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Sample records for researchers develop method

  1. Research methods for formal consensus development.

    PubMed

    James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility.

  2. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  3. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  4. Comparative effectiveness research: Policy context, methods development and research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tunis, Sean R; Benner, Joshua; McClellan, Mark

    2010-08-30

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received substantial attention as a potential approach for improving health outcomes while lowering costs of care, and for improving the relevance and quality of clinical and health services research. The Institute of Medicine defines CER as 'the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.' Improving the methods and infrastructure for CER will require sustained attention to the following issues: (1) Meaningful involvement of patients, consumers, clinicians, payers, and policymakers in key phases of CER study design and implementation; (2) Development of methodological 'best practices' for the design of CER studies that reflect decision-maker needs and balance internal validity with relevance, feasibility and timeliness; and (3) Improvements in research infrastructure to enhance the validity and efficiency with which CER studies are implemented. The approach to addressing each of these issues should be informed by the understanding that the primary purpose of CER is to help health care decision makers make informed clinical and health policy decisions. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Researchers develop four new radiation control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J. )

    1989-10-01

    The author describes exploratory research into radiation transport processes which has resulted in four new products to help utilities reduce radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. According to the author, chemical decontamination, elevated pH chemistry, zinc passivation, and cobalt-free hardfacing alloys can reduce radiation fields. These four processes are discussed in this paper.

  6. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  7. EPA Scientists Develop Research Methods for Studying Mold Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers developed a DNA-based Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method (MSQPCR) for identifying and quantifying over 100 common molds and fungi.

  8. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    Beer, Reg

    2016-07-12

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  9. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Reg

    2014-01-06

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  10. Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, there has been much dialogue, and debate, about the conduct of educational technology research and development. In this brief volume, the author helps clarify that dialogue by theoretically and empirically charting the research methods used in the field and provides much practical information on how to conduct…

  11. Research and development of a stationary source method for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Coppedge, E.A.; Johnson, L.D.; Steger, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Phosgene is listed as one of the hazardous air pollutants in title I of the Clean Air Act. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas at standard temperature and pressure and has been used in military applications and for a variety of industrial uses. Although various methods have been developed for detection of phosgene in ambient air, no method is directly applicable to stationary source emissions. The EPA has an on-going research project to develop a field ready protocol for phosgene from stationary source emissions. The results of the derivatization studies, sampling train experiments and other laboratory work will be shown.

  12. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: Method development

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Martina, Camille A.; O’Dell, Nicole L.; Fogg, Thomas T.; Lurie, Stephen J.; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an email survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full-and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich dataset useful for evaluation using SNA to: a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  13. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: method development.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Martina, Camille A; O'Dell, Nicole L; Fogg, Thomas T; Lurie, Stephen J; Rubinstein, Eric P; Pearson, Thomas A

    2014-03-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an e-mail survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full- and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich data set useful for evaluation using SNA to: (a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and (b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks.

  14. Improving the Development of Student's Research Questions and Hypotheses in an Introductory Business Research Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…

  15. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  16. New Research Methods Developed for Studying Diabetic Foot Ulceration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Brian Davis, one of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's researchers, has been investigating the risk factors related to diabetic foot ulceration, a problem that accounts for 20 percent of all hospital admissions for diabetic patients. He had developed a sensor pad to measure the friction and pressure forces under a person's foot when walking. As part of NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Act Agreement with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Dr. Davis requested Lewis' assistance in visualizing the data from the sensor pad. As a result, Lewis' Interactive Data Display System (IDDS) was installed at the Cleveland Clinic. This computer graphics program is normally used to visualize the flow of air through aircraft turbine engines, producing color two- and three-dimensional images.

  17. New Research Methods Developed for Studying Diabetic Foot Ulceration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Brian Davis, one of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's researchers, has been investigating the risk factors related to diabetic foot ulceration, a problem that accounts for 20 percent of all hospital admissions for diabetic patients. He had developed a sensor pad to measure the friction and pressure forces under a person's foot when walking. As part of NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Act Agreement with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Dr. Davis requested Lewis' assistance in visualizing the data from the sensor pad. As a result, Lewis' Interactive Data Display System (IDDS) was installed at the Cleveland Clinic. This computer graphics program is normally used to visualize the flow of air through aircraft turbine engines, producing color two- and three-dimensional images.

  18. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  19. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION (TIE) METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common method for determining whether contaminants in sediments represent an environmental risk is to perform toxicity tests. Toxicity tests indicate if contaminants in sediments are bioavailable and capable of causing adverse biological effects (e.g., mortality, reduced growt...

  1. Current Development in Elderly Comprehensive Assessment and Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shantong; Li, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a core and an essential part of the comprehensive care of the aging population. CGA uses specific tools to summarize elderly status in several domains that may influence the general health and outcomes of diseases of elderly patients, including assessment of medical, physical, psychological, mental, nutritional, cognitive, social, economic, and environmental status. Here, in this paper, we review different assessment tools used in elderly patients with chronic diseases. The development of comprehensive assessment tools and single assessment tools specially used in a dimension of CGA was discussed. CGA provides substantial insight into the comprehensive management of elderly patients. Developing concise and effective assessment instruments is helpful to carry out CGA widely to create a higher clinical value. PMID:27042661

  2. Four Methods for Completing the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory Building Research in HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe four methods for completing the conceptual development phase of theory building research for single or multiparadigm research. The four methods selected for this review are (1) Weick's method of "theorizing as disciplined imagination" (1989); (2) Whetten's method of "modeling as theorizing" (2002); (3)…

  3. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  4. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  5. An Effective Research Team Method to Influence Research and Scholarly Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Robison, Floyd F.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an apprenticeship team model developed by Rex Stockton in order to provide graduate students with progressive training and supervised experience in conducting research on group work. The authors describe their learning experiences as students on Stockton's team.

  6. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is intended...

  7. Lessons from comparative effectiveness research methods development projects funded under the Recovery Act.

    PubMed

    Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.

  8. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  9. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions in palliative care research.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Morag C; Ewing, Gail; Booth, Sara

    2011-12-01

    there is increasing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide comprehensiveness and greater knowledge yield. Mixed methods are valuable in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. They are therefore particularly valuable in palliative care research where the majority of interventions are complex, and the identification of outcomes particularly challenging. this paper aims to introduce the role of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care, and how they may be used in palliative care research. the paper defines mixed methods and outlines why and how mixed methods are used to develop and evaluate complex interventions, with a pragmatic focus on design and data collection issues and data analysis. Useful texts are signposted and illustrative examples provided of mixed method studies in palliative care, including a detailed worked example of the development and evaluation of a complex intervention in palliative care for breathlessness. Key challenges to conducting mixed methods in palliative care research are identified in relation to data collection, data integration in analysis, costs and dissemination and how these might be addressed. the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care benefit from the application of mixed methods. Mixed methods enable better understanding of whether and how an intervention works (or does not work) and inform the design of subsequent studies. However, they can be challenging: mixed method studies in palliative care will benefit from working with agreed protocols, multidisciplinary teams and engaging staff with appropriate skill sets.

  10. Development of a qualitative exploratory case study research method to explore sustained delivery of cognitive services.

    PubMed

    Kaae, Susanne; Søndergaard, Birthe; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2010-02-01

    To develop, apply and evaluate a new research method to establish relationships between structural and process elements of the provision of cognitive services. In-depth knowledge about how local organisational structural elements of community pharmacies shape the implementation process of cognitive services is needed to develop targeted quality assurance systems to ensure that the services are continuously provided to the patients who need them. The first publicly reimbursed cognitive service in Denmark, the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) is used as the case. The research method was developed at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen and later applied to seven community pharmacies geographically spread around Denmark. A pilot study as well as a subsequent literature review was conducted to determine which structure-process elements to focus on in the research method as well as to select appropriate theories and methods. The developed research method was a qualitative exploratory multi-case study, that was based on method triangulation of field observations, semi-structured interviews, group interviews as well as collection of documentary material. The three main themes of the research method were: the administration of tasks, leadership style and professional values. We integrated the organisational theories of Mintzberg, Bolman and Deal as well as Sørensen to support and clarify the data collection process and analyses. A cross-case analysis and an exploratory contextual analysis relating the leadership style of the pharmacy owner to the ITAS provision were applied to the collected data. The developed qualitative exploratory multi-case study research method was satisfactory with regard to achieving nuanced and in-depth results of some relationships between structural and process elements of provision of cognitive services. The research method can be considered an important supplement to the existing literature on the

  11. Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral equations and finite difference methods for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite difference solution of the transonic small perturbation equation, the integral equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.

  12. Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral-equations and finite-difference method for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite-difference solution of the transonic small-perturbation equation, the integral-equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.

  13. Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral equations and finite difference methods for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite difference solution of the transonic small perturbation equation, the integral equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.

  14. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  15. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  16. TESOL Students as Teachers and Colleagues: Integrating Theory, Research, Methods, and Practicum in Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    This paper describes a teacher education program that integrates second language acquisition theory and research with language teaching methods, practical issues, and the development of collegiality in a cooperative professor-student approach. Although not all theoretical approaches may find direct application in the classroom, many have informed…

  17. Developing a checklist for research proposals to help describe health service interventions in UK research programmes: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; White, Donna; Turner, Sheila; Campbell, Kevin; Lamont, Tara

    2014-03-04

    One of the most common reasons for rejecting research proposals in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Services and Delivery Research (HS&DR) Programme is the failure to adequately specify the intervention or context in research proposals. Examples of failed research proposals include projects to assess integrated care models, use of generic caseworkers, or new specialist nurse services. These are all important service developments which need evaluation, but the lack of clarity about the intervention and context prevented these research proposals from obtaining funding. The purpose of the research presented herein was to develop a checklist, with key service intervention and contextual features, for use by applicants to the NIHR HS&DR Programme to potentially enhance the quality of research proposals. The study used mixed methods to identify the need for and develop and test a checklist. Firstly, this included assessing existing checklists in peer-reviewed literature relevant to organisational health research. Building on existing work, a new checklist was piloted. Two reviewers used a small sample (n = 16) of research proposals to independently assess the relevance of the checklist to the proposal and the degree of overlap or gaps between the constructs. The next two stages externally validated the revised checklist by collecting qualitative feedback from researchers and experts in the field. The initial checklist was developed from existing checklists which included domains of intervention and context. The constructs and background to each were developed through review of existing literature. Eight researchers provided feedback on the checklist, which was generally positive. This iterative process resulted in changes to the checklist, collapsing two constructs and providing more prompts for others; the final checklist includes six constructs. Features relating to intervention and context should be well described to increase the quality of

  18. EPA's Reference and Equivalent Supporting NAAQS Implementation through Methods Research Program: Research, Development, and Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    . To assess the ambient concentration levels of the six criteria air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a systematic framework of: (a) field measurements of ambient air pollutant levels ...

  19. EPA's Reference and Equivalent Supporting NAAQS Implementation through Methods Research Program: Research, Development, and Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    . To assess the ambient concentration levels of the six criteria air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a systematic framework of: (a) field measurements of ambient air pollutant levels ...

  20. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactive and Hands-on Methods for Professional Development of Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, S. N.; LeBeau, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Professional development workshops for undergraduate research programs can range from communicating science (i.e. oral, technical writing, poster presentations), applying for fellowships and scholarships, applying to graduate school, and learning about careers, among others. Novel methods of presenting the information on the above topics can result in positive outcomes beyond the obvious of transferring knowledge. Examples of innovative methods to present professional development information include 1) An interactive session on how to write an abstract where students are given an opportunity to draft an abstract from a short technical article, followed by discussion amongst a group of peers, and comparison with the "published" abstract. 2) Using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) method to evaluate and critique a research poster. 3) Inviting "experts" such as a Fulbright scholar graduate student to present on applying for fellowships and scholarships. These innovative methods of delivery provide more hands-on activities that engage the students, and in some cases (abstract writing) provide practice for the student. The methods also require that students develop team work skills, communicate amongst their peers, and develop networks with their cohort. All of these are essential non-technical skills needed for success in any career. Feedback from students on these sessions are positive and most importantly, the students walk out of the session with a smile on their face saying how much fun it was. Evaluating the impact of these sessions is more challenging and under investigation currently.

  2. Survey Research in Athletic Training: The Scientific Method of Development and Implementation.

    PubMed

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a scientific method for the development, validation, and correct use of a survey tool. BACKGROUND: Many athletic trainers are becoming involved in research to benefit either their own situations or the larger profession of athletic training. One of the most common methods used to gain this necessary information is a survey, with either a questionnaire or an interview technique. Formal instruction in the development and implementation of surveys is essential to the success of the research. As with other forms of experimental research, it is important to validate and ensure the reliability of the instruments (ie, questionnaires) used for data collection. It is also important to survey an appropriate sample of the population to ensure the appropriateness of applying the findings to the larger population. Lastly, to ensure adequate return of data, specific techniques are suggested to enhance data collection and the ability to apply the findings to the larger population. DESCRIPTION: A review of the procedures used in the development and validation of a survey instrument is provided. Information on survey-item development is provided, including types of questions, formatting, planning for data analysis, and suggestions to ensure better data acquisition and analysis. ADVANTAGES: By following the suggested procedures in this article, athletic training researchers will be able to better collect and use survey data to enhance the profession of athletic training.

  3. Development of Implicit Methods in CFD NASA Ames Research Center 1970's - 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The focus here is on the early development (mid 1970's-1980's) at NASA Ames Research Center of implicit methods in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A class of implicit finite difference schemes of the Beam and Warming approximate factorization type will be addressed. The emphasis will be on the Euler equations. A review of material pertinent to the solution of the Euler equations within the framework of implicit methods will be presented. The eigensystem of the equations will be used extensively in developing a framework for various methods applied to the Euler equations. The development and analysis of various aspects of this class of schemes will be given along with the motivations behind many of the choices. Various acceleration and efficiency modifications such as matrix reduction, diagonalization and flux split schemes will be presented.

  4. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions.

  5. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Margaret E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term impacts on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of the individual's fullest potential therefore requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than twenty years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component to the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study—the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate integrated interventions. PMID:24673167

  6. In situ methods for Li-ion battery research: A review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harks, P. P. R. M. L.; Mulder, F. M.; Notten, P. H. L.

    2015-08-01

    A considerable amount of research is being directed towards improving lithium-ion batteries in order to meet today's market demands. In particular in situ investigations of Li-ion batteries have proven extremely insightful, but require the electrochemical cell to be fully compatible with the conditions of the testing method and are therefore often challenging to execute. Advantageously, in the past few years significant progress has been made with new, more advanced, in situ techniques. Herein, a comprehensive overview of in situ methods for studying Li-ion batteries is given, with the emphasis on new developments and reported experimental highlights.

  7. Research Methods Teaching in Vocational Environments: Developing Critical Engagement with Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, C.; Turner, R.; Sutton, C.; Petersen, C.; Stevens, S.; Swain, J.; Esmond, B.; Schofield, C.; Thackeray, D.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of research methods is regarded as crucial for the UK economy and workforce. However, research methods teaching is viewed as a challenging area for lecturers and students. The pedagogy of research methods teaching within universities has been noted as underdeveloped, with undergraduate students regularly expressing negative dispositions…

  8. Research Methods Teaching in Vocational Environments: Developing Critical Engagement with Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, C.; Turner, R.; Sutton, C.; Petersen, C.; Stevens, S.; Swain, J.; Esmond, B.; Schofield, C.; Thackeray, D.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of research methods is regarded as crucial for the UK economy and workforce. However, research methods teaching is viewed as a challenging area for lecturers and students. The pedagogy of research methods teaching within universities has been noted as underdeveloped, with undergraduate students regularly expressing negative dispositions…

  9. (PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  10. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  11. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  12. Research methods used in developing and applying quality indicators in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, S; Braspenning, J; Hutchinson, A; Marshall, M

    2002-01-01

    

 Quality indicators have been developed throughout Europe primarily for use in hospitals, but also increasingly for primary care. Both development and application are important but there has been less research on the application of indicators. Three issues are important when developing or applying indicators: (1) which stakeholder perspective(s) are the indicators intended to reflect; (2) what aspects of health care are being measured; and (3) what evidence is available? The information required to develop quality indicators can be derived using systematic or non-systematic methods. Non-systematic methods such as case studies play an important role but they do not tap in to available evidence. Systematic methods can be based directly on scientific evidence by combining available evidence with expert opinion, or they can be based on clinical guidelines. While it may never be possible to produce an error free measure of quality, measures should adhere, as far as possible, to some fundamental a priori characteristics (acceptability, feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and validity). Adherence to these characteristics will help maximise the effectiveness of quality indicators in quality improvement strategies. It is also necessary to consider what the results of applying indicators tell us about quality of care. PMID:12468698

  13. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  15. Developing Investigative Entry Points: Exploring the Use of Quantitative Methods in English Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraner, Kristin L.; Robbins, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although many research questions in English education demand the use of qualitative methods, this paper will briefly explore how English education researchers and doctoral students may use statistics and quantitative methods to inform, complement, and/or deepen their inquiries. First, the authors will provide a general overview of the survey areas…

  16. The Value of Developing a Mixed-Methods Program of Research.

    PubMed

    Simonovich, Shannon

    2017-07-01

    This article contributes to the discussion of the value of utilizing mixed methodological approaches to conduct nursing research. To this end, the author of this article proposes creating a mixed-methods program of research over time, where both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed simultaneously, rather than focusing efforts on designing singular mixed-methods studies. A mixed-methods program of research would allow for the best of both worlds: precision through focus on one method at a time, and the benefits of creating a robust understanding of a phenomenon over the trajectory of one's career through examination from various methodological approaches.

  17. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  18. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  19. Development of chemical engineering course methods using action research: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically extracted from student feedback and teacher reflection. Two new development targets were set every year based on teacher reflection and analysis of the data. Using action research as a development tool is an approach that can also be adopted in many other teaching fields. The results show that persistent development work leads to better learning outcomes and positive course feedback.

  20. Developing theory from complexity: reflections on a collaborative mixed method participatory action research study.

    PubMed

    Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie

    2008-05-01

    Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects.

