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Sample records for resembling serum calcium

  1. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  2. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  3. Serum ionised calcium concentration: measurement versus calculation.

    PubMed Central

    Conceicao, S C; Weightman, D; Smith, P A; Luno, J; Ward, M K; Kerr, D N

    1978-01-01

    Four hundred and eighteen measurements of serum ionised calcium, total calcium, and protein concentrations were made from 47 normal volunteers, 104 patients with chronic renal failure (33 being treated conservatively and 71 with regular haemodialysis), and 83 renal transplant recipients. The serum ionised calcium concentration was measured with an Orion SS-20 meter and calculated from the total serum calcium and protein concentrations by using three formulae and a nomogram. In the normal subjects and patients undergoing regular haemodialysis, whose serum calcium concentrations were in or near the normal range, three of the calculations gave results similar to those obtained by direct measurement. In patients with conservatively treated chronic renal failure and those who had received renal transplants, however, there was poor aggrement between the methods. When patients with hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia from all the groups were considered separately there was again poor agreement between calculated and measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium. Of the patients whose measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium were high, 69-76% were classified as normal by the four indirect methods. We conclude that calculation of the serum ionised calcium concentrations is not an adequate substitute for direct measurement. PMID:346162

  4. Serum Calcium Concentration in Ethylene Glycol Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Michael; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Wojcik, Susan; Grant, William

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of ethylene glycol intoxication can be challenging. Definitive testing for ethylene glycol is not readily available and clinical decisions are often based on clinical suspicion and the results of more readily available tests. One of these findings is hypocalcemia, presumable through complexation with the ethylene glycol metabolite oxalate. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2013 with laboratory confirmed ethylene glycol intoxication. Serum calcium on presentation was compared to blood gas pH on presentation as well as presentation serum bicarbonate. We did not find any relationship between calcium and serum pH either by linear regression or when dichotomized by pH ≥ or <7.3. We did observe an inverse relationship between serum calcium and bicarbonate. Hypocalcemia is not commonly observed following ethylene glycol poisoning, even in acidotic patients.

  5. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    PubMed

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Do calcium supplements increase serum and urine calcium levels in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Samozai, M N; Kulkarni, A K

    2015-05-01

    The frequent prescription of calcium supplements with vitamin D by health practitioners is a topic of concern globally. The present study was designed to find out whether the calcium supplements with vitamin D really affect serum and urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women. The age-matched comparative study was performed among postmenopausal women who were already on and those who were not on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of time in relation to the estimation of the serum calcium and the urine calcium levels. Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled, with thirty among them forming the study group (SG) - who were on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of a month, three months, and up to twelve months - were studied and compared the results obtained with the age-matched control group (CG) of thirty post-menopausal women who were not on calcium supplements. The serum and the urinary calcium levels were estimated by using appropriate biochemical methods and the data were analysed using relevant statistical methods. The serum calcium levels did not vary significantly in SG in spite of consuming calcium supplements over a period of time, whereas the urinary calcium levels increased progressively (p value < 0.005) in those who have taken calcium supplements for a year compared to those who have taken for a month. Thus, the calcium supplements were of little significance on the serum calcium levels, but have a significant effect on the urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women.

  7. Serum calcium and phosphate concentrations and intracranial atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, K

    2014-01-01

    Serum calcium and phosphate concentrations are independent risk factors for stroke and positively associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated whether higher serum calcium and phosphate concentrations would be associated with intracranial atherosclerosis in a stroke-free Korean population. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 361 stroke-free subjects who consecutively visited a general health promotion center. Included subjects had serum calcium, phosphate, and albumin drawn and underwent brain magnetic resonance angiography. The basilar, middle cerebral, intracranial internal carotid, and intracranial vertebral arteries were evaluated. Serum calcium concentration was corrected for serum albumin concentration. Mean ± SD values were 52 ± 10 years for age, 2.35 ± 0.09 mmol/l for uncorrected serum calcium concentration, 2.24 ± 0.08 mmol/l for corrected serum calcium concentration, and 1.19 ± 0.18 mmol/l for serum phosphate concentration. Seventy-four subjects (21%) had intracranial atherosclerosis. Subjects in the upper three quartiles of corrected serum calcium concentration had a significantly greater risk for intracranial atherosclerosis compared with the lowest quartile with the odds ratios of 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.50-8.15), 3.11 (95% confidence interval 1.26-7.69), and 3.77 (95% confidence interval 1.58-9.03), respectively. However, serum phosphate and uncorrected serum calcium concentrations were not associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. Corrected serum calcium concentrations are positively associated with the presence of intracranial atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  9. Purified omega-conotoxin GVIA receptor of rat brain resembles a dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed Central

    McEnery, M W; Snowman, A M; Sharp, A H; Adams, M E; Snyder, S H

    1991-01-01

    The omega-conotoxin GVIA (CTX) receptor has been purified 1900-fold to apparent homogeneity by monitoring both reversible binding of 125I-labeled CTX (125I-CTX) and photoincorporation of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate-125I-CTX (HSA-125I-CTX). Photoincorporation of HSA-125I-CTX into a 230-kDa protein exhibits a pharmacologic and chromatographic profile indicating that the 230-kDa protein is the CTX-binding subunit of the receptor. The pharmacologic specificity of 125I-CTX binding to the purified CTX receptor closely resembles that of the native membrane-bound form with respect to sensitivity towards CTX (Kd = 32 pM) and other peptide toxin antagonists. The purified CTX receptor comprises the 230-kDa protein (alpha 1) and four additional proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140 (alpha 2), 110, 70 (beta 2), and 60 (beta 1) kDa. This subunit structure closely resembles that of the 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel. Images PMID:1662383

  10. Purified omega-conotoxin GVIA receptor of rat brain resembles a dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    McEnery, M.W.; Snowman, A.M.; Sharp, A.H.; Snyder, S.H. ); Adams, M.E. )

    1991-12-15

    The {omega}-conotoxin GVIA (CTX) receptor has been purified 1,900-fold to apparent homogeneity by monitoring both reversible binding of {sup 125}I-labeled CTX ({sup 125}I-CTX) and photoincorporation of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate-{sup 125}I-CTX (HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX). Photoincorporation of HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX into a 230-kDa protein exhibits a pharmacologic and chromatographic profile indicating that the 230-kDa protein is the CTX-binding subunit of the receptor. The pharmacologic specificity of {sup 125}I-CTX binding to the purified CTX receptor closely resembles that of the native membrane-bound form with respect to sensitivity towards CTX and other peptide toxin antagonists. The purified CTX receptor comprises the 230-kDa protein ({alpha}{sub 1}) and four additional proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140 ({alpha}{sub 2}), 110, 70 ({beta}{sub 2}), and 60({beta}{sub 1}) kDa. This subunit structure closely resembles that of the 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel.

  11. Prediction of serum ionized calcium concentration by serum total calcium measurement in cats.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2010-07-01

    Feline serum samples (n = 434) were classified as hypercalcemic, normocalcemic, or hypocalcemic based on both total calcium (tCa) and ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (PDLR), and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (NDLR) were calculated for prediction of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in all samples, in hypoalbuminemic cats, and in those with chronic renal failure (CRF) as compared with cats that had other conditions. Diagnostic discordance in prediction of iCa using tCa was 40%. Sensitivity of tCa in prediction of ionized hypercalcemia was low and specificity was high. The PDLR for prediction of ionized hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia was low in all cats, especially in those with CRF. Due to the high level of diagnostic discordance, tCa should not be used to predict iCa concentration. Concentration of iCa should be measured directly when accurate assessment of calcium status is needed.

  12. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  13. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  14. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  15. Hypercalcitoninemia and hypocalcemia in acutely ill children: studies in serum calcium, blood ionized calcium, and calcium-regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, G J; Venkataraman, P S; Pryor, R W; Parker, M K; Fry, H D; Blick, K E

    1989-06-01

    We studied the hypotheses that serum calcium and blood ionized calcium would be low in acutely ill children and would rise with clinical improvement. In 15 children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, the blood ionized calcium level was 4.45 +/- 0.06 mg/dl (1.11 +/- 0.015 mmol/L) on entry versus 5.17 +/- 0.03 mg/dl (1.29 +/- 0.01 mmol/L) in control subjects (p less than 0.005), rose significantly on days 2 and 3, and was 5.12 +/- 0.04 mg/dl (1.28 +/- 0.01 mmol/L) at discharge (p less than 0.005). Changes in serum calcium level were similar, whereas serum magnesium and phosphorus levels were normal and did not change. Basal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated, rose further during the study, and were normal at discharge. Serum parathyroid hormone levels correlated inversely with blood ionized calcium levels, indicating that compensatory hyperparathyroidism occurs with low blood ionized calcium concentrations. Basal serum calcitonin values were evaluated on entry and decreased with clinical improvement. Serum calcitonin levels correlated significantly with low blood ionized calcium levels, indicating that hypercalcitoninemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia in these children. Urine calcium excretion was not increased in the four children studied. We speculate that with clinical improvement, a rise in serum parathyroid hormone levels and a decline in serum calcitonin levels may help restore normocalcemia in these acutely ill children.

