they could possibly occur anywhere where human health research is carried out. Five factors that contributed to these failures are highlighted: 1. failure to support and resource research ethics committees; 2. failure of the research oversight process to adequately assess the risks and benefits of research, while giving undue emphasis to informed consent; 3. conflicts of interest arising from financial relationships and research ethics committee membership; 4. lack of consistent oversight of privately funded research; and 5. incompetent or intentional failure to adhere by ethical guidelines. There is considerable headway to be made in the United States, as in other countries, in the fostering and maintenance of robust systems of human research oversight.

  9. Trend of Increasingly Higher Units Attempted by Students Continues. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2005-01-01

    This July 2005 Research presents an analysis of the changing picture of average units attempted by students who attend the four Los Rios colleges in Sacramento, California--American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and Sacramento City College. Beginning in 2000 a six-year trend of declining average units attempted by Los…

  10. RADIUS: Research Archive on Disability in the United States. [CD-ROMs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sociometrics Corp., Los Altos, CA.

    This Research Archive on Disability in the United States (RADIUS), a database on CD-ROM, contains 19 data sets on the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and consequences of disability in the United States. The 19 data sets are: (1) 1991 National Maternal and Infant Health Follow-Up Survey; (2) National Pediatric Trauma Registry, 1988-1994; (3)…

  11. RADIUS: Research Archive on Disability in the United States. [CD-ROMs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sociometrics Corp., Los Altos, CA.

    This Research Archive on Disability in the United States (RADIUS), a database on CD-ROM, contains 19 data sets on the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and consequences of disability in the United States. The 19 data sets are: (1) 1991 National Maternal and Infant Health Follow-Up Survey; (2) National Pediatric Trauma Registry, 1988-1994; (3)…

  12. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  13. The United States Air Force Academy Solar Energy Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    LEVYELV *j ENGINEERING AND SERVICES LABORATORY TECHNICAL REPORT *j (ESL TR) 80-34/ THE U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH PROJECT FINAL...2-1 2.3 System Performance 2-5 2.4 Influence of Occupancy on 2-11 Energy Consumption 2.5 Investigations on UF Foam Insulation 2-13 3 EVACUATED TUBE...LOSS OF ENERGY SITUATION-SIMULATION (LESS) 4-1 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Procedure 4-1 4.3 Results 4-4 4.4 Conclusion 4-5 , FINAL SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

  14. Arctic Research of the United States, Spring 1990, volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on the importance of the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas to U.S. national interests, including fisheries, the oil and gas industries, and global climate change processes.

  15. United States Research and Development effort on ITER magnet tasks

    DOE PAGES

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N.; Reierson, Wayne T.

    2011-01-22

    This study presents the status of research and development (R&D) magnet tasks that are being performed in support of the U.S. ITER Project Office (USIPO) commitment to provide a central solenoid assembly and toroidal field conductor for the ITER machine to be constructed in Cadarache, France. The following development tasks are presented: winding development, inlets and outlets development, internal and bus joints development and testing, insulation development and qualification, vacuum-pressure impregnation, bus supports, and intermodule structure and materials characterization.

  16. Enabling International Safeguards Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Dwight; Mark J. Schanfein; Trond A. Bjornard

    2009-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead laboratory in nuclear energy research and development within the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory complex. INL is tasked with the advancement of nuclear energy research and development, and leadership in the renaissance of nuclear power globally. INL scientists have been central to the assessment of needs and the integration of technical programs aimed at the world-wide growth of nuclear power. One of the grand challenges of the nuclear energy resurgence is nuclear nonproliferation. Nonproliferation technology development is key to meeting this challenge. The needed advances in nonproliferation technologies are being made more difficult by the growing gap between increasing demands for nuclear materials to support technology development, and reduced availability of these materials. The gap is caused by the reduction, consolidation and more stringent lockdown of nuclear materials, made necessary by heightened and evolving security concerns, in the face of increased demand for materials to support technology development. Ironically, the increased demand for materials for technology development is made necessary by these same security concerns. The situation will continue to worsen if safeguards and security budgets remain limited for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many member states, while growth in global nuclear energy becomes a reality. Effective U.S. leadership in the closing of this gap is vital to homeland security and global stability. INL has taken positive steps, described in this paper, to close this gap by reestablishing a viable base for the development, testing and demonstration of safeguards and security technologies. Key attributes of this technology development base are (1) the availability of a wide variety of special nuclear materials in forms that allow for enhanced accessibility; (2) ease of access by U.S. government, national laboratory, industry and academic institution

  17. The care unit in nursing home research: evidence in support of a definition.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Morgan, Debra G; Squires, Janet E; Boström, Anne-Marie; Slaughter, Susan E; Cummings, Greta G; Norton, Peter G

    2011-04-14

    Defining what constitutes a resident care unit in nursing home research is both a conceptual and practical challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence in support of a definition of care unit in nursing homes by demonstrating: (1) its feasibility for use in data collection, (2) the acceptability of aggregating individual responses to the unit level, and (3) the benefit of including unit level data in explanatory models. An observational study design was used. Research (project) managers, healthcare aides, care managers, nursing home administrators and directors of care from thirty-six nursing homes in the Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba provided data for the study. A definition of care unit was developed and applied in data collection and analyses. A debriefing session was held with research managers to investigate their experiences with using the care unit definition. In addition, survey responses from 1258 healthcare aides in 25 of the 36 nursing homes in the study, that had more than one care unit, were analyzed using a multi-level modeling approach. Trained field workers administered the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), a 58-item self-report survey reflecting 10 organizational context concepts, to healthcare aides using computer assisted personal interviews. To assess the appropriateness of obtaining unit level scores, we assessed aggregation statistics (ICC(1), ICC(2), η², and ω²), and to assess the value of using the definition of unit in explanatory models, we performed multi-level modeling. In 10 of the 36 nursing homes, the care unit definition developed was used to align the survey data (for analytic purposes) to specific care units as designated by our definition, from that reported by the facility administrator. The aggregation statistics supported aggregating the healthcare aide responses on the ACT to the realigned unit level. Findings from the multi-level modeling further supported unit level aggregation. A

  18. The care unit in nursing home research: Evidence in support of a definition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Defining what constitutes a resident care unit in nursing home research is both a conceptual and practical challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence in support of a definition of care unit in nursing homes by demonstrating: (1) its feasibility for use in data collection, (2) the acceptability of aggregating individual responses to the unit level, and (3) the benefit of including unit level data in explanatory models. Methods An observational study design was used. Research (project) managers, healthcare aides, care managers, nursing home administrators and directors of care from thirty-six nursing homes in the Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba provided data for the study. A definition of care unit was developed and applied in data collection and analyses. A debriefing session was held with research managers to investigate their experiences with using the care unit definition. In addition, survey responses from 1258 healthcare aides in 25 of the 36 nursing homes in the study, that had more than one care unit, were analyzed using a multi-level modeling approach. Trained field workers administered the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), a 58-item self-report survey reflecting 10 organizational context concepts, to healthcare aides using computer assisted personal interviews. To assess the appropriateness of obtaining unit level scores, we assessed aggregation statistics (ICC(1), ICC(2), η2, and ω2), and to assess the value of using the definition of unit in explanatory models, we performed multi-level modeling. Results In 10 of the 36 nursing homes, the care unit definition developed was used to align the survey data (for analytic purposes) to specific care units as designated by our definition, from that reported by the facility administrator. The aggregation statistics supported aggregating the healthcare aide responses on the ACT to the realigned unit level. Findings from the multi-level modeling further supported

  19. Coordinated Research Projects of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-05-11

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.

  20. Exploring the Readability of Consent Forms in Human Research in the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    United Nations General Assembly, 1948). Later, the World Medical Association published The Declaration of Helsinki (1964) that safeguarded the health...of human subject research. Together, the Nuremburg Code of 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki of 1964 formed the basis of United States federal...Readability of Informed Consent Documents The Declaration of Helsinki requires human researchers to "adequately inform" participants concerning the

  1. An example of a United States Nuclear Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    1999-12-10

    Under the likely scenario in which public support for nuclear energy remains low and fossil fuels continue to be abundant and cheap, government supported nuclear research centers must adapt their missions to ensure that they tackle problems of current significance. It will be critical to be multidisciplinary, to generate economic value, and to apply nuclear competencies to current problems. Addressing problems in nuclear safety, D and D, nuclear waste management, nonproliferation, isotope production are a few examples of current needs in the nuclear arena. Argonne's original mission, to develop nuclear reactor technology, was a critical need for the U.S. in 1946. It would be wise to recognize that this mission was a special instance of a more general one--to apply unique human and physical capital to long term, high risk technology development in response to society's needs. International collaboration will enhance the collective chances for success as the world moves into the 21st century.

  2. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  3. The Impact of Administrative Academic Units (AAU) Grants on the Family Medicine Research Enterprise in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morley, Christopher P; Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2016-06-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awards funding to primary care departments-or "Academic Administrative Units" (AAUs) at US medical schools-to strengthen or grow these departments and ultimately increase the output of primary care physicians into the US workforce. One aspect of these AAU grants that is often overlooked is the fact that they support research infrastructure for these departments. This study used multiple methods, including content analysis of current AAU grant abstracts (n=23), publications resulting from AAU funding (n=79), and survey responses from AAU project directors (n=19) to explore and describe the impact of current AAU grants on family medicine research in the United States. Federal support for family medicine departments remains very low compared to other disciplines. Several AAU grants have provided direct support for research activities as stipulated in the grant abstracts (6/23). However, most grants appear to have facilitated scholarly activity of some sort, including evaluation and quality improvement activities. Two practice-based research networks are supported with AAU funds, and at least 79 publications over the past 10 years, representing a wide variety of methodological approaches and topics, have been produced and indexed in PubMed with explicit acknowledgment of AAU funding. In the absence of substantial NIH support for family medicine departments, the AAU funding mechanism remains a crucial, but often overlooked, factor in facilitating scholarly activity in departments of family medicine.

  4. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  5. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT FOR THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARNES, BILL; SCHRADER, EUGENE

    THE FINAL REPORT OF THE FIRST FUNDING PERIOD, JULY 1, 1965 TO FEBRUARY 28, 1967, IS PRESENTED. THE PURPOSES OF THE UNIT WERE (1) WORK WITH THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RESEARCH DIVISION AND LOCAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING AND ASSISTING RESEARCH STUDIES AND PROGRAMS CONCERNED WITH OCCUPATIONAL STUDIES, AND (2) WORK WITH THE STATE…

  6. State Research Coordinating Unit Activities for the Period July 1, 1971-December 31, 1971. Semiannual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This semiannual report summarizes research activities of the State Research Coordinating Units conducted under Section 131(b) of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 during the first half of fiscal year 1972. The purpose of the report is to facilitate exchange of information and reduce duplication of effort among the states by providing…

  7. State Research Coordinating Unit Activities for the Period July 1, 1972--December 31, 1972. Semiannual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In an alphabetical listing by States, the report summarizes the research activities of the State Research Coordinating Units (RCU's) conducted under Section 131 (6) of Part C of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 during the first six months of fiscal year 1973. The report's purpose is to provide information that will assist States to be…

  8. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  9. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  10. The Woman Manager in the United States. A Research Analysis and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Keller

    This review essay analyzes the present research on women as managers and executives in business, commerce, and industry in the United States. The nine sections of the essay cover the following topics of potential interest to researchers and businesswomen: the historical contributions of women to the development of management, the social forces…

  11. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  12. The Woman Manager in the United States. A Research Analysis and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Keller

    This review essay analyzes the present research on women as managers and executives in business, commerce, and industry in the United States. The nine sections of the essay cover the following topics of potential interest to researchers and businesswomen: the historical contributions of women to the development of management, the social forces…

  13. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  14. Ranking the International Dimension of Top Research Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Aaron S.; Hendel, Darwin D.; Fry, Gerald W.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the relative internationalization of 77 research universities in the United States. Institutions enrolling undergraduate students were selected from the 2003 national report, The Top American Research Universities. Data were collected from publicly available sources for 19 indicators of internationalization…

  15. Authentic Science in Education: Studies in Course-Based Research at the United States Military Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with…

  16. Post-harvest entomology research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Hallman, Guy J; Johnson, Judy A; Follett, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    This is a review of current post-harvest entomology research conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, the research branch of the US Department of Agriculture. The review covers both durable and perishable commodities. Research on biochemistry, genetics, physiology, monitoring and control of insects infesting stored grain, dried fruits and nuts, and processed commodities is reviewed. Research on development of quarantine treatments, particularly for fruit flies, is also reviewed, including research on thermal and irradiation treatments and a discussion of risk management for quarantine pests. Two areas of research are covered more extensively: a project to map the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the use of near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hidden infestations in grain, quantification of insect fragments in food, determination of quality in dried fruits, identification of insect species and age-grading insects. Future research directions are identified.

  17. Advancing probiotic research in humans in the United States: Challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Shane, Andi L; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This is a summary from a workshop convened as part of the 13(th) annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. A group of 24 stakeholders, including clinical experts, researchers, federal government officials, funding agencies, lawyers and industry experts met to review the challenges of the current regulatory approach to human research on probiotics in the USA and to discuss ways to move research forward. There was agreement that some of the current regulatory requirements imposed on probiotic research in the United States hindered research progress and increased cost without improving study subject safety. Many situations were outlined by clinical investigators demonstrating the impact of regulatory delays on research progress. Additionally, research is compromised when study designs and outcomes require manipulation so as to invoke less burdensome regulatory requirements. These responses by investigators to regulatory requirements have placed United States' researchers at a disadvantage. The public ultimately suffer when research to clarify the role of these products on health is stalled. Workshop participants concurred that regulatory oversight should balance study subject vulnerability with documented safety for the intended use for the probiotic strain, and that human research on foods and supplements should not be be regulated as drug research. Challenges and potential improvement strategies are discussed.

  18. Using a New Model of Curriculum Development To Write a Matter and Molecules Teaching Unit. Research Series No. 196.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkheimer, Glenn D.; And Others

    This paper describes the development of a sixth-grade "Matter and Molecules" unit using a new curriculum development model based on conceptual change research, the field testing of this unit in 15 classrooms and the field test results. The development process and the resulting unit are contrasted with the unit's predecessor, the "Models of Matter"…

  19. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  20. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections.

    PubMed

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  1. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    PubMed Central

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R.; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is “to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind.” Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  2. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  3. The implementation research institute: training mental health implementation researchers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Implementation Research Institute (IRI) provides two years of training in mental health implementation science for 10 new fellows each year. The IRI is supported by a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) R25 grant and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Fellows attend two annual week-long trainings at Washington University in St. Louis. Training is provided through a rigorous curriculum, local and national mentoring, a ‘learning site visit’ to a federally funded implementation research project, pilot research, and grant writing. Methods This paper describes the rationale, components, outcomes to date, and participant experiences with IRI. Results IRI outcomes include 31 newly trained implementation researchers, their new grant proposals, contributions to other national dissemination and implementation research training, and publications in implementation science authored by the Core Faculty and fellows. Former fellows have obtained independent research funding in implementation science and are beginning to serve as mentors for more junior investigators. Conclusions Based on the number of implementation research grant proposals and papers produced by fellows to date, the IRI is proving successful in preparing new researchers who can inform the process of making evidence-based mental healthcare more available through real-world settings of care and who are advancing the field of implementation science. PMID:24007290

  4. The implementation research institute: training mental health implementation researchers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Enola K; Landsverk, John; Baumann, Ana A; Mittman, Brian S; Aarons, Gregory A; Brownson, Ross C; Glisson, Charles; Chambers, David

    2013-09-05

    The Implementation Research Institute (IRI) provides two years of training in mental health implementation science for 10 new fellows each year. The IRI is supported by a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) R25 grant and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Fellows attend two annual week-long trainings at Washington University in St. Louis. Training is provided through a rigorous curriculum, local and national mentoring, a 'learning site visit' to a federally funded implementation research project, pilot research, and grant writing. This paper describes the rationale, components, outcomes to date, and participant experiences with IRI. IRI outcomes include 31 newly trained implementation researchers, their new grant proposals, contributions to other national dissemination and implementation research training, and publications in implementation science authored by the Core Faculty and fellows. Former fellows have obtained independent research funding in implementation science and are beginning to serve as mentors for more junior investigators. Based on the number of implementation research grant proposals and papers produced by fellows to date, the IRI is proving successful in preparing new researchers who can inform the process of making evidence-based mental healthcare more available through real-world settings of care and who are advancing the field of implementation science.

  5. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... National Science and Technology Council, Office of Science and Technology Policy of the Executive Office of... the policy was to establish: (1) Uniformity among the Federal agencies' definitions of research.... Definitions of the following terms are set forth in Sec. 3022.1: Adjudication; Agency Research Integrity...

  6. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities at the Seperations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-03-15

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  7. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry: Development and Progress Toward National Collaboration in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  8. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  9. US (United States) Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory Annual Progress Report, FY 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    grown from one building and seven personnel to a large, modern facility i,ith 152 people . Our growth has been in A" research, people , and facilities, and...development du r i m, Y) 82 . 1 addition, such training experiences as profess ional cenferences, seminars, and short courses benefited 21 people . Among the...been conducted under Research and Technology aork Unit Summary. Vedical Assessment of Hearing Protective Devices, DAOB 6886, 135. Contributing Work

  10. Overview of Lightweighting Materials Research & Development in the United States FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Dean M.; Carpenter, Joseph A.; Sklad, Philip S.; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-02-06

    The United States of America’s (USA’s) transportation system is strongly dependent on petroleum as an energy source. Petroleum is used to satisfy 95 percent of the USA’s transportation energy needs, consuming two-thirds of all the petroleum used in the USA. Since roughly 60 percent of the petroleum is imported, the implications of this dependency on the environment and energy security are readily apparent. Since 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) have worked cooperatively through the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership (FC&FP) to fund high-risk, high-payoff research and development (R&D) into advanced automotive technologies with the potential for lowering this dependence. The FC&FP succeeded and built upon the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) initiative that ran from 1993 to 2001.

  11. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying.

  12. [Training and action research in a short-stay geriatric oncology unit].