  1. The Application of a Multiphase Triangulation Approach to Mixed Methods: The Research of an Aspiring School Principal Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Howard; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged as a credible alternative to unitary research approaches. The authors show how a combination of a triangulation convergence model with a triangulation multilevel model was used to research an aspiring school principal development pilot program. The multilevel model is used to show the national and regional levels…

  2. Promoting Positive Youth Development: Implications for Future Directions in Developmental Theory, Methods, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Berman, Steven L.; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2008-01-01

    The efforts of the Miami Youth Development Project reported in this special issue illustrate how Developmental Intervention Science (DIS; a fusion of the developmental and intervention science) extended to include outreach research contributes to the development of community-supported positive youth development programs. In the process, the…

  3. Assessing the Development of Educational Research Literacy: The Effect of Courses on Research Methods in Studies of Educational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groß Ophoff, Jana; Schladitz, Sandra; Leuders, Juliane; Leuders, Timo; Wirtz, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to purposefully access, reflect, and use evidence from educational research (Educational Research Literacy) is expected of future professionals in educational practice. Based on the presented conceptual framework, a test instrument was developed to assess the different competency aspects: Information Literacy, Statistical Literacy, and…

  4. Assessing the Development of Educational Research Literacy: The Effect of Courses on Research Methods in Studies of Educational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groß Ophoff, Jana; Schladitz, Sandra; Leuders, Juliane; Leuders, Timo; Wirtz, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to purposefully access, reflect, and use evidence from educational research (Educational Research Literacy) is expected of future professionals in educational practice. Based on the presented conceptual framework, a test instrument was developed to assess the different competency aspects: Information Literacy, Statistical Literacy, and…

  5. Developing a WWW Resource Centre for Acquiring and Accessing Open Learning Materials on Research Methods (ReMOTE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert; Marcella, Rita; Middleton, Iain; McConnell, Michael

    This paper reports on ReMOTE (Research Methods Online Teaching Environment), a Robert Gordon University (Scotland) project focusing on the development of a World Wide Web (WWW) site devoted to the teaching of research methods. The aim of ReMOTE is to provide an infrastructure that allows direct links to specialist sources in order to enable the…

  6. MORECare research methods guidance development: recommendations for ethical issues in palliative and end-of-life care research.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Evans, Catherine J; Lewis, Penney; Speck, Peter; Benalia, Hamid; Preston, Nancy J; Grande, Gunn E; Short, Vicky; Owen-Jones, Eleanor; Todd, Chris J; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-12-01

    There is little guidance on the particular ethical concerns that research raises with a palliative care population. To present the process and outcomes of a workshop and consensus exercise on agreed best practice to accommodate ethical issues in research on palliative care. Consultation workshop using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation approach. Prior to workshops, participants were sent overviews of ethical issues in palliative care. Following the workshop, nominal group techniques were used to produce candidate recommendations. These were rated online by participating experts. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse agreement and consensus. Narrative comments were collated. Experts in ethical issues and palliative care research were invited to the Cicely Saunders Institute in London. They included senior researchers, service providers, commissioners, researchers, members of ethics committees and policy makers. The workshop comprised 28 participants. A total of 16 recommendations were developed. There was high agreement on the issue of research participation and high to moderate agreement on applications to research ethics committees. The recommendations on obtaining and maintaining consent from patients and families were the most contentious. Nine recommendations were refined on the basis of the comments from the online consultation. The culture surrounding palliative care research needs to change by fostering collaborative approaches between all those involved in the research process. Changes to the legal framework governing the research process are required to enhance the ethical conduct of research in palliative care. The recommendations are relevant to all areas of research involving vulnerable adults.

  7. Accelerating what works: using qualitative research methods in developing a change package for a learning collaborative.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Asta V; Bernard, Shulamit L

    2012-02-01

    Learning (quality improvement) collaboratives are effective vehicles for driving coordinated organizational improvements. A central element of a learning collaborative is the change package-a catalogue of strategies, change concepts, and action steps that guide participants in their improvement efforts. Despite a vast literature describing learning collaboratives, little to no information is available on how the guiding strategies, change concepts, and action items are identified and developed to a replicable and actionable format that can be used to make measurable improvements within participating organizations. The process for developing the change package for the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative entailed environmental scan and identification of leading practices, case studies, interim debriefing meetings, data synthesis, and a technical expert panel meeting. Data synthesis involved end-of-day debriefings, systematic qualitative analyses, and the use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques. This approach allowed systematic identification of innovative patient safety and clinical pharmacy practices that could be adopted in diverse environments. A case study approach enabled the research team to study practices in their natural environments. Use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques enabled identification of strategies, change concepts, and actionable items that might not have been captured using different approaches. Use of systematic processes and qualitative methods in identification and translation of innovative practices can greatly accelerate the diffusion of innovations and practice improvements. This approach is effective whether or not an individual organization is part of a learning collaborative.

  8. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  9. RESEARCH ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPA METHOD 552.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work presented in this paper entails the development of a method for haloacetic acid (HAA) analysis, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)method 552.2, that improves the saftey and efficiency of previous methods and incorporates three additional trihalogenated acetic acids: b...

  10. RESEARCH ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPA METHOD 552.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work presented in this paper entails the development of a method for haloacetic acid (HAA) analysis, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)method 552.2, that improves the saftey and efficiency of previous methods and incorporates three additional trihalogenated acetic acids: b...

  11. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  12. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  13. Development and evaluation of a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 using the Nutrition Data System for Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) with the widely used Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) based on the method developed for use with the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrient Dietary Data System (FNDDS) and M...

  14. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  15. The change and development of statistical methods used in research articles in child development 1930-2010.

    PubMed

    Køppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and development of statistical methods used in articles published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical methods employed. The absence of statistical methods or use of simple methods had been eliminated.

  16. [Development and effects of emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students: mixed methods research].

    PubMed

    Lee, Oi Sun; Gu, Mee Ock

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to develop and test the effects of an emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students. The study design was a mixed method research. Participants were 36 nursing students (intervention group: 17, control group: 19). The emotional intelligence program was provided for 4 weeks (8 sessions, 20 hours). Data were collected between August 6 and October 4, 2013. Quantitative data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, t-test, repeated measure ANOVA, and paired t-test with SPSS/WIN 18.0. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Quantitative results showed that emotional intelligence, communication skills, resilience, stress coping strategy, and clinical competence were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. According to the qualitative results, the nursing students experienced improvement in emotional intelligence, interpersonal relationships, and empowerment, as well as a reduction in clinical practice stress after participation in the emotional intelligence program. Study findings indicate that the emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students is effective and can be recommended as an intervention for improving the clinical competence of undergraduate students in a nursing curriculum.

  17. Developing and piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Holtslander, Lorraine F; Racine, Louise; Furniss, Shari; Burles, Meridith; Turner, Hollie

    2012-06-01

    Despite the turmoil of a worldwide economic crisis, the health sector remains largely understaffed, and the nursing shortage represents a major issue that jeopardizes graduate nursing education. Access to education remains a challenge, particularly in rural and remote areas. This article reports the process of developing an asynchronous online qualitative research course. This online course was piloted among 16 interdisciplinary students. Participants agreed that experiential learning was useful to understand the intricacies of qualitative research. Within this constructivist approach, students were immersed in real-life experiences, which focused on the development of skills applicable to qualitative research. Based on the findings, we suggest that constructivism and the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model (a four-part approach for fostering the development of complex skills) represent valuable ontological and pedagogical approaches that can be used in online courses. Triangulating these two approaches is also congruent with the student-centered philosophy that underpins nursing graduate programs.

  18. Analyzing Methods. A Procedural Guide for the Method Specialist. Research & Development Series No. 119-G. Career Planning Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Carolyn M.; And Others

    Information in this brief guide, one of a set of twelve documents describing the Career Planning Support System (CPSS) and its use, is directed to the method specialist (a member of the CPSS steering committee) and provides procedures and a list of questions to aid in analyzing career development methods that may be appropriate for use in career…

  19. Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

  20. Developing Students' Autonomy and Self-Regulation through a Co-Teaching Research Methods Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Gaeta González, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    The College of Human Sciences at Oklahoma State University (OSU) and Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP) decided to offer Pedagogy Doctoral students from Mexico a 3 week co-teaching research methods experience. Two professors, one from each institution (OSU and UPAEP), designed the syllabus to offer a co-teaching experience…

  1. Wellbeing Research in Developing Countries: Reviewing the Role of Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura; Crivello, Gina; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the contribution of qualitative methods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…

  2. Wellbeing Research in Developing Countries: Reviewing the Role of Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura; Crivello, Gina; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the contribution of qualitative methods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…

  3. FODEM: A Multi-Threaded Research and Development Method for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhonen, Jarkko; de Villiers, M. Ruth; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Formative development method (FODEM) is a multithreaded design approach that was originated to support the design and development of various types of educational technology innovations, such as learning tools, and online study programmes. The threaded and agile structure of the approach provides flexibility to the design process. Intensive…

  4. FODEM: A Multi-Threaded Research and Development Method for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhonen, Jarkko; de Villiers, M. Ruth; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Formative development method (FODEM) is a multithreaded design approach that was originated to support the design and development of various types of educational technology innovations, such as learning tools, and online study programmes. The threaded and agile structure of the approach provides flexibility to the design process. Intensive…

  5. Methods for Studying Innovation Development in the Minnesota Innovation Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Poole, Marshall Scott

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the methods being used to examine processes of innovation development that pertain to the selection of cases and concepts, observing change, coding and analyzing event data to identify process patterns, and developing theories to explain observed innovation processes. (42 references) (MLF)

  6. Lesson Study and Teachers Knowledge Development: Collaborative Critique of a Research Model and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Perry, Rebecca; Murata, Aki

    During "lesson study" teachers formulate long-term goals for student learning and development, collaboratively work on "research lessons" to bring these goals to life, document and discuss student responses to these lessons, and revise the lessons in response to student learning. This document summarizes the content of a…

  7. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  8. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  9. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  10. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development) where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1) definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2) systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3) definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4) analysis of local context; 5) identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1) evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2) uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3) exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4) mapping of local context; 5) recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to

  11. Research to develop improved production methods for woody and herbaceous biomass crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.E.; Wright, L.L.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Over the past 15 years, the BFDP has examined the performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species in field trials across the US. One result of this effort to date has been the prescription of silvicultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on similar sites. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential, in a sustainable manner, to larger, more geographically diverse acreage. Research on environmental aspects of biomass crop production are aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration aims to understand all factors affecting bringing the crop to market. Factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops are being evaluated at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policymakers, and potential users and producers of energy crops.

  12. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    PubMed

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation.

  13. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  14. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and quantitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  15. Research on Assessment Methods for Urban Public Transport Development in China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Linghong; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method. PMID:25530756

  16. Research on assessment methods for urban public transport development in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linghong; Dai, Hongna; Yao, Enjian; Jiang, Tian; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

  17. Developing a Research Method for Testing New Curriculum Ideas: Report No. 1 on Using Marketing Research in a Lifelong Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.

    A survey method was developed and used to determine interest in new course topics at the Learning Institute for Elders (LIFE) at the University of Central Florida. In the absence of a known validated method for course concept testing, this approach was modeled after the "message pretesting," or formative, research used and validated in…

  18. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  19. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. © Georg Thieme

  20. Psychological linguistics: implications for a theory of initial development and a method for research.

    PubMed

    Bijou, S W

    1989-01-01

    Presented here are an hypothesis of language development and a description of a method for studying language, both based on Kantor's psychological linguistics. According to our hypothesis, language develops in four stages. In the first, which spans the first 9 to 15 months, random movements evolve into body management, manual, and locomotor skills that enable an infant to engage in play activities, among other things, with the mother and others. Simple gestural communication soon follows. Random babbling progresses beyond the sounds that are more universal in the language to the family's particular pattern of intonations and inflections, and receptive speech begins, that is, the infant learns to react to simple verbal-vocal requests. During the second stage, which coincides with the child's second year, vocalizations evolve into "idiosyncratic expressions" and rough approximations of heard sound patterns. Language is now holophrastic--one-word utterances--mostly of the mediative variety. During the third stage, which extends to about 30 months of age, language skills are described as first-approximation referential interactions: they are longer and more detailed, include some narrative interchanges, and refer to past and future events. Typically the child now talks to him or herself, or engages in expressive referential interactions. In the fourth stage, when the child reaches the age of 52 months or so, second-approximation speech begins. By now the vocal apparatus is sufficiently developed to enable a child to make most of the vowel sounds, and the enhanced language skills set the occasion for more frequent linguistic interchanges. He or she also begins to respond to symbols and other representations of objects and events. In other words, he or she begins to engage in symbolizing behavior. Language obviously continues to develop beyond the fourth stage. Social conditions outside of the family further affect language style and generate specialized forms of speech

  1. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  2. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  3. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  4. Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes

  5. Validation of the Benefit Forecasting Method: Organization Development Program to Increase Health Organization Membership. Training and Development Research Center, Project Number Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; And Others

    This project is the sixth in a series of studies designed to validate the Training and Development Benefit Forecasting Method (BFM) sponsored by the Training and Development Research Center (TDRC) at the University of Minnesota. The purpose of this study was to validate the BFM's ability to forecast the benefits of an organization development…

  6. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  7. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  8. Engaging Adolescents Through Participatory and Qualitative Research Methods to Develop a Digital Communication Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Obesity.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Monticalvo, David; Bernhardt, Jay M; Wells, Kelli T; Harris, Todd; Kee, Kadra; Hayes, Johnathan; George, Donald; Woodhouse, Lynn D

    2017-08-01

    The complexity of the childhood obesity epidemic requires the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in a manner that can transcend multiple communities of stakeholders, including youth, the broader community, and the community of health care providers. To (a) describe participatory processes for engaging youth within context of CBPR and broader community, (b) share youth-engaged research findings related to the use of digital communication and implications for adolescent obesity intervention research, and (c) describe and discuss lessons learned from participatory approaches. CBPR principles and qualitative methods were synergistically applied in a predominantly African American part of the city that experiences major obesity-related issues. A Youth Research Advisory Board was developed to deeply engage youth in research that was integrated with other community-based efforts, including an academic-community partnership, a city-wide obesity coalition, and a primary care practice research network. Volunteers from the youth board were trained to apply qualitative methods, including facilitating focus group interviews and analyzing and interpreting data with the goal of informing a primary care provider-based obesity reduction intervention. The primary results of these efforts were the development of critical insights about adolescent use of digital communication and the potential importance of messaging, mobile and computer apps, gaming, wearable technology, and rapid changes in youth communication and use of digital technology in developing adolescent nutrition and physical activity health promotion. The youth led work helped identify key elements for a digital communication intervention that was sensitive and responsive to urban youth. Many valuable lessons were also learned from 3 years of partnerships and collaborations, providing important insights on applying CBPR with minority youth populations.

  9. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The National Institutes of Health Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Creswell, John W; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K; Castro, Felipe G; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a self-rated mixed methods skills assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: "Research question," "Design/approach," "Sampling," "Data collection," "Analysis," and "Dissemination." Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using the Cronbach alpha to assess reliability and an analysis of variance that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion relatedness. Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (0.95) and adequate (≥0.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (eg, published a mixed methods article) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. This self-rated mixed methods assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning.

  10. National Institute of Education: Methods for Managing Programmatic Research and Development. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Arnold; And Others

    This work has been done as part of the effort to plan the National Institute of Education (NIE). The report, one of a series, describes four different management systems used by the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA, the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Air Force in managing programmatic research and…

  11. Modeling Contextual Effects in Developmental Research: Linking Theory and Method in the Study of Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    This special section was inspired by the recent increased interest and methodological advances in the assessment of context-specificity in child and adolescent social development. While the effects of groups, situations, and social relationships on cognitive, affective and behavioral development have long been acknowledged in theoretical…

  12. Modeling Contextual Effects in Developmental Research: Linking Theory and Method in the Study of Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    This special section was inspired by the recent increased interest and methodological advances in the assessment of context-specificity in child and adolescent social development. While the effects of groups, situations, and social relationships on cognitive, affective and behavioral development have long been acknowledged in theoretical…

  13. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...

  14. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...

  15. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  16. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  17. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  18. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  19. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  20. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  1. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... new equivalent methods for measuring concentrations of PM 10 and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in the ambient... concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality... measuring concentrations of PM 10 and SO 2 in the ambient air. These designations are made under the...

  2. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... new equivalent methods: One each for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 and lead (Pb) and two for measuring concentrations of PM 10 in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool... for monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established...

  3. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...-0510-191, ``Determination of Lead Concentration in TSP by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry...

  4. The construction of airfoil pressure models by the plate method: Achievements, current research, technology development and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    A method of constructing airfoils by inscribing pressure channels on the face of opposing plates, bonding them together to form one plate with integral channels, and contour machining this plate to form an airfoil model is described. The research and development program to develop the bonding technology is described as well as the construction and testing of an airfoil model. Sample aerodynamic data sets are presented and discussed. Also, work currently under way to produce thin airfoils with camber is presented. Samples of the aft section of a 6 percent airfoil with complete pressure instrumentation including the trailing edge are pictured and described. This technique is particularly useful in fabricating models for transonic cryogenic testing, but it should find application in a wide ange of model construction projects, as well as the fabrication of fuel injectors, space hardware, and other applications requiring advanced bonding technology and intricate fluid passages.

  5. Social Phenomenological Analysis as a Research Method in Art Education: Developing an Empirical Model for Understanding Gallery Talks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method to study gallery talks or guided tours in art museums. The research method is based on the philosophical considerations of Edmund Husserl and sociological/social science concepts put forward by Max Weber and Alfred Schuetz. Its starting point is the everyday lifeworld; the…

  6. "Draw, Write and Tell": A Literature Review and Methodological Development on the "Draw and Write" Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Catherine; Alexander, Jo; Hunt, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    The creative research method "draw and write" has been used in health, social care and education research for several decades. A literature search of studies utilising this method was conducted during the planning stages of a study exploring primary school children's perceptions of infant feeding. A review of this literature noted a…

  7. Statistical Methods for Cardiovascular Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Moyé, Lem

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Biostatistics continues to play an essential role in contemporary cardiovascular investigations, but successful implementation of biostatistical methods can be complex. Objective To present the rationale behind statistical applications and to review useful tools for cardiology research. Methods and Results Prospective declaration of the research question, clear methodology, and study execution that adheres to the protocol together serve as the critical foundation of a research endeavor. Both parametric and distribution-free measures of central tendency and dispersion are presented. T-testing, analysis of variance, and regression analyses are reviewed. Survival analysis, logistic regression, and interim monitoring are also discussed. Finally, common weaknesses in statistical analyses are considered. Conclusion Biostatistics can be productively applied to cardiovascular research if investigators 1) develop and rely on a well-written protocol and analysis plan, 2) consult with a biostatistician when necessary, and 3) write results clearly, differentiating confirmatory from exploratory findings. PMID:26846639

  8. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  9. Mixed methods research for the novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2006-10-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular in the health and social science disciplines. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the varieties of mixed methods designs. We begin by situating mixed methods research in the context of a paradigmatic framework which assists a researcher in making decisions concerning the design of their study. Although the most commonly used mixed methods designs are underpinned by positivist/postpositivist assumptions, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods can be used within any research paradigm.

  10. Computational Methods Development at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

  11. Developing great research questions.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Earlene E

    2008-09-01

    The process for developing a good research question is described. Three steps comprise the formulation of a great research question: (1) ask interesting questions, (2) select the best question for research, and (3) transform the research question into a testable hypothesis. Research is designed to generate information that cannot be gained from any other source. A research question is a narrow, challenging question addressing an issue, problem, or controversy that is answered with a conclusion based on the analysis and interpretation of evidence. A variety of strategies can be applied to stimulate creative thinking and generate new insights into old problems. A good research question challenges researchers to see matters from a new perspective and to learn something new. Practice research questions are evaluated by the probability of achieving their goal, along with the potential impact and feasibility of the project. The proposed research must meet important professional and societal goals, fit with the mission of the organization, garner administrative support, and be accomplished with available resources in a reasonable time frame. The research question should be refined to generate one or more hypotheses that specify the nature of the relationships to be observed and measured. Properly formulated questions yield findings to inform decisions that enhance practice, transfer to other settings, and make efficient use of resources. Developing a good research question is the most important part of the research process. The question should be narrow and address an important issue that fits within the mission of the organization.

  12. Qualitative methods in the development of a national child and family disaster mental health research training program.

    PubMed

    Maida, Carla A; Steinberg, Alan M; Kaplan, Sandra; Brymer, Melissa J; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Conducting research in the aftermath of disasters is complicated by chaotic conditions, competing priorities, and resource constraints, and raises a variety of ethical concerns. Ultimately, research should extend our understanding of the impact of disasters on children, families, and communities and translate findings into improved services and public policies that afford enhanced protection and promote recovery. Unfortunately, the existing research base on children and disasters has not been adequate to inform the development of effective psychosocial services and interventions, and decision-making about the allocation of behavioral health resources. To improve research capacity, the Child & Family Disaster Research Training & Education program provides child disaster mental health research training for mental health and public health professionals. The program has engaged a national faculty to develop a comprehensive modular disaster research curriculum covering basic concepts, current knowledge, clinical issues and interventions, research and ethical issues, public health structures, and response options. Focus groups were held prior to training to elicit the participants' knowledge of and attitudes about child and family disaster mental health research, to understand training needs, to identify research topics of interest and perceived barriers to generating and conducting research. The results were then used to refine the curriculum.