  16. Pseudohypoparathyroidism presenting with bony deformities resembling rickets.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Sharma, Jyoti; Hari, Pankaj; Bagga, Arvind

    2004-04-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and elevated parathormone level, may rarely be associated with bony deformities resembling rickets. The authors report two siblings with clinical and radiological features suggestive of rickets unresponsive to treatment with vitamin D. Low serum calcium, elevated serum phosphate, normal renal functions, raised tubular maximum of phosphate and high serum parathormone were suggestive of PHP. Treatment with 1-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium carbonate led to decrease in bone pain, increase in height and weight and resolution of radiological features. PHP should be suspected in patients with bony deformities, hypocalcemia, elevated blood phosphate levels and normal renal functions.

  17. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  18. The effect of thymus extracts on phosphorus compounds in muscle and serum, and on serum calcium

    PubMed Central

    Potop, Isabela; Boeru, Vera; Mreană, Georgeta

    1966-01-01

    1. Thymectomy in young rabbits decreased the ATP content and increased the inorganic phosphate content of skeletal muscle. The serum calcium content was decreased, whereas the inorganic phosphate content was increased. 2. The administration of a lipid fraction (TL) or protein fractions (CIF and TP) of thymus extracts to thymectomized rabbits in short-term experiments increased the ATP content of muscle and decreased the inorganic phosphate contents of muscle and serum. Serum calcium content was increased. 3. The action of the thymus extract TP was specific only on the phosphate compounds, since the increase in serum calcium concentration was also caused by the control extract from muscle. The action of the extract TL is not specific, being paralleled by the action of a control extract from muscle. PMID:5966281

  19. Serum calcium and risk of migraine: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Peter; Anttila, Verneri; Siewert, Katherine M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davey Smith, George

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Migraine affects ∼14% of the world’s population, though not all predisposing causal risk factors are known. We used electronic health records, genetic co-heritability analysis, and a two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) design to determine if elevated serum calcium levels were associated with risk of migraine headache. Co-morbidity was evaluated using electronic health records obtained from the PennOmics database comprising >1 million patient entries. Genetic co-heritability and causality via MR was assessed using data from the International Headache Consortium (23,285 cases, 95,425 controls) and circulating serum calcium levels (39,400 subjects). We observed co-occurrence of migraine and hypercalcaemia ICD-9 diagnoses (OR = 1.58, P = 4 × 10−13), even after inclusion of additional risk factors for migraine (OR = 1.23, P = 2 × 10−3). Second, we observed co-heritability (rg = 0.191, P = 0.03) between serum calcium and migraine headache, indicating that these traits have a genetic basis in common. Finally, we found that elevation of serum calcium levels by 1 mg/dl resulting from our genetic score was associated with an increase in risk of migraine (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.31–2.46, P = 2.5 × 10−4), evidence supporting a causal hypothesis. We also present multiple MR sensitivity analyses in support of this central finding. Our results provide evidence that hypercalcaemia is comorbid with migraine headache diagnoses, and that genetically elevated serum calcium over lifetime appears to increase risk for migraine. Further studies will be required to understand the biological mechanism, pathways, and clinical implication for risk management. PMID:28025330

  20. Serum calcium and incident diabetes: an observational study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sing, C W; Cheng, V K F; Ho, D K C; Kung, A W C; Cheung, B M Y; Wong, I C K; Tan, K C B; Salas-Salvadó, J; Becerra-Tomas, N; Cheung, C L

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate if serum calcium is related to diabetes incidence in Hong Kong Chinese. The results showed that serum calcium has a significant association with increased risk of diabetes. The result of meta-analysis reinforced our findings. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum calcium, including serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium, with incident diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 6096 participants aged 20 or above and free of diabetes at baseline. Serum calcium was measured at baseline. Incident diabetes was determined from several electronic databases. We also searched relevant databases for studies on serum calcium and incident diabetes and conducted a meta-analysis using fixed-effect modeling. During 59,130.9 person-years of follow-up, 631 participants developed diabetes. Serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium were associated with incident diabetes in the unadjusted model. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the association remained significant only for serum total calcium (hazard ratio (HR), 1.32 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.70), highest vs. lowest quartile). In a meta-analysis of four studies including the current study, both serum total calcium (pooled risk ratio (RR), 1.38 (95 % CI, 1.15-1.65); I (2) = 5 %, comparing extreme quantiles) and albumin-corrected calcium (pooled RR, 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.61); I (2) = 0 %, comparing extreme quantiles) were associated with incident diabetes. Penalized regression splines showed that the association of incident diabetes with serum total calcium and albumin-correlated calcium was non-linear and linear, respectively. Elevated serum calcium concentration is associated with incident diabetes. The mechanism underlying this association warrants further investigation.

  1. Relationship of serum total calcium to serum albumin in dogs, cats, horses and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bienzle, Dorothee; Jacobs, Robert M.; Lumsden, John H.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed in order to assess the relationship between serum calcium and serum albumin concentrations in domestic animals. Results of 9041 canine, 1564 feline, 2917 equine, and 613 bovine serum samples from hospitalized patients were examined by regression analysis. Subpopulations of cases with concurrent elevations in creatinine or that were less than six months of age were evaluated separately. Statistically significant linear relationships between calcium and albumin concentrations were established for each species (p <0.05). The coefficients of determination (r2) were 0.169 for dogs, 0.294 for cats, 0.222 for horses, and 0.032 for cattle. The correlation coefficients (r) computed were: dogs = 0.411, cats = 0.543, horses = 0.471, cattle = 0.182. Neither increases in creatinine concentration nor juvenile age appreciably influenced the relationship between calcium and albumin concentrations. Interspecies variation was marked, and a strong correlation between calcium and albumin concentrations was not established in any species. PMID:17424241

  2. Effect of lanthanum carbonate vs. calcium carbonate on serum calcium in hemodialysis patients: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Toida, Tatsunori; Fukudome, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yuji; Chiyotanda, Susumu; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a non-calcium-containing phosphate binder and shows a comparable effect with other phosphate binders on hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. LC also contributes to a reduced oral calcium load compared with calcium carbonate (CaC) treatment. However, no crossover studies which compare the influence on serum calcium level between treatments with LC and CaC in hemodialysis (HD) patients have been carried out. After washout for 2 weeks, 50 patients on HD were randomized (1 : 1) to receive LC or CaC for 3 months. Thereafter, patients underwent a second 2-week washout period and were switched to the alternative binder for the next 3 months. Mineral and bone metabolism markers were measured with the changes of vitamin D doses. The serum phosphate level showed a similar decrease from baseline to 3 months in both groups. During the study periods, hypercalcemia was observed only in patients taking CaC. The dose of vitamin D analogue was increased more frequently in the patients of the LC group compared with LC group. The iPTH level showed a significant decrease in the CaC group, but not in the LC group. Serum levels of BAP, TRAP5b, and ALP were significantly elevated in the LC group, whereas the FGF-23 level showed a significant decrease. LC effectively reduced the serum phosphate level (like CaC) and allowed the vitamin D analogue dosage to be increased without hypercalcemia in HD patients. LC is one of the useful phosphate binders without hypercalcemia. (UMIN-CTR registration number: UMIN000002331).

  3. Determinants of serum calcium in men and women. The Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Jorde, R; Sundsfjord, J; Bønaa, K H

    2001-01-01

    The level of serum calcium appears to be associated with blood pressure and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Determinants of serum calcium may therefore be of interest. In a health survey in Tromsø in 1994-1995, 27,159 subjects were examined. The survey included measurements of serum calcium and questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors. In males mean serum calcium declined from 2.41 mmol/l for those in their 20s to 2.34 mmol/l for those in their 80s. In females mean serum calcium was stable at a level of 2.35 mmol/l before the menopause, and thereafter reached a plateau of 2.39 mmol/l. In both sexes serum calcium showed a positive association with body mass index (BMI) and coffee consumption that persisted after correcting for other variables in a multiple regression model (p < 0.05). Physical activity had no significant association with serum calcium. In females alcohol consumption was negatively, and cigarette smoking positively associated with serum calcium (p < 0.01). No significant effect on the serum calcium levels was found for the intake of calcium or vitamin D, except for males with a calcium intake below 200 mg/day. Some of the observed effects, like the variation with age, may partly be explained by alterations in levels of serum albumin to which approximately 40% of circulating calcium is bound and which was not adjusted for in this study, whereas that is hardly the case for the association with BMI and coffee consumption. However, none of these factors could affect the serum calcium level more than 0.02 mmol/l, and the biological significance of the observed associations questionable.