    PubMed

    Charniot, Christine; Berchouchi, Florence; Marchand, Claire; Gagnayre, Rémi; Sebbane, Georges; Pamoukdjian, Frédéric

    A participative action research project was undertaken in a geriatric oncology hospital unit. It resulted in the training of paramedical staff regarding the specific care to be provided to elderly people with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing Inquiry-Guided Learning in a Research University in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    A number of universities in the United Kingdom (UK) have launched institution-wide initiatives recently to embed inquiry and research more firmly into the student experience. Among these, the Centre for Inquiry-based Learning in the Arts and Social Sciences (CILASS) led a five-year development program at The University of Sheffield (TUOS) between…

  14. Citation Counts and the Research Assessment Exercise, Part VI: Unit of Assessment 67 (Music)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles; Summers, Mark A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore research assessment within the field of music and, specifically, to investigate whether citation counting could be used to replace or inform the peer review system currently in use in the UK. Method: A citation analysis of academics submitted for peer review in Unit of Assessment 67 in the 2001 Research…

  15. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  16. Research Directions: Multimodal Books in Science-Literacy Units: Language and Visual Images for Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the author's long-term research in urban classrooms. The authors explore six illustrated information books created by children as culminating activities of integrated science-literacy units, Forest and Matter, that they developed, implemented, and studied in several 1st-3rd grade classrooms in Chicago Public…

  17. MITIGATION OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE UNITED STATES USING CLAY: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the United States, red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious and recurrent threat to marine ecosystems, fisheries, human health, and coastal aesthetics. Here we report results from a research program investigating the use of clay dispersal for bloom cont...

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1989 Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    in a water tunnel. Preliminary verification tests show promise for accurate future velocity measurements. A separate flow visualization study involved...published as four separate documents under the 1989 Summer Faculty Research Program and are entitled, Graduate Student Summer Support Program Management...Program is published under a separate report entitled United States Air Force igh School Apprenticeship Program 1989 Program Management Report. 9

  19. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2015 Year In Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn

    2016-03-02

    In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matter.

  20. Research on the biology of fusiform rust in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Pauline. Spaine

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of fusiform rust has continued to be one of the major forest disease problems in the Southeastern United States. In the past, much of the research has concentrated on field studies with provenance selection and genetic breeding of pine families to increase resistance in the host. In the last 10 years, there has been an increased interest in the actual...

  1. Poverty and Child Development: Relevance of Research in Developing Countries to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that research from developing countries may help in understanding effects of poverty on child development in the United States, citing three cases: (1) the link between anemia and decreased levels of mental and motor development; (2) the positive effects of supplemental nutrition programs on child development; and (3) effects of poor…

  2. RESEARCH ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT BY THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on Endocrine Disrupters in the Aquatic Environment by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Abstract). Presented at the Endocrine Disrupters Workshop sponsored by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 8-9 September 2001, Weymouth, UK. 1 p...

  3. Bibliographic Instruction for Undergraduates: An Example of a One-Unit Required Library Research Skills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    A college level, one-unit library research skills course is required of all students as part of a general education program at the State University College at Plattsburgh, New York. The course emphasizes the presentation of learning experiences within the context of two conceptual structures: principles that underlie information access systems,…

  4. Poverty and Child Development: Relevance of Research in Developing Countries to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that research from developing countries may help in understanding effects of poverty on child development in the United States, citing three cases: (1) the link between anemia and decreased levels of mental and motor development; (2) the positive effects of supplemental nutrition programs on child development; and (3) effects of poor…

  5. MITIGATION OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE UNITED STATES USING CLAY: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the United States, red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious and recurrent threat to marine ecosystems, fisheries, human health, and coastal aesthetics. Here we report results from a research program investigating the use of clay dispersal for bloom cont...

  6. Fusarium mycotoxins: Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the health and economic costs of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi, from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit addresses Fusarium mycotoxin...

  7. Unitized Data System: A New Formalism for Encoding and Presenting Data from the Scientific Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, David P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unitized data system for a scientific database that stores descriptions of individual experimental steps as separate text-based subunits together with appropriate linking signals. Conversion of graphics into searchable text, use of natural language, and cost effectiveness are discussed. An example using a biology research paper is…

  8. Results of the Survey of RP Group Members: An Element in Strategic Planning for the Research & Planning Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This document focuses on a stakeholder survey for a research unit. Although it covers just one part of the overall planning process that the Research & Planning (RP) Unit at the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office, the researchers did survey other groups in the strategic planning effort. The stakeholder survey focused on four…

  9. Research needs in drinking water: a basis in regulations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jacangelo, Joseph G; Askenaizer, Daniel J; Schwab, Kellogg

    2006-01-01

    Regulations are one of the primary drivers for research on contaminants in drinking water in the United States. Since the original Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a series of drinking water regulations. These regulations are focused on protecting public health. When evaluating available information on whether or not to regulate a constituent in drinking water, USEPA considers available information on health effects and occurrence of the constituent. The authors provide their view of the research needed for these contaminants. For inorganics, more data are needed on perchlorate. For organics, greater treatment and health effects information is warranted for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Finally, more research is needed on analytical methods for noroviruses and other emerging pathogens.

  10. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  11. Research Assessment Exercise Results and Research Funding in the United Kingdom: A Regional-Territorial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Monojit; Seaman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A considerable sum of money is allocated to UK universities on the basis of Research Assessment Exercise performance. In this paper we analyse the impact of the two main funding models on the intra-territorial and intra-regional allocation of funds. We also examine the effect of the present system of territorial safety nets and discuss the impact…

  12. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-12-11

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health.

  13. Informed consent for clinical research involving patients with chest disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Luce, John M

    2009-04-01

    The concept of informed consent was applied to clinical research in the United States after research abuses were documented in Nazi Germany and this country. The concept is imbedded in the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Belmont Report. Federal regulations governing clinical research require both the consent of subjects and peer review of research proposals by institutional review boards (IRBs). Subpart A of the Code of Federal Regulations contains basic provisions for the protection of research subjects and requirements for informed consent by subjects or their surrogates; surrogate consent may or may not be allowed under state law. Other subparts contain further protections for subjects with diminished capacity, such as children, that limit the kind of research in which they can participate. Whether these protections should be extended to decisionally impaired adults, including those who are critically ill, remains to be determined. Consent can be deferred or waived for emergency research only rarely in the United States, in contrast to other countries.

  14. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Jackson, SC. The correlation of total running mileage and musculoskeletal injuries was docu- mented. Other risk factors for injury included female...fractures, this difference was mainly due to their lower aerobic fitness, an independent risk factor for stress fractures. Stress fracture incidence in men...early USARIEM research (5), more recent thrusts have encompassed the full scope of operational factors affect- ing contemporary combat and training

  15. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  16. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory I4oJ A*6Iv4 Sponsored by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGki"A -- 1992 HIGH SCHOOL APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM (HSAP) REPORTS VOLUME 13 (t PHILLIPS LABORATORY . RESEARCH ...Arlington High School Final Report for: Summer Research Program Geophysics Directorate Phillips Laboratory

  17. An analysis of discrepancies between United Kingdom cancer research funding and societal burden and a comparison to previous and United States values.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ashley J R; Delarosa, Beverly; Hur, Hannah

    2015-11-02

    Ideally, the allocation of research funding for each specific type of cancer should be proportional to its societal burden. This burden can be estimated with the metric 'years of life lost' (YLL), which combines overall mortality and age at death. Using United Kingdom data from 2010, we compared research funding from the National Cancer Research Institute to this YLL burden metric for 26 types of cancers in order to identify the discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden. We also compared these values to United States data from 2010 and United Kingdom data published in 2005. Our study revealed a number of discrepancies between cancer research funding and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (testicular, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, cervical, ovarian, prostate) while other cancers appear under-funded (gallbladder, lung, nasopharyngeal, intestine, stomach, pancreatic, thyroid, oesophageal, liver, kidney, bladder, and brain/central nervous system). United Kingdom funding patterns over the past decade have generally moved to increase funding to previously under-funded cancers with one notable exception showing a converse trend (breast cancer). The broad relationship between United Kingdom and United States funding patterns is similar with a few exceptions (e.g. leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, testicular cancer). There are discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden in the United Kingdom. These discrepancies are broadly similar in both the United Kingdom and the United States and, while they appear to be improving, this is not consistent across all types of cancer.

  18. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study in 2003–2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22911055

  20. Improving cardiovascular clinical trials conduct in the United States: recommendation from clinicians, researchers, sponsors, and regulators.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; Fonarow, Gregg C; O'Connor, Christopher; Adams, Kirkwood; Bonow, Robert O; Cody, Robert J; Collins, Sean P; Dunnmon, Preston; Dinh, Wilfried; Fiuzat, Mona; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Grant, Stephen; Kim, So-Young; Kupfer, Stuart; Lefkowitz, Martin; Mentz, Robert J; Misselwitz, Frank; Pitt, Bertram; Roessig, Lothar; Schelbert, Erik; Shah, Monica; Solomon, Scott; Stockbridge, Norman; Yancy, Clyde; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-03-01

    Advances in medical therapies leading to improved patient outcomes are in large part related to successful conduct of clinical trials that offer critical information regarding the efficacy and safety of novel interventions. The conduct of clinical trials in the United States, however, continues to face increasing challenges with recruitment and retention. These trends are paralleled by an increasing shift toward more multinational trials where most participants are enrolled in countries outside the United States, bringing into question the generalizability of the results to the American population. This manuscript presents the perspectives and recommendations from clinicians, researchers, sponsors, and regulators who attended a meeting facilitated by the Food and Drug Administration to improve upon the current clinical trial trends in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  2. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  3. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  4. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  5. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016–2017 Research Abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has several strategic goals that focus its efforts on serving the American people. The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area has responsibility for the following objectives under the strategic goal of “Science to Manage and Sustain Resources for Thriving Economies and Healthy Ecosystems”:Understand, model, and predict change in natural systemsConserve and protect wildlife and fish species and their habitatsReduce or eliminate the threat of invasive species and wildlife diseaseThis report provides abstracts of the majority of ongoing research investigations of the USGS Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program and is intended to complement the 2016 Cooperative Research Units Program Year in Review Circular 1424 (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1424). The report is organized by the following major science themes that contribute to the objectives of the USGS:Advanced TechnologiesClimate ScienceDecision ScienceEcological FlowsEcosystem ServicesEndangered Species Conservation, Recovery, and Proactive StrategiesEnergyHuman DimensionsInvasive SpeciesLandscape EcologySpecies of Greatest Conservation NeedSpecies Population, Habitat, and Harvest ManagementWildlife Health and Disease

  7. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  8. Dental unit waterline contamination: a review of research and findings from a clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Wirthlin, M Robert; Roth, Mollie

    2015-03-01

    The interior of small-diameter tubing in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) creates an attractive environment for the growth of biofilm and bacteria. Substantial research shows that troublesome and potentially pathogenic bacteria have been found in DUWLs, and scant peer-reviewed information from which to evaluate chemical treatment options has been historically available. The authors' research compares three DUWL cleaners-an alkaline peroxide product, a freshly mixed chlorine dioxide product, and a buffer-stabilized chlorine dioxide product-in 16 dental units with self-contained water systems over a 10-day working period to determine the optimal chemical treatment option. The study found chlorine dioxide waterline cleaners to be most effective in containing DUWL contaminations.

  9. Research priorities for specialized nursing practice in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, N; Al-Tamimi, M; Brenner, M; Altawil, H; Ahmad, A; Brownie, S

    2017-08-25

    Globally, nurses are undertaking expanded and more specialized roles in healthcare planning and service delivery in response to changing patterns and levels of health service demand. This means the nursing profession is increasingly considered as leaders in health service policy, research and practice. The United Arab Emirates has strengthened nursing governance and practice by establishing a Nursing and Midwifery Council and increasing the activity of nursing specialization, service leadership and research. This study aimed to identify clinically relevant research priorities to facilitate nursing contributions to evidence-based care and strengthening health services in the country. A two-stage Delphi study design was used. The first round involved 783 participants. The second round involved 1116 participants, as more clinical settings were accessed. In total, 58 research priorities across a variety of nursing specialties (paediatrics, emergency care, intensive care, labour and maternity care, operating theatre and long-term care) were identified as highly important. These identified priorities will guide a more informed programme of research in each nursing specialty, with the aim of strengthening the evidence base to improving outcomes for patients and their families in the United Arab Emirates. The findings provide guidance on key areas for nurses to focus research contributions to enhance evidence-based care and strengthen health systems. The identified priorities may also guide researchers in academic institutions to conduct research informed by current, clinically relevant issues. The findings may help inform funders and policymakers to support allocation of funding to research that has potential to contribute to enhancing nursing care in specialist areas. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Evaluation of research training and productivity among junior pharmacy practice faculty in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly C; El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the extent of research training and productivity among junior faculty in US schools of pharmacy. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to characterize junior faculty's (a) research training and productivity, (b) perceived ability to meet research demands, (c) confidence and resources for research, and (d) interest in receiving further research training. Surveys were completed by 349 faculty members (36.7% response). More than 60% completed a pharmacy practice residency and fewer than 15% completed a fellowship. Respondents reported lack of formal training in most research skills during their postgraduate training. Most reported that they are able to meet the teaching, clinical, and service expectations of their departments; however, fewer than half believed that they are able to meet the research expectations. Study respondents reported lack of adequate research training during their postgraduate experiences and current faculty positions. Confidence among faculty to conduct research was also low compared to their confidence to fulfill other expectations of their position. Adequate preparation of current and future academicians is critical to ensuring the success and retention of faculty in the United States.

  11. Feasibility of conducting prospective observational research on critically ill, dying patients in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    van Beinum, Amanda; Hornby, Laura; Dhanani, Sonny; Ward, Roxanne; Chambers-Evans, Jane; Menon, Kusum

    2017-01-01

    Studying patients during the end of life is important, as it has the potential to lead to improvements in care for the dying. For patients who die after a controlled withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies in the intensive care unit, information about the natural history of death and the process of removing life support has additionally led to advances in practice for deceased organ donation. However, this unique population of severely critically ill and imminently dying patients has been difficult to study, largely due to assumptions made by research teams and ethics boards alike about the logistical difficulties of obtaining consent and completing research procedures before or during the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies. In this paper, we describe the ethics substudy of the first prospective observational research study in Canada to obtain consent and collect clinical data on patients during the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies in the intensive care unit. We describe in detail the process of protocol development, review by five institutional research ethics boards and bedside staff satisfaction with the study. We conclude that prospective research on a critically ill and imminently dying population is feasible and can be conducted in an ethical manner. Further information is needed about the experiences and motivations of families and substitute decision makers who provide consent for research on critically ill intensive care unit patients at the end of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Individual Characteristics and Unit Performance: A Review of Research and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    structure, group processe , and team training techniques. Because unit performance is to b~rodly defined, much of the research yielded ambiguous or seeming,,y...f.- .. f t. f . . . .. ft f f ft tf fbft ttf f . .. . f _tftft• i • , •: • • + , xii VI. GROUP PROCESSES ......................... 64 Group...division) is analyzed in a framework that postulates that any living system engages in two types of processes -those dealing with the physical world

  13. The regulation of human embryo and stem-cell research in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2008-12-01

    In the United Kingdom, the derivation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells falls under the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act and subsequent amendments that were adopted in 2001. These laws do not regulate research with ES cells, which follows specific national guidelines. Owing to rapid progress in science and to changes in legal and public opinion, the current British Government proposed further radical amendments in a new HFE Bill. These will have important consequences for research and clinical practice that involve both embryos and stem cells.

  14. Research on Geometric Errors of Intermediate Unit Shell of a Geokhod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, A. V.; Borovikov, I. F.; Chernukhin, R. V.; Nozirzoda, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    This article includes the research results on production errors of intermediate unit shell of a geokhod prototype model. There has been a problem stated concerning the accuracy of geokhod shells; constructive and technological particularities of a intermediate unit have been specified. A short summary has been conducted of the types of approach to the determination of shell errors of large equipment. The research was performed on the basis of data received by means of coordinate control of a gekhod prototype model in a production environment. The captured data have been researched by means of statistical methods and analyzed with the purpose of unveiling the factors affecting the errors. It was showed in the article that the errors can be partially explained by the production errors of body sectors and the errors of their relative assembling position. It was demonstrated that at least a part of errors is conditioned by reasons which are not taken into account in the process of a pure geometric description of the intermediate unit manufacturing process.

  15. The calibration and characterization of a research x-ray unit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.M.

    1996-06-01

    The proper characterization of an X-ray unit is necessary for the utilization of the source as a dosimetry calibration standard. Upon calibration, the X-ray unit can be used for X-ray calibrations of survey, diagnostic, and reference-class, instruments and for X-ray irradiations of personnel dosimeters. It was the goal of this research to provide the Radiation Calibration Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a characterized research X-ray unit that could be used in reference dosimetry. The energy spectra were characterized by performing half value layer measurements and by performing a spectral analysis. Two spectral reconstruction techniques were investigated and compared. One involved using a previously determined detector response matrix and a backstripping technique. The other reconstruction technique was developed for this research using neural computing. A neural network was designed and trained to reconstruct measured X-ray spectra from data collected with a high- purity germanium spectroscopy system. Five X-ray beams were successfully characterized and found to replicate the ANSI N13.11 and the National Institute of Standards Technology X-ray beam codes. As a result, these prepared X-ray beams have been used for reference dosimetry. It has been shown that a neural network can be used as a spectral reconstruction technique, which contributes less error to the lower energy portion of the spectrum than other techniques.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections: a medical anthropological study from the Tari research unit 1990-1991.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes medical anthropological research conducted while I was based at the Tari Research Unit for six months in 1990-1991. The research aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the social factors surrounding the transmission of sexually transmitted infections, which had escalated following a local gold rush in 1989. Although HIV/AIDS was a very minor health issue in Papua New Guinea at that time, medical staff were aware of the likelihood of the disease becoming prevalent in the highlands in the near future. The research indicated that many people regarded sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a nuisance, rather than a serious health risk. Discussions with chronic sufferers revealed that they were more concerned about the dangers of infertility than the immediate effects of the infections. The paper considers the risk-taking that the people of Tari, the Huli, were prepared to accept and suggests ways in which these risks might be minimized.

  17. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a...

  18. International Comparative Assessments: Broadening the Interpretability, Application and Relevance to the United States. Research in Review 2012-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Fishbein, Bethany G.; Buckley, Vanessa W.