  13. Focus on Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M.

    A brief review of the papers presented at the Symposium on Research and Evaluation Methodology highlights some of the major issues of research in Indian Country. There is a need to translate research results into terms that are meaningful at the local level, yet the act of doing this reveals tensions between scientific objectivity and advocacy.…

  14. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods: This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. Results: The mean of scores “the question of research,” “knowledge production,” “knowledge transfer,” “promoting the use of evidence,” and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes “research quality and timeliness” and “promoting and evaluating the use of evidence” received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme “interaction with research users” with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. Conclusions: The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system. PMID:26955462

  15. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  16. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  17. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  18. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  19. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  20. Current contraceptive research and development.

    PubMed

    Reape, Kathleen Z

    2005-10-01

    The approval of various new contraceptive products in recent years has resulted in broadening the options available to women. Trends in contraceptive research for hormonal products include variations in dose and dosing regimens, introduction of novel compounds, evaluation of products for noncontraceptive indications, and development of nonoral delivery systems and male contraceptives. Nonhormonal areas of research include microbicidal products, dual protection methods, and contraceptive vaccines. For each of these categories, contraceptive products currently in development and the potential implications for adolescents are discussed. Ongoing contraceptive research and development activity is robust and should ensure the continued availability of various new products for adolescents.

  1. 2008 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research being conducted in 2008 by the Research and Development Division at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The research described falls into three large categories: (1) Research supported by the ETS research allocation; (2) Research funded by testing programs at ETS; and (3) Research funded by…

  2. Research and development of methods/utilities and rules for managing cooperation for performance improvement in government offices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On September 1, 1991, Defense Programs (DP) within the US Department of Energy entered into a research grant with Management Systems Laboratories (MSL) of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), to study Tools, Methods, and Rules for Managing Cooperation for Performance Improvement. Continuous performance improvement is a gradual, systematic process. The idea is to do a little better each day by knowing where you are, where you want to be, what you have to do to get there, whether or not you have done it, and how to resolve problems doing it. And, although many management decisions are made along direct lines of authority, much of the work of an organization can be achieved only through cooperation (people sharing information and coordinating effort). Therefore, continuous performance improvement requires working cooperatively to do a little better each day. We are researching the most effective configuration of tools working through what we believe is a closed set of nine methods. These methods are: setting expectations, charting, defining indicators and standards, collecting and logging data, converting data to information, organizing and presenting information, reviewing status and progress, self-management, and appraising. We believe that these methods form a closed set because they reflect the management activities of formulation (planning),execution (doing), and verification (evaluating). If these activities are carried out effectively through the methods, the manager can achieve visibility and control.

  3. Development of a health education intervention strategy using an implementation research method to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe

  4. Overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L A; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A 't; Kap, Yolanda S

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of their specificity for humans. Effective usage of the marmoset in preclinical immunological research has been hampered by the limited availability of blood for immunological studies and of reagents for profiling of cellular and humoral immune reactions. In this paper, we give a concise overview of the procedures and reagents that were developed over the years in our laboratory in marmoset models of the above-mentioned diseases.

  5. The development of methods for predicting and measuring distribution patterns of aerial sprays. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Bragg, M. B.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A set of relationships used to scale small sized dispersion studies to full size results are experimentally verified and, with some qualifications, basic deposition patterns are presented. In the process of validating these scaling laws, the basic experimental techniques used in conducting such studies both with and without an operational propeller were developed. The procedures that evolved are outlined in some detail. The envelope of test conditions that can be accommodated in the Langley Vortex Research Facility, which were developed theoretically, are verified using a series of vortex trajectory experiments that help to define the limitations due to wall interference effects for models of different sizes.

  6. From Soap Opera to Research Methods Teaching: Developing an Interactive Website/DVD to Teach Research in Health and Social Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabey, Abigail; Horrocks, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Research methods modules have become a core component of a range of nursing and allied health professional educational programmes both at pre-qualifying, undergraduate level and at post-qualifying and Masters' level, in keeping with requirements of professional bodies. These courses are offered both on a full time basis and part time for qualified…

  7. Development of an Immersed Boundary Method to Resolve Complex Terrain in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lunquist, K A; Chow, F K; Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D

    2007-09-04

    simulations, on the other hand, are performed by numerical weather prediction (NWP) codes, which cannot handle the geometry of the urban landscape, but do provide a more complete representation of atmospheric physics. NWP codes typically use structured grids with terrain-following vertical coordinates, include a full suite of atmospheric physics parameterizations, and allow for dynamic synoptic scale lateral forcing through grid nesting. Terrain following grids are unsuitable for urban terrain, as steep terrain gradients cause extreme distortion of the computational cells. In this work, we introduce and develop an immersed boundary method (IBM) to allow the favorable properties of a numerical weather prediction code to be combined with the ability to handle complex terrain. IBM uses a non-conforming structured grid, and allows solid boundaries to pass through the computational cells. As the terrain passes through the mesh in an arbitrary manner, the main goal of the IBM is to apply the boundary condition on the interior of the domain as accurately as possible. With the implementation of the IBM, numerical weather prediction codes can be used to explicitly resolve urban terrain. Heterogeneous urban domains using the IBM can be nested into larger mesoscale domains using a terrain-following coordinate. The larger mesoscale domain provides lateral boundary conditions to the urban domain with the correct forcing, allowing seamless integration between mesoscale and urban scale models. Further discussion of the scope of this project is given by Lundquist et al. [2007]. The current paper describes the implementation of an IBM into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open source numerical weather prediction code. The WRF model solves the non-hydrostatic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and employs an isobaric terrain-following vertical coordinate. Many types of IB methods have been developed by researchers; a comprehensive review can be found in Mittal

  8. Hydropower research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  9. Development of Solar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  10. The order and priority of research and design method application within an assistive technology new product development process: a summative content analysis of 20 case studies.

    PubMed

    Torrens, George Edward

    2017-03-12

    Summative content analysis was used to define methods and heuristics from each case study. The review process was in two parts: (1) A literature review to identify conventional research methods and (2) a summative content analysis of published case studies, based on the identified methods and heuristics to suggest an order and priority of where and when were used. Over 200 research and design methods and design heuristics were identified. From the review of the 20 case studies 42 were identified as being applied. The majority of methods and heuristics were applied in phase two, market choice. There appeared a disparity between the limited numbers of methods frequently used, under 10 within the 20 case studies, when hundreds were available. Implications for Rehabilitation The communication highlights a number of issues that have implication for those involved in assistive technology new product development: •The study defined over 200 well-established research and design methods and design heuristics that are available for use by those who specify and design assistive technology products, which provide a comprehensive reference list for practitioners in the field; •The review within the study suggests only a limited number of research and design methods are regularly used by industrial design focused assistive technology new product developers; and, •Debate is required within the practitioners working in this field to reflect on how a wider range of potentially more effective methods and heuristics may be incorporated into daily working practice.

  11. Photonics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-15

    During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV's Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home's electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation's energy consumption by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve energy

  12. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  13. Methods For Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    A description is provided of the training and counseling materials and methods prepared by the Saskatchewan NewStart and the Training Research and Development Station. Following a brief review of the concept of social inventions, summary descriptions are provided of nine adult education courses. These are: 1) Life Skills, which focuses upon…

  14. Pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    McKercher, P L

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) are reviewed. The viability of major pharmaceutical manufacturers depends on their research and thus they commit substantial resources to R&D programs. Major pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United States employ about 40,000 R&D personnel, and worldwide pharmaceutical R&D expenditures reached $24 billion in 1990. The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most profitable; however, increasing prices of their products are often associated with increasing R&D costs, ignoring the many positive attributes of R&D. The Council on Competitiveness has recently proposed reforms in the approval process for new drugs, including accelerated approval, external review, and international cooperation. These reforms would help to preserve an R&D capability and a relatively unregulated pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical R&D has made many important contributions, including increased life expectancy, the internationally competitive position of the US industry, and a positive balance of trade. However, a misunderstanding of the role of R&D could encourage development of policies and legislation detrimental to pharmaceutical R&D.

  15. Research and development of methods/utilities and rules for managing cooperation for performance improvement in government offices

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A.

    1993-03-01

    Purpose is to help managers approach their responsibilities proactively, so that they can anticipate problems and take actions to alleviate or eliminate those problems. Continuous performance improvement, the philosophy behind total quality management, requires working cooperatively to do a little better each day. The most effective tools are working through a closed set of 9 methods: setting expectations, charting, defining indicators and standards, collecting and logging data, converting data to information, organizing and presenting information, reviewing status and progress, self-management, and appraising. In addition, there are 8 rules: focus on what you can do, supply physical evidence of progress, pay attention to detail, inspect (don't expect), review progress routinely and frequently, face ''success/fail'' squarely, communicate crisply, and conduct honest, open appraisals. Scope and plans of the draft research plan (study areas) are described.

  16. CSM parallel structural methods research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  17. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  18. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  19. Cryogenic Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-12-31

    8A/8p)TdpT + A*(p,T) - A*(l,T). (14-c) T -8- If A be Helmholtz energy, then (8A/8p) = -RT/p (15) and A*(p,T) = uo0 Q*dpT’ (16) 0 00 where u l/ vI is...respectively, then, are (z - 1)/ u = ( vI -k M-2 /T) +CU + du2 + + klk m+4/T. (5) (z -l)/ u B 1 +CGu + DU + ..... (6) where the conventional virial...r on Cryogenic Research and Development for Quarter Ending December 31, 1960 ~TC94-17400 C 94 6 8017 U . S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU OF

  20. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  1. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  2. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  3. Eltron Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard; Faull, John

    2014-03-01

    This topical report covers technical work conducted under contract DE-FC26-05NT42469 between FY06 Q1 through FY14 Q2. The project evolved through several budget periods, budget revisions and continuation applications. This report covers work performed under the “base” program. In 2010 ARRA funding was added to the project. A separate report covering the ARRA portion of the project was submitted to DOE. The original project was focused on research and development for scale-up of hydrogen separation membrane for a FutureGen type power plant. The work included membrane testing and evaluation of metal alloy flat plates vs. tubes and metal membranes vs. cermet membranes. In addition, economic analysis and process modeling was performed. The original project team included CoorsTek, NORAM, and Praxair. In FY10Q2 a continuation application was filed for conducting a scale-up test at Eastman Chemical. In this part of the project a Subscale Engineering Prototype (SEP) membrane skid was designed, fabricated, and operated on a gasified coal slip-stream on Eastman’s site in Kingsport, TN. Following operation, the project was reorganized and a second continuation application with a new statement of work was initiated in FY12Q1. Finally, based on DOE’s decision not to proceed with a Process Development Unit (PDU) field test, a third continuation application and statement of work was initiated in FY13Q1 to close out the project.

  4. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Toperverg, B; Zhernenkov, K.; Gagarski, A; Lychagin, E; Muzychka, A; Strelkov, A; Mietke, A

    2011-01-01

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  5. Appraisal of neurobehavioral methods in environmental health research: the developing brain as a target for neurotoxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Winneke, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Psychological tests as developed and validated in the field of differential psychology have a longstanding tradition as tools to study individual differences. In clinical neuropsychology, global or more specific tests are used as neuropsychological tools in the differential diagnosis of various forms of brain damage or neurobehavioral dysfunction following chemical insults, such as mental sequelae of prenatal alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers (fetal alcohol syndrome) or of maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy. Psychometric tests are constructed to fulfill basic quality criteria, namely objectivity, reliability and validity. For strictly diagnostic purposes in individual cases they must also possess normative values based on representative reference groups. Intelligence tests or their developmental variants are often used as endpoints in environmental health research for studying neurodevelopmental adversity due to early exposure to neurotoxic chemicals in the environment. Intelligence as treated in psychology is a complex construct made up of specific cognitive functions which usually cover verbal, numerical and spatial skills, as well as perceptual speed, memory and reasoning. In this paper, case studies covering neurodevelopmental adversity of inorganic lead, of methylmercury and of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reviewed, and the issue of postnatal behavioral sequelae of prenatal exposure is covered. In such observational studies precautions must be taken in order to avoid pitfalls of causative interpretation of associations between exposure and neurobehavioral outcome. This requires consideration of co-exposure and confounding. Important confounders considered in most modern developmental cohort studies are maternal intelligence and quality of the home environment.

  6. Research on the changes in wettability of rice (Oryza sativa.) leaf surfaces at different development stages using the OWRK method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-qiu; Yu, Chun-xin; Li, Yu; Zhu, Qing-qing; Zhou, Lu; Cao, Chong; Yu, Ting-ting; Du, Feng-pei

    2014-03-01

    A good knowledge in wetting behavior of pesticide spray liquid on plant surface is crucial to spray applications. Difference in leaf surface wettability would result in obvious changes in spray wetting behavior. The aim of this paper is to obtain the changes of wettability during different growth periods. The contact angle (CA) of rice leaf for each liquid increased with rice growth. No significant difference was found between cultivars. The CA was found to be correlated with the polar component of liquid surface tension. The square of the polar component was also found to be highly significant indicating that the relationship between these two properties was not a simple linear one. The surface energy of each plant surface decreased as the plants aged. This was also true of each part of the surface energy. However, no obvious difference on the proportion of the components was found among different cultivars and stages. The changes in value of CA and surface free energy (SFE) both reflect the changes of the leaf surface wettability, while the SFE value shows better in wettability characterizing. Obvious rice leaf wettability changes were found on different development stages, which may be beneficial for researches in agrochemical sprays wetting and spreading behavior. Factors influencing these alterations were discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Mixed Methods Research in the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Palliative and End-of-Life Care: Report on the MORECare Consensus Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Nancy; Evans, Catherine J.; Grande, Gunn; Short, Vicky; Benalia, Hamid; Higginson, Irene J.; Todd, on behalf of MORECare, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Complex interventions are common in palliative and end-of-life care. Mixed methods approaches sit well within the multiphase model of complex intervention development and evaluation. Generic mixed methods guidance is useful but additional challenges in the research design and operationalization within palliative and end-of-life care may have an impact on the use of mixed methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop guidance on the best methods for combining quantitative and qualitative methods for health and social care intervention development and evaluation in palliative and end-of-life care. Methods: A one-day workshop was held where experts participated in facilitated groups using Transparent Expert Consultation to generate items for potential recommendations. Agreement and consensus were then sought on nine draft recommendations (DRs) in a follow-up exercise. Results: There was at least moderate agreement with most of the DRs, although consensus was low. Strongest agreement was with DR1 (usefulness of mixed methods to palliative and end-of-life care) and DR5 (importance of attention to respondent burden), and least agreement was with DR2 (use of theoretical perspectives) and DR6 (therapeutic effects of research interviews). Narrative comments enabled recommendation refinement. Two fully endorsed, five partially endorsed, and two refined DRs emerged. The relationship of these nine to six key challenges of palliative and end-of-life care research was analyzed. Conclusions: There is a need for further discussion of these recommendations and their contribution to methodology. The recommendations should be considered when designing and operationalizing mixed methods studies of complex interventions in palliative care, and because they may have wider relevance, should be considered for other applications. PMID:24195755

  8. Analytical method development for directed enzyme evolution research: a high throughput high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of ribose and ribitol and a capillary electrophoresis method for the separation of ribose enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoguo; Miller, Gregory; Lee, Wan Yee; Ho, Kelvin; Crowe, Michael A; Partridge, Leslie

    2013-01-04

    Analytical methods were developed for a directed enzyme evolution research programme, which pursued high performance enzymes to produce high quality L-ribose using large scale biocatalytic reaction. A high throughput HPLC method with evaporative light-scattering detection was developed to test ribose and ribitol in the enzymatic reaction, a β-cyclobond 2000 analytical column separated ribose and ribitol in 2.3 min, a C(18) guard column was used as an on-line filter to clean up the enzyme sample matrix and a short gradient was applied to wash the column, the enzymatic reaction solution can be directly injected after quenching. Total run time of each sample was approx. 4 min which provided capability of screening 4×96-well plates/day/instrument. Meanwhile, a capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the separation of ribose enantiomers, while 7-aminonaphthalene-1,3-disulfonic acid was used as derivatisation reagent and 25 mM tetraborate with 5 mM β-cyclodextrin was used as electrolyte. 0.35%of D-ribose in L-ribose can be detected which can be translated into 99.3% ee of L-ribose. Derivatisation reagent and sample matrix did not interfere with the measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixed methods research in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative and end-of-life care: report on the MORECare consensus exercise.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Morag; Preston, Nancy; Evans, Catherine J; Grande, Gunn; Short, Vicky; Benalia, Hamid; Higginson, Irene J; Todd, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Complex interventions are common in palliative and end-of-life care. Mixed methods approaches sit well within the multiphase model of complex intervention development and evaluation. Generic mixed methods guidance is useful but additional challenges in the research design and operationalization within palliative and end-of-life care may have an impact on the use of mixed methods. The objective of the study was to develop guidance on the best methods for combining quantitative and qualitative methods for health and social care intervention development and evaluation in palliative and end-of-life care. A one-day workshop was held where experts participated in facilitated groups using Transparent Expert Consultation to generate items for potential recommendations. Agreement and consensus were then sought on nine draft recommendations (DRs) in a follow-up exercise. There was at least moderate agreement with most of the DRs, although consensus was low. Strongest agreement was with DR1 (usefulness of mixed methods to palliative and end-of-life care) and DR5 (importance of attention to respondent burden), and least agreement was with DR2 (use of theoretical perspectives) and DR6 (therapeutic effects of research interviews). Narrative comments enabled recommendation refinement. Two fully endorsed, five partially endorsed, and two refined DRs emerged. The relationship of these nine to six key challenges of palliative and end-of-life care research was analyzed. There is a need for further discussion of these recommendations and their contribution to methodology. The recommendations should be considered when designing and operationalizing mixed methods studies of complex interventions in palliative care, and because they may have wider relevance, should be considered for other applications.

  10. CELSS research and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1990-01-01

    Research in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conducted by NASA indicate that plant based systems are feasible candidates for human support in space. Ames has responsibility for research and development, systems integration and control, and space flight experiment portions of the CELSS program. Important areas for development of new methods and technologies are biomass production, waste processing, water purification, air revitalization, and food processing. For the plant system, the approach was to identify the flexibility and response time for the food, water, and oxygen production, and carbon dioxide consumption processes. Tremendous increases in productivity, compared with terrestrial agriculture, were realized. Waste processing research emphasizes recycle (transformation) of human wastes, trash, and inedible biomass to forms usable as inputs to the plant production system. Efforts to improve efficiency of the plant system, select new CELSS crops for a balanced diet, and initiate closed system research with the Crop Growth Research Chambers continue. The System Control and Integration program goal is to insure orchestrated system operation of the biological, physical, and chemical operation of the biological, physical, and chemical component processors of the CELSS. Space flight studies are planned to verify adequate operation of the system in reduced gravity or microgravity environments.