  4. Correlation of Serum and Ionized Calcium in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava; Krivokuca, Marija; Krivokuca, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pathogenesis of kidney stones includes many factors, whereas uroliths, as a generic term for kidney stones, are of a different composition. In pathogenesis of calcium urolithiasis hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria takes a significant place. Hypercalcemia exists when the serum calcium is of increased values, along with measurement and calculation of physiologically active calcium, when there are differences in the Ph of the blood or albumin. Goal: the goal of this research is to determine the correlation of values of the serum (CaS) and ionized calcium (Ca++) in patients with the calcium nephrolithiasis, whom have been established not to have hyperparathyroidism and malign diseases. Material and methods: the research was prospective and implemented at the Clinical Center in Banja Luka, at the Urology Clinic, in the period between 1st April 2012 – 1st January 2013 and it included 120 patients with the calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract, divided into three age categories. Diagnosis of the calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was established on the basis of the ultrasonography of the urinary tract as well as native urinary tract/intravenous urography and chemical analysis of the stone in patients with spontaneous stone emission or after some of the methods for active removal of the stone. Chemical laboratory analysis of the serum and ionized calcium was done for all the patients, with 3ml of blood being taken for establishing the aforementioned parameters (1-2 ml of the serum) in vacuumed test tubes or glass tubes of capillary blood. Increased parathormone values (PHT) and history of malignity were excluding factors. Results: out of the 120 patients observed, Cs(S) had the value in the reference interval with most of them, that is, in 110 patients (91.7%). Those, whose value was out of the interval, are of an older age (all above 40). Average value of this parameter amounted to 2.3017, with an average difference (the

  5. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  6. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  7. Effects of amiodarone and thyroid dysfunction on myocardial calcium, serum calcium and thyroid hormones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Gammage, M. D.; Franklyn, J. A.; Logan, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    1 Myocardial calcium content was found to be elevated and serum calcium reduced in hypothyroid rats. 2 Treatment of rats with amiodarone at either 30 mg kg-1 or 150 mg kg-1 daily did not result in any significant changes in myocardial or serum calcium. 3 The administration of amiodarone to hypothyroid rats attenuated the changes in serum but not myocardial calcium, suggesting that amiodarone may exert a thyroid hormone-like effect in the hypothyroid state. 4 The administration of amiodarone to thyroid hormone-treated rats resulted in attenuation of the effects on serum calcium and calculated intracellular calcium; this was consistent with an antagonistic interaction between amiodarone and thyroid hormones. 5 Administration of amiodarone resulted in significant changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the rat; triiodothyronine was reduced and basal thyrotrophin elevated compared to euthyroid controls. Serum thyroxine was not changed; this is in contrast to the effects in man. 6 Amiodarone does not exert its anti-arrhythmic action via changes in total myocardial calcium content in the euthyroid rat; nonetheless the described interactions between the drug and thyroid hormones may be involved in its mechanism of action. PMID:3676598

  8. Enhancement of enrofloxacin serum antibacterial activity by calcium primed broilers.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, R; Gutiérrez, O L; Sumano, L H

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the effect that calcium gluconate priming of 468 broilers has on the antibacterial activity of a standard dose of enrofloxacin. Hence, a series of oral pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in four groups of broilers medicated individually through an oral cannula as follows: group A, medicated only with enrofloxacin 10mg/kg; group B, receiving immediately one after the other, calcium gluconate (200mg/kg) and enrofloxacin 10mg/kg; group C, dosed first with calcium gluconate (200mg/kg) and 1h later enrofloxacin (10mg/kg); and group D, dosed first with calcium gluconate (200mg/kg) and 2h later enrofloxacin (10mg/kg). Broilers were bled at different times after the dose of enrofloxacin and antibacterial activity, measured as concentration of enrofloxacin, was measured by an agar diffusion assay. Results revealed that group D the greatest values of maximum serum concentration (Cs(max)), area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) and area under the moment curve (AUMC). These values were statistically higher than the corresponding ones derived from groups A, B and C (P<0.05). Taking Cs(max) and AUC values of group A as reference baseline, an increase of 24% and 50%, respectively, was obtained in group D. Group B had the lowest Cs(max), AUC, AUMC and elimination half life (T(1/2)beta) and these values were statistically different from groups A, C and D (P<0.05). The T(1/2)beta was statistically longer in groups C and D as compared with A and B, and the former groups were also different between each other (P<0.05). These results show that if calcium gluconate is first dosed to broilers and 2h later enrofloxacin is administered (as in group D), a more pronounced antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin can be obtained. A challenge of this sequential dosing scheme in a field trial may reveal its clinical value.

  9. Serum calcium level of freshwater snake, Natrix piscator, in response to vitamin D3 administration.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Srivastav, S P; Srivastav, S K; Swarup, K

    1986-01-01

    The effect of i.m. injection of vitamin D3 (25 IU/100 g b.wt) on serum calcium level was investigated in Natrix piscator. This treatment evokes hypercalcemia at day 3 which progresses up to day 5. Thereafter, a decline was observed in the serum calcium level at day 10 and day 15.

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and calcium-regulating hormones in preeclamptics and controls during first day postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dalmar, Ahmed; Raff, Hershel; Chauhan, Suneet P; Singh, Maharaj; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2015-02-01

    The evidence for a link between vitamin D and preeclampsia is conflicting. There is a paucity of studies reporting simultaneous 25-hydroxyvitamin D (inactive form) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (biologically active form). We investigated if levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium-regulating hormones (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), and calcium differ significantly between preeclamptics and controls. On postpartum day one, 98 subjects (44 with preeclampsia, 54 controls) were recruited among women admitted to the postdelivery unit, and their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, and serum albumin levels were prospectively measured. The majority of participants (70%) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level<20 ng/mL; 53% had <15 ng/mL. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was similar between cases and controls (p=0.50). Mean total serum calcium adjusted for albumin and magnesium was similar between cases and controls (p=0.78). Mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal, and there were no differences between cases and controls. The only significant differences found between preeclamptic cases and controls were mean body mass index, parity, and season of blood draw. Vitamin D levels did not differ among preeclamptic cases and controls.

  11. Association of Serum Calcium Levels with Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Observations from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Meghna; Dhar, Sriparna; Gogoi, Dipankar Mall; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcium is known to be major mediator in ischemic neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that elevated serum calcium levels at admission in patients with stroke have been associated with less severe clinical deficits and with better outcomes. Aim: The aim of this to determine the correlation between serum calcium (total, corrected, and ionized) and infarct size (IS) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 61 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke from May 2015 to April 2016 at a tertiary care institute in Northeast India. Only patients aged ≥40 years and diagnosed as having acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke with clinical examination and confirmed by a computed tomography scan were included in the study. Serum calcium levels (total, albumin corrected, and ionized) were collapsed into quartiles, and these quartile versions were used for calculating correlation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for comparing calcium levels with IS. Results: Total calcium, albumin-corrected calcium, and ionized calcium had a statistically significant negative correlation with IS with r = −0.578, −0.5396, and −0.5335, respectively. Total and ionized calcium showed a significant negative correlation with IS across all four quartiles. Albumin-corrected calcium levels showed a significant negative correlation with IS only across the lowest and highest quartiles. Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that serum calcium can be used as a prognostic indicator in ischemic stroke as its levels directly correlates with the IS. PMID:28163502

  12. Factors predicting the acute effect of pamidronate on serum calcium in hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, S J; Fraser, W D; Logue, F C; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T; Ralston, S H

    1992-12-01

    In this study we retrospectively reviewed results of the first 9 days of treatment with pamidronate at doses of 30 mg (n = 13), 45 mg (n = 9), and 90 mg (n = 13) in an attempt to see what factors influenced the response of serum calcium to pamidronate. The nadir of serum calcium obtained post treatment was correlated with pretreatment levels of nephrogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (NcAMP), the renal tubular threshold for phosphate reabsorption (TmPO4), and the renal tubular threshold for calcium reabsorption (TmCa). Using the post treatment serum calcium levels, patients were divided into "good" and "poor" responders depending on whether a normal serum calcium was obtained. Pretreatment NcAMP was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the response of serum calcium (r = 0.45, P = 0.0001). Pretreatment NcAMP was significantly higher in the poor responders (mean +/- SEM): 65.0 +/- 9.4 nmol/liter GF (poor responders) versus 29.6 +/- 6.3 (good responders), P = 0.004. NcAMP as a predictor of the acute response of serum calcium showed a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 72%. Pretreatment TmPO4 was negatively correlated with the serum calcium response post treatment (r = -0.41, P = 0.003). However, though TmPO4 tended to be lower in the poor responders, this was not statistically significant [0.65 mmol/liter GF +/- 0.09 (poor responders) versus 0.76 mmol/liter GF +/- 0.06 (good responders)]. As a predictor of the acute response of serum calcium, TmPO4 was less good with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 58%. No significant correlation was present between TmCa and the serum calcium response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Serum calcium levels at first renal replacement therapy and patients survival].