    2013-01-01

    Many articles and reports have reviewed, researched, and commented on international assessments from the perspective of exploring what is relevant for the United States' education systems. Researchers make claims about whether the top-performing systems have transferable practices or policies that could be applied to the United States. However,…

  19. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  20. The development of clinical research training: past history and current trends in the United States.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R

    2009-04-01

    This article provides a brief account of the history of the development of training opportunities in clinical research in the United States. It highlights some developments in the clinical research enterprise since World War II and focuses examination on the involvement of the U.S. government and academic sector. Clinical research training is a relatively new academic field, and curricula in the design and conduct of clinical research have only emerged since the 1980s. The growing complexity of clinical trials and the emergence of evidence-based medicine in the last several decades created great demand for clinicians with knowledge of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. Amidst alarm bells rung by physician-scientist leaders about the endangered species of clinical researchers, numerous proposals and solutions emerged to address these workforce and educational problems in the 1990s. Traditionally, physicians wishing to expand their education had to get a master's degree in public health or participate in unique programs such as the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. Since the 1990s, the National Institutes of Health, through K awards, the Roadmap Initiative, and other funding mechanisms, has furnished tremendous support for the development of clinical research training opportunities from predoctoral immersion programs to degree-granting graduate programs. The author discusses key components of successful clinical research training programs and concludes with empirical recommendations for promoting careers in clinical research.

  1. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M.; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J.; Potestio, Melissa L.; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. Methods We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Results Participants described three phases in the patient/family “ICU journey”; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient’s voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These “ICU journey” experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Conclusions Patient

  2. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Keyvan; McGahan, Anita M; Rezaie, Rahim; Mitchell, Will; Daar, Abdallah S

    2015-01-01

    On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea). Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  3. Progress in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in the United States between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Keyvan; McGahan, Anita M.; Rezaie, Rahim; Mitchell, Will; Daar, Abdallah S.

    2015-01-01

    On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) out of concern for the “vast ethical mine fields” associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea). Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions. PMID:25812114

  4. Overall Assessment of Human Research and Ethics Committees in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2017-04-01

    Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.

  5. Attitudes of patients and staff to research in a specialist palliative care unit.

    PubMed

    Ross, Catriona; Cornbleet, Mike

    2003-09-01

    Many randomized trials in specialist palliative care (SPC) have failed to recruit sufficient numbers of patients. A questionnaire was designed to assess the attitudes of inpatients of a SPC unit to taking part in research. Only 50% of patients were considered physically and mentally fit for interview. Forty patients and 13 nurses were asked to indicate their willingness to take part, or for their patients to take part, in research in general and then in three hypothetical trials. Reasons for their responses were analysed. The patients were generally agreeable to trial participation (66% 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). The nurses were strongly in favour of research participation for the same group of patients (92% 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). The most invasive study involving venepuncture and random drug allocation had the least favourable response (46% of patients and 54% of nurses 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). A trial of reflexology attracted 77% of patients, while 62% were happy to take part in a study involving mood assessment and interview. Factors deterring willingness to participate included the need for record keeping by the patient and concern about potential emotional strain. The nurses correctly identified some of the factors deterring patients, but often their willingness for trial participation did not match that of the patient. Although there is support for research among the small number of potential trial entrants in specialist palliative care units, their limited physical and emotional reserves make careful attention to appropriate trial design essential to the success of future studies.

  6. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce

    PubMed Central

    Brunette, M

    2004-01-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed. PMID:15314054

  7. Construction safety research in the United States: targeting the Hispanic workforce.

    PubMed

    Brunette, M J

    2004-08-01

    While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed.

  8. Images of cloning and stem cell research in editorial cartoons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Through semiotic analysis of manifest and latent meanings in editorial cartoons, the author uncovers how cloning and stem cell research are represented in a popular mass medium. She identified 86 editorial cartoons published in the United States between 2001 and 2004 that referred to cloning and 20 that referred to stem cell research. Cartoonists portrayed people individually 224 times and 4 times in groups of more than 10. Men were portrayed in 64% of cartoons. Stem cell research was depicted as having a potential positive value, and cloning was depicted negatively. Some major messages are that cloning will lead to the mass production of evil, cloning creates monsters, and politics will influence who or what will be cloned. Analyzing popular images can allow access to public understanding about genetic technology and evaluation of public beliefs, preconceptions, and expectations as the public is educated on the use and value of services.

  9. Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

  10. Reduction of earthquake risk in the united states: Bridging the gap between research and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Continuing efforts under the auspices of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program are under way to improve earthquake risk assessment and risk management in earthquake-prone regions of Alaska, California, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho, the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones in the central United States, the southeastern and northeastern United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, and Hawaii. Geologists, geophysicists, seismologists, architects, engineers, urban planners, emergency managers, health care specialists, and policymakers are having to work at the margins of their disciplines to bridge the gap between research and practice and to provide a social, technical, administrative, political, legal, and economic basis for changing public policies and professional practices in communities where the earthquake risk is unacceptable. ?? 1998 IEEE.

  11. Solr assisted heat pump research and development program in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J W

    1980-01-01

    A review of the historical progress and current status of the solar assisted heat pump research and development, supported by the United States Department of Energy, is presented. Much of this work has had as its focus the need for a better source of auxiliary or backup heat than the electric resistance which has generally been assumed in computer simulations of these systems. The two leading candidates are the use of the ground as an alternate heat source/sink or storage element (ground coupling) and the use of fossil fuel burned on site (the bivalent system). The United States program has emphasized ground coupling. Much of the analytical work and heat pump development is applicable to bivalent systems, and some results of this work are discussed. Project descriptions and technical accomplishments for the currently active projects are presented.

  12. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  13. National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Gandré, Coralie; Leboyer, Marion; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Belli, Stefano; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wykes, Til; van Os, Jim; Haro, Josep Maria; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Storey, Mel; Porter, Alison; Snooks, Helen; Jones, Kerina; Peconi, Julie; Sánchez, Antonio; Siebert, Stefan; Thorne, Kym; Clement, Clare; Russell, Ian

    2013-02-21

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials.

  15. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  16. Research ethics committees in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.

  17. The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; McCaughan, D; Cullum, N; Sheldon, T A; Mulhall, A; Thompson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist--in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs--in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology--in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such as clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely to perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses on the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information

  18. Non-Research-Related Physician-Industry Relationships of Radiologists in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Alkasab, Tarik K; Pandharipande, Pari V; Halpern, Elkan F; Prabhakar, Anand M; Oklu, Rahmi; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Hirsch, Joshua A; Gazelle, G Scott; Brink, James A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate non-research-related, physician-industry financial relationships in the United States, in 2013, as reported pursuant to the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (a provision of the Affordable Care Act). In September 2014, CMS released the first five months (August 2013 to December 2013) of data disclosing physician-industry financial relationships. The frequency and value of non-research-related transfers in radiology were calculated and compared with those for 19 other specialties. Subanalyses of the frequency and value of such transfers in radiology were performed, based on state of licensure, radiologic subspecialty, nature of payment, manufacturer identity, and drug or device involved. A total of 7.4% (2,654 of 35,768) of radiologists from the United States had reportable non-research-related financial relationship(s) with industry during the 5-month period, the second-lowest level among the medical specialties evaluated. The average value of non-research-related transfers of value to radiologists, excluding royalties and licenses, was low ($438.71; SD: $2,912.15; median: $43.85), with <4% of radiologists receiving >$10 per month. Of all categories, that of food and beverage had the most transfers of value (86.0%; 5,655 of 6,577); royalties and licensure were associated with the greatest average value ($27,072.34; SD: $67,524.92). Although high-value relationships were rare, 57.8% (26 of 45) of radiologists who received a value >$1,000 per month held leadership positions in imaging enterprises. Less than 4% of radiologists have non-research-related financial relationships with industry that are valued at >$10 per month, suggesting that meaningful, deleterious effects of such relationships on radiology practice, if present, are infrequent. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) Datasets for Stratospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 spacecraft launched in May 1998 carried the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The AMSU has eleven oxygen absorption channels with weighting functions peaking from near the surface to 2 mb. Twice-daily, limb-corrected I degree gridded datasets of layer temperatures have been constructed since the AMSU went operational in early August 1998. Examples of AMSU imagery will be shown, as will preliminary analyses of daily fluctuations in tropical stratospheric temperatures and their relationship to daily variations in tropical-average rainfall measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The AMSU datasets are now available for other researchers to utilize.

  20. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Stewart, Emma M.; Smith, Travis; Buckner, Mark; Kirkham, Harold; Tuffner, Francis; Schoenwald, David A.

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  1. Hazardous-waste sites: Priority health conditions and research strategies--United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    Uncontrolled disposal sites containing hazardous waste and other contaminants have created national environmental problems (1). Because of potential health problems associated with the more than 33,000 hazardous-waste sites in the United States, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)--as part of its federally legislated mandate--has developed a list of seven priority health conditions (PHCs) to (1) assist in evaluating potential health risks to persons living near these sites and (2) determine program and applied human health research activities involving hazardous substances identified at the sites. This report summarizes the development and intended applications of the seven PHCs.

  2. Caring for burn patients at the United States Institute of Surgical Research: the nurses' multifaceted roles.

    PubMed

    Serio-Melvin, Maria; Yoder, Linda H; Gaylord, Kathryn M

    2010-06-01

    Nursing plays a critical role in the comprehensive burn care delivered at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, otherwise known as the US Army's Burn Center serving the Department of Defense. This center serves as a model for burn units nationally and internationally. It also provides a challenging and innovative work environment for military and civilian nurses. Nurses in the Burn Center contribute to innovations in acute, rehabilitative, and psychological care for patients with burns. This article provides an overview of the complex nursing care provided to burn patients treated at the Burn Center.

  3. Federal research on the conservation of migratory nongame birds in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, M.A.; Salathe, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, the term 'nongame birds' applies to all bird species that are neither hunted nor legalIy endangered or threatened. Although ultimate responsibility for protection of migratory nongame birds lies with the federal government, research and management efforts by the key federal landholding agencies have historically emphasized species of economic importance, game birds and endangered species. In response to various legislative actions between the late 1960s and early 1980s, however, there has been a gradual escalation of research directed towards conservation of migratory nongame birds in these agencies. These studies have focused on two broad objectives (a) development of population sampling and census methods, and (b) identifying habitat requirements of species and species groups and the impacts of habitat changes on populations. The bulk of this research has been conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Forest Service. In this paper, the missions and research structures of these agencies are described briefly, and selected research highlights are discussed at length. Specific examples are development of the Breeding Bird Survey and teasing apart the relative contributions of forest fragmentation on breeding and wintering grounds to declines in populations of Neotropical migrants. Nongame bird research activities in other agencies are also summarized. The cumulative research conducted to date is evaluated in the context of developing a national management strategy to meet future migratory nongame bird conservation needs. Important shortcomings in present federal programmes continue to be insufficient folIow-through from research results to direct management action and lack of coordination among agencies with a vested interest in nongame bird conservation. Pending legislation and recent maturation of a comprehensive migratory nongame bird policy in the Fish and Wildlife Service are indications that significant improvements in

  4. Tobacco Research in the Military: Reflections on 20 Years of Research in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Talcott, G Wayne; Ebbert, Jon O; Klesges, Robert C; Linde, Brittany D; Seals, Robert W; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Grieser, Emily A; Oh, John Y; Martin-Zona, Denise M

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. military is one of the world's largest employers. Approximately 30% of active duty military personnel smoke cigarettes and more than 14% use smokeless tobacco. The military has historically supported tobacco use and more recently is attempting to combat its use. Through 20 years of collaborative research with the United States Air Force, we have learned that smoking bans are effective, recruits who have never previously smoked cigarettes initiate tobacco use, smokeless tobacco serves as a gateway for smoking initiation, smoking is associated with discharge, smoking adds significant proximal training costs, tobacco use increases during deployment, and tobacco quitline counseling with a provision of medication is effective. Our findings may provide groundwork for future tobacco control efforts in the U.S. military. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature.

  6. 1992 toxic hazards research unit annual report. Annual report, 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Dodd, D.E.; Vinegar, A.; Schneider, M.G.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 1 October 1991 through 30 September 1992. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. 1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB), Carboxylic acid metabolite, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Delayed neurotoxicity, Halon replacement, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrazine, Inhalation, Jet engine oil, Lactational transfer, Methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C, Neurotoxic Esterase (NTE), OTTO Fuel II, Perchloroethylene (PCE), Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (pCTFE), Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR), Reproductive, Risk assessment, Smoke, Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), Toxic dust, Vinyl Chloride (VC) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture.

  7. Research Priorities for School Nursing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Docherty, Charles; Brenner, Maria; Alhosany, Jameela; Altawil, Hanan; Al-Tamimi, Muna

    2017-10-01

    School nurses are challenged with more children having complex conditions, who are now surviving into school age. This is paralleled by a shift in focus of health systems toward primary care, and national efforts to develop the health-care services, especially those offered to vulnerable populations. Being at the forefront of this change, school nurses in United Arab Emirates (UAE) are finding themselves under pressure to adapt to and facilitate these changes both by improving their practice and by contributing to its underpinning evidence. A cross-sectional design was used in this study in which 370 school nurses participated, identifying 11 research priorities. The three most important, as ranked by participants, were management of children with complex health-care needs; nutrition, obesity, and lifestyle issues of schoolchildren; and managing illnesses, injuries, and emergencies in schools and provision of medical support. These priorities should direct future research activities in the field.

  8. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  9. Toxic hazards research unit annual report 1991. Report for 16 November 1990-30 September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Dodd, D.E.; Vinegar, A.; Clewell, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of 16 November 1990 through 30 September 1991. Research activities included in this report cover the completion or continuation of studies that were initiated during the previous THRU contract and studies that were initiated under the present contract for the operation of the THRU. Toxicologic evaluations of aerospace and naval chemicals included studies on a component to be used in an explosive formulation, jet fuels, solvents, hydraulic fluids, a torpedo propellant, combustion products, chemical agent simulants, Halon replacements, jet engine oil, and toxic dust and smoke. In addition to the toxicologic investigations, the THRU coordinated a toxicology conference on risk assessment and two expert workshops on military toxicology issues. The overall THRU effort addressed important descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology data needs of the Air Force and Navy.

  10. Toxic Hazards Research Unit, 1989. Annual report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 89

    SciTech Connect

    Kutzman, R.S.; Wall, H.G.; Vinegar, A.

    1990-10-01

    This report has been prepared as a review of the October 1988 through September 1989 activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit. Research activities largely focused on the toxicity of chlorotrifluoroethylene oligomers and the acid metabolic products of this material. Initial acute studies also were conducted on a silahydrocarbon hydraulic fluid. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed, refined or more substantially validated for several chemicals of Air Force and Navy interest. These included hydraulic fluids, organophosphates, and combustion products. Both in vivo and in vitro studies on chloropentafluorobenzene, a chemical defense training material, were conducted or subcontracted, and efforts were begun to develop the equipment needed for additional studies using primates. Neurotoxicity assessments were conducted for jet engine oils and a model was developed to assess the dermal penetration of a neurotoxic compound found in the combustion products of another lubricating oil.

  11. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  12. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: long-term precipitation database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A long-term precipitation database has been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit (PSWMRU) to support intensive hydrologic and water quality research within WE-38, a 7.3 km**2 experimental watershed loca...

  13. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  14. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  15. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  16. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  17. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  18. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  19. Overview of feedstock research in the United States, Canada, and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.; Tardif, M.L.; Couto, L.; Garca, L.R.; Betters, D.; Ashworth, J.

    1993-12-31

    This is an overview of the current biomass feedstock efforts in Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The report from Brazil provides an historical perspective of incentive programs, the charcoal and fuelwood energy programs, the alcohol program, and other biomass energy efforts. The efforts in Brazil, particularly with the sugar cane to ethanol and the charcoal and fuelwood programs, dwarfs other commercial biomass systems in the Americas. One of the bright spots in the future is the Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine Electricity Project initially funded in 1992. The sugar cane-based ethanol industry continues to develop higher yielding cane varieties and more efficient microorganisms to convert the sugar cane carbohydrates into alcohol. In Canada a number of important institutions and enterprises taking part in the economical development of the country are involved in biomass research and development including various aspects of the biomass such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, urban, food processing, fisheries and peat bogs. Biomass feedstock research in the United States is evolving to reflect Department of Energy priorities. Greater emphasis is placed on leveraging research with the private sector contributing a greater share of funds, for both research and demonstration projects. The feedstock program, managed by ORNL, is focused on limited model species centered at a regional level using a multidisciplinary approach. Activities include a stronger emphasis on emerging environmental issues such as biodiversity, sustainability and habitat management. DOE also is a supporter of the National Biofuels Roundtable, which is developing principles for producing biomass energy in an economically viable and ecologically sound manner. Geographical Information Systems are also being developed as tools to quantify and characterize the potential supply of energy crops in various regions.

  20. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Peter B. Sopka, Dennis M.; Kathpal, Madeera; Haynes, Jeffrey C.; Lally, Brian E.; Li, Linna

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published {>=}1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented {>=}1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  1. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Yang, S. T.; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.; Lv, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the regional development etc. Geographical environment is arising from the geographical position linkages. Geographical environment unit division is also a type of zoning. The geographical environment indicators are deeply studied and summed up in the article, including the background, the associated and the potential. The background indicators are divided into four categories, such as the socio-economic, the political and military, the strategic resources and the ecological environment, which can be divided into more sub-indexes. While the sub-indexes can be integrated to comprehensive index system by weighted stacking method. The Jenks natural breaks classification method, also called the Jenks optimization method, is a data classification method designed to determine the best arrangement of values into different classes. This is done by seeking to minimize each class's average deviation from the class mean, while maximizing each class's deviation from the means of the other groups. In this paper, the experiment of Chinese surrounding geographical environment unit division has been done based on the natural breaks (jenks) method, the geographical environment index system and the weighted stacking method, taking South Asia as an example. The result indicates that natural breaks (jenks) method is of good adaptability and high accuracy on the geographical environment unit division. The geographical environment research was originated in the geopolitics and flourished in the geo

  2. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  3. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  4. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  5. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode…

  6. Stages of Learning: Building a Native Curriculum. Teachers' Guide, Student Activities--Part I, Research Unit--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candline, Mary

    This language arts curriculum developed for Native American students in Manitoba (Canada) consists of a teachers' guide, a student guide, and a research unit. The curriculum includes reading selections and learning activities appropriate for the different reading levels of both upper elementary and secondary students. The purpose of the unit is…

  7. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode…

  8. [Barriers and motivations of nurses for conducting research in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Medical Service].