  11. The Institutionalization of Private Sector Strategic Planning Methods in a Public Sector Research & Development Organization: The Naval Surface Warfare Center Case 1982-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    strategic planning methods in a public sector federal government Department of Defense research and development organization. Corporate-style strategic planning means using a formal integrative strategic planning process whose cornerstone is the segmentation of the organization’s activities into strategic business units (SBUs). The role and mission of industrial organizations are key drivers or forcing functions in the process of execution motivation to plan and manage strategically. The U.S. federal system does not, by its

  12. Forecasting Methods for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Linda W.; Young, Dean M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing demands for accurate forecasts in such areas as student enrollment, energy expenditures, and facility capacity are placing new demands on the institutional researcher. A variety of forecasting models and methods are available, all to be used with caution in long-range forecasting. (Author/MSE)

  13. Forecasting Methods for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Linda W.; Young, Dean M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing demands for accurate forecasts in such areas as student enrollment, energy expenditures, and facility capacity are placing new demands on the institutional researcher. A variety of forecasting models and methods are available, all to be used with caution in long-range forecasting. (Author/MSE)

  14. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  15. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  16. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  17. A Design Science Research Methodology for Developing a Computer-Aided Assessment Approach Using Method Marking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genemo, Hussein; Miah, Shah Jahan; McAndrew, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Assessment has been defined as an authentic method that plays an important role in evaluating students' learning attitude in acquiring lifelong knowledge. Traditional methods of assessment including the Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) for mathematics show limited ability to assess students' full work unless multi-step questions are sub-divided…

  18. A Design Science Research Methodology for Developing a Computer-Aided Assessment Approach Using Method Marking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genemo, Hussein; Miah, Shah Jahan; McAndrew, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Assessment has been defined as an authentic method that plays an important role in evaluating students' learning attitude in acquiring lifelong knowledge. Traditional methods of assessment including the Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) for mathematics show limited ability to assess students' full work unless multi-step questions are sub-divided…

  19. High-temperature fatigue in metals - A brief review of life prediction methods developed at the Lewis Research Center of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation focuses primarily on the progress we at NASA Lewis Research Center have made. The understanding of the phenomenological processes of high temperature fatigue of metals for the purpose of calculating lives of turbine engine hot section components is discussed. Improved understanding resulted in the development of accurate and physically correct life prediction methods such as Strain-Range partitioning for calculating creep fatigue interactions and the Double Linear Damage Rule for predicting potentially severe interactions between high and low cycle fatigue. Examples of other life prediction methods are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as A83-12159

  20. High-temperature fatigue in metals - A brief review of life prediction methods developed at the Lewis Research Center of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation focuses primarily on the progress we at NASA Lewis Research Center have made. The understanding of the phenomenological processes of high temperature fatigue of metals for the purpose of calculating lives of turbine engine hot section components is discussed. Improved understanding resulted in the development of accurate and physically correct life prediction methods such as Strain-Range partitioning for calculating creep fatigue interactions and the Double Linear Damage Rule for predicting potentially severe interactions between high and low cycle fatigue. Examples of other life prediction methods are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as A83-12159

  1. Engaging Adolescents through Participatory and Qualitative Research Methods to Develop a Digital Communication Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingood, William C.; Monticalvo, David; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Wells, Kelli T.; Harris, Todd; Kee, Kadra; Hayes, Johnathan; George, Donald; Woodhouse, Lynn D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The complexity of the childhood obesity epidemic requires the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in a manner that can transcend multiple communities of stakeholders, including youth, the broader community, and the community of health care providers. Aim: To (a) describe participatory processes for engaging…

  2. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Geometric Dimension & Tolerance Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.

    The validity of the University of Minnesota Skills Training Cost-Benefit Forecasting Model (STCBFM) in a corporate setting was studied. Research and related literature suggested that a model for forecasting the economic benefits of training should include facility to identify and summarize costs and provide an assessment of the value of the…

  3. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  4. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  5. Pilot-in-the-loop Method Development (2012 Basic and Applied Research in Sea-Based Aviation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    such as ship masts and antennae, large mesh densities are needed to ensure good cell quality and minimize grid dissipation due to grid skewness...2012 Basic and Applied Research in Sea-Based Aviation ONR #BAA12-SN-0028 PERIOD 20 May 2014 to 20 June 2014 1 PROJECT OVERVIEW The goal...Conversely, hexahedral cells are best suited for resolving deck surface regions and boundary layers. Hexahedral regions are often constructed using

  6. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Recreational Vehicle Service Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) in a recreational vehicle service training setting was studied. Cost-benefit issues were associated with the Onan Service School change from a field-based Recreational Vehicle Generator Set training program to a customer-delivered self-instructional training program. Actual costs and…

  7. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Grammar and Punctuation Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidary, Farhood; And Others

    The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) was studied in a Grammar and Punctuation Program conducted at Onan Corporation. The target population was composed of 10 workers who handled the document production in the organization's word processing center. Based on information gathered from the course instructor, participants, and…

  8. Career Development in Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.

    1982-01-01

    The background, skills, and views of 20 distinguished professionals were surveyed to provide information about career development in institutional research and to provide ideas about program development. The respondents were members of the Association for Institutional Research and they included seven institutional researchers and planners, three…

  9. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  10. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  11. Research and Development for Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Guy M.

    This report summarizes the results of unclassified research and development contracts in the field of peaceful use safeguards regarding the use of nuclear material. These summaries indicate there is really no sharp line of demarcation between research for safeguards and research for many other purposes. It includes areas of research effort and…

  12. Developing a clinical research career.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline

    The National Institute for Health Research helps to promote clinical research careers for health professionals working in clinical practice, and has developed a structure to support new researchers. This article explains how nurses can get involved in clinical research and the support available to them.

  13. Cultivation of Professional Engineering Skills: Development of a Tutorial Method. Tertiary Education Research Centre Occasional Publication No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boud, D. J.; Gray, T. G. F.

    Skills tutorials for first year engineering students at the University of New South Wales, Australia, were introduced in order to develop an awareness of certain conceptual skills commonly exercised by practicing engineers. Particular skills include the manipulation of information in different forms, translation from one form to another,…

  14. Challenges of the Administrative Consultation Wiki Research Project as a Learning and Competences Development Method for MPA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Polonca; Stare, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Consultation Wiki (ACW) is a project run under the auspices of the Faculty of Administration and the Ministry of Public Administration in Slovenia since 2009. A crucial component thereof is the involvement of students of Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs to offer them an opportunity to develop competences in…

  15. Challenges of the Administrative Consultation Wiki Research Project as a Learning and Competences Development Method for MPA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Polonca; Stare, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Consultation Wiki (ACW) is a project run under the auspices of the Faculty of Administration and the Ministry of Public Administration in Slovenia since 2009. A crucial component thereof is the involvement of students of Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs to offer them an opportunity to develop competences in…

  16. Research and Development of Methods for Estimating Physicochemical Properties of Organic Compounds of Environmental Concern. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    1 - 1 2 - Solubifty In Water 2 - 1 3 - Solublity In Various Solvents 3 - 1 4 - Adsorption Coefficient for Sols and Sediment 4- 1 5 - Bi i netraton...Each entry in this list provides: ( 1 ) the Table (T) or Figure (F) number (e.g., T 1 - 3 for Table 1 - 3 ); ( 2 ) the page number where the original source...Described in this Handbook 1 - 3 1 - 2 Overview of Available Estimation Methods 1

  17. Rural Development Research Under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Fred H.

    Evaluating current rural development research, the paper covers 6 major areas: (1) the nature and purpose of research; (2) circumstances related to rural development that require careful attention; (3) observations on rural development "disorganization" as an "outsider" might view the situation; (4) an opinion about the focus rural development…

  18. Professional Development. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    According to the literature, the purpose of professional development is to improve student learning. It was noted that there appeared to be a direct correlation between the depth of the teacher's content knowledge, methodologies, student-teacher relationships, and reflection, that when applied to an improvement in practices, positively affected…

  19. Research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation characterization technology project: FY90 year-end report on subsurface detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Stewart, T.L.

    1992-03-01

    Most of the site cleanup projects to be conducted at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities will include subsurface investigations using geophysical sensors. When performed at an early state of a site characterization effort, they will help define site boundaries and waste distributions, provide guidance for the optimization of subsurface sampling plans, reduce the cost of site exploration tasks, and enhance the safety of personnel involved in sampling and excavation activities. In FY 89, researchers of Pacific Northwest Laboratory constructed a digital data acquisition system (DAS) to be used in geophysical surveys of hazardous waste burial sites. The DAS is essentially a specialized microcomputer that has been ruggedized to permit operation on a moving off-road vehicle. It was designed primarily to record and display ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, but it is capable of simultaneously or separately recording data produced by other types of geophysical sensors. Our work in FY 90 focused primarily on improving certain hardware components of the DAS and on writing the software needed to process and display the recorded data on a personal computer (PC)-based data processing system. A secondary aspect of our work during the past year was constructed and testing a breadboard version of a time-domain metal detector. Metal detectors are commonly used in site characterization surveys to detect and map metallic wastes such as 55-gal drums, storage tanks, pipes, and cables. However, currently available instruments tend to be unstable, difficult to use, and generally unsuitable for quantitative site characterization measurements.

  20. Mobility Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-17

    vehicle designs and technologies • Does not benefit from advances in simulation and computational capabilities 1970 NRMMQualitative UNCLASSIFIED Building...Scale Demonstration: Physics-Based Mobility M&S Computational Burden • Hardware: Cray XC40 32 cores • Software: IVRESS; Contact method: DEM-P • Run...Challenging Nature of Terramechanics Heterogeneity Multi-Physics Scalability Dynamics Multi-Scale UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Quantum Computing Compute Cost

  1. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  2. Funding Research Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  3. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  4. Building research capacity in developing countries: cost-effectiveness of an epidemiology course taught by traditional and video-teleconferencing methods in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sunita; Songer, Thomas; Ahmed, Zakiuddin; Laporte, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    Building research capacity in developing countries using cost-effective methods has been recognized as an important pillar for the production of a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a research training course conducted using traditional methods as well as the video-teleconferencing (VTC) method in Pakistan. A 9-day epidemiology research training course was offered to physicians in Pakistan (92%) and Bangladesh (8%). The course was taught using (1) a traditional classroom face-to face (F2F) method at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, and (2) the VTC method at two medical institutions within Pakistan. In total, 40 participants were selected for the F2F group and 46 for the VTC group. Outcome parameters were assessed pre- and post-course (short-term) as well as after 1 year (long-term). Costs of conducting the training by both methods were also identified using cost-effectiveness analysis. The total study sample included 56 participants (F2F n =38, VTC n=18) for the short-term and 49 participants for the long-term assessment. After the end of the course (Day 9), mean post-test 1 scores showed significant improvement in both groups: 15.08 ± 1.75 in F2F (p=0.001) versus 13.122 ± 1.87 in VTC (p=0.001). Mean scores 1 year after the course (post-test 2) were lower than mean post-test 1 scores in both groups (13.42 ± 2.61 in F2F versus 12.31 ± 2.08 in VTC) but were higher than the baseline pretest scores. The total incremental cost per score gained was higher for the VTC group for both short-term (VTC incremental cost was $166/score gained) and long-term (VTC incremental cost was $458/ score gained) course effectiveness. The use of e-technologies in developing countries proves to be an effective way of building capacity and reducing the problems of brain drain. This initial study provides a foundation from which larger studies may be developed.

  5. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  6. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  7. [Methodology, method, and quality of qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jörg; Rennie, David L

    2006-05-01

    Over the last ten years qualitative research approaches have been increasingly recognized and applied to the fields of psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine in German-speaking countries, although this development has lagged behind what has occurred at the same time in English-speaking countries. In the former, especially, a misunderstanding prevails that qualitative research methods are at best preliminary to real science. This misunderstanding has roots in the philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. It comes from the lack of recognition that the human sciences, unlike the natural sciences, entail a double rather than single hermeneutic and that qualitative research methods are logically coherent ways of working systematically and rigorously with this double hermeneutic. Indeed, this nature of qualitative research is generally not well understood by many qualitative researchers themselves. In this article, the need for qualitative research is shown and its methodology is seen as an integration of method and hermeneutics, or methodical hermeneutics, which in turn is distinguished from alternative qualitative research methodologies. The article closes with considerations of quality criteria and publication standards.

  8. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, D., Scott

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  9. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  10. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  11. A Framework for Teaching Software Development Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Yael; Hazzan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that aims at constructing a teaching framework for software development methods in higher education. The research field is a capstone project-based course, offered by the Technion's Department of Computer Science, in which Extreme Programming is introduced. The research paradigm is an Action Research that involves…

  12. Participatory Research for a Radical Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenga, Derek C.

    1994-01-01

    Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)

  13. Participatory Research for a Radical Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenga, Derek C.

    1994-01-01

    Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)

  14. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  15. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  16. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  17. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  18. Software Development as Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses how software development can be used as a method for music education research. It explains how software development can externalize ideas, stimulate action and reflection, and provide evidence to support the educative value of new software-based experiences. Parallels between the interactive software development process and…

  19. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    PubMed

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mentoring for research skill development.

    PubMed

    Records, Kathie; Emerson, Roberta J

    2003-12-01

    The nursing shortage is significantly affecting the nursing academic environment. A self-perpetuating cycle of insufficient numbers of faculty with inadequate preparation for academia could lead to a profound decline in the nursing profession. Institutions often implement mentoring plans for new tenure track faculty, and the challenge is even greater in environments that are not research intensive. This article describes the implementation of the research arm of an institutional mentoring plan for new tenure track faculty. The plan was designed to facilitate new faculty's attainment of tenure, while expediting the development of a satisfying career in academia. Doctoral education does not necessarily provide graduates with all the tools required to be successful researchers. However, specific guidance may be provided in the developing of a research program; creating networks and selecting consultants; preparing presentations and publications; and developing grantsmanship skills, particularly for institutions without established research centers.

  1. A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into Science Teachers' Perceptions of the Effects of Professional Development Experiences on Implementation of Research-Based Instructional Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, Norma D.

    This was a modified integrated mixed methods study of teachers' perceptions of factors that influence transfer of research-based teaching strategies into classroom practice. Participants were made up of 66 respondents to a researcher made survey, "Survey of Teacher Attitudes toward Change and Classroom Implementation of Research--Based Strategies". Respondents were divided into two groups based on participation in Louisiana Systemic Initiatives Programs (LaSIP): LaSIP, N= 39 and Non-LaSIP, N= 27. Answers to five research questions were based on analysis of quantitative data from a survey, recorded on a five-point Likert scale and qualitative data from analyses of transcripts of three personal interviews, two focus group discussions and five short-answer questions on the survey. SPSS software version 9 and Atlas.ti version 7 were used in quantitative and qualitative analyses, respectively. Concurrent quantitative and qualitative strands of data were integrated throughout the study. Findings from quantitative data included the following: (1) Teacher perceptions of features of the LaSIP were predictive of reported frequency of use of research-based teaching strategies (RBTS); (2) Reported frequency of use of RBTS was not significantly different in LaSIP versus Non-LaSIP teachers, except in reported use of alternative assessments. (3) Both LaSIP and Non-LaSIP teachers indicated that implementation of RBTS increased student achievement (4) LaSIP teachers identified factors such as opportunity to collaborate with colleagues, time to acquire content knowledge, practice with material and supplies and modeling of RBTS as features of the LaSIP that positively influenced classroom implementation. (5) Perceived barriers to implementation of RBTS included lack of equipment and lack of teacher input into planning of professional development. Analyses of qualitative data supported many of the findings due to quantitative analyses. Additionally, qualitative data provided more in

  2. A Survey of the Methods Developed in the National Coal Board's Pneumoconiosis Field Research for Correlating Environmental Exposure with Medical Condition

    PubMed Central

    Fay, J. W. J.; Ashford, J. R.

    1961-01-01

    The correlation of the medical and environmental data (i.e. the derivation of the dosage-response relationship) in a study such as the National Coal Board's Pneumoconiosis Field Research (P.F.R.) is subject to many complicating factors compared with the more conventional types of biological assay. Several methods have been developed within the Research to overcome these difficulties, and the new procedures are described. Each is concerned with the estimation of the direct relation between the radiological abnormality associated with simple pneumoconiosis and some single measure of the past hazard, but the basic techniques are sufficiently general to be applicable in other fields of study. The first development involves the definition of an underlying continuous scale of radiological abnormality. This prepares the way for the derivation of the “quantitative” relation between exposure and response, to replace the “semi-quantal” relation which is inherent in the use of a small number of discrete categories of radiological abnormality. The effect of errors of observation of dosage and response on the corresponding quantitative and quantal relationships is then determined. The second development concerns the use of a “multi-dimensional” representation of past hazard. Most of the men under observation had worked in a number of different mining occupations before their first chest radiograph was taken, but this exposure cannot be assessed in terms of dust concentrations, for which reliable data are not available. Nevertheless, it is shown that past hazard can usefully be represented by three “dimensions” corresponding to the periods spent in three main types of environment—(a) the coal-face (coal-getting shift), (b) the coal-face (preparation shift) and (c) elsewhere underground. Each man's past exposure up to the time of his first chest radiograph can be expressed in terms of these three dimensions and the effect of each environment separately can be

  3. Small business innovation, research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, small businesses have been the innovation engine of the United States (US). The author provides statistical data that indicates that small business is really big business in the U.S. Small businesses are responsible for much of the applied research necessary for new product development. The author examines productivity, academic research and teaming as a cost-effective and time effective way to develop new products and technologies.

  4. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.

  5. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  6. The Use of In Situ X-ray Imaging Methods in the Research and Development of Magnesium-Based Grain-Refined and Nanocomposite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillekens, W. H.; Casari, D.; Mirihanage, W. U.; Terzi, S.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Salvo, L.; Daudin, R.; Lhuissier, P.; Guo, E.; Lee, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgists have an ever-increasing suite of analytical techniques at their disposition. Among these techniques are the in situ methods, being those approaches that are designed to actually study events that occur in the material during for instance solidification, (thermo)-mechanical working or heat treatment. As such they are a powerful tool in unraveling the mechanisms behind these processes, supplementary to ex situ methods that instead analyze the materials before and after their processing. In this paper, case studies are presented of how in situ imaging methods—and more specifically micro-focus x-ray radiography and synchrotron x-ray tomography—are used in the research and development of magnesium-based grain-refined and nanocomposite materials. These results are drawn from the EC collaborative research project ExoMet (www.exomet-project.eu). The first example concerns the solidification of a Mg-Nd-Gd alloy with Zr addition to assess the role of zirconium content and cooling rate in crystal nucleation and growth. The second example concerns the solidification of a Mg-Zn-Al alloy and its SiC-containing nanocomposite material to reveal the influence of particle addition on microstructural development. The third example concerns the (partial) melting-solidification of Elektron21/AlN and Elektron21/Y2O3 nanocomposite materials to study such effects as particle pushing/engulfment and agglomeration during repeated processing. Such studies firstly visualize and by that confirm what is known or assumed. Secondly, they advance science by monitoring and quantifying phenomena as they evolve during processing and by that contribute toward a better understanding of the physics at play.

  7. Applying the Scientific Method of Cybersecurity Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Bonheyo, George T.; Cort, Katherine A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hutton, William J.; Miller, Erin A.; Nowak, Kathleen E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Purvine, Emilie AH; Schenter, Gregory K.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2016-09-15

    The cyber environment has rapidly evolved from a curiosity to an essential component of the contemporary world. As the cyber environment has expanded and become more complex, so have the nature of adversaries and styles of attacks. Today, cyber incidents are an expected part of life. As a result, cybersecurity research emerged to address adversarial attacks interfering with or preventing normal cyber activities. Historical response to cybersecurity attacks is heavily skewed to tactical responses with an emphasis on rapid recovery. While threat mitigation is important and can be time critical, a knowledge gap exists with respect to developing the science of cybersecurity. Such a science will enable the development and testing of theories that lead to understanding the broad sweep of cyber threats and the ability to assess trade-offs in sustaining network missions while mitigating attacks. The Asymmetric Resilient Cybersecurity Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-year, multi-million dollar investment to develop approaches for shifting the advantage to the defender and sustaining the operability of systems under attack. The initiative established a Science Council to focus attention on the research process for cybersecurity. The Council shares science practices, critiques research plans, and aids in documenting and reporting reproducible research results. The Council members represent ecology, economics, statistics, physics, computational chemistry, microbiology and genetics, and geochemistry. This paper reports the initial work of the Science Council to implement the scientific method in cybersecurity research. The second section describes the scientific method. The third section in this paper discusses scientific practices for cybersecurity research. Section four describes initial impacts of applying the science practices to cybersecurity research.