    PubMed

    Osawa, Yutaka; Aoike, Ikuo; Sakurabayashi, Tai; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yuasa, Yasuko; Suzuki, Masashi

    2005-09-01

    In K/DOQI guideline, albumin adjusted serum calcium concentrations between 8.4 to 9.5 mg/dL and serum phosphorus concentrations between 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL are recommended. But without clinical symptoms relating to hypocalcemia, medication for increasing serum calcium levels is not needed even less than 8.4 mg/dL. To clarify this guideline, we examined the data of 271 patients who started dialysis at Shinrakuen Hospital, their medication before renal replacement therapy and life prognosis. Medication made higher serum calcium concentrations (p< 0.005) at first renal replacement therapy. Concerning serum calcium concentrations, the lower group (<8.4 mg/dL) showed significantly better prognosis than the middle group (8.4 to 9.5 mg/dL) and the higher group (>9.5 mg/dL) (p< 0.05). When serum calcium levels were adjusted for the level of serum albumin, this tendency was stronger (p< 0.0001). We concluded that although serum calcium concentrations might not need control, nutritional states are far more important before starting dialysis.

  14. Estimation of calcium and magnesium in serum and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Thin, Christian G.; Thomson, Patricia A.

    1967-01-01

    A method has been described for the estimation of calcium and magnesium in serum and urine using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The precision and accuracy of the techniques have been determined and were found to be acceptable. The range of values for calcium and magnesium in the sera of normal adults was found to be: serum calcium (corrected to a specific gravity of 1·026) 8·38-10·08 mg. per 100 ml.; serum magnesium 1·83-2·43 mg. per 100 ml. PMID:5602562

  15. Postmenopausal women with carotid atherosclerosis: potential role of the serum calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, T; Terracciano, R; Romeo, S; Foti, D; Gulletta, E; Costanzo, F S; Pujia, A

    2013-11-01

    Studies on the association between serum calcium levels and cardiovascular diseases suggested a causative role for hypercalcemia but other studies showed that even serum calcium levels within normal range could be involved in atherosclerosis. However, while dietary calcium intake does not seem to be related to adverse cardiovascular effects, the association between calcium supplementation and the cardiovascular events has not been fully proven. Our aim was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in a population in whom investigations on this topic are lacking, the postmenopausal women. In this retrospective study, participants were recruited from women aged 49-65 years who underwent an ultrasonography evaluation of the carotid arteries between years 2008-2012. The study included 413 subjects with serum calcium level available, without symptomatic cardiovascular disease. A physical examination, including the evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and the blood pressure, as well as, a collection of a venous blood sample was performed. The mean age was 56 ± 7 years. The prevalence of the carotid atherosclerosis was 50.8%. The comparison between women with and without carotid atherosclerosis showed differences for the classical risk factors and for serum calcium levels (p = 0.001). The logistic regression analysis, adjusting for these risk factors, confirmed the association between serum calcium levels and carotid atherosclerosis (p = 0.011). Furthermore, we showed an increasing prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis from lower to higher calcium quartiles (p = 0.016). We found a positive relation between serum calcium levels and the carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. This study may suggest a redetermination of the reference range of calcemia, at least in menopause. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between serum calcium and periodontal disease progression in non-institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Amarasena, Najith; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Hirotomi, Toshinobu; Takano, Naoko; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2008-12-01

    To assess the effect of baseline serum calcium on the progression of periodontal disease in non-institutionalized elderly. Although a few studies have found some evidence of the role played by dietary calcium in periodontal disease process, there is a paucity of information pertinent to longitudinal assessment of serum calcium-periodontal relationships. Clinical attachment levels of 266 Japanese subjects aged 70 years were recorded at baseline and annually for six consecutive years. Progression of periodontal disease (PPD) was defined as the number of teeth that showed additional attachment loss of > or =3 mm during the 6 years. The number of PPD was calculated for each subject and categorised into four levels, namely, PPD(0), PPD(1), PPD(2) and PPD(3) where the number of teeth with additional attachment loss ranged from 0, 1-10, 11-20 and >20 respectively. The levels of serum calcium, albumin, random blood sugar, immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM), gender, smoking habits, education, gingival bleeding and the number of teeth present were obtained at baseline. Serum calcium, IgA, smoking, gingival bleeding and teeth present were associated with PPD at p < or = 0.10 and were included in a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Serum calcium was the only variable that was significantly associated with PPD with relative risks of 100 at PPD(1) and PPD(2), respectively, and 1000 at PPD(3). Serum calcium may be considered a risk factor for periodontal disease progression in non-institutionalized elderly.

  17. [Correlation analysis of serum calcium level and cognition in the patients with Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Zhou, X P; Zhang, L; Zhang, Q; Liu, C F; Luo, W F

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the relation between cognition and serum calcium in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), analyze the related factors of cognition, and evaluate the correlation of serum calcium with specific cognitive domains. Methods: A total of 77 patients with Parkinson's disease who was hospitalized in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, from Dce 2013 to May 2015 were subjected to the cognitive, motor and depression function assessment, and the fasting blood calcium samples were collected from the PD patients and 75 normal control subjects. According to cognitive function, PD patients were divided into dementia group and without dementia group. Then the serum calcium levels of three groups and the related factors of the cognitive were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: (1) The level of serum calcium in PD group with dementia (2.21±0.09) mmol/L was significantly lower than the normal control group (2.30±0.09)mmol/L (P<0.001), and there was no difference between the level of serum calcium in PD group without dementia (2.27±0.13 mmol/L) and normal control group (P=0.144). The level of serum calcium in PD group with dementia was lower than PD group without dementia, and there was marked statistical significance (P=0.023). (2) In PD patients, the cognitive scores correlated with serum calcium levels, education, H-Y stages and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Ⅲ scores (P<0.05), but didn't with gender, age, disease duration, depression levels, Body Mass Index (BMI) and total equivalent levodopa doses (P>0.05). (3) In PD patients, serum calcium level correlated with the visuospatial and executive capability, calculation ability, language ability (P1=0.004; P2=0.027; P3=0.021). Conclusions: (1) There is correlation between the serum calcium and the cognitive impairment. Lower serum calcium level predicts worse cognitive scores. (2) In PD patients, the change of the cognitive function is affected by

  18. THE ACTIVATING EFFECT OF CALCIUM ON A BACTERICIDAL SUBSTANCE FOR BACILLUS SUBTILIS IN HUMAN SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Jacox, Ralph F.