    PubMed

    Llauradó-Serra, M; Güell-Baró, R; Castanera-Duro, A; Sandalinas, I; Argilaga, E; Fortes-Del Valle, M L; Jiménez-Herrera, M F; Bordonado-Pérez, L; Fuentes-Pumarola, C

    The implementation of evidence based practice is essential in clinical practice. However, it is still a challenge in critical care patients. To identify the barriers for conducting research that nursing professionals perceive in intensive care and medical emergency departments, as well as to investigate the areas of interest and motivations to carry out research projects. Cross-sectional and multicentre study carried out in 4 intensive care units and in one Medical Emergency Department emergency pre-hospital carein Catalonia on 2014. The instrument used was The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale which had been previously validated into Spanish. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. A statistical significance of P<.05 was assumed. One hundred seventy-two questionnaires were obtained (69.9% response). Of the total, 135 were from critical care, 27 to pre-hospital care, and 10 from both. Just over half (57.3%) had research experience, although 44.4% had related training. The questionnaire dimension considered most relevant was organisational characteristics. The most important barriers were: there is not enough time at work [3.11 (SD 1.21)], physicians do not collaborate in its implementation [2.99 (SD 1.22)], and nurses are isolated with respect to other professionals [2.86 (SD 1.32)]. Significant differences were observed in the barriers according to research experience and work place. The main motivation was to be updated in critical patient care. The main barriers perceived are related to the organisation. There are differences in the barriers according to research experience and work place. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated exploration into the social and environmental determinants of health: the Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit (SPHERU).

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Abonyi, Sylvia; Woodard, Georgia Bell; Jeffery, Bonnie; Maslany, George; McCubbin, Michael; Williams, Allison

    2002-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit (SPHERU) is a new interdisciplinary research institute established by the Universities of Saskatchewan and Regina. SPHERU developed four of its research programs using a hierarchic model of health determining conditions and contexts. In descending order these programs include: Economic and Environmental Globalization, Governance and Health Community/Environment as a Health Determinant Multiple Roles, Gender and Health Determinants of Healthy Childhood Development A fifth program researching the determinants of health of indigenous peoples spans all four levels. Two research projects, one on power, control and health, and another on community capacity building approaches to human service programs, assist SPHERU in developing the theoretical linkages between its programs. This article describes SPHERU's research model and the Unit's approach to research and summarizes each of its current research programs and projects.

  10. Survey of United States Army Reserve (USAR) Troop Program Unit (TPU) soldiers. Technical Report. The Research Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-13

    REFERENCES Cook , J.D., Hepworth, SI., Wall , T.D., & Warr , P.B. (1981). Experience of work: A compendium and review of 249 measures and their use. New...of those factors that are responsible for retaining soldiers highly relevant to the defense of the United States. The down- scaling of the active...leaving the Army Reserve. To ease the difficulty of data collection on a large scale , an effort was made to design a survey instrument, sampling design

  11. Impacts of animal science research on United States sheep production and predictions for the future.

    PubMed

    Lupton, C J

    2008-11-01

    One hundred years ago, there were more than 48 million sheep in the United States. In 1910, they were valued at $4/head, with 43% of income coming from the sale of sheep, lambs, and meat and 57% coming from wool. Over the years, fluctuations in this ratio have challenged the breeder and researcher alike. By 2007, sheep numbers had declined to 6.2 million, with the average sheep shearing 3.4 kg of wool (representing <10% of income), 0.2 kg more than in 1909 but 0.5 kg less than fleeces in 1955. Sheep operations have declined by more than 170,000 in the past 40 yr. A cursory examination of this information might lead one to conclude that animal science research has made little impact on sheep production in the United States. On the contrary, lamb crops in the new millennium (range = 109 to 115%) are greater than those recorded in the 1920s (85 to 89%) and dressed lamb weights increased from 18 to 32 kg from 1940 to the present. In the past century, researchers conducted thousands of investigations, with progress reported in new, existing, and crossbreed evaluations, quantitative and molecular genetics, selection, nutrition, fiber, meat, hides, milk, growth, physiology, reproduction, endocrinology, management, behavior, the environment, disease, pharmacology, toxicology, and range, pasture, and forage utilization such that a vast amount of new information was accrued. Our understanding of sheep has benefited also from research conducted on other species, and vice versa. Many factors that have contributed to the decline in the sheep industry are not influenced easily by academic research (e.g., low per capita consumption of lamb meat, predation, reluctance to adopt new technologies, cost and availability of laborers with sheep-related skills, and fewer young people pursuing careers in agriculture). The size of the US sheep industry is expected to remain stable, with possible slow growth in the foreseeable future. To remain profitable, producers will take advantage of

  12. United Nations and human cloning: a slender and fortunate defence for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2003-12-01

    Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care. These data were gained ethically in many countries, to open new vistas including the alleviation of infertility, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and stem cells, combined with some recent reports on human reproductive cloning. After detailed consultations with scientists, clinicians, ethicists and lawyers, many governments passed legislation permitting research under their own particular socially-defined conditions. Virtually all of them rejected reproductive cloning; a few have accepted therapeutic cloning. These legislatures saluted the many biomedical scientists striving to improve IVF and its derivatives, recognizing their immense medical potential. A motion recently placed before the United Nations then recommended a worldwide ban on all forms of human cloning. Proponents included the Vatican and many Roman Catholic countries, the USA and others. Opponents included Belgium, China, Japan, Brazil, UK, Germany and France. Mediation was achieved by Iran and other Muslim nations, and led to a motion passed by single vote for a two-year delay. This may be the first-ever proposal to ban worldwide a particular form of research. It sounds the alarm bells for further research. It raises questions about the UN being an appropriate forum for ethical decisions affecting the entire world and its future medicine. Large blocs of nations committed to particular religions and outlooks confronted each other, a situation in total contrast to the detailed and widespread consultations made by individual governments when deciding their own individual ethics. This event was clearly a narrow escape for free research as defined by each country's own jurisprudence. It also places research on human embryology and reproductive biomedicine into a more critical situation than before. Current liberalism in

  13. A Practical, Global Perspective on Using Administrative Data to Conduct Intensive Care Unit Research.

    PubMed

    Garland, Allan; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Wilcox, M Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Various data sources can be used to conduct research on critical illness and intensive care unit (ICU) use. Most published studies derive from randomized controlled trials, large-scale clinical databases, or retrospective chart reviews. However, few investigators have access to such data sources or possess the resources to create them. Hospital administrative data, also called health claims data, constitute an important alternative data source that can be used to address a broad range of research questions, including many that would be difficult to study in interventional studies. Such data often contain information that allows identification of ICU care, specific types of critical illness, and ICU-related procedures. The strengths of using administrative databases are that many are population-based, cover broad geographic regions, and are large enough to provide high statistical power and precise effect estimates. Linking hospital data to other databases regarding chronic care facilities, home care services, or rehabilitation services, for example, can expand the scope of research questions that can be answered. However, the limitations of administrative data must be recognized. They are not collected for research purposes; thus, data elements may vary in accuracy, and key clinical variables such as ICU-specific physiologic and laboratory data are usually lacking. Specific efforts should be made to validate the data elements used, as has been done in several world regions. As with any other research question, it is imperative that the analysis plan be carefully defined in advance and that appropriate attention be paid to potential sources of bias and confounding.

  14. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  15. The patient's perception of a delirium: A qualitative research in a Belgian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaey, Bart; Van Hoof, An; van Bogaert, Peter; Timmermans, Olaf; Dilles, Tinne

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to describe the intensive care patients' perception of a delirium. A hermeneutic qualitative research was designed using semi-structured interviews. Adult patients admitted between December 2011 and April 2012 to the intensive care unit of a Belgian public hospital, scoring positive for delirium at least once, were eligible for this study. At least 48hours after the last positive score for delirium, the patients could be interviewed. Data saturation was achieved after 30 patients. Several patients spontaneously indicated the recollection of the delirium, whereas others needed a few questions or needed the specificity of the syndrome to be pointed out. The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in four major themes: (1) contact and communication, (2) feelings, (3) sleep and time and (4) implication of the delirious episode. Interviewees recollected a vivid delirium with unrealistic scenes. The study delivered a first understanding of patients' perceptions during a delirium. This qualitative research tried to image the patients' perceptions providing nurses, physicians, other health-care workers as well as patients and their family with a better insight into the syndrome. Targeted interventions may be developed to relieve the burden of the syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Williams, O Dale; Korelitz, James J; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Makhija, Sonia K; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W; Rindal, D Brad; Benjamin, Paul L; Foy, Patrick J

    2013-11-01

    Following a successful 2005-2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called "The National Dental PBRN" was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. To date, 2763 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. This "nation's network" aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin' at the East Coast of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, the deep-sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin' drifts off the East Coast of the United States (U.S.) prior to submerging into the ocean. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  18. Software architecture for a multi-purpose real-time control unit for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  19. People United to Sustain Health (PUSH): A Community‐Based Participatory Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Johnson, William D.; Johnson, Glenda S.; McGee, Bernestine B.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Harsha, David W.; Crawford, Terri; Ryan, Donna H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The prevention of weight gain to address the obesity epidemic rather than weight loss involves promoting small changes in food choices and physical activity. People United to Sustain Health (PUSH) was designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and food security to prevent weight gain in rural adults. Forty‐nine participants were randomized into a treatment group which received access to a “Rolling Store,” nutrition education and physical activity, and a control group which received family coping classes. Forty‐one (84%) of participants completed the study. At the end of 6 months, weight for all participants was maintained from baseline to completion with no significant differences between the groups. The mean fruit consumption over 6 months for the treatment group increased and was significantly greater than change in the control group (p = 0.01). This community‐based participatory research study was considered successful because weight gain was prevented. PMID:24405579

  20. The Plant Research Unit: Long-Term Plant Growth Support for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, C. S.; Goins, G. D.; Kliss, M.; Levine, H.; Lomax, P. A.; Porter, R. L.; Wheeler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The specifications of the plant research unit (PRU) plant habitat, designed for space station operations, are presented. A prototype brassboard model of the PRU is described, and the results of the subsystems tests are outlined. The effects of the long term red light emitting diode (LED) illumination as the sole source for plant development were compared with red LEDs supplemented with blue wavelengths, and white fluorescent sources. It was found that wheat and Arabidopsis were able to complete a life cycle under red LEDs alone, but with differences in physiology and morphology. The differences noted were greatest for the Arabidopsis, where the time to flowering was increased under red illumination. The addition of 10 percent of blue light was effective in eliminating the observed differences. The results of the comparative testing of three nutrient delivery systems for the PRU are discussed.

  1. Renewable Electricity in the United States: The National Research Council Study and Recent Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, K. John; Papay, Lawrence T.

    2011-11-01

    The National Research Council issued Electricity from Renewables: Status, Prospects, and Impediments in 2009 as part of the America's Energy Future Study. The panel that authored this report, the Panel on Electricity from Renewable Sources, worked from 2007 to 2009 gathering information and analysis on the cost, performance and impacts of renewable electricity resources and technologies in the United States. The panel considered the magnitude and distribution of the resource base, the status of renewable electricity technologies, the economics of these technologies, their environmental footprint, and the issues related to scaling up renewables deployment. In its consideration of the future potential for renewable electricity, the panel emphasizes policy, technology, and capital equally because greatly scaling up renewable electricity encounters significant issues that go beyond resource availability or technical capabilities. Here we provide a summary of this report and discuss several recent trends that impact renewable electricity.

  2. The Plant Research Unit: Long-Term Plant Growth Support for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, C. S.; Goins, G. D.; Kliss, M.; Levine, H.; Lomax, P. A.; Porter, R. L.; Wheeler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The specifications of the plant research unit (PRU) plant habitat, designed for space station operations, are presented. A prototype brassboard model of the PRU is described, and the results of the subsystems tests are outlined. The effects of the long term red light emitting diode (LED) illumination as the sole source for plant development were compared with red LEDs supplemented with blue wavelengths, and white fluorescent sources. It was found that wheat and Arabidopsis were able to complete a life cycle under red LEDs alone, but with differences in physiology and morphology. The differences noted were greatest for the Arabidopsis, where the time to flowering was increased under red illumination. The addition of 10 percent of blue light was effective in eliminating the observed differences. The results of the comparative testing of three nutrient delivery systems for the PRU are discussed.

  3. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  4. Developmental process and early phases of implementation for the United States Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Congress first called for improved coordination of human nutrition research within and among federal departments and agencies in the 1977 Farm Bill. Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and commu...

  5. Individual Characteristics and Unit Performance. A Review of Research and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, James P.; And Others

    This report reviews existing studies of the determinants of group performance in an attempt to understand how personnel characteristics of units affect the effectiveness and efficiency with which those units perform their missions. As defined for this project, unit performance is the aggregate behavior of personnel in a unit. This review provides…

  6. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (<4 yr vs. ≥ 4 yr); however, no differences between regions were observed for demographic data. The average farm consisted of 309 acres and 57 milking cows, on which most of the forage was homegrown but grains were purchased (73% of farms). Among the greatest challenges identified by the farmers were obtaining a steady, fair price for milk (85% respondents); determining dry matter intake for animals on pasture (76%); and controlling nuisance flies (89%). Needs for additional research included organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with <4 yr of organic certification were concerned with level of knowledge and experience of local certifiers, whereas organic producers with ≥ 4 yr of organic

  7. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume II, Individual Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  8. EDUCATION RESEARCH AND ITS RELATION TO POLICY, AN ANALYSIS BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRIGHT, R. LOUIS; GIDEONSE, HENDRIK D.

    TO STIMULATE DISCUSSION ABOUT SUPPORT FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, A PRESENTATION WAS MADE AT A PROFESSIONAL MEETING IN OCTOBER 1967, DESCRIBING THE NATURE OF SUCH ACTIVITIES, DISCUSSING SOME OF THE ISSUES RELATING TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH, AND REVIEWING THE EXPERIENCE OF THE UNITED STATES. DIVIDED INTO THREE MAIN SECTIONS,…

  9. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume II, Individual Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  10. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  11. A systematic review of research on psychiatric mother-baby units.

    PubMed

    Connellan, Kathleen; Bartholomaeus, Clare; Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W

    2017-03-22

    Psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) are currently viewed as best practice, particularly in the UK, Australia and France, for improving outcomes for mothers and babies when the former are experiencing severe forms of mental illness. A growing number of publications have examined MBUs, but to date, there has not been a comprehensive review of these studies. As such, the systematic review reported in this paper sought to address this gap. A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed research and grey literature published in English between 2000 and 2015. A final sample of 44 publications were identified that reported on empirical findings with regard to MBUs. Three quarters of the studies focused on individual MBUs and most studies were quantitative. A thematic analysis of the studies identified three major themes: (1) admissions data, (2) outcomes for mothers, and (3) programmes and interventions. The analysis also identified four secondary themes: (i) follow-up after discharge, (ii) separation of mothers and babies after discharge, (iii) client satisfaction with MBUs, and (iv) partners of women admitted to MBUs. The findings of the review highlight gaps in knowledge about MBUs and provide suggestions for future research.

  12. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four “candidate” countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. Design A retrospective observational study—bibliometric analysis. Data sources Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Main outcome measures Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. Results 1 485 749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1 356 805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US—and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. Conclusion The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole. PMID:16037452

  13. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-07-23

    To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four "candidate" countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. A retrospective observational study-bibliometric analysis. Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. 1,485,749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1,356,805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US-and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole.

  14. Overview of the United States department of energy's used fuel disposition research and development campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, Mark; Swift, Peter; MacKinnon, Robert; McMahon, Kevin; Sorenson, Ken; Birkholzer, Jens; Boyle, William; Gunter, Timothy; Larson, Ned

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is conducting research and development (R and D) activities within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to support storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. R and D activities are ongoing at nine national laboratories, and are divided into two major topical areas: (1) storage and transportation research, and (2) disposal research. Storage R and D focuses on closing technical gaps related to extended storage of UNF. For example, uncertainties remain regarding high-burnup nuclear fuel cladding performance following possible hydride reorientation and creep deformation, and also regarding long-term canister integrity. Transportation R and D focuses on ensuring transportability of UNF following extended storage, addressing data gaps regarding nuclear fuel integrity, retrievability, and demonstration of subcriticality. Disposal R and D focuses on identifying multiple viable geologic disposal options and addressing technical challenges for generic disposal concepts in various host media (e.g., mined repositories in salt, clay/shale, and granitic rocks, and deep borehole disposal in crystalline rock). R and D will transition to site-specific challenges as national policy advances. R and D goals at this stage are to increase confidence in the robustness of generic disposal concepts, to reduce generic sources of uncertainty that may impact the viability of disposal concepts, and to develop science and engineering tools that will support the selection, characterization, and ultimately licensing of a repository. The US DOE has also initiated activities that can be conducted within the constraints of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to facilitate the development of an interim storage facility and supporting transportation infrastructure. (authors)

  15. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    PubMed

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  16. A descriptive analysis of research methods classes in departments of kinesiology and physical education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Stephen; Keating, Xiaofen Deng

    2002-03-01

    Research training takes many forms and is generally a part of graduate education. A common and important aspect of research training is the introductory research methods class offered by many departments. The purpose of this study was to examine the content, process, and instructors of introductory research methods classes in departments of kinesiology and physical education in the United States. A survey was designed and extensively pilot tested. The sample was selected from all departments offering graduate degrees in the United States. Among the many results, the data indicate that one book was required reading in more than half the classes and class size averaged about 19 students. A number of objectives were statedfor most classes, with understanding research, applying research to professional situations, critiquing the research literature, and planning research indicated most often. Quantitative design and analysis topics were emphasized more strongly than qualitative design and analysis topics. Professors indicated that more than half the class time was spent lecturing and most grades were based on exams, preparation of a research proposal, and regular assignments. The professors were relatively experienced, had a variety ofspecialty areas, and were reasonably productive researchers. The trends suggest that alternative research methodologies have not been quickly added to the research methods curriculum.

  17. Financial Analysis for Academic Units. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 7, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald L.