  8. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  9. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  10. A pragmatic method for transforming clinical research data from the research electronic data capture "REDCap" to Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM): Development and evaluation of REDCap2SDTM.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ota, Keiko; Akiya, Ippei; Shintani, Ayumi

    2017-06-01

    The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) can be used for new drug application studies as well as secondarily for creating a clinical research data warehouse to leverage clinical research study data across studies conducted within the same disease area. However, currently not all clinical research uses Clinical Data Acquisition Standards Harmonization (CDASH) beginning in the set-up phase of the study. Once already initiated, clinical studies that have not utilized CDASH are difficult to map in the SDTM format. In addition, most electronic data capture (EDC) systems are not equipped to export data in SDTM format; therefore, in many cases, statistical software is used to generate SDTM datasets from accumulated clinical data. In order to facilitate efficient secondary use of accumulated clinical research data using SDTM, it is necessary to develop a new tool to enable mapping of information for SDTM, even during or after the clinical research. REDCap is an EDC system developed by Vanderbilt University and is used globally by over 2100 institutions across 108 countries. In this study, we developed a simulated clinical trial to evaluate a tool called REDCap2SDTM that maps information in the Field Annotation of REDCap to SDTM and executes data conversion, including when data must be pivoted to accommodate the SDTM format, dynamically, by parsing the mapping information using R. We confirmed that generating SDTM data and the define.xml file from REDCap using REDCap2SDTM was possible. Conventionally, generation of SDTM data and the define.xml file from EDC systems requires the creation of individual programs for each clinical study. However, our proposed method can be used to generate this data and file dynamically without programming because it only involves entering the mapping information into the Field Annotation, and additional data into specific files. Our proposed method is adaptable not only to new drug

  11. School Development Program. Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Norris M., Ed.

    This book presents a compilation of papers generated by the research unit of the Comer School Development Program. The program operates from the basic theme that if school staff understand child development and how to organize and manage their school building as a social system, a climate that facilitates learning among the greatest number of…

  12. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlis, Theresa E; Stimson, Gerry V; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups; security problems for users

  13. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingxin; He, Qiang; Gong, Jianxing

    2013-03-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling method based on BOM, designed a general structure of the coupled model based on BOM, and traversed the structure of atomic and coupled model based on BOM. At last, the paper introduced the process of BOM based composable modeling and made a conclusion on composable modeling method based on BOM. From the prototype we developed and accumulative model stocks, we found this method could increase the reuse and interoperability of models.

  14. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  15. Research Methods and Intelligibility Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…

  16. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  17. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  18. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  19. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  20. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  1. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  2. Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

    2014-01-01

    Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports for,…

  3. Developing the Model of "Pedagogical Art Communication" Using Social Phenomenological Analysis: An Introduction to a Research Method and an Example for Its Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method for museum and art education. After explaining its methodological background, it is shown how this method has been applied in a study of gallery talks or guided tours in art museums: Analyzing the situation by description and interpretation, a model for understanding gallery talks…

  4. Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

    2014-01-01

    Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports for,…

  5. UCLA accelerator research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  6. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  7. Developing Professional Researchers: Research Students' Graduate Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Lant, Paul; Mellick, George

    2007-01-01

    The impetus to broaden the scope of research education is not new. Since the 1970s, concern has been expressed about the suitability of research education as preparation for a research career outside academe. Universities have been criticized for producing over-specialized research graduates, who struggle to apply their expertise to new workplace…

  8. Developing Professional Researchers: Research Students' Graduate Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Lant, Paul; Mellick, George

    2007-01-01

    The impetus to broaden the scope of research education is not new. Since the 1970s, concern has been expressed about the suitability of research education as preparation for a research career outside academe. Universities have been criticized for producing over-specialized research graduates, who struggle to apply their expertise to new workplace…

  9. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  10. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews. PMID:24050381

  11. Hydrogen energy research and developments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Abe, I.

    A development history and current status report is presented for Japanese hydrogen-based energy research and development. The most ambitious of the national programs is the 'Sunshine Project' conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which has spent $20 million for hydrogen-related development since its inception in 1974. The Science and Technology Agency has conducted development efforts for windpower energy heat storage in a metal hydride system. University-based research efforts are primarily concerned with hydrogen production by semiconductor-liquid junction, photochemical, and biological methods. Private enterprise initiatives in this field are also noted.

  12. Professional development workshops for physics education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Kustusch, Mary Bridget

    2017-01-01

    Physics education research holds the promise of satisfying expectations of both scholarship, which is increasing at teaching-centric institutions, and teaching effectiveness, a concern at all institutions. Additionally, junior physics education researchers seek more diverse training in research methods and theories. Emerging education researchers need support as they develop their research programs and expand their theoretical and methodological expertise, and they benefit from the guidance of knowledgable peers and near-peers. Our two-part professional development model combines intensive in-person workshops with long-term remote activities. During a two-week in-person workshop, emerging and established education researchers work closely together to develop research questions, learn appropriate analytic techniques, and collect a corpus of data appropriate to their research questions. Afterwards, they meet biweekly in a distributed, mentored research group to share analyses and develop their ideas into publishable papers. In this talk, we discuss this model for professional development and show results from one three-year implementation in the IMPRESS program at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Partially funded by the PERTG of the AAPT.

  13. NGNP Research and Development Status

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti

    2010-08-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, experts from the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, gas reactor vendors, and universities collaborated to establish technology research and development (R&D) roadmaps. These roadmaps outlined the testing and computational development activities needed to qualify the materials and validate the modeling and simulation tools to be used in the design and safe operation of the NGNP, a helium-cooled, high temperature gas reactor (HTGR).

  14. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  15. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  16. Developing Effective Undergraduate Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2011-03-01

    Undergraduate research is a valuable educational tool for students pursuing a degree in physics, but these experiences can become problematic and ineffective if not handled properly. Undergraduate research should be planned as an immersive learning experience in which the student has the opportunity to develop his/her skills in accordance with their interests. Effective undergraduate research experiences are marked by clear, measurable objectives and frequent student-professor collaboration. These objectives should reflect the long and short-term goals of the individual undergraduates, with a heightened focus on developing research skills for future use. 1. Seymour, E., Hunter, A.-B., Laursen, S. L. and DeAntoni, T. (2004), ``Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study''. Science Education, 88: 493--534. 2. Behar-Horenstein, Linda S., Johnson, Melissa L. ``Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course.'' Journal of College Science Teaching 39.3 (2010): 62-70.

  17. Electronics Division research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacRoberts, M. D. J.; Courtney, E. J.

    1984-03-01

    The status of the research development activities in the Electronics Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. Much of the work described is sponsored by the Laboratory; however, other topics are included for completeness. The Fuels Cells for Transportation Applications and the majority of the electrochemistry research are reported separately in LA-9787-PR. The Thermionic Integrated Circuits are being reported separately. The following topics are continuations of articles reported in Electronics Division Research and Development, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982 (LA-9726-PR): Photoconductive Circuit Elements, Photoconductive Materials for Far-Infrared Detector Applications, Saturable Ferromagnetic Elements, Repetitive Opening Switches, Capacitor Test Facility, Fast Gating of Microchannel-Plate Image Intensifiers, and Oxygen-Reduction Reaction - Electrode Kinetics and Electrocatalysis. The following topics are new work or were included for completeness: Photoconductive Power Switches, Ion Beam Analysis, Link Access Control and Encryption System, Coded Aperture Imaging of Gamma-Ray Sources, and Multilayer Printed Wiring Boards.

  18. Suborbital Research and Development Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the new strategies for problem solving in the life sciences in the suborbital realm. Topics covered are: an overview of the space life sciences, the strategic initiatives that the Space Life Sciences organization engaged in, and the new business model that these initiatives were developed. Several opportunities for research are also reviewed.

  19. Developments in Applied Psycholinguistics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Sheldon, Ed.; Koplin, James H., Ed.

    The eight articles in this volume reflect the increased tendency in recent years to consider problems of language acquisition and language pathology in the context of basic research and theory. They also reflect the two major approaches to language development: the transformational-linguistic approach which puts its emphasis on an innate…

  20. Developments in Applied Psycholinguistics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Sheldon, Ed.; Koplin, James H., Ed.

    The eight articles in this volume reflect the increased tendency in recent years to consider problems of language acquisition and language pathology in the context of basic research and theory. They also reflect the two major approaches to language development: the transformational-linguistic approach which puts its emphasis on an innate…

  1. Research and Development Services: Methods Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    ID by 25 cm, 5-um particle size). The initial mobile phase composition tested was 70% methanol/30%, 0.1 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer...wavelength detector ( X - 2W5~ LI Flow Rate: I. al/sn Mobile Phase: 1.002 0.O5M potassium- dihydrogen - phosphate 6 buffer, pH = 6 Injection Volumet: 250 ul...a large response was obtained for UDMH. The mobile phase in this case was modified by the use of a 0.09 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer at a

  2. Research and Development Services: Methods Development. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    day. One analyst can perform approximately eight extractions in an 8-hour day. 2. CHEMISTRY A. ALTERNATE NOMENCLATURE AND CHEMICAL ABSTRACT SERVICE...AMD.3/HXH20.2 10/6/81 2. CHEMISTRY A. ALTERNATE NOMENCLATURE AND CHEMICAL ABSTRACT SERVICE (CAS) REGISTRY NUMBER CAS Registry Analyte Alternate...One analyst can perform approximately eight extractions in an 8-hour day.L 2. CHEMISTRY A. ALTERNATE NOMENCLATURE AND CHEMICAL ABSTRACT SERVICE (CAB

  3. Research Methods and Data Analysis Procedures Used by Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tse-chi

    2005-01-01

    To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the "American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)," "Journal of Experimental Education (JEE)" and "Journal of Educational Research (JER)" from…

  4. Decomposition methods in turbulence research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uruba, Václav

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  5. Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…

  6. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  7. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  8. Using mixed methods in health research

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  9. Development of research discourses: a conceptual map.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, Dawn; Cahill, Jane

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss: (1) how methodologies are constructed and perpetuated in the context of research paradigms; (2) what exactly constitutes a paradigm; (3) how the proposed conceptual map of discourse development provides a new and original method for understanding knowledge production. In nursing research, methodologies are constructed by several external and internal contextually driven influences. Our focus is on how two methodological paradigms - evidence-based practice and mixed methods - continue to impact and be impacted by patterns of knowledge production. Discussion paper. This discussion is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory using examples from the two paradigms to illustrate how discourses are developed, perpetuated and deconstructed and how these have specific impacts on qualitative nursing research. The conceptual map should be used to cultivate an awareness in practitioners, researchers and policy makers of how discourses surrounding research evidence and research practices are generated. This level of awareness will facilitate critical reflection on how certain practices assume dominance, potentially leading to hegemony in nursing research, practice and scholarship. This research offers a critical examination of the meaning of paradigms and a meta-perspective on the production and practice of methodologies using a conceptual map of discourse development as a heuristic device. We anticipate that these examples will encourage debate and discussion on how methodologies and paradigms are perpetuated in academia and the impact this has on nursing knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  11. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  12. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  13. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  14. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  15. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (γ-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  16. Learning and Teaching Research Methods in Management Education: Development of a Curriculum to Combine Theory and Practice--A Swiss Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoidn, Sabine; Olbert-Bock, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the context of the creation of a two-year Master of Science in Business Administration programme to offer a scientifically sound and practice-related management education in Switzerland, a curriculum for learning and teaching research methods had to be designed. Major pedagogic challenges were identified and addressed by curricular…

  17. Learning and Teaching Research Methods in Management Education: Development of a Curriculum to Combine Theory and Practice--A Swiss Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoidn, Sabine; Olbert-Bock, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the context of the creation of a two-year Master of Science in Business Administration programme to offer a scientifically sound and practice-related management education in Switzerland, a curriculum for learning and teaching research methods had to be designed. Major pedagogic challenges were identified and addressed by curricular…

  18. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  19. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  20. Photovoltaic research and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feucht, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Photovoltaic R&D Program are to develop thin film semiconductor and novel photovoltaic conversion concepts, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing these cells for a price of $100 - $300 per peak electric output (in 1975) by FY1985. The approaches that are used to determine which research should be funded are formal solicitations, an innovative concepts program which will be launched in FY79, and the review of unsolicited proposals.

  1. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  2. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  3. Research and Development in Industry and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John H.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the life cycle of an industrial research and development project and suggests applications to educational research and development. It also discusses the importance, funding, staffing, and management of a research and development effort.(DC)

  4. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  5. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  6. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  7. [Research ethics and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Désiré Adiogo

    2007-12-01

    Developing countries are a breeding ground for research, especially for infectious diseases and HIV. On one hand, due to the prevalence of these diseases in this part of the world, and on the other, due to its needs in terms of research, disease prevention and heath care. The actions taken in the fight against HIV infection over the past years, considering that the urgent state of the health care situation has been a sensitive issue for ethical deviation evident in the following examples: Nonoxynol 9 trial (1996-1999) in Cameroon; Tenofovir trial (2003-2005) in Cameroon; Trials of fusion inhibitors in Latin America. No sanctions were imposed due to these deviations, and there was no possibility of recourse. What can these poor states do faced with health care emergencies, the extreme vulnerability of these populations and the big powerful pharmaceutical companies whose turnover or even profits are higher than the GDP of these countries? It is of the utmost importance that an international court of appeal be established to handle litigation regarding research related issues and the fair sharing of the profits resulting from research. The protection of vulnerable populations and the strict respect of ethical rules can only be implemented to the fullest if sanctions are applied to abusers.

  8. Research and Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration marks the next segment of NASA's continuing journey to find answers to compelling questions about the origins of the solar system, the existence of life beyond Earth, and the ability of humankind to live on other worlds. The success of the Vision relies upon the ongoing research and development activities conducted at each of NASA's 10 field centers. In an effort to promote synergy across NASA as it works to meet its long-term goals, the Agency restructured its Strategic Enterprises into four Mission Directorates that align with the Vision. Consisting of Exploration Systems, Space Operations, Science, and Aeronautics Research, these directorates provide NASA Headquarters and the field centers with a streamlined approach to continue exploration both in space and on Earth.

  9. Research and development of methods/utilities and rules for managing cooperation for performance improvement in government offices. First technical progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On September 1, 1991, Defense Programs (DP) within the US Department of Energy entered into a research grant with Management Systems Laboratories (MSL) of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), to study Tools, Methods, and Rules for Managing Cooperation for Performance Improvement. Continuous performance improvement is a gradual, systematic process. The idea is to do a little better each day by knowing where you are, where you want to be, what you have to do to get there, whether or not you have done it, and how to resolve problems doing it. And, although many management decisions are made along direct lines of authority, much of the work of an organization can be achieved only through cooperation (people sharing information and coordinating effort). Therefore, continuous performance improvement requires working cooperatively to do a little better each day. We are researching the most effective configuration of tools working through what we believe is a closed set of nine methods. These methods are: setting expectations, charting, defining indicators and standards, collecting and logging data, converting data to information, organizing and presenting information, reviewing status and progress, self-management, and appraising. We believe that these methods form a closed set because they reflect the management activities of formulation (planning),execution (doing), and verification (evaluating). If these activities are carried out effectively through the methods, the manager can achieve visibility and control.

  10. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  11. Research and Methods for Simulation Design: State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    designers. Designers may use this review to identify methods to aid the training-device design process and individuals who manage research programs...maximum training effectiveness at a given cost. The methods should apply to the concept-formulation phase’of the training-device development process ...design process . Finally, individuals who manage research programs may use this information to set priorities for future research efforts. viii RESEARCH

  12. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  13. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  14. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  15. Mixed method designs in implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research.

  16. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  17. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  18. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  19. Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Webb, C

    1993-03-01

    The literature relating to feminist research both within and beyond nursing is reviewed in this paper. Feminist research is located within a post-positivist paradigm, and various definitions are considered. The distinctive methodological approach of feminist research is discussed, and interviewing and ethnography are evaluated as suitable methods for use in feminist research. Oakley's (1981) paper on interviewing women is subjected to criticism. A final section examines attempts by three sets of writers to propose evaluation criteria for feminist research. The review concludes that a number of paradoxes and dilemmas in feminist research have yet to be resolved.

  20. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  1. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  3. Education for Sustainable Development Research from the Researchers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Pipere, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Research is not just a simple application of research methods. It is undertaken by human beings who hold personal views on the environment. The way in which the researcher sees environmental changes may have an impact on the research questions and the choice of research practices. The researcher may be a contributor to cultural development either…

  4. Education for Sustainable Development Research from the Researchers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Pipere, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Research is not just a simple application of research methods. It is undertaken by human beings who hold personal views on the environment. The way in which the researcher sees environmental changes may have an impact on the research questions and the choice of research practices. The researcher may be a contributor to cultural development either…

  5. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  6. Pictorial Analysis in Research on Education: Method and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skareus, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Pictures are rarely used as the principal research material in research on the teaching profession. This article presents the central analytical concepts and method development of such a study. The research material consisted of pictures that art student teachers created from a given theme: Who are you as a teacher? The theoretical frame combines…

  7. Critical Realism and Empirical Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2005-01-01

    In the light of recent writings of Richard Pring, and in relation to the application of empirical research methods in education, this paper offers a corrective to a neo-realist viewpoint and develops a critical realist perspective. The argument is made that the deployment of empirical research methods needs to be underpinned by a meta-theory…

  8. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  9. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  10. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  11. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  12. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  13. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  14. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  15. Evolution of Research Methods for Probing and Understanding Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David; Nashon, Samson M.; Thomas, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the development, self-critique and evolution of research methods for interpreting and understanding students' metacognition that were developed through the Metacognition and Reflective Inquiry (MRI) collaborative study. The MRI collaborative was a multi-year, multi-case, research study that investigated the elusive nature and…

  16. Developing a research skill set.

    PubMed

    You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.

  17. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  18. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  19. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  20. Space Radiation Transport Methods Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Tripathi, R.; Qualls, G.; Cucinotta, F.; Prael, R.; Norbury, J.

    Early space radiation shield code development relied on Monte Carlo methods for proton, neutron and pion transport and made important contributions to the space program. More recently Monte Carlo code LAHET has been upgraded to include high-energy multiple-charged light ions for GCR simulations and continues to be expanded in capability. To compensate for low computational efficiency, Monte Carlo methods have resorted to restricted one-dimensional problems leading to imperfect representations of appropriate boundary conditions. Even so, intensive computational requirements resulted and shield evaluation was made near the end of the design process and resolving shielding issues usually had a negative impact on the design. We evaluate the implications of these common one-dimensional assumptions on the evaluation of the Shuttle internal radiation field. Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 milliseconds and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of reconfigurable computing and could be

  1. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  2. Principled missing data methods for researchers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yiran; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2013-12-01

    The impact of missing data on quantitative research can be serious, leading to biased estimates of parameters, loss of information, decreased statistical power, increased standard errors, and weakened generalizability of findings. In this paper, we discussed and demonstrated three principled missing data methods: multiple imputation, full information maximum likelihood, and expectation-maximization algorithm, applied to a real-world data set. Results were contrasted with those obtained from the complete data set and from the listwise deletion method. The relative merits of each method are noted, along with common features they share. The paper concludes with an emphasis on the importance of statistical assumptions, and recommendations for researchers. Quality of research will be enhanced if (a) researchers explicitly acknowledge missing data problems and the conditions under which they occurred, (b) principled methods are employed to handle missing data, and (c) the appropriate treatment of missing data is incorporated into review standards of manuscripts submitted for publication.

  3. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  4. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  5. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  6. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  7. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  8. Theory and Methods of Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner, Ed.