    1950-01-01

    An enhanced bactericidal activity of human serum for B. subtilis develops during many different forms of illness, e.g. carcinoma, virus and bacterial infections, and during acute coronary occlusion. This increased bactericidal effect cannot be related to leucocytosis, fever, serum complement, C-reactive protein, or a specific antibody reaction. The serum bactericidal factor becomes inactive in decalcified serum, but active again when optimal concentrations of calcium are added. Magnesium does not cause reactivation. PMID:15428579

  19. Ionized calcium in normal serum, ultrafiltrates, and whole blood determined by ion-exchange electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    Ion-exchange calcium electrodes represent the first practical method for the direct measurement of ionized calcium [Ca++] in biologic fluids. Using both “static” and “flow-through” electrodes, serum [Ca++] was within a rather narrow range: 0.94-1.33 mmoles/liter (mean, 1.14 mmoles/liter). Within a given individual, [Ca++] varied only about 6% over a several month period. Consistent pH effects on [Ca++] were observed in serum and whole blood, [Ca++] varying inversely with pH. Less consistent pH effects were also noted in ultrafiltrates, believed to largely represent precipitation of certain calcium complexes from a supersaturated solution. Heparinized whole blood [Ca++] was significantly less than in corresponding serum at normal blood pH, related to the formation of a calcium-heparin complex. [Ca++] in ultrafiltrates represented a variable fraction (66.7-90.2%) of total diffusible calcium. There was no apparent correlation between serum ionized and total calcium concentrations. Thus, neither serum total calcium nor total ultrafiltrable calcium provided a reliable index of serum [Ca++]. Change in serum total calcium was almost totally accounted for by corresponding change in protein-bound calcium [CaProt]. About 81% of [CaProt] was estimated to be bound to albumin and about 19% to globulins. From observed pH, serum protein, and [CaProt] data, a nomogram was developed for estimating [CaProt] without ultrafiltration. Data presented elsewhere indicate that calcium binding by serum proteins obeys the mass-law equation for a monoligand association. This was indicated in the present studies by a close correspondence of observed serum [Ca++] values with those predicted by the McLean-Hastings nomogram. While these electrodes allow study of numerous problems not possible previously, they have not been perfected to the same degree of reliability obtainable with current pH electrodes. The commercial (Orion flow-through) electrode is: (a) expensive. (b) requires

  20. Cinacalcet Reduces Serum Calcium Concentrations in Patients with Intractable Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Marcocci, Claudio; Chanson, Philippe; Shoback, Dolores; Bilezikian, John; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Henzen, Christoph; Cheng, Sunfa; Sterling, Lulu Ren; Lu, John; Peacock, Munro

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) after parathyroidectomy or with contraindications to parathyroidectomy often require chronic treatment for hypercalcemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the ability of the calcimimetic, cinacalcet, to reduce serum calcium in patients with intractable PHPT. Design: This was an open-label, single-arm study comprising a titration phase of variable duration (2–16 wk) and a maintenance phase of up to 136 wk. Setting: The study was conducted at 23 centers in Europe, the United States, and Canada. Patients: The study included 17 patients with intractable PHPT and serum calcium greater than 12.5 mg/dl (3.1 mmol/liter). Intervention: During the titration phase, cinacalcet dosages were titrated every 2 wk (30 mg twice daily to 90 mg four times daily) for 16 wk until serum calcium was 10 mg/dl or less (2.5 mmol/liter). If serum calcium increased during the maintenance phase, additional increases in the cinacalcet dose were permitted. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was the proportion of patients experiencing a reduction in serum calcium of 1 mg/dl or greater (0.25 mmol/liter) at the end of the titration phase. Results: Mean ± sd baseline serum calcium was 12.7 ± 0.8 mg/dl (3.2 ± 0.2 mmol/liter). At the end of titration, a 1 mg/dl or greater reduction in serum calcium was achieved in 15 patients (88%). Fifteen patients (88%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, none of which were serious. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and paresthesias. Conclusions: In patients with intractable PHPT, cinacalcet reduces serum calcium, is generally well tolerated, and has the potential to fulfill an unmet medical need. PMID:19470620

  1. Correlations among serum calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels in the elderly in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Lin, Li-Wei; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Liu, Rosa Huang; Tseng, Cheun-Fen

    2002-03-01

    This study correlates serum vitamin D levels to related hormones and dietary intakes among 57 elderly Chinese above the age of 65 who were living in the same community in rural Southern Taiwan (Pingtung) and who had no conditions or drug intake known to interfere with the metabolism of vitamin D. Demographic characteristics, past medical history, medications, and dietary intake were collected via questionnaires. Venous blood samples were collected for analyses of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Our results showed subjects in this study to have normal mean values of serum 25(OH)D, PTH and calcium levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 36.21 (+/- 6.37) ng/ml, the mean serum PTH level 29.24 (+/- 18.62) pg/ml and the mean serum calcium level 9.14 (+/- 0.52) mg/dl. While the mean serum 25(OH)D and calcium values were not found to be significantly different between men and women, the mean serum PTH level was significantly higher in women (33.42 +/- 20.00 pg/ml) than in men (23.07 +/- 14.66 pg/ml) (p <.05), and serum PTH levels were significantly negatively correlated to serum calcium (r = -.33, p <.05) but not 25(OH)D (r = -.21). A higher intake of calcium was significantly associated with higher serum calcium levels (r =.29, p <.05), but not with serum 25(OH)D levels. Results from this study suggested that the elderly people living in Pingtung, a particularly sunny region, had normal serum 25(OH)D levels. The fact that the elderly women studied had higher serum PTH levels and that these levels were negatively correlated to serum calcium levels suggests that a higher PTH level in the elderly women may be related to susceptibility for osteoporosis. In an effort to provide optimal nursing care for the elderly by minimizing hip fractures and related morbidity, further nursing studies are needed to study the effects of the environment, dietary intake and bone metabolism.

  2. [Total serum calcium and corrected calcium as severity predictors in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, A A; Castro-Jiménez, E; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate total serum calcium (TC) and albumin-corrected calcium (ACC) as prognostic severity factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Ninety-six patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed with AP and admitted to the Hospital Regional de Veracruz within the time frame of January 2010 to December 2012. AP severity was determined through the updated Atlanta Classification (2013). TC and ACC values were measured in the first 24hours of admittance and the percentages of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated through ROC curves and contingency tables. In accordance with the updated Atlanta Classification, 70 patients presented with mild AP, 17 with moderately severe AP, and 9 with severe AP. Of the patient total, 61.5% were women, and 69.8% presented with biliary etiology. The maximum TC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 82%; PPV, 27%, and NPV, 96%. The maximum ACC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 90%; PPV, 40%; NPV, 96%. Both had values similar to those of the Ranson and APACHE II prognostic scales. TC and ACC, measured within the first 24hours, are useful severity predictors in acute pancreatitis, with sensitivity and predictive values comparable or superior to those of the conventional prognostic scales. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum calcium revisited: associations with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity in Africans.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Rudolph; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Aletta E; Malan, Nicolaas T; van Rooyen, Johannes M; Fourie, Carla Mt; Malan, Leoné

    2010-07-01

    Sub-Saharan Africans face an increasing burden of hypertension. Although controversial, recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that serum calcium contributes to elevated blood pressure through increased vascular resistance. We investigated the associations of 24-h blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity with serum calcium in African men stratified by age. The study consisted of 50 younger (median age: 38 years) and 49 older (median age: 49 years) participants. We measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure with a mean successful inflation rate of 72.6%. Total peripheral resistance and stroke volume reactivity were obtained using a Finometer device during application of the Stroop color and word conflict test. Total serum calcium was adjusted for serum albumin. Results showed that serum calcium levels were similar between the younger and older groups. However, in the younger group, 24-h systolic blood pressure, 24-h diastolic blood pressure and total peripheral resistance reactivity correlated positively, whereas stroke volume reactivity correlated negatively with serum calcium in single and multiple regression analyses (systolic blood pressure: B=34.99, P=0.017; diastolic blood pressure: B=34.93, P<0.001; total peripheral resistance reactivity: B=65.44, P=0.048; stroke volume reactivity: B=-45.40, P=0.017). No associations were evident in the older African men. In conclusion, 24-h ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures are positively associated with serum calcium in African men younger than 43 years. The blood pressure-serum calcium relationship seems to be mediated through increased vascular resistance during stress.

  4. High serum parathyroid hormone and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Endo, Itsuro; Hotchi, Junko; Ise, Takayuki; Iwase, Takashi; Akaike, Masashi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sata, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Excess parathyroid hormone (PTH), known as primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), results in hypercalcemia and bone loss. Recent studies have shown that PTH is associated with the occurrence of hypertension in Western countries; however, controversy remains regarding high serum levels of PTH and calcium as risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients. We retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive Japanese patients who visited our hospital for examination and treatment of hypercalcemia and/or hypertension with serum calcium levels ≥ 9.8 mg/dL. To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, the patients were categorized according to calcium levels into hypercalcemic (10.2-13.4 mg/dL) and normocalcemic (9.8-10.1 mg/dL) groups, which were further categorized into high PTH (50-440 pg/mL) and low PTH (8-49 pg/mL) groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with hypercalcemia than in patients with normocalcemia in both the high and low PTH groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with high serum PTH levels than in patients with low serum PTH levels in both the hypercalcemic and normocalcemic groups. Logistic multiple regression analysis determined that serum calcium (P < 0.05) and PTH (P < 0.01) levels were positive contributors to hypertension. In conclusion, high serum levels of PTH and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.