    The state-of-the-art of financial analysis for academic units within institutions of higher education is evaluated with attention directed to: how the cost of an academic unit is determined, how revenue is identified with academic units, how costs are analyzed, how revenues and expenditures are projected, and how the financial efficiency of an…

  18. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  19. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  20. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program; Undergraduate Research and Outreach in Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has

  1. A research algorithm to improve detection of delirium in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Margaret A; Araujo, Katy LB; Van Ness, Peter H; Zhang, Ying; Ely, E Wesley; Inouye, Sharon K

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a serious and prevalent problem in intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to develop a research algorithm to enhance detection of delirium in critically ill ICU patients using chart review to complement a validated clinical delirium instrument. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 178 patients aged 60 years and older who were admitted to the medical ICU. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and a validated chart review method for detecting delirium were performed daily. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the chart-based delirium method using the CAM-ICU as the 'gold standard'. We then used an algorithm to detect delirium first using the CAM-ICU ratings and then chart review when the CAM-ICU was unavailable. Results When using both the CAM-ICU and the chart-based review, the prevalence of delirium was found to be 80% of patients (143 out of 178) or 64% of patient-days (929 out of 1,457). Of these patient-days, 292 were classified as delirium by the CAM-ICU. The remainder (637 patient-days) were classified as delirium by the validated chart review method when CAM-ICU was missing because the assessment was conducted for weekends or holidays (404 patient-days), when CAM-ICU was not performed because of stupor or coma (205 patient-days), and when the CAM-ICU was negative (28 patient-days). Sensitivity of the chart-based method was 64% and specificity was 85%. Overall agreement between chart and the CAM-ICU was 72%. Conclusion Eight out of 10 patients in this cohort study developed delirium in the ICU. Although use of a validated delirium instrument with frequent direct observations is recommended for clinical care, this approach may not always be feasible, especially in a research setting. The algorithm proposed here comprises a more comprehensive method for detecting delirium in a research setting, taking into account the fluctuation that occurs with delirium, which is a key component of

  2. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  3. Authentic science in education: Studies in course-based research at the United States Military Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Anthony M.

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest

  4. United States Department of Energy severe accident research following the Fukushima Daiichi accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Corradini, M.; Rempe, J.; Reister, R.; Peko, D.

    2016-11-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has played a major role in the U.S. response to the events at Fukushima Daiichi. During the first several weeks following the accident, U.S. assistance efforts were guided by results from a significant and diverse set of analyses. In the months that followed, a coordinated analysis activity aimed at gaining a more thorough understanding of the accident sequence was completed using laboratory-developed, system-level best-estimate accident analysis codes, while a parallel analysis was conducted by U.S. industry. A comparison of predictions for Unit 1 from these two studies indicated significant differences between MAAP and MELCOR results for key plant parameters, such as in-core hydrogen production. On that basis, a crosswalk was completed to determine the key modeling variations that led to these differences. In parallel with these activities, it became clear that there was a need to perform a technology gap evaluation on accident-tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research and augmented by insights from Fukushima. In addition, there is growing international recognition that data from Fukushima could significantly reduce uncertainties related to severe accident progression, particularly for boiling water reactors. On these bases, a group of U. S. experts in LWR safety and plant operations was convened by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to complete technology gap analysis and Fukushima forensics data needs identification activities. The results from these activities were used as the basis for refining DOE-NE's severe accident research and development (R&D) plan. Finally, this paper provides a high-level review of DOE-sponsored R&D efforts in these areas, including planned activities on accident-tolerant components and accident analysis methods.

  5. United States Department of Energy severe accident research following the Fukushima Daiichi accidents

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Corradini, M.; Rempe, J.; ...

    2016-11-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has played a major role in the U.S. response to the events at Fukushima Daiichi. During the first several weeks following the accident, U.S. assistance efforts were guided by results from a significant and diverse set of analyses. In the months that followed, a coordinated analysis activity aimed at gaining a more thorough understanding of the accident sequence was completed using laboratory-developed, system-level best-estimate accident analysis codes, while a parallel analysis was conducted by U.S. industry. A comparison of predictions for Unit 1 from these two studies indicated significant differences between MAAP and MELCORmore » results for key plant parameters, such as in-core hydrogen production. On that basis, a crosswalk was completed to determine the key modeling variations that led to these differences. In parallel with these activities, it became clear that there was a need to perform a technology gap evaluation on accident-tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research and augmented by insights from Fukushima. In addition, there is growing international recognition that data from Fukushima could significantly reduce uncertainties related to severe accident progression, particularly for boiling water reactors. On these bases, a group of U. S. experts in LWR safety and plant operations was convened by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to complete technology gap analysis and Fukushima forensics data needs identification activities. The results from these activities were used as the basis for refining DOE-NE's severe accident research and development (R&D) plan. Finally, this paper provides a high-level review of DOE-sponsored R&D efforts in these areas, including planned activities on accident-tolerant components and accident analysis methods.« less

  6. Summary and abstracts: Applied Research Units and Projects 1996 UCETF Program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-21

    The Urban Consortium (UC), created by PTI, is a network of jurisdictions with populations of over 250,000. The UC provides a platform for research and enterprise through its Energy, Environmental, Transportation, and Telecommunications and Information Task Forces. The UC provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc., is the non-profit technology organization of the National League of Cities, the National Association of Counties, and the International City/County Management Association. PTI creates and advances technology-based products, services, and enterprises in cities and counties nationwide. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its Task Forces. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop, test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation's most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Proposals to meet the specific objectives of the UCETF annual R and D program are solicited from major urban jurisdictions. Projects based on these proposals are then selected by the UCETF for direct conduct and management by staff of city and county governments. Projects selected for each year's program are organized in thematic units to assure effective management and ongoing peer-to-peer experience exchange, with results documented at the end of each program year.

  7. The ICM research agenda on intensive care unit-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Latronico, Nicola; Herridge, Margaret; Hopkins, Ramona O; Angus, Derek; Hart, Nicholas; Hermans, Greet; Iwashyna, Theodore; Arabi, Yaseen; Citerio, Giuseppe; Wesley Ely, E; Hall, Jesse; Mehta, Sangeeta; Puntillo, Kathleen; Van den Hoeven, Johannes; Wunsch, Hannah; Cook, Deborah; Dos Santos, Claudia; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Van den Berghe, Greet; Azoulay, Elie; Needham, Dale M

    2017-03-13

    We present areas of uncertainty concerning intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) and identify areas for future research. Age, pre-ICU functional and cognitive state, concurrent illness, frailty, and health trajectories impact outcomes and should be assessed to stratify patients. In the ICU, early assessment of limb and diaphragm muscle strength and function using nonvolitional tests may be useful, but comparison with established methods of global and specific muscle strength and physical function and determination of their reliability and normal values would be important to advance these techniques. Serial measurements of limb and respiratory muscle strength, and systematic screening for dysphagia, would be helpful to clarify if and how weakness of these muscle groups is independently associated with outcome. ICUAW, delirium, and sedatives and analgesics may interact with each other, amplifying the effects of each individual factor. Reduced mobility in patients with hypoactive delirium needs investigations into dysfunction of central and peripheral nervous system motor pathways. Interventional nutritional studies should include muscle mass, strength, and physical function as outcomes, and prioritize elucidation of mechanisms. At follow-up, ICU survivors may suffer from prolonged muscle weakness and wasting and other physical impairments, as well as fatigue without demonstrable weakness on examination. Further studies should evaluate the prevalence and severity of fatigue in ICU survivors and define its association with psychiatric disorders, pain, cognitive impairment, and axonal loss. Finally, methodological issues, including accounting for baseline status, handling of missing data, and inclusion of patient-centered outcome measures should be addressed in future studies.

  8. Status and trends of dam removal research in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, James; Duda, Jeff; Craig, Laura; Greene, Samantha L.; Torgersen, Christian; Collins, Mathias J.; Vittum, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aging infrastructure coupled with growing interest in river restoration has driven a dramatic increase in the practice of dam removal. With this increase, there has been a proliferation of studies that assess the physical and ecological responses of rivers to these removals. As more dams are considered for removal, scientific information from these dam-removal studies will increasingly be called upon to inform decisions about whether, and how best, to bring down dams. This raises a critical question: what is the current state of dam-removal science in the United States? To explore the status, trends, and characteristics of dam-removal research in the U.S., we searched the scientific literature and extracted basic information from studies on dam removal. Our literature review illustrates that although over 1200 dams have been removed in the U.S., fewer than 10% have been scientifically evaluated, and most of these studies were short in duration ( < 4 years) and had limited (1–2 years) or no pre-removal monitoring. The majority of studies focused on hydrologic and geomorphic responses to removal rather than biological and water-quality responses, and few studies were published on linkages between physical and ecological components. Our review illustrates the need for long-term, multidisciplinary case studies, with robust study designs, in order to anticipate the effects of dam removal and inform future decision making.

  9. Past and Prospective Carbon Stocks of United States Forests: Implications for Research Priorities and Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.; McGuire, A. D.; Zhang, F.; Chen, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    United States forests and wood products have been a significant and persistent carbon sink of 100-200 million tons annually since 1950, currently offsetting about 12% of U.S. emissions of CO2. This carbon sink is caused by recovery of forest C stocks following timber harvest and abandonment of agricultural land over the last 150 years, and more recently the growth-enhancing effects of N deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and climate variability. The forest carbon sink would have been significantly larger if not for continued losses of forest to other land uses such as urban development, and increasing impacts from natural disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. Projections of the future U.S. C sink have raised concerns that it may disappear in a few decades because of slower growth, continued losses of forest area, and increasing demand for timber products especially bioenergy. However, continuing atmospheric and climate changes may delay this projected decline in the sink strength for another 50 years or longer. Research is urgently needed to improve projections of land-use changes and demand for timber, quantify the large-scale effects of atmospheric change and climate variability, and develop modeling approaches that can effectively integrate these multiple factors. Policy decisions to meet emissions reduction targets are partially dependent on assumptions about the magnitude of the future forest carbon sink; therefore, it is important to have convincing projections about how these various driving factors will affect forests in the future.

  10. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  11. Talent Development Research, Policy, and Practice in Europe and the United States: Outcomes from a Summit of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Stoeger, Heidrun; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to convey a summary of research and conversation on talent development on the part of a small group of European and American researchers who participated in the Inaugural American European Research Summit in Washington. In the final hours of the summit, participants discussed the state of research on talent development…

  12. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    SummaryThe Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program had a productive year in 2016. Despite vacancies in our scientist ranks exceeding 20 percent, our research, training, and teaching portfolio was full and we graduated 93 students and published 398 manuscripts primarily focused on addressing the real conservation challenges of our cooperators. As I’ve stated before, our mission is our legacy: meeting the actionable science needs of our cooperators, providing them technical guidance and assistance in interpreting and applying new advances in science, and developing the future workforce through graduate education and mentoring. Our scientists and the manner in which they approach our mission continue to inspire me. The most rewarding part of my job is meeting and engaging with the students they recruit—the conservation professionals of the future. I cannot help but feel uplifted after discussions with and presentations by these young men and women. Personally, I owe my place in the profession today to the mentoring I received as a CRU student, and today’s CRU scientists have raised the bar. It gives me hope for the future of conservation, and added motivation to see our vacancies filled so that we can expand our portfolio.The National Cooperators’ Coalition has been active and is strategically working to build support on our behalf. Sincere thanks to the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Boone and Crockett Club, the National Association of University Fish and Wildlife Programs, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society for their efforts and those of their affiliated members.We co-sponsored a workshop at the 2016 North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference along with the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society, titled “Barriers and Bridges in Reconnecting Natural Resources

  13. Data on the Federal Research System in the United States: What's Known and What's Not.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubin, Daryl E.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study conducted by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) which examined the federally funded research system and the role of data for decision making in research policy. Highlights include data needs; research expenditures and personnel; the research process; measuring the outcomes of research; and the research evaluation process.…

  14. A comparison of research utilization among nurses working in Canadian civilian and United States Army healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Kenny, Deborah J; Adewale, Adeniyi J; Cummings, Greta G; Mallidou, Anastasia A

    2007-06-01

    Researchers and theorists working in the field of knowledge translation point to the importance of organizational context in influencing research utilization. The study purpose was to compare research utilization in two different healthcare contexts--Canadian civilian and United States (US) Army settings. Contrary to the investigators' expectations, research utilization scores were lower in US Army settings, after controlling for potential predictors. In-service attendance, library access, belief suspension, gender, and years of experience interacted significantly with the setting (military or civilian) for research utilization. Predictors of research utilization common to both settings were attitude and belief suspension. Predictors in the US Army setting were trust and years of experience, and in the Canadian civilian setting were in-service attendance, time (organizational), research champion, and library access. While context is of central importance, individual and organizational predictors interact with context in important although not well-understood ways, and should not be ignored.

  15. Overview of current marine juvenile salmon research by the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helle, John H.; Eisner, L.B.; Farley, Edward V.; Martinson, Ellen C.; Martinson, Angela; Moss, Jamal H.; Murphy, James M.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Mollly V.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Wing, Bruce L.; Brodeur, R.D.; Emmett, Robert; Bucher, Cynthia; MacFarlane, Bruce; Harding, Jeff; Ammann, Arnold; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2007-01-01

    A history of juvenile salmon research on Pacific salmon in coastal areas conducted by the United States (U.S.) was published by Brodeur et al. (2003). Presently, juvenile Pacific salmon research in the U.S. occurs in the coastal areas of all of the Pacific states: California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska (Fig. 1). Major objectives of this research are to understand how dynamics in marine ecosystems influence migration, distribution, growth, and survival of juvenile salmon during their early ocean residence. Several large-scale studies in coastal areas from California to Alaska are currently being conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with university and state scientists. Studies off California are operated by the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Santa Cruz Laboratory in Santa Cruz, California and University of California Santa Cruz. Studies off Oregon and Washington are operated by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport Laboratory and Oregon State University in Newport, Oregon. Studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and in the seaward migration corridors in the coastal waters of southeastern Alaska are operated by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Auke Bay Laboratory in Juneau, Alaska, in collaboration with Alaska Department of Fish and Game, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association, and Yukon River Drainage Fishermen’s Association. In addition to these large studies, smaller estuarine studies on juvenile salmon occur in northwestern Alaska in Kuskokwim Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey (Anchorage) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (Juneau), and, in Norton Sound by LGL Alaska Research Associates and Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation both headquartered in Anchorage (Fig. 1). The estuarine studies on juvenile salmon in Alaska operate in shallow water and a variety of gear is used to capture salmon. A small trawl

  16. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GROUP - UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has developed a novel photochemical process embodied in a device called a Photothermal Detoxification Unit (PDU) which offers an efficient means of destroying hazardous organic wastes. The PDU, which overcomes the problems of slow react...

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GROUP - UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has developed a novel photochemical process embodied in a device called a Photothermal Detoxification Unit (PDU) which offers an efficient means of destroying hazardous organic wastes. The PDU, which overcomes the problems of slow react...

  19. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB, COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES IN THE CHURCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…

  20. The World Food Situation: Resource and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries and the United States. Research Paper R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Frederick, Kenneth D.

    The book provides an overview of the food situation in developing nations and in the United States as it will be until the end of the 20th century. Specifically, the research focuses on interrelationships among world food needs, resources, and environmental issues. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I presents background on the…

  1. Review of Doctoral Research in Second-Language Teaching and Learning in the United States (2006-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights recent doctoral research in the United States completed between the spring of 2006 and the fall of 2007 in the areas of language teaching and language learning. Topics of particular interest included language policy, second/foreign language pragmatics, computer-mediated communication, non-native-speaking teachers, academic…

  2. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB, COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES IN THE CHURCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…

  3. What Makes for a Successful Re-Integration from a Pupil Referral Unit to Mainstream Education? An Applied Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was carried out in order to explore the views of Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) and mainstream school staff regarding the process of re-integration of secondary school age pupils from the PRU to mainstream school. The views of 11 PRU staff members, six mainstream staff members and a member of the Behaviour Support Service…

  4. What Makes for a Successful Re-Integration from a Pupil Referral Unit to Mainstream Education? An Applied Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was carried out in order to explore the views of Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) and mainstream school staff regarding the process of re-integration of secondary school age pupils from the PRU to mainstream school. The views of 11 PRU staff members, six mainstream staff members and a member of the Behaviour Support Service…

  5. CONTINUATION OF RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA. QUARTERTY REPORT, DECEMBER 1, 1966-MARCH 1, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENSON, WILLIAM W.

    VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR IMPROVING VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION WERE DEFINED BY THE UNIT WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF ITS COUNSULTING AND ADVISORY BOARDS. TEACHERS IN THE FIELD ARE BEING ENCOURAGED TO DEVELOP INNOVATIVE PRACTICES WHICH MANY BE EVALUATED TO FIND SOLUTIONS TO PRESSING PROBLEMS. SPECIAL ATTENTION WILL BE DIRECTED…

  6. Review of Doctoral Research in Second-Language Teaching and Learning in the United States (2006-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights recent doctoral research in the United States completed between the spring of 2006 and the fall of 2007 in the areas of language teaching and language learning. Topics of particular interest included language policy, second/foreign language pragmatics, computer-mediated communication, non-native-speaking teachers, academic…

  7. Who Is Shaping the Field? Doctoral Education, Knowledge Creation and Postsecondary Education Research in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel B.; Kolek, Ethan A.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found the field of higher education, particularly in the United States, is dominated by functionalist approaches, a preponderance of survey data, and the ubiquitous use of advanced quantitative methods to investigate educational phenomena. This descriptive study aims to illuminate why the field is constructed in this way.…

  8. The World Food Situation: Resource and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries and the United States. Research Paper R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Frederick, Kenneth D.

    The book provides an overview of the food situation in developing nations and in the United States as it will be until the end of the 20th century. Specifically, the research focuses on interrelationships among world food needs, resources, and environmental issues. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I presents background on the…

  9. Pre-treatment analysis of woody vegetation composition and structure on the hardwood ecosystem experiment research units

    Treesearch

    Michael R. Saunders; Justin E. Arseneault

    2013-01-01

    In long-term, large-scale forest management studies, documentation of pre-treatment differences among and variability within experimental units is critical for drawing the proper inferences from imposed treatments. We compared pre-treatment overstory and large shrub communities (diameters at breast height >1.5 cm) for the 9 research cores with the Hardwood Ecosystem...

  10. Survey results of the research needs and requirements of the ginning industries in Australia and the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of four questions were sent to members of cotton ginning associations in Australia and the United States to determine what issues and problems needed to be addressed and where the research institutions should focus their time, money, and energy. Responses to each question were similar betw...