    The document reports the proceedings of a conference on "Theory and Methods of Research on Aging" held under the auspices of the Division of Maturity and Old Age of the American Psychological Association, the Department of Psychology and the Human Resources Research Institute of West Virginia University, May 17-19, 1967. The summaries of four…

  9. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  10. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  11. Research Methods in Health, Physical Education, Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, M. Gladys, Ed.

    Methods for designing and conducting research related to health education, physical education and reaction are described. The use of libraries, the selection and definition of research problems, principles of statistically sampling, and data collection devices are presented. Instructions for the construction and validation of tests as well as…

  12. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  13. Research and Evaluation Methods in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; McLaughlin, John A.

    This text is designed to enable educators to design, conduct, and report research and evaluation in a way that transforms special education by addressing the needs of persons with disabilities as heterogeneous, cultural groups. The book explores ways to adapt those research methods to the special education context by providing a framework for…

  14. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  15. Methods for the Study of Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafal P

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge on gonadal development and sex determination is the product of many decades of research involving a variety of scientific methods from different biological disciplines such as histology, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The earliest embryological investigations, followed by the invention of microscopy and staining methods, were based on histological examinations. The most robust development of histological staining techniques occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and resulted in structural descriptions of gonadogenesis. These first studies on gonadal development were conducted on domesticated animals; however, currently the mouse is the most extensively studied species. The next key point in the study of gonadogenesis was the advancement of methods allowing for the in vitro culture of fetal gonads. For instance, this led to the description of the origin of cell lines forming the gonads. Protein detection using antibodies and immunolabeling methods and the use of reporter genes were also invaluable for developmental studies, enabling the visualization of the formation of gonadal structure. Recently, genetic and molecular biology techniques, especially gene expression analysis, have revolutionized studies on gonadogenesis and have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern this process. The successive invention of new methods is reflected in the progress of research on gonadal development.

  16. Global/local methods research using the CSM testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.

    1990-01-01

    Research activities in global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.

  17. Global/local methods research using the CSM testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.

    1990-01-01

    Research activities in global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.

  18. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  19. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  20. Space Radiation Transport Methods Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Prael, R. E.; Norbury, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

    2002-01-01

    Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary design concepts to the final design. In particular, we will discuss the progress towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic code for which the current HZETRN evaluates the lowest order asymptotic term. HZETRN is the first deterministic solution to the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design practice enabling development of integrated multidisciplinary design optimization methods. A single ray trace in ISS FEM geometry requires 14 milliseconds and severely limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given in terms of reconfigurable computing and could be utilized in the final design as verification of the deterministic method optimized design.

  1. The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders: recruitment, assessment instruments, methods for the development of multicenter collaborative studies and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Rosário, Maria Conceição do; Mathis, Maria Alice de; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato; Gonzalez, Christina Hojaij; Petribú, Kátia; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Malavazzi, Dante Marino; Torresan, Ricardo C; Raffin, Andréa Litvin; Meyer, Elisabeth; Braga, Daniela T; Borcato, Sonia; Valério, Carolina; Gropo, Luciana N; Prado, Helena da Silva; Perin, Eduardo Alliende; Santos, Sandro Iêgo; Copque, Helen; Borges, Manuela Corrêa; Lopes, Angélica Prazeres; Silva, Elenita D da

    2008-09-01

    To describe the recruitment of patients, assessment instruments, implementation, methods and preliminary results of The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, which includes seven university sites. This cross-sectional study included a comprehensive clinical assessment including semi-structured interviews (sociodemographic data, medical and psychiatric history, disease course and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses), and instruments to assess obsessive-compulsive (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious (Beck Anxiety Inventory) symptoms, sensory phenomena (Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale), insight (Brown Assessment Beliefs Scale), tics (Yale Global Tics Severity Scale) and quality of life (Medical Outcome Quality of Life Scale Short-form-36 and Social Assessment Scale). The raters' training consisted of watching at least five videotaped interviews and interviewing five patients with an expert researcher before interviewing patients alone. The reliability between all leaders for the most important instruments (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale) was measured after six complete interviews. Inter-rater reliability was 96%. By March 2008, 630 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients had been systematically evaluated. Mean age (+/-SE) was 34.7 (+/-0.51), 56.3% were female, and 84.6% Caucasian. The most prevalent obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions were symmetry and contamination. The most common comorbidities were major depression, generalized anxiety and social anxiety disorder. The most common DSM-IV impulsive control disorder was skin picking. The sample was composed mainly by Caucasian individuals, unmarried, with some kind of occupational activity, mean age of 35 years, onset of obsessive

  2. Research Engagement for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This thought-provoking book examines the new and growing phenomenon of the "research-engaged school"--schools that not only encourage their staff to carry out their own research, but also use published research to inform practice and improve the quality of education. The author draws upon his scholarship and practice in local authorities, schools…

  3. Research Engagement for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This thought-provoking book examines the new and growing phenomenon of the "research-engaged school"--schools that not only encourage their staff to carry out their own research, but also use published research to inform practice and improve the quality of education. The author draws upon his scholarship and practice in local authorities, schools…

  4. Development of Research in Marriage Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Elizabeth S.

    This study traces the development of research in marriage counseling to discover whether generalizations concerning development in a scientific field also apply to research in marriage counseling. It is hypothesized that it is possible to identify development in a field along the lines of productivity of research, development of accretive studies,…

  5. Research and development of methods/utilities and rules for managing cooperation for performance improvement in government offices. Second Technical progress report, September 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A.

    1993-03-01

    Purpose is to help managers approach their responsibilities proactively, so that they can anticipate problems and take actions to alleviate or eliminate those problems. Continuous performance improvement, the philosophy behind total quality management, requires working cooperatively to do a little better each day. The most effective tools are working through a closed set of 9 methods: setting expectations, charting, defining indicators and standards, collecting and logging data, converting data to information, organizing and presenting information, reviewing status and progress, self-management, and appraising. In addition, there are 8 rules: focus on what you can do, supply physical evidence of progress, pay attention to detail, inspect (don`t expect), review progress routinely and frequently, face ``success/fail`` squarely, communicate crisply, and conduct honest, open appraisals. Scope and plans of the draft research plan (study areas) are described.

  6. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  7. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  8. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  9. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  10. The Feminist Biographical Method in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee

    2004-01-01

    The feminist biographical method is an in-depth interpretive methodology that is useful for research in the field of psychology. I believe that this qualitative method is an excellent tool for analyzing individual narratives of participants' lives in relation to the larger cultural matrix of the society in which they live. Although an oral…

  11. Future methods in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed.

  12. [Ethnography and ethnonursing: research methods in nursing].

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ninon Girardon; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Crossetti, Maria da Graça O

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to review the literature about the qualitative ethnographic research method, and its application in nursing, describing one of the authors experience while writing a master's dissertation. Both methods, ethnography and ethnonursing, are presented with their specific proposals and phases. Leininger's ideas are enhanced since it was this author who revealed to nursing the importance to comprehend culture, allowing to give care which is coherent to each ones beliefs and values. The study allowed to better know the research methods and it is wished that it contributes to deepen the knowledge about them, stimulating their use.

  13. Development of a nutrient-dense food supplement for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya using qualitative and quantitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Hong, Steven Y; Hendricks, Kristy M; Wanke, Christine; Omosa, Gloria; Patta, Shem; Mwero, Ben; Mjomba, Innocent; Queenan, Jeanette; Mwamburi, Mkaya

    2013-04-01

    Formative research to facilitate the development, packaging and delivery of a culturally acceptable nutrition intervention for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya for an intervention trial. Focus group discussion on three areas: (i) ingredients and form of the nutrition intervention, (ii) packaging and delivery and (iii) monitoring of adherence. Two single-blind taste tests with eleven different porridge formulations of various combinations of maize flour, soyabeans, peanuts, sorghum, mung beans, dried fish, raisins and dried whole milk. Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion was also conducted. Voi, Kenya, community based. Focus group discussion and two taste tests (twenty-one women aged 16-55 years). Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion (four women enrolled in intervention trial). The preferred porridge for taste consisted of maize, soyabeans and peanuts. For animal protein, dried whole milk and dried fish were used. Although the women disliked the taste of dried fish, it was acceptable if added in small undetectable quantities. Sugar over lime was favoured for taste. Women believed they could consume at least two cups of porridge per day without displacing their usual meals. The optimal delivery interval was believed to be every two weeks in individual serving packages. Women who had been consuming porridge for several weeks felt the taste was acceptable for long-term consumption. This formative research resulted in the development, packaging and delivery of a nutrient-dense food supplement using local ingredients to meet the dietary needs of the population and acceptable for daily consumption by women in Kenya for evaluation in an intervention trial.

  14. Development of a nutrient-dense food supplement for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya using qualitative and quantitative research methods

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Steven Y; Hendricks, Kristy M; Wanke, Christine; Omosa, Gloria; Patta, Shem; Mwero, Ben; Mjomba, Innocent; Queenan, Jeanette; Mwamburi, Mkaya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formative research to facilitate the development, packaging and delivery of a culturally acceptable nutrition intervention for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya for an intervention trial. Design Focus group discussion on three areas: (i) ingredients and form of the nutrition intervention, (ii) packaging and delivery and (iii) monitoring of adherence. Two single-blind taste tests with eleven different porridge formulations of various combinations of maize flour, soyabeans, peanuts, sorghum, mung beans, dried fish, raisins and dried whole milk. Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion was also conducted. Setting Voi, Kenya, community based. Subjects Focus group discussion and two taste tests (twenty-one women aged 16–55 years). Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion (four women enrolled in intervention trial). Results The preferred porridge for taste consisted of maize, soyabeans and peanuts. For animal protein, dried whole milk and dried fish were used. Although the women disliked the taste of dried fish, it was acceptable if added in small undetectable quantities. Sugar over lime was favoured for taste. Women believed they could consume at least two cups of porridge per day without displacing their usual meals. The optimal delivery interval was believed to be every two weeks in individual serving packages. Women who had been consuming porridge for several weeks felt the taste was acceptable for long-term consumption. Conclusions This formative research resulted in the development, packaging and delivery of a nutrient-dense food supplement using local ingredients to meet the dietary needs of the population and acceptable for daily consumption by women in Kenya for evaluation in an intervention trial. PMID:22974548

  15. Historical Development of Origins Research

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  16. Historical development of origins research.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller's seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller's viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  17. Evolution of Research Methods for Probing and Understanding Metacognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Nashon, Samson M.; Thomas, Gregory P.

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports on the development, self-critique and evolution of research methods for interpreting and understanding students’ metacognition that were developed through the Metacognition and Reflective Inquiry (MRI) collaborative study. The MRI collaborative was a multi-year, multi-case, research study that investigated the elusive nature and character of high school students’ metacognition across formal and informal science learning contexts. The study’s research design comprised a series of integrated, layered, interpretive case studies which were conducted in a hermeneutic fashion over a 3 year period. The implementation of each case study provided an opportunity for the researchers to reflect critically on the research methods used to elucidate metacognition and hence refine the individual and collective capacity, responsiveness and fruitfulness of the methods used. This paper discusses the evolution of these methods and the lessons that the entire study provides for the conceptualization of other qualitative-interpretivist studies.

  18. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  19. A CTSA agenda to advance methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Pauker, Stephen G; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell, Frank E; Meltzer, David O; Montori, Victor M; Shepard, Donald S; Kent, David M

    2011-06-01

    Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient-centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients' preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient-centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient-centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient-centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  1. American Ginseng: Research Developments, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Punja, Zamir K.

    2011-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is grown in some regions of the USA and Canada and marketed for its health promoting attributes. While cultivation of this plant species has taken place in North America for over 100 years, there are many challenges that need to be addressed. In this article, the current production method used by growers is described and the challenges and opportunities for research on this valuable plant are discussed. These include studies on pharmacological activity, genetic diversity within the species, genetic improvement of currently grown plants, molecular characterization of gene expression, and management of diseases affecting plant productivity. The current research developments in these areas are reviewed and areas requiring further work are summarized. Additional research should shed light on the nature of the bioactive compounds and their clinical effects, and the molecular basis of active ingredient biosynthesis, and provide more uniform genetic material as well as improved plant growth, and potentially reduce losses due to pathogens. PMID:23717082

  2. Institutional research and development, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Lawler, G.M.; Crawford, R.B.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.M.; Prono, J.K.; Strack, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Institutional Research and Development program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fosters exploratory work to advance science and technology, disciplinary research to develop innovative solutions to problems in various scientific fields, and long-term interdisciplinary research in support of defense and energy missions. This annual report describes research funded under this program for FY87. (DWL)

  3. Managing Researcher Development: "Drastic Transition"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena; Cunningham, Everarda

    2011-01-01

    Academics are expected to write for publication and meet publication targets in research assessment processes. These targets are set by national bodies and institutions, and they can be daunting for academics at the start of a research career. This article reports on an intervention designed to address this issue, writer's retreat, where academics…

  4. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  5. Research on cruor measurement and its data processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Duogang; Zhang, Sixiang; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2007-12-01

    With the development of modern medical research, people's understanding to thrombus and hemostasis is more and more profound. One of the remarkable characteristics is the rapid development of coagulometer and its widespread use for the examination of thrombus and hemostasis. After studying the present methods of cruor measurement, the paper introduces a cruor measurement method with double light beams based on Lambert-Beer Law. The point of the paper is the principle of cruor measurement and the method of data processing.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new fundable'' R D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  7. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  8. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  9. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  10. The Development of the Methodology of Judicial Behavior Research: A Historical Review and Critique of the Use and Teaching of Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, C. Neal

    Methodologies and trends of judicial behavior research (the study of how and why court judges make decisions) are traced from the 1920s to the present. Arranged into five sections, the first two sections of the report identify principal points of social science research in general. A summary of methodology in judicial behavior research reveals…

  11. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. Methods. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Results. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Conclusions. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. PMID:24138774

  12. Interactive Research and Development: Another Aspect of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Marsha A.; And Others

    An interactive research and development (IR&D) project brings together teachers, university researchers, and staff development specialists as a team to identify, research, and disseminate findings from questions of interest to teachers. Six major features of an interactive IR&D project are: (1) teams having at least one teacher, one researcher,…

  13. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Industry-sponsored research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abbas, E E

    2007-11-01

    Industry has become an important source of funding for clinical research; guidelines governing the relationship between industry and medical institutions are not clear in developing countries and hence we wanted to test attitudes and practices in those countries and compare them to developed countries. We conducted a survey amongst medical practitioners in developed and Arab countries representing developing countries, in order to document their views towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practice in this regard. A structured questionnaire was distributed by email, mail and through personal contacts. The questionnaire included information on characteristics of the practitioners involved, their attitudes towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practices. The questionnaire was distributed to 510 medical practitioners of countries in both groups. Practitioners representing developed countries were from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Those representing developing countries included Arab countries from Asia and Africa. We found that there were contrasting views and practices between the two groups although more than 80% in both groups agreed that industry-sponsored research is necessary. 69.7% of respondents in developed countries participated in industry-sponsored research while only 30.1% did so in developing countries. Guidelines governing such research were better adhered to in developed countries than in developing countries. Where there were no authors who were not part of investigators in developed countries, 16.3% of industry-sponsored research in developing countries included authors who were not part of the investigators. Research ethics committees were present in 94% and 58% of institutions in developed and developing countries respectively. Review bodies were available in 57% and 41% in developed and developing countries. Industry-sponsored research is necessary; it is much more common in developed

  15. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  16. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  17. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  18. Higher Education Research Methodology-Literature Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Guijuan

    2009-01-01

    Starting by a brief introduction of literature method, this paper raises the question of how to choose representative research literatures. For this question, Professor Hongcai Wang points out the root of this problem and the strategies to resolve it and provides the ways to choose representative literatures. Through analyzing and summarizing,…

  19. PMARC - PANEL METHOD AMES RESEARCH CENTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Panel methods are moderate cost tools for solving a wide range of engineering problems. PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) is a potential flow panel code that numerically predicts flow fields around complex three-dimensional geometries. PMARC's predecessor was a panel code named VSAERO which was developed for NASA by Analytical Methods, Inc. PMARC is a new program with many additional subroutines and a well-documented code suitable for powered-lift aerodynamic predictions. The program's open architecture facilitates modifications or additions of new features. Another improvement is the adjustable size code which allows for an optimum match between the computer hardware available to the user and the size of the problem being solved. PMARC can be resized (the maximum number of panels can be changed) in a matter of minutes. Several other state-of-the-art PMARC features include internal flow modeling for ducts and wind tunnel test sections, simple jet plume modeling essential for the analysis and design of powered-lift aircraft, and a time-stepping wake model which allows the study of both steady and unsteady motions. PMARC is a low-order panel method, which means the singularities are distributed with constant strength over each panel. In many cases low-order methods can provide nearly the same accuracy as higher order methods (where the singularities are allowed to vary linearly or quadratically over each panel). Low-order methods have the advantage of a shorter computation time and do not require exact matching between panels. The flow problem is solved by assuming that the body is at rest in a moving flow field. The body is modeled as a closed surface which divides space into two regions -- one region contains the flow field of interest and the other contains a fictitious flow. External flow problems, such as a wing in a uniform stream, have the external region as the flow field of interest and the internal flow as the fictitious flow. This arrangement is

  20. PMARC - PANEL METHOD AMES RESEARCH CENTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Panel methods are moderate cost tools for solving a wide range of engineering problems. PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) is a potential flow panel code that numerically predicts flow fields around complex three-dimensional geometries. PMARC's predecessor was a panel code named VSAERO which was developed for NASA by Analytical Methods, Inc. PMARC is a new program with many additional subroutines and a well-documented code suitable for powered-lift aerodynamic predictions. The program's open architecture facilitates modifications or additions of new features. Another improvement is the adjustable size code which allows for an optimum match between the computer hardware available to the user and the size of the problem being solved. PMARC can be resized (the maximum number of panels can be changed) in a matter of minutes. Several other state-of-the-art PMARC features include internal flow modeling for ducts and wind tunnel test sections, simple jet plume modeling essential for the analysis and design of powered-lift aircraft, and a time-stepping wake model which allows the study of both steady and unsteady motions. PMARC is a low-order panel method, which means the singularities are distributed with constant strength over each panel. In many cases low-order methods can provide nearly the same accuracy as higher order methods (where the singularities are allowed to vary linearly or quadratically over each panel). Low-order methods have the advantage of a shorter computation time and do not require exact matching between panels. The flow problem is solved by assuming that the body is at rest in a moving flow field. The body is modeled as a closed surface which divides space into two regions -- one region contains the flow field of interest and the other contains a fictitious flow. External flow problems, such as a wing in a uniform stream, have the external region as the flow field of interest and the internal flow as the fictitious flow. This arrangement is

  1. Developing a Shared Research Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ira S.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    1990-01-01

    Planning, creation, and current operation of the Transgenic Mouse Research Facility at the New York University Kaplan Cancer Center are discussed. The university considered need, space, funding, supervision, and marketing and followed a logical and structured management process embodying both scientific and administrative input. (Author/MSE)

  2. Developing a Shared Research Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ira S.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    1990-01-01

    Planning, creation, and current operation of the Transgenic Mouse Research Facility at the New York University Kaplan Cancer Center are discussed. The university considered need, space, funding, supervision, and marketing and followed a logical and structured management process embodying both scientific and administrative input. (Author/MSE)

  3. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  4. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative…

  5. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings X: a high-throughput electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method for screening organic coatings for corrosion inhibition.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhigang; Balbyshev, Séva N; Bonitz, Verena; Bierwagen, Gordon P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a high-throughput electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (HT-EIS) method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of corrosion protective coatings. A 12-element, spatially addressable electrochemical platform was designed, fabricated, and validated. This platform was interfaced to a commercial EIS instrument through an automated electronic switching unit. The HT-EIS system enables four parallel EIS measurements to be run simultaneously, which significantly reduces characterization time compared to that of serial EIS measurements using a multiplexer. The performance of the HT-EIS system was validated using a series of model systems, including a Randles equivalent circuit, an electrochemical reaction (Ti/K4FeCN6, K3FeCN6), a highly uniform polymer film, and several polymer coatings. The results of the validation studies showed that the HT-EIS system enables a major reduction in characterization time and provides high quality data comparable to data obtained with conventional, single-cell EIS measurement systems.