  5. Mortality from aortic stenosis: prospective study of serum calcium and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Wald, D S; Bangash, F A; Morris, J K; Wald, N J

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the associations between levels of serum calcium and phosphate and subsequent death from aortic stenosis, and the implications for prevention. A prospective (nested case-control) analysis of serum calcium and phosphate levels was performed in stored samples from the British United Provident Association prospective study of 21 520 men aged 35-64, followed for up to 32 years. There were 49 men without baseline valvular heart disease who subsequently died of aortic stenosis. Each was matched, for age, duration of sample storage and number of freeze-thaw cycles, with four unaffected control subjects. Odds ratios for death from aortic stenosis were estimated by logistic regression. Mean serum calcium concentration was higher in men who died of aortic stenosis than in those who did not (2.44 vs. 2.39 mmol L(-1) ; P = 0.01). The risk of death from aortic stenosis in the highest calcium tertile was 2.87-fold higher than in the lowest tertile (95% confidence interval 1.22-6.76). There was a continuous dose-response relationship; risk of death from aortic stenosis increased by 51% (11-105%) per 0.1 mmol L(-1) increase in serum calcium, equivalent to a 34% (10-52%) lower risk per 0.1 mmol L(-1) decrease. Serum phosphate was not significantly higher in men who died of aortic stenosis than in those who did not (1.0 vs. 0.99 mmol L(-1) ; P = 0.76). The association between serum calcium and subsequent mortality from aortic stenosis is of potential preventive significance. If confirmed quantitatively in other similar cohort studies, the results suggest that a very small reduction in serum calcium (about 5%) could translate into a large (about one-third) reduction in aortic stenosis. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. A new formula for correction of total calcium level into ionized serum calcium values in very elderly hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Pfitzenmeyer, Pierre; Martin, Isabelle; d'Athis, Philippe; Grumbach, Yolande; Delmestre, Marie-Claude; Blondé-Cynober, Françoise; Derycke, Béatrice; Brondel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) seems to be the best measure of active serum calcium but, in France, numerous laboratories do not have Ca(2+) analyzers so that numerous clinicians use Payne's formula to obtain adjusted calcium (Ca(Ad)) values. In frail very elderly patients with protein/energetic malnutrition and very low concentrations of albumin, "correction" with Payne's formula usually gives false hypercalcemic results, so that hypocalcemia may be seriously underdiagnosed. Two hundred and ninety-four patients of 80 years and older with serum albumin level < 35 g/l were included in four French hospitals for elderly people. Biological measurements were standardized in order to determine Ca(2+) and total calcium (Ca(T)) in accordance with approved guidelines. Ca(Ad) was calculated with Payne's formula whereas the dependence of Ca(2+) with serum protein, albumin and Ca(Ad) was investigated by linear regression, the goodness-of-fit of each equation with the measure of Ca(2+) being studied. Taking into account serum protein and albumin levels, multiple linear regression gave the equation: Ca(2+) (mmol/l)=0.188-0.00469 protein (g/l)+0.0110 albumin (g/l)+0.401 Ca(Ad) with r(2)=0.442. The relative difference between the measure and the value given by the equation did not depend upon the center, and the correlation between measured and computed values of Ca(2+) was better, for any group, with our formula than with Payne's formula. When Ca(2+) was expressed with Ca(T) instead of Ca(Ad), albumin term was no longer significant and the new equation was: Ca(2+) (mmol/l)=0.592-0.00449 protein (g/l)+0.410 total calcium (mmol/l) with r(2)=0.438. We propose an alternative to direct measurement of Ca(2+) with a simple formula usable in geriatric units, which are often deprived of high-performance equipment.

  7. Correlation of mammographic density and serum calcium levels in patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hack, Carolin C; Stoll, Martin J; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Adler, Werner; Haeberle, Lothar; Ganslandt, Thomas; Heindl, Felix; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Bayer, Christian M

    2017-06-01

    Percentage mammographic breast density (PMD) is one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). Calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and denosumab have been considered and partly confirmed as factors potentially influencing the risk of BC. This retrospective observational study investigated the association between serum calcium level and PMD. A total of 982 BC patients identified in the research database at the University Breast Center for Franconia with unilateral BC, calcium and albumin values, and mammogram at the time of first diagnosis were included. PMD was assessed, using a semiautomated method by two readers. Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the impact on PMD of the parameters of serum calcium level adjusted for albumin level, and well-known clinical predictors such as age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status and confounder for serum calcium like season in which the BC was diagnosed. Increased calcium levels were associated with reduced PMD (P = 0.024). Furthermore, PMD was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and age (P < 0.001). There was also an association between PMD and menopausal status (P < 0.001). The goodness-of-fit of the regression model was moderate. This is the first study assessing the association between serum calcium level and PMD. An inverse association with adjusted serum calcium levels was observed. These findings add to previously published data relating to vitamin D, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and the RANK/RANKL signaling pathway in breast cancer risk and prevention. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Calcium Phosphate Crystals from Uremic Serum Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaorong; Zhang, Lin; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Fang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Recent study demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals isolated from high phosphate medium were a key contributor to arterial calcification. The present study further investigated the effects of CaP crystals induced by uremic serum on calcification of human aortic smooth muscle cells. This may provide a new insight for the development of uremic cardiovascular calcification. We tested the effects of uremic serum or normal serum on cell calcification. Calcification was visualized by staining and calcium deposition quantified. Expression of various bone-calcifying genes was detected by real-time PCR, and protein levels were quantified by western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Pyrophosphate was used to investigate the effects of CaP crystals' inhibition. Finally, CaP crystals were separated from uremic serum to determine its specific pro-calcification effects. Uremic serum incubation resulted in progressively increased calcification staining and increased calcium deposition in HASMCs after 4, 8 and 12 days (P vs 0 day <0.001 for all). Compared to cells incubated in control serum, uremic serum significantly induced the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic factor-2, osteopontin and RUNX2, and increased their protein levels as well (P < 0.05 for all). Inhibition of CaP crystals with pyrophosphate incubation prevented calcium deposition and bone-calcifying gene over-expression increased by uremic serum. CaP crystals, rather than the rest of uremic serum, were responsible for these effects. Uremic serum accelerates arterial calcification by mediating osteogenic differentiation. This effect might be mainly attributed to the CaP crystal content.

  9. Serum levels of selenium, calcium, copper magnesium, manganese and zinc in various human diseases.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J F; Blotcky, A J; Jetton, M M; Hahn, H K; Burch, R E

    1979-08-01

    Serum selenium as well as serum zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium and manganese were investigated in a control group of adult males and in 11 groups of patients in various disease states. Not only the change of each trace element but also the possible association between elements was studied in the various groups. All patients were fasting when sampled and studied only after the acute phase of the disease was corrected. Trace metal determinations were performed by atomic absorption spectrophometry (Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn) and by neutron activation analysis (Se, Mn). All patients showed low serum zinc when compared to controls. Cirrhotic patients had a low serum selenium level as well as low calcium, magnesium and zinc. Emphysemia and cancer patients had an elevated serum copper concentration while copper and manganese levels were elevated in congestive heart failure, infection and pschoses. To our knowledge this is the first time low serum selenium values have been demonstrated to be associated with the low serum zinc, calcium and magnesium levels found in cirrhotic patients.

  10. Serum calcium is an independent prognostic factor of overall survival in Mexican patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Daniela; Montiel-Cervantes, Laura; Padilla-González, Ysabel; Sánchez-Cortés, Evelia; Xolotl-Castillo, Moisés; Vela-Ojed, Jorge; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of different prognostic factors that has been suggested to be useful in predicting the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). A longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 24 adult Mexican patients diagnosed with primary MM. The levels of expression of CD38, CD138 and cyclin D1 were analyzed in plasma cells (PCs) from patients and mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, calcium, beta2 microglobulin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as hemoglobin and platelet count were taken into consideration. RESULTS; CD138 and cyclin D1 levels in absolute numbers were significantly overexpressed in malignant PCs. A positive correlation was noted between cyclin D1 and CD38 expression levels in malignant PCs. IL-6 and serum calcium were also positively correlated in MM patients. Cyclin D1 overexpression was not associated with better overall survival (OS). Normal calcium levels were associated with better overall survival (OS). Serum calcium was the only variable correlating with better OS in Cox regression analysis. Serum calcium is an independent prognostic factor of OS in a population of Mexican patients with MM.