  11. Remote sensing of snow and ice: A review of the research in the United States 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1979-01-01

    Research work in the United States from 1975-1978 in the field of remote sensing of snow and ice is reviewed. Topics covered include snowcover mapping, snowmelt runoff forecasting, demonstration projects, snow water equivalent and free water content determination, glaciers, river and lake ice, and sea ice. A bibliography of 200 references is included.

  12. Dental Health Services Research Unit celebrates 30 years: Report of conference to mark the 30th anniversary of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee, held on 1st December 2008.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2009-04-01

    Over the years, several members of the staff of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee have published papers in Primary Dental Care. Furthermore, its Director, Professor Nigel Pitts, together with Drs Jan Clarkson and Gail Topping have co-edited a number of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK)'s standards manuals and contributed to others. It had been suggested to the Unit by several parties that, having been in funded existence for some 30 years, it would be appropriate to mark this anniversary with a conference to explore 'Dental Health Services Research: After 30 years, what was the impact, what have we learned and where are we going?' So, following a range of consultations, the conference was convened at the West Park Conference Centre in Dundee with a mixed audience representing both dental research and dental practice.

  13. Patterns of Off-Label Prescribing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Prioritizing Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Pamela D.; Schultz, M. Lynn; Valuck, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize off-label prescribing among US pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), determine characteristics associated with off-label use, and identify medications in highest need for additional study. METHODS: Medications prescribed for ≥1% PICU patients (age < 18 years) in 2010 were identified from 39 children's hospitals. Use in a patient younger than the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved age for any indication was considered off-label. Hierarchical multivariable modeling was used to identify characteristics associated with off-label use, accounting for center effects. Highest-impact drugs were defined by: 1) high off-label use (off-label use in at least 5% of the PICU cohort), 2) high risk medication, and 3) high priority status by the FDA or Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA). RESULTS: A total of 66,896 patients received ≥1 medication of interest (n = 162) during their PICU stay. A median of 3 (interquartile range, 2–6) unique drugs per patient were used off-label. Those who received ≥1 drug off-label (85% of the cohort) had longer median PICU (2 days vs 1 day) and hospital (6 days vs 3 days) lengths of stay and higher mortality (3.6% vs 0.7%), p < 0.001. Factors independently associated with off-label drug use included: age 1 to 5 years, chronic conditions, acute organ failures, mechanical ventilation, arterial or venous catheters, dialysis, and blood products. Half of prescribed medications (n = 84) had been used off-label: 26 with significant off-label use, 30 high-risk medications, and 47 with high FDA/BPCA priority. The highest impact medications identified were: dexmedetomidine, dopamine, hydromorphone, ketamine, lorazepam, methadone, milrinone, and oxycodone. CONCLUSIONS: Most PICU patients are exposed to off-label medication use, with uncertain evidence. Future medication research in this population should focus on medications with high impact potential. PMID:26170770

  14. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. . Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  15. Dominican Migration to the United States, 1970-1997: An Annotated Bibliography. Dominican Research Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aponte, Sarah

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of the history, development, and representation of the process of Dominican migration to the United States. It examines the causes and consequences of this massive exodus in connection with the economic and political rapport between the Dominican Republic and the United States. It also offers an…

  16. Annosus Root Disease in Europe and the Southeastern United States: Occurrence, Research, and Historical Perspective

    Treesearch

    William J. Stambaugh

    1989-01-01

    The history of annosus root disease in Europe and the southeastern United States is reviewed in prefacing the focus of this symposium on the disease as it occurs in the western United States. The topic is developed mostly from world literature on the disease published since mid-1970. The occurrence of annosus root disease in both plantations and natural stands of...

  17. Managing Human Resources. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 12. Research & Development Series No. 240CB12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on managing human resources, the 12th of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other materials at…

  18. Protecting the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 18. Research & Development Series No. 240AB18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on protecting a business, the 18th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  19. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240CB8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on financing businesses, the eighth of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other materials at…

  20. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240CB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on managing finances, the 16th of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other materials at this…

  1. Views on Researcher-Community Engagement in Autism Research in the United Kingdom: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors. PMID:25303222

  2. Views on researcher-community engagement in autism research in the United Kingdom: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n = 1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors.

  3. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  4. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  5. Challenges of converting agricultural abundance to biofuels: Agricultural Research Service-United States Department of Agriculture Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Government is aggressively promoting ethanol and alternative biofuels as a substitute for gasoline. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 enacted on December 19 targets production of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022. Passage of this bill was motivated by recent s...

  6. Status of pediatric anesthesiology fellowship research education in the United States: a survey of fellowship program directors.

    PubMed

    Benzon, Hubert A; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Hardy, Courtney A; Suresh, Santhanam

    2014-03-01

    Currently, very little information is known regarding the research education of pediatric anesthesia fellows. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the status of research training in pediatric anesthesia fellowship programs in the United States. Survey responses were solicited from forty-six pediatric anesthesia fellowship directors. Questions evaluated department demographic information, the extent of faculty research activity, research resources and research funding in the department, the characteristics of fellow research education and fellow research productivity, departmental support for fellow research, and perceived barriers to fellow research education. Thirty-six of forty-six fellowship directors responded to the survey, for a response rate of 78%. Eight of fourteen (57%) programs with a structured curriculum had more than 20% of graduating fellows publish a peer-reviewed manuscript compared with only five of twenty-two (23%) programs, which did not have a structured research curriculum (P = 0.03). While the majority of program directors (thirty of thirty-six (83%)) did not think that fellows are adequately trained to pursue research activities, only a minority of program directors (7 of 36 (19%)) thought that an extra year of fellowship dedicated to research should become a requirement. Structured research curriculum is associated with increased research productivity during pediatric anesthesia fellowship. Important barriers to fellows' research education include high clinical demands and lack of research time for faculty. Despite acknowledging the poor research education, a small minority of fellowship directors supports the addition of an extra year exclusively dedicated to research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. New Memorandum of Understanding in Clinical Proteogenomics Between the United States and Australia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The White House Office of the Vice President has announced the signing of three Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) that will make available an unprecedented international dataset to advance cancer research and care. An MOU between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States, and Macquarie University (MU), Children's Medical Research Institute (CMRI), Garvan Institute of Medical Research (GIMR), and Bioplatforms Australia Limited (BPA) in Australia will facilitate scientific collaborations in the field of clinical proteogenomic studies and their translation to cancer care.

  8. Research involving persons with cognitive impairments: results of a survey of Alzheimer disease research centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cahill, M; Wichman, A

    2000-01-01

    Research involving persons with cognitive impairments presents ethical and practical challenges, including how to obtain valid informed consent. We asked the directors of the 29 U.S. research centers funded by the National Institute on Aging as "Alzheimer Disease Centers" to provide us with policies or guidelines used in their centers or associated institutions with regard to research involving cognitively impaired subjects. Twenty-four of the 29 centers (83%) responded. Five institutions (21%) had authored their own institutional policies, seven (29%) used guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Service's Office for Protection from Research Risks, and 12 (50%) had no policy or guidelines. The five institutional policies addressed a variety of issues, including obtaining consent from cognitively impaired subjects or their authorized representatives, subjects' assent to research participation, and guidance concerning determination of subjects' intellectual capacity. A well-written policy on the protection of cognitively impaired research subjects is one way a research institution demonstrates that it gives serious attention to the rights and welfare of these vulnerable persons. We recommend that all institutions conducting such research author written policies articulating appropriate safeguards for these vulnerable subjects. To promote the protection of cognitively impaired subjects, federal agencies and other funding groups may want to consider requiring written institutional policies as one condition of receiving funds to conduct such research.

  9. Description of a dual fail operational redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit for integrated avionics systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. H.; Morrell, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit (RSDIMU) is developed as a link to satisfy safety and reliability considerations in the integrated avionics concept. The unit includes four two degree-of-freedom tuned rotor gyros, and four accelerometers in a skewed and separable semioctahedral array. These sensors are coupled to four microprocessors which compensate sensor errors. These microprocessors are interfaced with two flight computers which process failure detection, isolation, redundancy management, and general flight control/navigation algorithms. Since the RSDIMU is a developmental unit, it is imperative that the flight computers provide special visibility and facility in algorithm modification.

  10. Description of a dual fail operational redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit for integrated avionics systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. H.; Morrell, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit (RSDIMU) is developed as a link to satisfy safety and reliability considerations in the integrated avionics concept. The unit includes four two degree-of-freedom tuned rotor gyros, and four accelerometers in a skewed and separable semioctahedral array. These sensors are coupled to four microprocessors which compensate sensor errors. These microprocessors are interfaced with two flight computers which process failure detection, isolation, redundancy management, and general flight control/navigation algorithms. Since the RSDIMU is a developmental unit, it is imperative that the flight computers provide special visibility and facility in algorithm modification.

  11. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.

    2016-01-01

    proposal to the NASA Emerging Worlds solicitation for the full cost of a press, with competitive bids submitted from Sumitomo, Rockland Research, and Voggenreiter. Additional funding is currently being sought from industry sources through the Strategic Partnerships Office at NASA JSC, External Pursuits Program Office on the JETS contract, and Jacobs corporate in the United States. Internal funding is available for JETS contract personnel to travel to large press locations worldwide to study set-up and operations. We also anticipate a fortuitous cost savings in installation of the large press because plans are already underway for major renovations to the entire experimental petrology suite within the next 2 years in order to accommodate our growing user base. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this proposed facility, such as the press type and design, access management, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives.

  12. The Freedom to Set Research Agendas--Illusion and Reality of the Research Units in the Dutch Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Enders, Jurgen; De Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch higher education and research system has incrementally changed during the last decade. Several reforms, initiated by the government, have hinted towards influencing the basic processes within universities, such as research programming. However, it is largely unknown how these reforms have been implemented at the university shop floor…

  13. Expanding Research Capacity at United States Universities: A Study of Academic Research and Development Investment from 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan; Mathies, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Growing emphasis has been placed on universities to contribute to the innovation process and as a result academic research and development expenditures have increased in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific ways in which universities have expanded their research capacity. This paper examines how universities in the United…

  14. Expanding Research Capacity at United States Universities: A Study of Academic Research and Development Investment from 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan; Mathies, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Growing emphasis has been placed on universities to contribute to the innovation process and as a result academic research and development expenditures have increased in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific ways in which universities have expanded their research capacity. This paper examines how universities in the United…

  15. The Freedom to Set Research Agendas--Illusion and Reality of the Research Units in the Dutch Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Enders, Jurgen; De Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch higher education and research system has incrementally changed during the last decade. Several reforms, initiated by the government, have hinted towards influencing the basic processes within universities, such as research programming. However, it is largely unknown how these reforms have been implemented at the university shop floor…

  16. Selectivity of physiotherapist programs in the United States does not differ by institutional funding source or research activity level

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare selectivity characteristics among institution characteristics to determine differences by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). Methods: This study included information provided by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Data were extracted from all students who graduated in 2011 from accredited physical therapy programs in the United States. The public and private designations of the institutions were extracted directly from the classifications from the ‘CAPTE annual accreditation report,’ and high and low research activity was determined based on Carnegie classifications. The institutions were classified into four groups: public/research intensive, public/non-research intensive, private/research intensive, and private/non-research intensive. Descriptive and comparison analyses with post hoc testing were performed to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the four groups. Results: Although there were statistically significant baseline grade point average differences among the four categorized groups, there were no significant differences in licensure pass rates or for any of the selectivity variables of interest. Conclusion: Selectivity characteristics did not differ by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). This suggests that the concerns about reduced selectivity among physiotherapy programs, specifically the types that are experiencing the largest proliferation, appear less warranted. PMID:27079201

  17. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Opening up animal research and science–society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. PMID:26009149

  19. Assessment of wearable global positioning system units for physical activity research.

    PubMed

    Wieters, Kathleen Meghan; Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam

    2012-09-01

    Responding to the growing interest in the environmental influences on physical activity, and the concerns about the limitations of self-report data, this study evaluates Global Positioning System (GPS) units for measuring outdoor physical activity. Four GPS models were selected to test their accuracy related to adherence to an actual route walked, variations based on position of unit on user's body, and variations against a known geodetic point. A qualitative assessment was performed using the following criteria: a) battery life, b) memory capacity, c) initial satellite signal acquisition time, d) ease of data transfer to other programs, e) wearability, f) ease of operation, g) suitability for specific study populations, and h) price. The Garmin Forerunner provided the most accurate data for data points collected along a known route. Comparisons based on different body placement of units showed some variations. GlobalSat reported battery life of 24 hours, compared with 9-15 hours for the other units. The static test using ANOVA showed that the Garmin Foretrex's data points compared with a geodetic point was significantly more accurate than the other 3 models. GPS units appear promising as a tool to capture objective data on outdoor physical activities.

  20. Promoting sustainable research partnerships: a mixed-method evaluation of a United Kingdom-Africa capacity strengthening award scheme.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Njelesani, Janet; Smith, Helen; Bates, Imelda

    2015-12-23

    Research partnerships between high-income countries (HICs) and low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) are a leading model in research capacity strengthening activities. Although numerous frameworks and guiding principles for effective research partnerships exist, few include the perspective of the LMIC partner. This paper draws out lessons for establishing and maintaining successful research collaborations, based on partnership dynamics, from the perspectives of both HIC and LMIC stakeholders through the evaluation of a research capacity strengthening partnership award scheme. A mixed-method retrospective evaluation approach was used. Initially, a cross-sectional survey was administered to all award holders, which focused on partnership outputs and continuation. Fifty individuals were purposively selected to participate in interviews or focus group discussions from 12 different institutions in HICs and LMICs; the sample included the research investigators, research assistants, laboratory scientists and post-doctoral students. The evaluation collected data on critical elements of research partnership dynamics such as research outputs, nature of the partnership, future plans and research capacity. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed using an iterative framework approach. The majority of United Kingdom and African award holders stated they would like to pursue future collaborations together. Key aspects within partnerships that appeared to influence this were; the perceived benefits of the partnership at the individual and institutional level such as publication of papers or collaborative grants; ability to influence 'research culture' and instigate critical thinking among mid-career researchers; previous working relationships, for example supervisor-student relationships; and equity within partnerships linked to partnership formation and experience of United Kingdom partners within LMICs. Factors which may hinder

  1. Federal funding for endoscopic research in the United States: 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed O; Wallace, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Endoscopic research is underfunded compared with other areas of research. In 2003 we evaluated trends in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for endoscopic research from 1972 through 2002. Here, we update those trends for 2003-2008. We calculated the number of federally funded endoscopic research grants and classified them as primary or secondary. Endoscopy funding was compared with other funding for the same period. From 2003 through 2008, the NIH funded 76 primary and 114 secondary endoscopy grants. R01 grants accounted for 25% of these. Colorectal cancer research and imaging and advanced optical technology received most of the grants. More primary endoscopic grants were funded than Helicobacter pylori research grants or cardiac catheterization grants. The number of funded endoscopic grants was not different between the periods 1972-2002 and 2003-2008. Endoscopic research remains underfunded compared with other areas of research.

  2. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM August 1993 14-1 My Summer Apprenticeship At Kirtland Air Force Base, Phillips Laboratory Andrea Garcia...AFOSR Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored By: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM... Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by: Air

  3. An Assessment of the Impact of the Wisconsin Vocational Research Coordination Unit. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, N. L.; Walton, John

    Five research objectives were identified by the Wisconsin State Board for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education in a project designed to evaluate the impact of vocational education research and exemplary projects on educational practices in Wisconsin: (1) An assessment of the impact of State funded research and exemplary activities to a…

  4. An approach for delivering research results in the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Carol Whitlock; H. Michael Rauscher

    2008-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service research and development program (R&D) consists of five regional stations, a forest products laboratory, and a tropical forestry institute that, taken together, comprise the largest network of natural resource research organizations in the world. Within this network is the Southern Research Station, which serves a 500-million acre (202-...

  5. What Should Autism Research Focus Upon? Community Views and Priorities from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members,…

  6. What Should Autism Research Focus Upon? Community Views and Priorities from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members,…

  7. Beyond borders: comparative quantitative research on partner violence in the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sonia M; Angel, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    We employ two surveys to identify similarities and differences in the risk of abuse among poor urban Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico. While the two surveys reveal basic structural similarity in the predictors of partner violence, the rate of violence among Mexican women is far lower than among either foreign-born or native-born Mexican origin women in the United States. While these differences may reflect reality, we argue that survey data must be interpreted cautiously and with an understanding of the cultural, economic, and political context in which the information is collected as well as methodological differences between the surveys.

  8. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  9. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dias, M. Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M.; Casman, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism” (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded. PMID:20457912

  10. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dias, M Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-25

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded.

  11. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  12. United States Air Force Research on Airfield Pavement Repairs Using Precast Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Slabs (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2008-4582 POSTPRINT UNITED STATES AIR FORCE RESEARCH ON AIRFIELD PAVEMENT REPAIRS USING PRECAST PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ...pavement Portland cement concrete (PCC) slab repairs using precast PCC slab panels. AFRL is leading the technology development by critically reviewing the...technology transfer activities including, but not limited to, training, reports and preparation of ETLs. 2 The use of precast concrete slabs for repair of

  13. The RCCM 2009 Survey: Mapping Doctoral and Postdoctoral CAM Research in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely available in the UK and used frequently by the public, but there is little high quality research to sustain its continued use and potential integration into the NHS. There is, therefore, a need to develop rigorous research in this area. One essential way forward is to train and develop more CAM researchers so that we can enhance academic capacity and provide the evidence upon which to base strategic healthcare decisions. This UK survey identified 80 research active postgraduates registered for MPhils/PhDs in 21 universities and were either current students or had completed their postgraduate degree during the recent UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2001-2008. The single largest postgraduate degree funder was the university where the students registered (26/80). Thirty-two projects involved randomized controlled trials and 33 used qualitative research methods. The UK RAE also indicates a significant growth of postdoctoral and tenured research activity over this period (in 2001 there were three full time equivalents; in 2008 there were 15.5) with a considerable improvement in research quality. This mapping exercise suggests that considerable effort is currently being invested in developing UK CAM research capacity and thus inform decision making in this area. However, in comparative international terms UK funding is very limited. As in the USA and Australia, a centralized and strategic approach by the National Institute of Health Research to this currently uncoordinated and underfunded activity may benefit CAM research in the UK.