  6. Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles

    2007-12-01

    In this article, the authors clarify a framework for qualitative research, in particular for evaluating its quality, founded on epistemology, methodology, and method. They define these elements and discuss their respective contributions and interrelationships. Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly in the participant- researcher relationship, measures of research quality, and form, voice, and representation in analysis and writing. Epistemology guides methodological choices and is axiological. Methodology shapes and is shaped by research objectives, questions, and study design. Methodologies can prescribe choices of method, resonate with particular academic disciplines, and encourage or discourage the use and/or development of theory. Method is constrained by and makes visible methodological and epistemic choices. If we define good quality qualitative research as research that attends to all three elements and demonstrates internal consistency between them, standardized checklists can be transcended and innovation and diversity in qualitative research practice facilitated.

  7. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  8. 2010-11 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research that the ETS (Educational Testing Service) Research & Development division is conducting in 2010. This portfolio will be updated in early 2011 to reflect changes to existing projects and new projects that were added after this document was completed. The research described in this portfolio falls…

  9. Leadership Education Research: Do Methods Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Pennington, Penny; Wall, Leah

    This research study sought to determine the impact of an agricultural leadership program on rural community development beyond self-report survey data typically collected for program evaluation. Two hundred-ninety graduates of a program that taught leadership skills to impact policy at local, state, and national levels to adults aged 25-45 who…

  10. Development of the Research Competencies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Research Competencies Scale (RCS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the RCS, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used in developing the RCS, and (c) offer implications for counselor education, the enhancement of scholar-researchers, and future research.

  11. Development of the Research Competencies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Research Competencies Scale (RCS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the RCS, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used in developing the RCS, and (c) offer implications for counselor education, the enhancement of scholar-researchers, and future research.

  12. Research and Development Interpretation Service. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    The Research and Development Interpretation Service (RDIS) and its activities as a regional support of the Research and Development Exchange (RDx) are described; both organizations are part of a federal effort to bring educational research and school practice closer together. Goals for RDx include interagency cooperation and dissemination of…

  13. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    CIEE`s second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director`s discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  14. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    CIEE's second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director's discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  15. Developing Learning Cohorts for Postgraduate Research Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Delahaye, Brian L.; Saggers, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Development of researchers through higher degree research studies is a high priority in most universities. Yet, research about supervision as pedagogy and models of supervision is only recently gained increasing attention. Charged with producing good researchers within very limited resources, academics are constantly looking for more efficient…

  16. Research Skills Development in Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergamini, Tiziana Priede; Navarro, Cristina Lopez-Cozar

    2014-01-01

    This case study presents the development of a research project in a third-year undergraduate course, Family Business Administration. The research project aimed at promoting research skills in students. The authors formed working groups of no more than six students, and each group had to select an original research topic after conducting a…

  17. [Baseflow separation methods in hydrological process research: a review].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Jing-Lin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2011-11-01

    Baseflow separation research is regarded as one of the most important and difficult issues in hydrology and ecohydrology, but lacked of unified standards in the concepts and methods. This paper introduced the theories of baseflow separation based on the definitions of baseflow components, and analyzed the development course of different baseflow separation methods. Among the methods developed, graph separation method is simple and applicable but arbitrary, balance method accords with hydrological mechanism but is difficult in application, whereas time series separation method and isotopic method can overcome the subjective and arbitrary defects caused by graph separation method, and thus can obtain the baseflow procedure quickly and efficiently. In recent years, hydrological modeling, digital filtering, and isotopic method are the main methods used for baseflow separation.

  18. [DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH OF BIOLOGICAL DRESSING].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinpeng; Luo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To review the research progress of modern biological dressings. The related literature at home and abroad was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized in the progress of biological dressing situation and various types of biological dressing research. Compared with the traditional dressing, the biological dressing can greatly promote wound healing. Biological dressings are mainly divided into the natural materials, artificial synthetic materials, and drug loaded dressings. The natural material dressings are mainly the alginate dressing, this kind of dressing can promote wound healing, which has been confirmed by a large number of studies. The artificial synthetic materials include film dressings, liquid, water colloids, gels, and foam, each has its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be chosen according to need. The drug dressing can play the role of drug loading, and further promote the wound healing; using microcapsule technology to construct the dressing and choosing Chinese medicine as drugs is the research direction of load. The experiment and clinical application of biological dressing are many types, clinical application prospect is wide, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages, further study is needed to improve its efficacy.

  19. PMARC - PANEL METHOD AMES RESEARCH CENTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Panel methods are moderate cost tools for solving a wide range of engineering problems. PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) is a potential flow panel code that numerically predicts flow fields around complex three-dimensional geometries. PMARC's predecessor was a panel code named VSAERO which was developed for NASA by Analytical Methods, Inc. PMARC is a new program with many additional subroutines and a well-documented code suitable for powered-lift aerodynamic predictions. The program's open architecture facilitates modifications or additions of new features. Another improvement is the adjustable size code which allows for an optimum match between the computer hardware available to the user and the size of the problem being solved. PMARC can be resized (the maximum number of panels can be changed) in a matter of minutes. Several other state-of-the-art PMARC features include internal flow modeling for ducts and wind tunnel test sections, simple jet plume modeling essential for the analysis and design of powered-lift aircraft, and a time-stepping wake model which allows the study of both steady and unsteady motions. PMARC is a low-order panel method, which means the singularities are distributed with constant strength over each panel. In many cases low-order methods can provide nearly the same accuracy as higher order methods (where the singularities are allowed to vary linearly or quadratically over each panel). Low-order methods have the advantage of a shorter computation time and do not require exact matching between panels. The flow problem is solved by assuming that the body is at rest in a moving flow field. The body is modeled as a closed surface which divides space into two regions -- one region contains the flow field of interest and the other contains a fictitious flow. External flow problems, such as a wing in a uniform stream, have the external region as the flow field of interest and the internal flow as the fictitious flow. This arrangement is

  20. Narrative methods in quality improvement research

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, T; Russell, J; Swinglehurst, D

    2005-01-01

    

 This paper reviews and critiques the different approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research. The defining characteristics of narrative are chronology (unfolding over time); emplotment (the literary juxtaposing of actions and events in an implicitly causal sequence); trouble (that is, harm or the risk of harm); and embeddedness (the personal story nests within a particular social, historical and organisational context). Stories are about purposeful action unfolding in the face of trouble and, as such, have much to offer quality improvement researchers. But the quality improvement report (a story about efforts to implement change), which is common, must be distinguished carefully from narrative based quality improvement research (focused systematic enquiry that uses narrative methods to generate new knowledge), which is currently none. We distinguish four approaches to the use of narrative in quality improvement research—narrative interview; naturalistic story gathering; organisational case study; and collective sense-making—and offer a rationale, describe how data can be collected and analysed, and discuss the strengths and limitations of each using examples from the quality improvement literature. Narrative research raises epistemological questions about the nature of narrative truth (characterised by sense-making and emotional impact rather than scientific objectivity), which has implications for how rigour should be defined (and how it might be achieved) in this type of research. We offer some provisional guidance for distinguishing high quality narrative research in a quality improvement setting from other forms of narrative account such as report, anecdote, and journalism. PMID:16326792

  1. Recent developments in photorespiration research.

    PubMed

    Bauwe, Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Photorespiration is the light-dependent release of CO(2) initiated by Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) during oxygenic photosynthesis. It occurs during the biochemical reactions of the photorespiratory C(2) cycle, which is an ancillary metabolic process that allows photosynthesis to occur in oxygen-containing environments. Recent research has identified the genes for many plant photorespiratory enzymes, allowing precise functional analyses by reverse genetics. Similar studies with cyanobacteria disclosed the evolutionary origin of photorespiratory metabolism in these ancestors of plastids.

  2. Research, Development and Engineering Center Contract Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-07

    CECOM Bottom Line: THE WARFIGHTER 2 of 362 Research, Development and Engineering Center Contract Opportunities ...to) 06MAY2002 - 07MAY2002 Title and Subtitle Research, Development and Engineering Center Contract Opportunities Contract Number Grant Number...Number of Pages 68 CECOM Bottom Line: THE WARFIGHTER 3 of 362 h Identify, develop, evaluate and tailor emerging Information Technologies. hFacilitate

  3. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  4. Recent developments. [Lead toxicity research

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L.; Bellinger, D.

    1988-08-01

    This commentary was made to further interpret the authors' studies of lead and child development and to place these studies in the proper biological and epidemiological context. Their studies demonstrate that the use of more sensitive measures of outcome and better epidemiological designs leads to identification of effects at doses previously held to be harmless.

  5. Teacher Research for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin

    2008-01-01

    Current in-service education and training programmes (INSET) are often found to be unsatisfactory due to the fact that they do not provide the teachers with opportunities to be actively involved in their development and to reflect on their teaching experiences. This study presents an INSET programme in which Turkish EFL teachers were provided with…

  6. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Twenty Years of Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research Journal,""Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational Research."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Woehlke, Paula L.

    Research methods used in articles published in the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ), "Educational Researcher" (ER), and the "Review of Educational Research" (RER) were studied for the years 1978 to 1997. Articles were read to identify and categorize the research methods and statistical techniques used in…

  8. Data Collection Methods in Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, K.-A.; Skinner, E.H.; Mitchell, D.; Haas, R.; Ho, M.; Salter, K.; May, K.; Markham, D.; O’Brien, L.; Plumb, S.; Haines, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hospital length of stay and discharge destination are important outcome measures in evaluating effectiveness and efficiency of health services. Although hospital administrative data are readily used as a data collection source in health services research, no research has assessed this data collection method against other commonly used methods. Objective Determine if administrative data from electronic patient management programs are an effective data collection method for key hospital outcome measures when compared with alternative hospital data collection methods. Method Prospective observational study comparing the completeness of data capture and level of agreement between three data collection methods; manual data collection from ward-based sources, administrative data from an electronic patient management program (i.PM), and inpatient medical record review (gold standard) for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Results Manual data collection from ward-based sources captured only 376 (69%) of the 542 inpatient episodes captured from the hospital administrative electronic patient management program. Administrative data from the electronic patient management program had the highest levels of agreement with inpatient medical record review for both length of stay (93.4%) and discharge destination (91%) data. Conclusion This is the first paper to demonstrate differences between data collection methods for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Administrative data from an electronic patient management program showed the highest level of completeness of capture and level of agreement with the gold standard of inpatient medical record review for both length of stay and discharge destination, and therefore may be an acceptable data collection method for these measures. PMID:25848416

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR METHODS TO DETECT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A large number of human enteric viruses are known to cause gastrointestinal illness and waterborne outbreaks. Many of these are emerging viruses that do not grow or grow poorly in cell culture and so molecular detectoin methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are being developed. Current studies focus on detecting two virus groups, the caliciviruses and the hepatitis E virus strains, both of which have been found to cause significant outbraks via contaminated drinking water. Once developed, these methods will be used to collect occurrence data for risk assessment studies. Develop sensitive techniques to detect and identify emerging human waterborne pathogenic viruses and viruses on the CCL.Determine effectiveness of viral indicators to measure microbial quality in water matrices.Support activities: (a) culture and distribution of mammalian cells for Agency and scientific community research needs, (b) provide operator expertise for research requiring confocal and electron microscopy, (c) glassware cleaning, sterilization and biological waste disposal for the Cincinnati EPA facility, (d) operation of infectious pathogenic suite, (e) maintenance of walk-in constant temperature rooms and (f) provide Giardia cysts.

  10. Doe Research and Development Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell-Mann, Murray

    Forty years ago, I arrived at M.I.T. as a graduate student. I was discouraged at having been rejected by Princeton and granted insufficient financial aid by Harvard. The only really friendly letter that I received from a graduate school in physics was one from M.I.T. welcoming me as a potential student and as a research assistant in theoretical physics to a certain Professor Weisskopf, of whom I had never heard, but who added a personal letter of invitation of his own. I have described elsewhere how that letter arrived as I was contemplating suicide, as befits someone rejected by the Ivy League. It occurred to me however, (and it is an interesting example of non-commutation of operators) that I could try M.I.T. first and kill myself later, while the reverse order of events was impossible…

  11. Faculty development in medical education research.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  12. Worldwide Report. Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    044110 JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 Worldwide Report TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH , AND DEVELOPMENT * DISTRIBUTION STATEl^TT A...Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS ASIA...into an expenditure of 3.25 bil- lion in current lire on research and development —a period that corresponds on the average to 11.5 percent of

  13. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy storage research and development

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, US consumers experienced the highest sustained gasoline prices in recent history, in real terms, including those seen in the early 1980s1. Partially as a result of the $3/gallon gasoline prices, sales of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) increased almost 60% in 20072, and several automakers announced plans to develop plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)3. However, total sales of HEVs remained in the 2-3 percent range of all vehicle sales. An important step for continued HEV market penetration, as well as electrifying the nation's personal transportation, is the development of cost effective, long lasting, and abuse tolerant Li-ion batteries.

  15. Issues and Methods in Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Alvarez, Maria; Colon, Angel; Esteban, Cynthia; Febo, Vivian; Klein, Robert B.; Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Montealegre, Federico; Ortega, Alexander N.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Epidemiologic studies have documented higher rates of asthma prevalence and morbidity in minority children compared to non-Latino white (NLW) children. Few studies focus on the mechanisms involved in explaining this disparity, and fewer still on the methodological challenges involved in rigorous disparities research. Objectives and Methods This article provides an overview of challenges and potential solutions to research design for studies of health disparities. The methodological issues described in this article were framed on an empirical model of asthma health disparities that views disparities as resulting from several factors related to the healthcare system and the individual/community system. The methods used in the Rhode Island–Puerto Rico Asthma Center are provided as examples, illustrating the challenges in executing disparities research. Results Several methods are described: distinguishing ethnic/racial differences from methodological artifacts, identifying and adapting culturally sensitive measures to explain disparities, and addressing the challenges involved in determining asthma and its severity in Latino and other minority children. The measures employed are framed within each of the components of the conceptual model presented. Conclusions Understanding ethnic and/or cultural disparities in asthma morbidity is a complicated process. Methodologic approaches to studying the problem must reflect this complexity, allowing us to move from documenting disparities to understanding them, and ultimately to reducing them. PMID:19658111

  16. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    of microstructural evolution, (5) development of Gamma and Beta-Gamma titanium alloys towards rolled sheets for thermal protection applications, ( 6 ...the hydrostatic stress. This work was published in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A by Nicolaou, Miller, and Semiatin [ 6 ]. 4 2.2.2 The...observed values for the Titanium 6242s measured by Porter and John, as well as Ti6- 4 alloy reported on by Chan in Mater. Trans, 2008. In addition

  17. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    possibility of developing a surface-pressure sensor for forging dies using an ultrasonic probe. The work conducted by UES in support of this project...NUMBER 4347 5e. TASK NUMBER 53 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas R. Barker Robert L. Goetz 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 06 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...2 2.1.1 A Criterion for Intergranular Fracture During Hot Working of a Near Gamma

  18. Surface inspection: Research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelder, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

  19. Microbial Resistant Test Method Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because humans spend most of their time in the indoor environment, environmental analysis of the quality of indoor air has become an important research topic. A major component of the aerosol in the indoor environment consists of biological particles, called bioaerosols, and fur...

  20. Microbial Resistant Test Method Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because humans spend most of their time in the indoor environment, environmental analysis of the quality of indoor air has become an important research topic. A major component of the aerosol in the indoor environment consists of biological particles, called bioaerosols, and fur...

  1. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    PubMed

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Learning by doing: developing fellows' academic skills through collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Miguel G; Evans, Arthur T; Brobbey, Wahab; Phillips, Martin; Lo, Evelyn; Rezai, Katayoun; Schwartz, David N; Trenholme, Gordon M; Weinstein, Robert A

    2006-02-01

    Physicians in postgraduate training are expected to learn research methods but how best to achieve that curricular goal is unclear. This article describes a novel educational approach to develop research skills among infectious disease fellows. Five infectious disease fellows and two faculty members participated in a collaborative research project as a vehicle for active, problem-based learning. During the learning experience several tasks with specific learning objectives were achieved. The authors evaluated the weaknesses and strengths of the collaborative research project as an educational program. This problem-based approach for learning research methods seems more effective than traditional methods and may be applicable to a broad range of training programs.

  3. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  4. Putting Writing Research into Practice: Applications for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A., Ed.; Shankland, Rebecca K., Ed.; Heintz, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    What are the most effective methods for teaching writing across grade levels and student populations? What kind of training do teachers need to put research-validated methods into practice? This unique volume combines the latest writing research with clear-cut recommendations for designing high-quality professional development efforts. Prominent…

  5. Putting Writing Research into Practice: Applications for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A., Ed.; Shankland, Rebecca K., Ed.; Heintz, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    What are the most effective methods for teaching writing across grade levels and student populations? What kind of training do teachers need to put research-validated methods into practice? This unique volume combines the latest writing research with clear-cut recommendations for designing high-quality professional development efforts. Prominent…

  6. Adapting biomarker technologies to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) research: current thoughts on using in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) research is a relatively new concept in human systems biology for assessing the molecular level linkage from an initiating (chemical) event that could lead to a disease state. Although most implementations of AOPs are based on liquids analyses, the...

  7. Adapting biomarker technologies to adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) research: current thoughts on using in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) research is a relatively new concept in human systems biology for assessing the molecular level linkage from an initiating (chemical) event that could lead to a disease state. Although most implementations of AOPs are based on liquids analyses, the...

  8. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  9. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  10. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  11. Methods Development for Electron Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    of the desired flux distribution is not known a priori. The reconstruction is based on an expansion in Legendre polynomials coupled with the multiple...AMERR,PE,QU,FTC,U,LNR,LKR,LA,LO,LX,LLR) IMPLICIT DOUBLE PRECISION (A-H,O-Z) C NUMERICAL ALGORITHM C CALCULATES FLUX DISTRIBUTION PHI C FOR ALL...617) 377-2360. The Prime Contractor is Calspan/UB Research Center, PO Box 403, Buffalo N.’ 14225. 12a. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b

  12. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  13. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  14. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  15. Research in Review: Prosocial Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1982-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on various aspects of prosocial development, discusses curricula designed to increase the ability of young children to behave in prosocial ways, and lists six factors that can be used to facilitate children's prosocial development. (RH)

  16. Research in Review: Prosocial Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1982-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on various aspects of prosocial development, discusses curricula designed to increase the ability of young children to behave in prosocial ways, and lists six factors that can be used to facilitate children's prosocial development. (RH)

  17. Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

  18. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  19. Research and Development Work: Developing Teachers as Researchers or Just Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postholm, May Britt

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the theoretical frame of action research and the teacher as researcher, working through a Norwegian Research Council-funded project in a school that explored learning strategies for pupils' subject and social development. Action research is here called research and development (R&D) work as the term envisages that…

  20. Partnering for Effective Educational Researching for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2012-01-01

    That research is a veritable tool for rapid social and economic development is undoubtedly well known globally. That educational researching is fraught with multi-dimensional challenges cannot be over-stressed. That multi-disciplinary approach and public-private, public-public, private-private partnership in educational researching for better and…

  1. An Agenda for Research on Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    This assessment of the status of research on instructional development (ID) discusses such conceptual problems as the confusion between ID and instructional design, reviews previous research, and proposes a framework for future ID research. Decision-oriented issues discussed within this framework include: (1) administrative and policy issues of ID…

  2. Partnering for Effective Educational Researching for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2012-01-01

    That research is a veritable tool for rapid social and economic development is undoubtedly well known globally. That educational researching is fraught with multi-dimensional challenges cannot be over-stressed. That multi-disciplinary approach and public-private, public-public, private-private partnership in educational researching for better and…

  3. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  4. Method Of Predicting Size Of Software Under Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Murthy, Subramanyam K.