  11. Association of serum calcium concentrations with fibrinogen and homocysteine in nondiabetic Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence shows that increased serum calcium levels are associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. This study investigated whether serum calcium, within a normal range, is significantly associated with serum fibrinogen and homocysteine, markers of increased cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic Korean subjects.A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1096 subjects (mean age, 55.1 ± 11.1 years; 36.1% women) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including serum albumin-corrected calcium (Cac), insulin resistance (IR, using homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]), fibrinogen, and homocysteine.Compared with patients within the lowest Cac quartile, those with higher Cac levels had increased fibrinogen and homocysteine levels as well as an increased proportion of smoking, dyslipidemia, and HOMA-IR. Correlation analyses revealed linear relationships for Cac with fibrinogen and homocysteine in both genders. After adjustment for confounding factors, serum Cac was significantly associated with high fibrinogen (odds ratio [OR] for the highest vs the lowest quartile = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.83, P = 0.02) and homocysteine (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07-3.11, P = 0.027). Multivariate regression models showed that Cac was linearly associated with fibrinogen (standardized β = 0.14, P < 0.001) and homocysteine (standardized β = 0.07, P = 0.009).High normal calcium concentrations were independently associated with increased levels of fibrinogen and homocysteine. Further investigation is needed to validate whether slightly increased calcium levels within the normal range indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Bioinspired colorimetric detection of calcium(II) ions in serum using calsequestrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Jeong Won; Kim, Dongkyu; Kim, Daejin; Lee, In-Hyun; Jon, Sangyong

    2009-01-01

    Seeing is sensing: Calsequestrin (CSQ) functionalized gold nanoparticles undergo calcium-dependent CSQ polymerization, which results in a clear color change (see picture) together with precipitation. The sensing system is specific for Ca(2+) ions and the differences between normal and disease-associated abnormal (hypercalcemia) Ca(2+) ion levels in serum can be distinguished with the naked eye.

  13. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    PubMed

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  14. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Gatti, Davide; Idolazzi, Luca; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common among elderly subjects and it has been associated with poor bone health, and to a number of other conditions. The ideal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, reflecting the size of vitamin D deposits, are generally retained those not associated with any marginal increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). These threshold values vary considerably and this may be due to the interaction of other factors. The aim of the study is to assess whether age and calcium intake interact with the relationship between 25(OH)D and PTH. Data from a survey on the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in elderly women in Italy were analysed in order to verify whether age and calcium intake were interfering on the 25(OH)D/PTH relationship. A total of 697 women were available for analysis. Serum PTH levels were significantly correlated with age, 25(OH)D and calcium intake (p<0.001) and in a multivariate model they all significantly contributed to explain PTH variance (R(2)=24.4%). In 39 elderly osteoporotic women on a low calcium intake and given vitamin D supplements (2000-3000 IU daily for >8 months) able to increase 25(OH)D levels above 110 nMol/l, PTH levels were maintained below 35 pg/mL. The minimum 25(OH)D levels to be recommended depends largely on the age and the calcium intake. In elderly individuals not taking calcium supplements in order to keep serum PTH levels strictly within the normal range 25(OH)D serum levels should be maintained above ca. 120 nMol/L.

  15. Longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels and accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazutaka; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Chisa; Odaira, Mari; Shiina, Kazuki; Nagata, Mikio; Yamashina, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The progression of arterial stiffness is accelerated by aging, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. This prospective observational study was conducted to clarify whether longitudinal changes in the serum calcium/phosphate levels are associated with the accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. In a cohort of employees at a construction company (1507 middle-aged Japanese men), the serum calcium/phosphate levels and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured at the start and at the end of a 3-year study period. A general linear model multivariate analysis revealed a significant interaction of the 2 factors {age and longitudinal changes of the serum calcium levels (delCa) during the follow-up period} on the longitudinal changes of the baPWV during the study period (delPWV). The delCa was significantly correlated with the delPWV even after adjustments for covariates in subjects aged ≥48 years. The delPWV in subjects aged ≥48 years with the delCa in the upper tertile (69 ± 137 cm/s) was significantly larger than that in the other groups even after adjustments for covariates (e.g., del PWV in subjects aged <48 years with the delCa in the lower tertile = 1 ± 94 cm/s) (p < 0.01). The association between the arterial stiffness and serum calcium levels differed with age. Pathophysiological abnormalities related to increased serum calcium levels appeared to be associated with accelerated progression of arterial stiffness with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short communication serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in lice-infested sheep.

    PubMed

    Deger, Y; Dede, S; Deger, S

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in serum concentration of copper, zinc, and calcium in sheep naturally infested with lice (Bovicola caprae, Linognathus africanus, Linognatus ovillus, and Linognattus pedalis). Twenty sheep naturally infested with lice and 20 healthy sheep were used as subjects. Blood samples were collected from the sheep before and 8 and 15 d after treatment with Avermectin, a veterinary antiparasitic drug. The samples were analyzed for their serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of these elements in the infested animals were lower than in the healthy controls, mainly because the general condition of the affected sheep was poor. When the infested animals were treated with an ectoparasitic drug, the serum levels of the studied elements rose to normal ranges while the health of the animals improved.

  17. Associations between serum levels of calcium, parathyroid hormone and future risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø study.

    PubMed

    Lerstad, Gunhild; Brodin, Ellen E; Svartberg, Johan; Jorde, Rolf; Brox, Jan; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between serum levels of calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been addressed in population-based cohorts. We investigated the associations between serum levels of calcium and PTH, with future risk of VTE in a general adult population. Population-based cohort. A total of 27 712 subjects (25-87 years) who participated in Tromsø 4 (1994-1995) and Tromsø 5 (2001-2002) surveys were included in the study, and total calcium and PTH were measured in 27 685 and 8547 subjects respectively. Incident VTE was recorded through December 31, 2012. Cox-regression models with calcium and PTH as time-varying exposures were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) of VTE by quartiles of calcium and PTH. Quartiles of calcium and PTH were also combined to assess the effect of discordants of both PTH and calcium (e.g. highest and lowest quartiles of both calcium and PTH) on VTE risk using the middle two quartiles as reference. There were 712 VTEs during 15.0 years of median follow-up. Serum levels of calcium and PTH were not associated with risk of VTE. However, subjects with discordant high serum levels of both calcium and PTH (calcium ≥2.45 mmol/L and PTH ≥4.0 pmol/L) had increased risk of VTE compared to those in subjects with normal calcium and PTH (multivariable HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.12-2.84). Serum levels of calcium and PTH separately were not associated with future risk of VTE, but subjects with high levels of both calcium and PTH had increased risk of VTE compared to those in subjects with normal levels. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, RJ

    2001-01-01

    Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia. PMID:11503372

  19. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  20. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jee, Jae Hwan; Yu, Tae Yang; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background An association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years), and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years). The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels. Results A total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1%) of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915). The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92) in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001). A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline. Conclusion There was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline. PMID:28029017

  2. Elevations in serum and urinary calcium with parathyroid hormone (1-84) with and without alendronate for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Antoniucci, Diana M; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Bilezikian, John P; Palermo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine E; Greenspan, Susan L; Black, Dennis M

    2007-03-01

    The effect of PTH therapy on serum and urinary calcium levels and the risk of hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria has not been formally evaluated. The objective was to examine changes in serum and urinary calcium associated with PTH(1-84) therapy in the PaTH trial and the extent to which a defined algorithm resolved the elevated values. A total of 178 postmenopausal women were randomized to PTH(1-84) either alone or in combination with alendronate during the first year of the PaTH study. The main outcome measures were fasting serum calcium at baseline and 1, 3, and 12 months and 24-h urinary calcium at baseline and 3 months. In 14% of participants, serum calcium more than 10.5 mg/dl (>2.6 mmol/liter) developed. Following the defined algorithm, 58% of elevated measurements were normal on repeat testing; 38% required discontinuation of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and one necessitated a decrease in PTH injection frequency to normalize serum calcium. One participant developed transient hypercalcemia between study visits and required hospitalization; the episode resolved with iv hydration and PTH discontinuation. Baseline characteristics associated with the development of hypercalcemia were serum calcium [relative hazards = 1.9 per 0.5 mg/dl (0.12 mmol/liter); 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.2] and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [relative hazard = 1.9 per 10 pg/ml (26 pmol/liter); 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.1]. Fifteen women (8%) developed hypercalciuria [urinary calcium > 400 mg (100 mmol)/24 h or calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.4]; 80% of cases resolved after discontinuing calcium and vitamin D, 13% without intervention, and one after PTH injection frequency was decreased. Higher baseline urinary calcium excretion was associated with development of hypercalciuria [relative hazard = 1.5 per 50 mg/d (12.5 mmol/d); 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.0]. Proportions of patients with elevated serum and urinary calcium were similar on single and combination therapy

  3. The effect of intravenous disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plus supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon fasting serum calcium.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, E W; Rudolph, C J; Cheraskin, E

    1983-08-01

    A literature search disclosed only very limited published material suggesting that EDTA therapy when given slowly does not seem to derange serum calcium metabolism. This report summarizes the observations of eighty private practice patients treated with EDTA and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation and its effects upon serum calcium. The evidence indicates that, in general, this form of chelation therapy does not alter serum calcium concentration. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, the evidence here suggests the so-called high normals declined slightly, the low normals rise slightly, and those in the intermediate range remain unchanged.