  14. Gordon Memorial Lecture. Problems and crusades: a history of poultry disease research in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Payne, L N

    1994-03-01

    1. Poultry disease research in the UK began recognisably in the 1920s, in consequence of the development of a national poultry industry of economic importance. 2. Increasing disease problems during the 1930s revealed the need for more research, resulting notably in the growth of the Poultry Department of the Central Veterinary Laboratory and the establishment of Houghton Poultry Research Station. 3. Continued growth of the egg industry and the introduction of the broiler industry in the 1950s stimulated increased disease research, much of it publicly funded, during the following two decades. 4. Changing government attitudes to agricultural research in the 1980s brought about far-reaching changes to the funding, organisation, nature and amount of disease research conducted. Arrangements for such research continue to evolve.

  15. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240BB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing the finances of a small business, the 16th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try…

  16. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240AB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on managing sales efforts, the 14th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use by secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  17. Is the United States Losing Its Edge in Science and Technology? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galama, Titus; Hosek, James

    2008-01-01

    The United States continues to lead the world in science and technology. It generally benefits from the influx of foreign science and engineering students and workers, and it will likely continue to benefit from the development of new technologies by other nations, as long as it maintains the capability to acquire and implement such technologies.…

  18. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240AB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on competent financial management, the 16th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  19. Education for Adult English Language Learners in the United States: Trends, Research, and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Young, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners comprise a substantial proportion of the adult education population in the United States. In program year 2006-2007, 46% of participants enrolled in state-administered adult education programs were in English as a second language (ESL) classes. This percentage does not include English language learners enrolled in…

  20. Declining Foreign Enrollment at Higher Education Institutions in the United States: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Vik

    2007-01-01

    When the Institute of International Education reported a drop of 2.4% in international student enrollment in the United States in 2003/2004, the first absolute decline in foreign enrollments since 1971/1972 (Open Doors, 2004), many were quick to point fingers at visa policies instituted after the September 11, 2001 attacks. The "Visas…

  1. Comparative Longitudinal Consumer Information Research in Germany and the United States. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorelli, Hans B.; And Others

    The paper presents the text of a business and economics session at a conference on recent sociopolitical and socioeconomic developments in West Germany and the United States. Intended as a contribution to the dialogue between the two societies, the paper focuses on differences between average and sophisticated consumers within each country and…

  2. Managing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 11. Research & Development Series No. 240AB11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on managing a business, the 11th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  3. Managing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 11. Research & Development Series No. 240BB11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing a small business, the 11th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try out…

  4. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: Looking toward the future

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...

  5. Transfer Payments and Investment Income in the Nonmetro United States. Rural Development Research Report Number 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Susan E.

    Analysis of data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis shows that during the 1970s and 1980s the composition of personal income in rural America shifted dramatically. Transfer payments and investment income accounted for almost 40% of total personal income in the nonmetro United States in 1983, up from just over 20% in 1969. This report examines…

  6. Locating the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 7. Research & Development Series No. 240AB7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on locating a business, the seventh in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  7. Obtaining Technical Assistance. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 4. Research & Development Series No. 240AB4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on obtaining technical assistance, the fourth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  8. Diversity in United States Forensics: A Report of Research Conducted for the American Forensic Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Ulrich, Tammie; Trejo, Mary; Bartanen, Michael; Schroeder, Anthony

    This study investigated the participation of women and minorities in the United States forensic community. Surveys sent to a large cross-section of the college and university forensic community examined such issues as: academic mission; funding sources for the forensic program; program evaluation; program size; program activities; program records…

  9. Locating the Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 7. Research & Development Series No. 240BB7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on selecting a site for a small business, the seventh in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try…

  10. Narrated Aspirations: A Critical Review of Selected Research Concerning Catholic Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Todd C.

    2006-01-01

    The dialectical tension between the sacred and the secular has fostered fascinating historical discussions concerning the Catholic university in the United States. Scholars such as James Turner and Philip Gleason have offered a host of narratives that provide a context for other scholars seeking to philosophically define the aspirations that will…

  11. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240BB8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on financing a small business, the eighth in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try out…

  12. United Way Funding: Consequences for Local Service Systems. Early Childhood Research Institute: Service Utilization. Raising Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbin, Gloria L.; Shaw, Dave

    This paper examines issues identified in a qualitative study in nine diverse local service systems as program administrators of early intervention programs for young children with disabilities sought to obtain United Way funding and other sources of philanthropy. Data are based on issues raised in nine focus groups conducted with community…

  13. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  14. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Mathematical & Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemistry (N=145), computer science (N=58), geoscience (N=91), mathematics (N=115), physics (N=123), and statistics/biostatistics (N=64) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: program size; characteristics of graduates; reputational…

  15. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies--1 on problem drinking and the…

  16. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  17. North American Higher Education Cooperation: Findings from Recent Research in Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Maricela

    This case study examined the North American Higher Education Cooperation (NAHEC) initiative from its launch in 1992 by educators and the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States through 1996, focusing on organizational, process, and actor preference "zones of influence" in international collaboration. Interviews were…

  18. Locked Out: Researching Destinations and Outcomes for Pupils Excluded from Special Schools and Pupil Referral Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Macleod, Gale

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the methodological challenges encountered during a study of destinations and outcomes for pupils permanently excluded from Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) and special schools in England. It outlines the manner in which the key phrases and assumptions embedded within the specification, terms such as routes and trajectories,…

  19. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies--1 on problem drinking and the…

  20. Family-Centered Services in The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion; Dale, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews evaluations of family-centered intervention programs conducted in neonatal intensive care units. Of 10 studies identified, 3 focused on intervention to benefit the family system; 6 involved parents, but the primary focus was the infant; and 1 study combined the 2 approaches. All the studies had substantial limitations.…

  1. Protecting the Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 18. Research & Development Series No. 240BB18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on protecting a small business, the 18th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and try out…

  2. The Status of Adult Education Historical Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.

    Early studies of adult education in the United States included James Truslow Adams' book, "Frontiers of American Culture: A Study of Adult Education in a Democracy" (1944), an unconvincing attempt to classify adult education instructions and programs and to establish the relation of democracy to adult education; C. Hartley Grattan's "In Quest of…

  3. Comparative Longitudinal Consumer Information Research in Germany and the United States. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorelli, Hans B.; And Others

    The paper presents the text of a business and economics session at a conference on recent sociopolitical and socioeconomic developments in West Germany and the United States. Intended as a contribution to the dialogue between the two societies, the paper focuses on differences between average and sophisticated consumers within each country and…

  4. Managing Human Resources. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 12. Research & Development Series No. 240BB12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing human resources in a small business, the 12th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  5. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240AB8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on financing a business, the eighth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  6. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240BB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing sales efforts in a small business, the 14th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  7. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  8. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    PubMed

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion.

  9. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  10. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  11. Unit of Analysis: Impact of Silverman and Solmon's Article on Field-Based Intervention Research in Physical Education in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Chen, Yung-Ju; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiuge; Li, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide…

  12. Forging a critical alliance: Addressing the research needs of the United States critical illness and injury community.

    PubMed

    Cobb, J Perren; Ognibene, Frederick P; Ingbar, David H; Mann, Henry J; Hoyt, David B; Angus, Derek C; Thomas, Alvin V; Danner, Robert L; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2009-12-01

    Discuss the research needs of the critical illness and injury communities in the United States. Workshop session held during the 5 National Institutes of Health Symposium on the Functional Genomics of Critical Illness and Injury (November 15, 2007). The current clinical research infrastructure misses opportunities for synergy and does not address many important needs. In addition, it remains challenging to rapidly and properly implement system-wide changes based upon reproducible evidence from clinical research. Author presentations, panel discussion, attendee feedback. The critical illness and injury research communities seek better communication and interaction, both of which will improve the breadth and quality of acute care research. Success in meeting these needs should come from cooperative and strategic actions that favor collaboration, standardization of protocols, and strong leadership. An alliance framed on common goals will foster collaboration among experts to better promote clinical trials within the critically ill or injured patient population. The U.S. Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group was funded to create a clinical research framework that can reduce the barriers to investigation using an investigator-initiated, evidence-driven, inclusive approach that has proven successful elsewhere. This alliance will provide an annual venue for systematic review and strategic planning that will include framing the research agenda, raising awareness for the value of acute care research, gathering and promoting best practices, and bolstering the critical care workforce.

  13. United States Air Force Academy's micro-gravity research using G-0307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    The current materials research being done in microgravity solidification and the future experimentation planned onboard a space shuttle mission is reported. The Department of Engineering Mechanics at the USAF Academy is developing a microgravity furnace to be used on board the space shuttle. The microgravity furnace will be used to conduct materials research dealing with such topics as immiscible alloy solidification. The purpose behind this research project is three-fold: to develop a simple, inexpensive, and easy to use furnace to conduct space materials research, to conduct a solidification experiment on a lead-zinc alloy in space that macrosegregates due to gravity, and to provide a research mechanism for students to get involved with space materials research.

  14. United States Air Force Academy, Department of Chemistry Research: AY 1983-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    CODES 18- SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesarv and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR Chemical Research, Energetic Materials ...Department of Chemistry research during AY 1983-84 has progressed well in the areas of energetic materials , theoretical chemistry, and catalysis...Abstract Department of Che .try research durinq AY 1983-84 has pro- gressed well in the areas of energetic materials , theoretical chem

  15. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  16. Cardiovascular research in space - Considerations for the design of the human research facility of the United States Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design of the Space Station's Human Research Facility for the collection of information on the long-time physiological adjustments of humans to space is described. The Space Life Sciences-1 mission will carry a rack-mounted echocardiograph for cardiac imaging, a mass spectrometer for cardiac output and respiratory function assessments at rest and during exercise, and a device to stimulate the carotid sinus baroreceptors and measure the resulting changes in heart rate.

  17. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993 Summer Research Program Final Reports. Volume 12. Armstrong Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    screen would go blank and move on to the next trial. Only correct initial rea,-tion times were used in the data. The instructions were read to the subject...Luis M. Rodriguez Introduction Dyslexia is a condition in which one’s ability to master written language is affected, not just reading and writing but...dysfunction that creates reading and writing difficulties. Most of the research revolves upon the common understanding that dyslexia is a reading

  18. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  19. Research on the strategy of underwater united detection fusion and communication using multi-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenhua; Huang, Jianguo; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Qunfei

    2011-09-01

    In order to solve the distributed detection fusion problem of underwater target detection, when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic channel is low, a new strategy for united detection fusion and communication using multiple sensors was proposed. The performance of detection fusion was studied and compared based on the Neyman-Pearson principle when the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and on-off keying (OOK) modes were used by the local sensors. The comparative simulation and analysis between the optimal likelihood ratio test and the proposed strategy was completed, and both the theoretical analysis and simulation indicate that using the proposed new strategy could improve the detection performance effectively. In theory, the proposed strategy of united detection fusion and communication is of great significance to the establishment of an underwater target detection system.

  20. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Program Technical Report. 1990. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    Gupta Relative Risk in Epidemiological Studies 157 Predisposition of Mammalian Cell Cultures Dr. Paul Lemke Treated with Aflatoxin B 1 to Potential...H. Preparing Epoxied Specimens for Microst’uctural Analysis - Step II: Grinding and Polishing The final preparation procedure for the specimens prior...to microstructural analysis involves 3eveial steps and uses a Buehler Datamet Micro-Processor Grinding and Polishing Unit. Also, the following:items

  1. Watersheds, ecoregions and hydrologic units: the appropriate use of each for research and environmental management decisions

    Treesearch

    James Glover; James Omernik; Robert Hughes; Glenn Griffith; Marc Weber

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that conditions at a point on a stream are highly dependent on conditions upgradient within the topographic watershed. The hydrologic unit (HU) system has provided a useful set of nationally consistent, hydrologically based polygons that has allowed for the generalization and tabulation of various conditions within the stream and its valley...

  2. A Resurgence of United Kingdom Nuclear Power Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Grimes, Robin W. (Imperial College, London, UK)

    2016-07-12

    Robin W. Grimes, Professor at Imperial College, London,was the third speaker in the the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Grimes discussed recent research endeavors in advanced nuclear energy systems being pursued in the UK. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  3. Genetic and silvicultural research promoting common walnut (Juglans regia) for timber production in the United Kingdom

    Treesearch

    Gabriel E. Hemery

    2004-01-01

    A combination of genetic and silvicultural research is required to improve the viability of common walnut for timber production in the UK. A summary of a research programme, initiated in 1996, is provided. Establishment of walnut plantations using tree shelters indicated positive benefits using 0.75 m shelters but larger shelters (1.20 m) caused early flushing and...

  4. A strategy for nontimber forest products research and technology transfer for southern United States

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Southern Research Station (SRS) and the Southern Regional Office (R8) of the U.S. Forest Service worked through a 3-day facilitated discussion to develop a strategy to guide research and technology transfer on non-timber forest products (NTFPs). In all, more than 14 specialists took part in developing the strategy, representing the Forest Service...

  5. Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldern, Matthias V.

    Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

  6. A Systematic Review of Music Teacher Education Research within the United States: 1982-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumpf, Randy J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Music education researchers have explored several issues within music teacher education (MTE) including: coursework, teacher and musicianship skills, design and implementation of undergraduate programs, and music teacher identity development. An examination and discussion of this research will assist those responsible for educating future music…

  7. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL CHANGE, THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUBA, EGON G.; AND OTHERS

    FIVE MAJOR TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ARE IDENTIFIED BY S.D. SIEBER--(1) UNIVERSITY BASED, (2) REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES, (3) STATE DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION, (4) LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS, AND (5) PRIVATE TESTING AND RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS. FOUR PROBLEM AREAS RELATED TO EACH SETTING ARE DEALT WITH BY N.L.…

  8. Health and medical research funding agencies' promotion of public engagement within research: a qualitative interview study exploring the United Kingdom context.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Fergie, Gillian M; Hilton, Shona

    2016-03-24

    Public engagement (PE) has become a common feature of many liberal governmental agendas worldwide. Since the turn of this century there has been a succession of United Kingdom policy initiatives to encourage research funding agencies, universities and researchers to reconsider how they engage with citizens and communities. Although most funding agencies now explicitly promote PE within research, little empirical work has been carried out in this area. In this study, we explored why and how health and medical research funding agencies in the United Kingdom have interpreted and implemented their role to promote PE within research. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 key informants from 10 agencies that fund health or medical research. Data were also gathered from agencies' websites and documentation. The analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Across agencies, we found that PE was being interpreted and operationalised in various different ways. The terminology used within funding agencies to describe PE seems to be flexibly applied. Disciplinary differences were evident both in the terminology used to describe PE and the drivers for PE highlighted by participants - with applied health science funders more aligned with participatory models of PE. Within the grant funding process PE was rarely systematically treated as a key component of research. In particular, PE was not routinely incorporated into the planning of funding calls. PE was more likely to be considered in the application and assessment phases, where it was largely appraised as a tool for enhancing science. Concerns were expressed regarding how to monitor and evaluate PE within research. This study suggests funding agencies working within specific areas of health and medicine can promote particular definitions of PE and aligned practices which determine the boundaries in which researchers working in these areas understand and practice PE. Our study also highlights how the

  9. Human subject protections in the United States: perspectives from the Office for Protection from Research Risks.

    PubMed

    Russell-Einhorn, M; Ellis, G B

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regulations require that all human subjects research supported by DHHS be reviewed and approved by a local institutional review board (IRB). With few exceptions, investigators may not involve human subjects in research without their informed consent, and additional safeguards are required when subjects are likely to be vulnerable to coercion or undue influence. Institutions that receive DHHS funding must enter into an "Assurance" of compliance with the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPPR), which has the authority for oversight and implementation of the human subjects regulations. As discussed more fully below, Assurances are of a contract nature in that they formally commit the institutions to adherence to the regulations and the ethics standards relevant to research on human subjects. This article addresses the application of human subject protections in biomedical research.

  10. Aging research and education centers in the United States: a compendium.

    PubMed

    Steinecke, A; Ciok, A E

    1997-10-01

    U.S. centers and institutes for research and education devoted to aging are listed. These lists can serve as a starting point for building a more comprehensive reference resource. The first list, U.S. Aging Centers and Institutes, is a general guide to centers or institutes that combine research and education. Subsequent lists are of centers that share missions and funding sources: Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs); Exploratory Centers for Research on Health Promotion in Older Minority Populations; Centers on the Demography of Aging (CDAs); Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs); Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs); Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in Basic Biology of Aging; and Roybal Centers for Research on Applied Gerontology. It is hoped that those who work in geriatrics and gerontology in academic medicine will develop a comprehensive system for collecting, updating, and disseminating complete information about the work being done on aging.

  11. The origin of the medical research grant in the United States: the Rockefeller Foundation and the NIH Extramural Funding Program.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) extramural grants in the second half of the twentieth century marked a signal shift in support for medical research in the United States and created an influential model for the rest of the world. A similar landmark development occurred in the first half of the twentieth century with the creation of the Rockefeller Foundation and its funding programs for medical research. The programs and support of the foundation had a dramatic impact on medical research in the United States and globally. This paper examines early connections between these two developments. The NIH grants have usually been seen as having their roots primarily in the government programs of the Second World War. This article finds direct and indirect influence by the Rockefeller Foundation, as well as parallel developments in these two monumental programs of support for medical research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers.

  13. Recent trends in publication of basic science and clinical research by United States investigators in anesthesia journals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background United States anesthesia research production declined sharply from 1980-2005. Whether this trend has continued despite recent calls to improve output is unknown. We conducted an observational internet analysis to quantify American basic science and clinical anesthesia research output in 14 anesthesia journals with impact factors greater than one at three-year intervals during the past decade. Results American investigators published 1,486 (21.7%) of the total of 6,845 research articles identified in anesthesia journals in 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. Approximately two-thirds of all US articles were published in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.316; P = 0.036) between the number of articles published by American authors in each anesthesia journal and the corresponding journal's impact factor in 2010. Significantly (P < 0.05; Pearson's Chi-square) fewer basic science articles were published in 2007 and 2010 compared with 2001. US clinical research output also declined in 2007 (201; 15.7%) compared with 2001 (266; 19.1%) and 2004, but an increase occurred in 2010 (279; 21.8%, P < 0.05 versus 2007). Conclusions The results indicate that US anesthesia research output continued to decrease from 2001 to 2007. An increase in clinical but not basic science research was observed in 2010 compared with 2007, suggesting that a modest recovery in clinical research production may have begun. PMID:22439884

  14. Recent trends in publication of basic science and clinical research by United States investigators in anesthesia journals.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Paul S; Hudetz, Judith A

    2012-03-22

    United States anesthesia research production declined sharply from 1980-2005. Whether this trend has continued despite recent calls to improve output is unknown. We conducted an observational internet analysis to quantify American basic science and clinical anesthesia research output in 14 anesthesia journals with impact factors greater than one at three-year intervals during the past decade. American investigators published 1,486 (21.7%) of the total of 6,845 research articles identified in anesthesia journals in 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. Approximately two-thirds of all US articles were published in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.316; P = 0.036) between the number of articles published by American authors in each anesthesia journal and the corresponding journal's impact factor in 2010. Significantly (P < 0.05; Pearson's Chi-square) fewer basic science articles were published in 2007 and 2010 compared with 2001. US clinical research output also declined in 2007 (201; 15.7%) compared with 2001 (266; 19.1%) and 2004, but an increase occurred in 2010 (279; 21.8%, P < 0.05 versus 2007). The results indicate that US anesthesia research output continued to decrease from 2001 to 2007. An increase in clinical but not basic science research was observed in 2010 compared with 2007, suggesting that a modest recovery in clinical research production may have begun.