    1994-01-01

    Method of estimating size and complexity of large computer program under development based on metric called "function mass." Simplification of Demarco's "function bang" metric. Size of completed program usually expressed in terms of number of lines of code (SLOC), shown in previous research to be highly correlated with amount of development effort and therefore important predictor of development cost. Proposed method of estimating ultimate size of program is intermediate product of continuing research on estimation of size and structured analysis of developmental software.

  5. THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH COMPETENCIES OF PERSONNEL IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, CHARLES W.; TOWNE, DOUGLAS C.

    SIX 1-WEEK SEMINARS WERE HELD TO DEVELOP INCREASED RESEARCH KNOWLEDGES, COMPETENCIES, AND INTERESTS OF INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. THE SEMINARS DEALT WITH THE PROBLEM AREAS OF (1) DEVELOPMENT AND COORDINATION OF RESEARCH BY STATE RESEARCH COORDINATING UNITS, (2) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, (3) TESTS AND MEASUREMENT, (4)…

  6. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  7. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  8. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  9. Action Research for Developing Social Workers' Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa

    2009-01-01

    We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…

  10. Action Research for Developing Social Workers' Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa

    2009-01-01

    We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…

  11. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  12. European Youth Research: Development, Debates, Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents the development of European youth research as a distinctive field of study. It draws attention to the sociopolitical context in which the field has emerged, outlines the key dimensions of the field's agenda, reports on significant facets of theory and research development to date, and briefly considers the field's…

  13. Research in Review. Malnutrition and Children's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  14. Research in Review. Malnutrition and Children's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  15. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  16. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  17. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  18. Developing and executing an effective research plan.

    PubMed

    Weber, Robert J; Cobaugh, Daniel J

    2008-11-01

    Practical approaches to successful implementation of practice-based research are examined. In order to successfully complete a research project, its scope must be clearly defined. The research question and the specific aims or objectives should guide the study. For practice-based research, the clinical setting is the most likely source to find important research questions. The research idea should be realistic and relevant to the interests of the investigators and the organization and its patients. Once the lead investigator has developed a research idea, a comprehensive literature review should be performed. The aims of the project should be new, relevant, concise, and feasible. The researchers must budget adequate time to carefully consider, develop, and seek input on the research question and objectives using the principles of project management. Identifying a group of individuals that can work together to ensure successful completion of the proposed research should be one of the first steps in developing the research plan. Dividing work tasks can alleviate workload for individual members of the research team. The development of a timeline to help guide the execution of the research project plan is critical. Steps that can be especially time-consuming include obtaining financial support, garnering support from key stakeholders, and getting institutional review board consent. One of the primary goals of conducting research is to share the knowledge that has been gained through presentations at national and international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed biomedical journals. Practice-based research presents numerous challenges, especially for new investigators. Integration of the principles of project management into research planning can lead to more efficient study execution and higher-quality results.

  19. Development of the Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Christopher B; Chesley, Francis D; Tregear, Michelle L; Mistry, Kamila B

    2017-08-04

    To develop core competencies for learning health system (LHS) researchers to guide the development of training programs. Data were obtained from literature review, expert interviews, a modified Delphi process, and consensus development meetings. The competencies were developed from August to December 2016 using qualitative methods. The literature review formed the basis for the initial draft of a competency domain framework. Key informant semi-structured interviews, a modified Delphi survey, and three expert panel (n = 19 members) consensus development meetings produced the final set of competencies. The iterative development process yielded seven competency domains: (1) systems science; (2) research questions and standards of scientific evidence; (3) research methods; (4) informatics; (5) ethics of research and implementation in health systems; (6) improvement and implementation science; and (7) engagement, leadership, and research management. A total of 33 core competencies were prioritized across these seven domains. The real-world milieu of LHS research, the embeddedness of the researcher within the health system, and engagement of stakeholders are distinguishing characteristics of this emerging field. The LHS researcher core competencies can be used to guide the development of learning objectives, evaluation methods, and curricula for training programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a significant rate of mortality in pregnant women. Thus far, a hepatitis E outbreak has not been reported in the U. S. although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Since it will be important to identify the presence of this virus in the water supply, we have developed and are testing a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method that should be able to identify all of the known HEV strains. Develop sensitive techniques to detect and identify emerging human waterborne pathogenic viruses and viruses on the CCL.Determine effectiveness of viral indicators to measure microbial quality in water matrices.Support activities: (a) culture and distribution of mammalian cells for Agency and scientific community research needs, (b) provide operator expertise for research requiring confocal and electron microscopy, (c) glassware cleaning, sterilization and biological waste disposal for the Cincinnati EPA facility, (d) operation of infectious pathogenic suite, (e) maintenance of walk-in constant temperature rooms and (f) provide Giardia cysts.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a significant rate of mortality in pregnant women. Thus far, a hepatitis E outbreak has not been reported in the U. S. although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Since it will be important to identify the presence of this virus in the water supply, we have developed and are testing a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method that should be able to identify all of the known HEV strains. Develop sensitive techniques to detect and identify emerging human waterborne pathogenic viruses and viruses on the CCL.Determine effectiveness of viral indicators to measure microbial quality in water matrices.Support activities: (a) culture and distribution of mammalian cells for Agency and scientific community research needs, (b) provide operator expertise for research requiring confocal and electron microscopy, (c) glassware cleaning, sterilization and biological waste disposal for the Cincinnati EPA facility, (d) operation of infectious pathogenic suite, (e) maintenance of walk-in constant temperature rooms and (f) provide Giardia cysts.

  2. The Use of In Situ X-ray Imaging Methods in the Research and Development of Magnesium-Based Grain-Refined and Nanocomposite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillekens, W. H.; Casari, D.; Mirihanage, W. U.; Terzi, S.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Salvo, L.; Daudin, R.; Lhuissier, P.; Guo, E.; Lee, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of microwave energy on the structural and electrical properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Five different compositions of Zr1-x Y x O2-x/2 (x = 0.06-0.14) were prepared by a co-precipitation method and were then sintered by microwave as well as conventional heating at 1400°C for 20 min and 240 min, respectively. The structural and electrical properties of the samples sintered by both the methods were compared. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that YSZ samples sintered by both methods had either a tetragonal crystal structure or a cubic structure depending on its composition. Almost the same degree of densification as well as conductivity of same order was found from impedance analysis for both microwave- and conventionally sintered YSZ products, which showed that microwave sintering is the better alternative for material processing in terms of saving energy and time without compromising the product quality.

  3. Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Jens; Abraham, Marion; Amelung, Wulf; Baum, Christel; Bol, Roland; Kühn, Oliver; Lewandowski, Hans; Niederberger, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Rüger, Christopher; Santner, Jakob; Siebers, Meike; Siebers, Nina; Spohn, Marie; Vestergren, Johan; Vogts, Angela; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, 33P isotopic exchange, 18O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations. PMID:26167132

  4. DOE supported research in alcohol fuel technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored research in alcohol fuel technology development under the direction of Congress and Public Law 96-126. Twenty-seven research grants of about $50,000 each were funded to develop lower cost methods for alcohol fuel production. This paper discusses the objectives of the program and relates the accomplishments achieved by the research. A discussion of the highlights of several selected projects is included.

  5. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-21

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

  6. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  7. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH METHODS IN MATHEMATICS TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DU BOIS, PHILIP H.; FEIERABEND, ROSALIND L.

    A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE AND A RESEARCH METHODS INVENTORY, RELATING TO THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS AT ALL ACADEMIC LEVELS, WERE CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP A HANDBOOK OR GUIDE FOR USE BY INVESTIGATORS IN THE FIELD OF MATHEMATICS TEACHING. THIS EFFORT TOOK PLACE DURING A 3-MONTH PERIOD WHICH INCLUDED SYSTEMATIC SURVEYS OF LITERATURE…

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH METHODS IN MATHEMATICS TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DU BOIS, PHILIP H.; FEIERABEND, ROSALIND L.

    A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE AND A RESEARCH METHODS INVENTORY, RELATING TO THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS AT ALL ACADEMIC LEVELS, WERE CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP A HANDBOOK OR GUIDE FOR USE BY INVESTIGATORS IN THE FIELD OF MATHEMATICS TEACHING. THIS EFFORT TOOK PLACE DURING A 3-MONTH PERIOD WHICH INCLUDED SYSTEMATIC SURVEYS OF LITERATURE…

  10. Research methods to develop Measures of Effectiveness of the United States Coast Guard`s Vessel Inspection and Boarding Program. Volume 2, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, T.; Cox, R.; Gawande, K.; Stone, R.; Waisel, L.; Wallace, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) of the US Coast Guard Marine Inspection and Boarding Program based on objective scientific methods. A secondary objective of the study is to provide USCG management with a methodologically and theoretically sound aid to effective policy decision-making. The MOEs constructed in this study are specific to the Marine Inspection and Boarding Program, but the methodology of the study is based on sound theoretical principles that are probably applicable to a range of USCG activities. Hence the methodology applied equally to other important USCG programs and can be similarly used to measure their effectiveness and as an aid to decision-making.

  11. Research methods to develop measures of effectiveness of the United States Coast Guard`s Vessel Inspection and Boarding Program, Volume 1 - executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, T.; Cox, R.; Gawande, K.

    1995-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) of the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Inspection and Boarding Program based on objective scientific methods. A secondary objective of the study is to provide USCG management with a methodologically and theoretically sound aid to effective policy decision-making. The MOEs constructed in this study are specific to the Marine Inspection and Boarding Program, but the methodology of the study is based on sound theoretical principles that are probably applicable to a range of USCG activities. Hence the methodology applies equally to other important USCG programs and can be similarly used to measure their effectiveness and as an aid to decision-making.

  12. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks) in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies. PMID:20196839

  13. Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations. PMID:23340183

  14. Research of thermal processes in the soil during the development of oil fields in the Far North by the compression method with heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, A. S.; Tarasov, V. A.; Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.; Boyarskaya, R. V.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the hazard of adverse heat effect on permafrost soil as a result of viscous oil production in the Far North is studied with the method of thermocompression supply of superheated water steam to the oil-bearing layer. It is found that, due to the divergent nature of heat transfer and convective complex movement of air in the space between the tubing and the casing, the temperature of the latter in the area of load-bearing elements heated to 130°C is about 70°C. The heterogeneity of the temperature field is leveled up to 4-5% at a distance of 400-420 mm from the axis of the tubing. The thickness of the melting layer of ground ice within 90 days of operation of the tubing depends on the percentage of water-filled pores in the soil. With the minimum (10%) percentage of water-filled pores in the soil layer, the thickness of the ground ice melting layer for 90 days of operation of the tubing does not exceed 2.6 m.

  15. From health research to social research: privacy, methods, approaches.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Lix, Lisa; Roos, Noralou P; Walld, Randy; MacWilliam, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Information-rich environments in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom have been built using record linkage techniques with population-based health insurance systems and longitudinal administrative data. This paper discusses the issues in extending population-based administrative data from health to additional topics more generally connected with well being. The scope of work associated with a multi-faceted American survey, the Panel Study in Income Dynamics (PSID), is compared with that of the administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Both the PSID and the Manitoba database go back over 30 years, include families, and have good information on residential location. The PSID has emphasized research design to maximize the opportunities associated with expensive primary data collection. Information-rich environments such as that in Manitoba depend on registries and record linkage to increase the range of variables available for analysis. Using new databases on education and income assistance to provide information on the whole Manitoba population has involved linking files while preserving privacy, scaling educational achievement, assessing exposure to a given neighborhood, and measuring family circumstances. Questions being studied concern the role of the socioeconomic gradient and infant health in child development, the comparative influence of family and neighborhood in later well being, and the long-term effects of poverty reduction. Issues of organization of research, gaps in the data, and productivity are discussed.

  16. Deliberative Engagement Methods for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Morain, Stephanie R; Whicher, Danielle M; Kass, Nancy E; Faden, Ruth R

    2017-04-03

    There is growing emphasis on eliciting and incorporating stakeholder perspectives into health research and public policy development. The deliberative engagement session (DES) method provides one approach to elicit informed preferences from patients and other stakeholders on policy issues. DES involves day-long interaction with participants, including short plenary presentations followed by small group discussion. While interest in DES methods is expanding, practical guidance for researchers on this method remains limited. In this paper, we describe the DES method and its contemporary relevance for health policy research, illustrate how to conduct a DES using an example of a recent patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) study with which we were involved, and discuss strengths and challenges of using this approach. DES methods generate rich data, reduce the risk of eliciting uniformed preferences or non-attitudes, and increase the likelihood of eliciting informed, reflective preferences. However, they are resource-intensive, and thus generally require trading away a larger, more representative sample. Despite these limitations, the DES method, when carefully designed, is well-suited for engaging stakeholders in research on complex health policy issues.

  17. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  18. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  19. Employing Design and Development Research (DDR): Approaches in the Design and Development of Online Arabic Vocabulary Learning Games Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahrir, Muhammad Sabri; Alias, Nor Aziah; Ismail, Zawawi; Osman, Nurulhuda

    2012-01-01

    The design and development research, first proposed by Brown and Collins in the 1990s, is currently among the well-known methods in educational research to test theory and validate its practicality. The method is also known as developmental research, design research, design-based research, formative research and design-cased and possesses…

  20. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  1. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  2. Immunological methods for nursing research: from cells to systems.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Helena W; Downs, Charles A

    2011-07-01

    Scientists and clinicians frequently use immunological methods (IMs) to investigate complex biological phenomena. Commonly used IMs include immunocytochemistry (IC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Each of these methodologies exploits a common principle in IMs -the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Scientists continue to develop new methodologies, such as high-throughput immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in vivo imaging techniques, which exploit antibody-antigen binding, to more accurately answer complex research questions involving single cells up to whole organ systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss established and evolving IMs and to illustrate the application of these methods to nursing research.

  3. [Genotoxicity research thought and method on traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-yin; Yi, Yan; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lian-mei; Li, Gui-qin

    2015-07-01

    Genotoxicity research takes an important place in traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation. Genotoxicity test on traditional Chinese medicine has been paid great attention since 1970s. Currently, the most developed genotoxicity test methods included: bacterial reverse mutation test and mouse lymphoma assay which are used to detect relevant genetic changes, micronucleus test and chromosomal analysis which are used to measure chromosomal aberration, and single cell electrophoresis assay which is used to test DNA damage. This article reviews research progress on genotoxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, evaluation methods of genotoxicity, the problems and solutions on genotoxicity evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and new technique used in genotoxicity test.

  4. Sampling methods in Clinical Research; an Educational Review.

    PubMed

    Elfil, Mohamed; Negida, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Clinical research usually involves patients with a certain disease or a condition. The generalizability of clinical research findings is based on multiple factors related to the internal and external validity of the research methods. The main methodological issue that influences the generalizability of clinical research findings is the sampling method. In this educational article, we are explaining the different sampling methods in clinical research.

  5. Review article: medical education research: an overview of methods.

    PubMed

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Saroo; Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott

    2012-02-01

    This article provides clinician-teachers with an overview of the process necessary to move from an initial idea to the conceptualization and implementation of an empirical study in the field of medical education. This article will allow clinician-teachers to become familiar with educational research methodology in order to a) critically appraise education research studies and apply evidence-based education more effectively to their practice and b) initiate or collaborate in medical education research. This review uses relevant articles published in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and sociology before October 2011. The focus of the majority of research in medical education has been on reporting outcomes related to participants. There has been less assessment of patient care outcomes, resulting in informing evidence-based education to only a limited extent. This article explains the process necessary to develop a focused and relevant education research question and emphasizes the importance of theory in medical education research. It describes a range of methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination of research findings. A majority of studies currently use quantitative methods. This article highlights how further use of qualitative methods can provide insight into the nuances and complexities of learning and teaching processes. Research in medical education requires several successive steps, from formulating the correct research question to deciding the method for dissemination. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages and should be chosen according to the question being asked and the specific goal of the study. Well-conducted education research should allow progression towards the important goal of using evidence-based education in our teaching and institutions.

  6. Targeted research training: developing minority psychiatric investigators.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Harold; Guerra, Ernesto; Regier, Darrel

    2014-04-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the career outcomes of a research training program specifically targeted to young psychiatric researchers from minority populations underrepresented in psychiatry. The aims of the program were (1) to support psychiatric investigators from under-represented populations in the development and maintenance of research careers and (2) to identify the factors which influence successful research career development. Demographic data from 99 program participants were collected from an online survey as part of a systematic program evaluation, and through a follow-up internet search. Outcome measures included current academic position, number and types of post-training grants received, number of peer-reviewed publications, and comparison of post-training career outcomes with those from other highly regarded research training programs. Of the 99 psychiatrists accepted into the program, 55 responded to the online survey; additional information on non-responders was obtained through a follow-up internet search. Results indicated that 64% of program trainees identified their primary employment setting as academic/research; 70% reported publication of their research findings, and 64% reported the award of post-training research grants. The percentage of program graduates appointed to academic faculty positions and their receipt of R01 and/or K awards, exceeded that of two highly regarded national training programs. The study further identified major factors influencing successful research career development. Findings from this study strongly suggest that research training programs targeted to young minority psychiatrists can be successful in supporting the development and maintenance of their research careers. The decline in the availability of such programs does not portend well for increasing the numbers of underrepresented minority psychiatric researchers.

  7. Veterinary Research Manpower Development for Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    we plan to continue the program as originally proposed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Veterinary Research Manpower, Joint-degree program, Summer Research... originally proposed. References: No peer-reviewed publications resulted from the Summer Research activities of the trainees. Appendices: The...be developed that will show an inventory of the farms, including their location, size, herd number, and presence of vampire bats. An estimate of

  8. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases.

  9. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases. PMID:24198438

  10. Research and Development of an Electrochemical Biocide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    normal flora of microorganisms found in domestic raw settled sewage. A literature search was conducted on prior research and development efforts related to the electrolytic disinfection of water and waste water.

  11. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-10

    been developed to foster transdisciplinary clinical research and training, with the goal of speeding the translation of the findings of “discovery...disciplinary research, continuing as lead federal agency in networking and information technology R&D, and sustaining organizational excellence in NSF

  12. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-27

    Service is USDA’s in-house basic and applied research agency. It operates approximately 90 laboratories nationwide with about 6,600 employees . ARS also...Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017 John F. Sargent Jr., Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Robert Esworthy...

  13. Plans for Follow Through Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Jeffry; And Others

    Intended to develop new approaches to Follow Through services, the research plan described in this document is the first step in a collaborative effort of the National Institute of Education (NIE) and the Follow Through Division of the Department of Education. Prior to the delineation of the preliminary research strategy, background information…

  14. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined.…

  15. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined.…

  16. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  17. Educational Research and Development Units: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Robert A., Ed.

    Essays on the present and future states of research and development (R&D) units in colleges and universities are collected. The essays served as discussion papers for an annual meeting of heads of educational R&D units in Australia and New Zealand. "The Political Situation of Teaching-Research Units," by Terry Hore, encourages…

  18. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  19. Research and Curriculum Development in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, David P., Ed.

    This is the second in a series of reports of research and curriculum development in science education. This monograph contains 16 papers reporting on research studies related to curriculum implementation in elementary school science. The reports are titled as follows: The Educational Experience: Toward a Paradigm of Teacher Education; Development…

  20. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…