  15. Participation in Genetic Research: Amazon's Mechanical Turk Workforce in the United States and India.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Dozier, Ann; Demment, Margaret; Li, Dongmei; Fernandez, I Diana; Chang, Jack; Dye, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Genomic research has innumerable benefits. However, if people are unwilling to participate in genomic research, application of knowledge will be limited. This study examined the likelihood of respondents from a high- and a low- to middle-income country to participate in genetic research. Cross-sectional data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk workforce to ascertain attitudes toward participation in genetic research. Registered country of residence was either the US (n = 505) or India (n = 505). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess adjusted effects of demographic characteristics, health, social status, beliefs and concerns on 4 genetic research outcomes. Participants from India who believed chance and powerful others influenced their health were more likely to participate in genetic research (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 1.0-1.1) and to agree with sharing of DNA data (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2). US participants were more likely to be concerned about protection of family history, which they indicated would affect participation (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.1-6.0). Commonalities for the likelihood of participation were beliefs that genetic research could help find new treatments (India OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.4; US OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.2) and descendants would benefit (India OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5; US OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.1). Concurrence of beliefs on benefits and concerns about genetic research suggest they may be common across countries. Consideration of commonalities may be important to increase global participation in genetic research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Reflections on moral care when conducting qualitative research about suicide in the United States military.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Marcela; Mancías, Saraí; LeFeber, Tirzah

    2017-09-01

    Critical suicidology (White, Marsh, Kral, & Morris, 2016 ) offers a critique of positivism as the mainstream rhetoric of scientific research. In this article, the authors add a critique to the moral detachment of scientific inquiry (Wilkinson & Kleinman, 2016 ) in suicidology. They provide a discussion at the intersection of theory and research when considering moral care of all stakeholders in the implementation of suicide research toward the development of more humanitarian policies and program alternatives. The authors reflect upon their experience of conducting an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Finlay, 2011 ) on suicide in the U.S. military.

  17. USE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN FEDERALLY FUNDED LAND PROCESSES RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorley, G.A.; McArdle, R.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the use of space technology in federally funded earth science research in the US was carried out in 1985 by the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy. Five departments and three independent agencies, representing the primary earth science research agencies in the Federal government, participated in the review. The review by the subcommittee indicated that, while there is considerable overlap in the legislated missions of the earth science agencies, most of the space-related land processes research is complementary. Summaries are provided of the current and projected uses of space technology in land processes activities within the eight Federal organizations.

  18. Mixed-Status Immigrant Families in the United States: The Role of Social Justice in Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Mackenzie D M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 million unauthorized parents of legal status children currently reside in the United States (Capps, Fix, & Zong, 2016). Developmental scientists and intervention researchers hoping to work with these mixed-status families face a myriad of challenges, largely generated from the population's policy-driven social exclusion. Despite the challenges, there is a moral imperative to work with and support parents and children currently living in mixed-status households. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). We discuss the utility of this social justice perspective in theory building, study design and implementation, and dissemination of findings regarding mixed-status families, with exemplars from recent research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K.; Fellers, G.M.; Sandinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  20. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): A successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K.; Fellers, G.M.; Sadinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  1. United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service research on targeted management of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Lax, Alan R; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2003-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is currently one of the most destructive pests in the USA. It is estimated to cost consumers over US dollars 1 billion annually for preventative and remedial treatment and to repair damage caused by this insect. The mission of the Formosan Subterranean Termite Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Service is to demonstrate the most effective existing termite management technologies, integrate them into effective management systems, and provide fundamental problem-solving research for long-term, safe, effective and environmentally friendly new technologies. This article describes the epidemiology of the pest and highlights the research accomplished by the Agricultural Research Service on area-wide management of the termite and fundamental research on its biology that might provide the basis for future management technologies. Fundamental areas that are receiving attention are termite detection, termite colony development, nutrition and foraging, and the search for biological control agents. Other fertile areas include understanding termite symbionts that may provide an additional target for control. Area-wide management of the termite by using population suppression rather than protection of individual structures has been successful; however, much remains to be done to provide long-term sustainable population control. An educational component of the program has provided reliable information to homeowners and pest-control operators that should help slow the spread of this organism and allow rapid intervention in those areas which it infests.

  2. Adaptation of a dental RadioVisioGraph unit as a laboratory animal research tool.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S B; Hatley, C L; Holmes, R L; Runner, R R; Tonry, L L; McPherson, J C

    2001-11-01

    We have adapted the RadioVisioGraph (RVG), a digital radiography system designed for dentistry, to become a versatile research tool in a small research facility. We have used this modified digital imaging system in our institution to assess bone fractures and ossification in rabbit tibias in which titanium posts were placed in close proximity to one another, to evaluate bone fill in rats with experimental cranial critical-size defects, and to ensure the proper placement of oral gavage tubes in rodents. This method provides instantaneous digital radiographs, thus not requiring a dedicated X-ray suite or film-processing equipment, and reduces scatter radiation by < or =95%. The use of this technology in a small research facility has greatly improved the quality of both the care our animals receive and the research data we obtain.

  3. Indexed Retrieval System for Navy Experimental Diving Unit Research and Evaluation Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    KWIC computer programs developed by the International Business Machine Corporation (IBM) were so successful in this application that they are now being applied to all of NEDU’s microfilmed research files. (Author)

  4. 21 CFR 814.15 - Research conducted outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.15 Research... foreign data are applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice; (2) The studies have...

  5. The rise of pathophysiologic research in the United States: the role of two Harvard hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tishler, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiologic research, the major approach to understanding and treating disease, was created in the 20th century, and two Harvard-affiliated hospitals, the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and Boston City Hospital, played a key role in its development. After the Flexner Report of 1910, medical students were assigned clinical clerkships in teaching hospitals. Rockefeller-trained Francis Weld Peabody, who was committed to investigative, pathophysiologic research, was a critical leader in these efforts. At the Brigham, Harvard medical students observed patients closely and asked provocative questions about their diseases. Additionally, physicians returned from World War I with questions concerning the pathophysiology of wartime injuries. At the Boston City Hospital's new Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Peabody fostered investigative question-based research by physicians. These physicians expanded pathophysiologic investigation from the 1920s. Post-war, Watson and Crick's formulation of the structure of DNA led shortly to modern molecular biology and new research approaches that are being furthered at the Boston Hospitals.

  6. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1980 Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Surprisingly good, slow start up but developed considerate depth, very well prepared, excellent, had done a great deal of background research after pre...reactions have large cross sections (e.g., up to 400 x 10 - 1’ cm 2 ) at low energies, decreasing as (energy) - 1/2 up to I eV, and then decreasing...AAA Fire Control; Evasive Maneuvering Against a Multiple Missile Threat. A portion of this report summarizes research results obtained todate ; the

  7. Mock-ups as "interactive laboratories": mixed methods research using inpatient unit room mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas; Myers, Donald; Villasante, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    To establish evidence-based design (EBD) guidelines for inpatient rooms at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Simulation allows clients, designers, and researchers to visualize how users might interact with a proposed design before actual construction of the design. This study used mock-ups as a simulation technique during a study of the VA inpatient room standards. The participants used the inpatient room mock-ups as "interactive laboratory" environments to maximize opportunities for participatory design, qualitative research, and quantitative research of project-specific EBD solutions. The research used questionnaires, scenarios, on-demand modifications, and observations to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions for inpatient room mock-ups. A total of 71 participants responded to a questionnaire administered across five mock-up work sessions. These 71 participants consisted of administrators, nurses, physicians, support staff, environment and maintenance staff, and patient and staff safety representatives from throughout the VA healthcare system. EBD solutions were tested, evaluated, and modified for each inpatient room type and were applicable to two or more of the inpatient room types. The latter included the location of patient beds and standard headwall position, technology and spaces for nurse charting activities, clearances (e.g., equipment, wheelchair, and bariatric patient), universal rooms, and patient and family amenities. Also, EBD solutions were tested, validated, and modified to the needs of each inpatient room. The mock-ups allowed researchers and designers to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions and strategies for the development of VA inpatient room standards. When used as a means for mixed-methods research, mock-ups can successfully integrate research and design during project-related work. EBD research using mock-ups not only addresses project- or organization-specific concerns, but it may contribute to the knowledge base of the

  8. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    research at Air Force laboratories /centers. Each assignment is in a subject area and at an Air Force facility mutually agreed upon by the...housing difficult to find, c) 10 weeks too short for research period. June 20, 1989 Astronautics Laboratory Edwards Air Force Base, California June 21...1989 HRL: Operations Training Division Williams Air Force Base, Arizona June 22, 1989 Weapons Laboratory Kirtland Air

  9. United States Air Force Academy Annual Research Report: July 2003 to June 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    small satellite program, applied plasma physics, and modeling upper atmospheric response to solar and space weather events. Space Systems Research...conduct research in space weather , investigating space plasma and its impact on satellite communication. All of these satellites are built by cadets so they... HAARP ), the High Power Auroral Stimulation (HIPAS) observatory, and the planned Arecibo facility. Cadet Loren Jones-Harris successfully completed the

  10. Research on Leadership, Motivation and Quality of Life in the Air Force Missile and Tanker Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    furor was generated at this time against social research in the defense department. Mansfield was successful in appending an ammendment to a...placed by the Mansfield ammendment and also satisfy the needs for basic research in the behavioral areas. It was within this era and this social...implications. It suggests that the individual first adopts a personal value position in dealing with other persons in his environment. Thus, he would

  11. Summary of United States of America Treaty Verification Research and Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    01-280-5500 Standard form 29R (Rev 2-89) rrrrc,, obd bv AN11Sid 19..1O 29un102 Blank 2 PREFACE The work described in this report was sponsored by the...developed and physical parameters required by the model are being measured for model compounds. Research in remote spectroscopic detection of chemical...directly coupled into the container wall has been developed and tested successfully. Research is ongoing on remote excitation and measurement. Only a

  12. A needs assessment of education research topics among surgical educators in the United States.

    PubMed

    Phitayakorn, R; Salles, A; Falcone, J L; Jensen, A R; Steinemann, S; Torbeck, L

    2017-02-01

    There are currently no courses that focus specifically on surgical education research. A needs assessment of surgical educators is required to best design these courses. A cross-sectional survey-based study on all faculty members of the Association for Surgical Education was done to determine their education research needs. The overall response rate was 15% and the majority of the 78 respondents were physicians (63%) in their mid- to late career stage (65%). Participants thought research topics should be taught at an advanced level in a workshop format. Senior educators were less interested than junior educators in learning to create conceptual frameworks (p = 0.038) and presenting their research at national meetings (p = 0.014). Surgical educators desire more training in education research techniques that are taught in a workshop format at a national surgical education meeting. These workshops may lay the groundwork for a nationally recognized certificate in surgical education research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Status and future of government-supported amorphous silicon research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W L; Sabisky, E S

    1986-06-01

    The Amorphous Silicon Research Project (ASRP) was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute in 1983 and is responsible for all US Department of Energy government supported research activities in the field of amorphous silicon photovoltaics. The objectives and research directions of the project have been established by a Five-Year Research Plan, which was developed at SERI in cooperation with the Department of Energy in 1984 and is divided into research on single-junction and multi-junction solar cells. DOE/SERI has recently initiated a new three year program to be performed in collaboration with US industry to perform work on high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells and submodules. The objectives of this initiative are: (i) to achieve 18% efficiencies for small area multi-junction amorphous silicon cells, and (ii) to achieve amorphous silicon submodule efficiencies in the 10 to 13% range for single-junction and multi-junction submodule configurations over areas of at least 1000 cm/sup 2/.

  14. Survey on astrobiology research and teaching activities within the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Burchell, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    While astrobiology is apparently growing steadily around the world, in terms of the number of researchers drawn into this interdisciplinary area and teaching courses provided for new students, there have been very few studies conducted to chart this expansion quantitatively. To address this deficiency, the Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB) conducted a questionnaire survey of universities and research institutions nationwide to ascertain the current extent of astrobiology research and teaching in the UK. The aim was to provide compiled statistics and an information resource for those who seek research groups or courses of study, and to facilitate new interdisciplinary collaborations. The report here summarizes details gathered on 33 UK research groups, which involved 286 researchers (from undergraduate project students to faculty members). The survey indicates that around 880 students are taking university-level courses, with significant elements of astrobiology included, every year in the UK. Data are also presented on the composition of astrobiology students by their original academic field, which show a significant dominance of physics and astronomy students. This survey represents the first published systematic national assessment of astrobiological academic activity and indicates that this emerging field has already achieved a strong degree of penetration into the UK academic community.

  15. Battered mothers speak out: participatory human rights documentation as a model for research and activism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slote, Kim Y; Cuthbert, Carrie; Mesh, Cynthia J; Driggers, Monica G; Bancroft, Lundy; Silverman, Jay G

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the work of the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project, a multiyear effort that documented human rights violations against battered women and their children in the Massachusetts family court system. This article (a) presents the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project's participatory human rights methodology as an alternative model for research and activism on violence against women and children in the United States, (b) summarizes the authors' findings and human rights analysis of how the Massachusetts family courts handled custody and visitation in specified cases involving partner and child abuse, and (c) discusses U.S. obligations under international human rights law and the value of a human rights approach to violence against women and children in the United States.

  16. Quantifying the economic impact of government and charity funding of medical research on private research and development funding in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sussex, Jon; Feng, Yan; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Pistollato, Michele; Hafner, Marco; Burridge, Peter; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-02-24

    Government- and charity-funded medical research and private sector research and development (R&D) are widely held to be complements. The only attempts to measure this complementarity so far have used data from the United States of America and are inevitably increasingly out of date. This study estimates the magnitude of the effect of government and charity biomedical and health research expenditure in the United Kingdom (UK), separately and in total, on subsequent private pharmaceutical sector R&D expenditure in the UK. The results for this study are obtained by fitting an econometric vector error correction model (VECM) to time series for biomedical and health R&D expenditure in the UK for ten disease areas (including 'other') for the government, charity and private sectors. The VECM model describes the relationship between public (i.e. government and charities combined) sector expenditure, private sector expenditure and global pharmaceutical sales as a combination of a long-term equilibrium and short-term movements. There is a statistically significant complementary relationship between public biomedical and health research expenditure and private pharmaceutical R&D expenditure. A 1% increase in public sector expenditure is associated in the best-fit model with a 0.81% increase in private sector expenditure. Sensitivity analysis produces a similar and statistically significant result with a slightly smaller positive elasticity of 0.68. Overall, every additional £1 of public research expenditure is associated with an additional £0.83-£1.07 of private sector R&D spend in the UK; 44% of that additional private sector expenditure occurs within 1 year, with the remainder accumulating over decades. This spillover effect implies a real annual rate of return (in terms of economic impact) to public biomedical and health research in the UK of 15-18%. When combined with previous estimates of the health gain that results from public medical research in cancer and

  17. Research access to privately owned wetland basins in the prairie pothole region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, David P.; Buhl, Thomas K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe efforts to obtain access for research to 81 wetland basins on 69 farms in four zones of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Access was obtained to 54% of the farms in areas where land was intensively cropped and 87% of farms in areas of low cropping intensity. On average, 1.35 operators had to be contacted and 1.70 interviews were required to obtain a decision on access to a farm. On 77% of the farms, cooperators placed at least one restriction on access, most commonly requiring walking access only or notification before nighttime work. Cost of obtaining access averaged $265/farm in wages and travel expenses. No cooperators were willing to sign written access agreements. Operators rescinded access to four farms and drained three wetland basins during the first year; six of the seven sites lost were in the intensively cropped portion of a low-wetland-density zone. The difficulty of obtaining and retaining research access to privately owned wetland basins in intensively cropped areas may be related to landowner attitudes towards wetlands. Researchers may have to rely on remote sensing or consider payment for access to secure representative research sites in such areas. Unwillingness of cooperators to sign access agreements may jeopardize research by the newly formed National Biological Service and other resource management agencies.

  18. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Julia G.; Rudd, Murray A.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration. PMID:28533565

  19. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julia G; Rudd, Murray A; Crowder, Larry B

    2017-05-01

    Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration.

  20. A Historical Perspective on Breast Cancer Activism in the United States: From Education and Support to Partnership in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Kami; Price, Carole; Barlow, Janice; Miller, Karen; Hernick, Ann; Fonfa, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer remained a hidden disease among women in the United States until the 20th century. It was initially brought into the open with public revelations from individual women, which was followed by the development of support groups and ultimately the formation of political activist groups with various priorities. Those concerned with toxic environmental exposures as a potential cause of breast cancer organized, demonstrated, and lobbied for research funding and eventually became partners in the research that arose from their efforts. One representative example was the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERC) Project (2003–2010), supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The BCERC embedded a Community Outreach and Translational Core into its formal organizational infrastructure to ensure advocate involvement in the standing scientific subcommittees of BCERC, the first project funded by NIEHS and NCI to do so. The formal integration of advocates as partners in scientific studies focused on breast cancer is embedded in a rich history of action on the part of many courageous women. This article describes the historical evolution of breast cancer activism in the United States, which provided a critical foundation for the formation of BCERC. This description is followed by a discussion of BCERC as an example of the transdisciplinary research model, a paradigm that strives for inclusion of multiple stakeholders and increased interaction between scientists from a wide spectrum of disciplines, advocates, and lay audiences in order to more effectively conduct critical research and to translate and disseminate its findings. PMID:22132763