  4. THE EFFECT OF PURE PROTEIN SOLUTIONS AND OF BLOOD SERUM ON THE DIFFUSIBILITY OF CALCIUM.

    PubMed

    Loeb, R F

    1926-06-20

    1. A comparative study has been made of the diffusibility of calcium in solutions of crystalline egg albumin, serum globulin, and human blood serum. 2. In all three of these solutions, at pH 7.4, molal Ca concentrations within the membrane are greater than the calcium concentrations in the outside solutions, quite in accordance with the Donnan theory. 3. At pH 7.4, the ratio of See PDF for Structure varies directly with the protein concentration whether the solution be one of egg albumin, serum globulin, or blood serum. This is also in accordance with the Donnan theory. 4. On the acid side of the isoelectric point of the proteins, the concentration of Ca outside becomes greater than the concentration in the solution of blood serum or pure protein, as is demanded by the Donnan theory. 5. The magnitude of the Ca ratios on the alkaline and acid sides of the isoelectric points is probably the resultant of the Donnan equilibrium and the formation of complex Ca-protein ions. Northrop and Kunitz have shown the probability of the existence of such ions in the case of Zn(++), K(+), and Li(+), where satisfactory electrodes have been developed for E.M.F. measurements.

  5. Characterization of the effect of chronic administration of a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, ronacaleret, on renal calcium excretion and serum calcium in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Stephen; Dollery, Colin T; Hossain, Mohammad; Kurtinecz, Milena T; Desjardins, John P; Favus, Murray J; Kumar, Rajiv; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2013-09-01

    Ronacaleret is an orally-active calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist that has the potential for therapeutic utility in the stimulation of PTH release, notably as a bone anabolic agent comparable to recombinant human PTH(1-34) (rhPTH(1-34)). A recent study has shown that, despite the ability to increase circulating PTH levels in postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, minimal effects of ronacaleret on bone mineral density have been observed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the PTH profile as well as calcium metabolism parameters as a marker of PTH biological activity following the administration of ronacaleret or rhPTH(1-34). Administration of ronacaleret led to lower peak levels of PTH than were observed with rhPTH(1-34), however, greater total PTH exposure was observed. Further, chronic administration of either agent was associated with increases in urinary calcium excretion and serum calcium levels, with the magnitude of the changes following ronacaleret significantly greater than that for rhPTH(1-34). The greater magnitude of effects observed with ronacaleret is likely due to the greater total PTH exposure, and is potentially reflective of a state comparable to mild hyperparathyroidism. It is not clear whether the administration of all calcilytics would lead to a similar result, or is due to characteristics specific to ronacaleret.

  6. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels.

  7. [Serum concentration of calcium and calcitonin in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Fereira-Valbuena, H; Fernández de Argüello, E; Campos, G; Ryder, E; Avellaneda, A

    1991-01-01

    Serum calcium and calcitonin were determined in 13 patients (12 women and 1 man), ages ranging from 30 to 40 years, with clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' Disease, confirmed by serum determinations of T3 and T4, with the purpose of establishing the relationship that these two substances may have in this pathology. The results obtained showed a decrease in seric calcium concentration in relation to a control group (10.02 +/-) 0.48 vs 11.49 +/- 0.28 mg/dl; p less than 0.005) and an increase in calcitonin concentration (193.6 +/- 8.62 vs 116.7 +/- 7.61 pg/ml; p less than 0.0001). We also found a significative negative association (r = -0.69; p less than 0.01) between these two compounds in the group of patients with hyperthyroidism, not being found in the control group.

  8. Serum Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Sudanese Women with Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Elsheikh, Anas E; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag; Gasim, Gasim I

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, several elemental micronutrient abnormalities have been suggested to play a contributory role in preeclampsia. To investigate the levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper in women with preeclampsia. A case-control study was conducted in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan, during the period of September through December 2014. The cases were women with preeclampsia while healthy pregnant women were the controls. The medical and obstetrics history was gathered using questionnaires. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. There was no significant difference between the two groups in their age, gestational age, parity and body mass index. Zinc and copper levels were not significantly different between the two groups. In comparison with the controls, women with preeclampsia had a significantly lower median (inter-quartile) serum calcium [7.6 (4.0─9.6) vs. 8.1 (10.6─14.2), mg/dl, P = 0.032] and higher levels of magnesium [1.9 (1.4─2.5) vs. 1.4 (1.0─1.9) mg/dl; P = 0.003]. In binary logistic regression, lower calcium (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56 ─ 0.95, P = 0.021) and higher magnesium (OR = 5.724, 95% CI = 1.23 ─ 26.50, P = 0.026) levels were associated with preeclampsia. There were no significant correlations between levels of hemoglobin and these trace elements. The current study showed significant associations between preeclampsia and serum levels of calcium and magnesium.

  9. Serum Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Sudanese Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z.; Elsheikh, Anas E.; Rayis, Duria A.; Gasim, Gasim I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, several elemental micronutrient abnormalities have been suggested to play a contributory role in preeclampsia. Aims To investigate the levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper in women with preeclampsia. Subjects and Methods A case—control study was conducted in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan, during the period of September through December 2014. The cases were women with preeclampsia while healthy pregnant women were the controls. The medical and obstetrics history was gathered using questionnaires. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in their age, gestational age, parity and body mass index. Zinc and copper levels were not significantly different between the two groups. In comparison with the controls, women with preeclampsia had a significantly lower median (inter-quartile) serum calcium [7.6 (4.0─9.6) vs. 8.1 (10.6─14.2), mg/dl, P = 0.032] and higher levels of magnesium [1.9 (1.4─2.5) vs. 1.4 (1.0─1.9) mg/dl; P = 0.003]. In binary logistic regression, lower calcium (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56 ─ 0.95, P = 0.021) and higher magnesium (OR = 5.724, 95% CI = 1.23 ─ 26.50, P = 0.026) levels were associated with preeclampsia. There were no significant correlations between levels of hemoglobin and these trace elements. Conclusion The current study showed significant associations between preeclampsia and serum levels of calcium and magnesium. PMID:27911936

  10. Serum Calcium and Risk of Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ying; Ye, Zheng-Qin; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Shi, Bao-Min; Yi, Xiang-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical cases of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC) in combination with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have been reported occasionally. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of concomitant NMTC in PHPT patients remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between PHPT and NMTC, and evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of NMTC in Chinese patients with PHPT. Material/Methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis. We reviewed the medical records of 155 patients who underwent surgery for PHPT in two large medical centers in China between 2009 and 2014. The clinical manifestations, biochemical abnormalities, and histological characteristics of PHPT patients were analyzed. Results Of the 155 patients with PHPT, 58 patients (37.4%) had thyroid nodules and 12 patients (7.7%) were ill with concomitant NMTC. PHPT patients with NMTC demonstrated significantly lower preoperative serum calcium levels compared to PHPT patients with benign thyroid nodules (p<0.05). A significantly negative association between preoperative serum calcium levels and the presence of NMTC was found in PHPT patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, ROC analysis revealed that albumin-corrected serum calcium levels <2.67 mmol/L had good capacity to differentiate the PHPT patients with NMTC from those with benign thyroid nodules. Conclusions Compared with the reported much lower prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in the general population, our results suggest that PHPT might be a risk factor for the malignancy of thyroid nodules; a lower level of serum calcium may predict the existence of NMTC in PHPT patients with thyroid nodules. PMID:27867183

  11. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (−1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels. PMID:24049622

  12. Serum osteocalcin and total body calcium in normal pre- and postmenopausal women and postmenopausal osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, S; Aloia, J F; Gundberg, C M; Yeh, J; Vaswani, A N; Yuen, K; Lo Monte, A F; Ellis, K J; Cohn, S H

    1987-04-01

    Serum osteocalcin was measured in 51 normal pre- and 114 postmenopausal women and in 41 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. Total body calcium (TBCa) was determined in the same individuals by neutron activation analysis. Many of the perimenopausal nonosteoporotic women had increased serum osteocalcin values, but 15 yr or more after the menopause most of the women had serum osteocalcin levels in the normal range. Comparing normal women before and after menopause, the mean serum osteocalcin levels [7.8 +/- 4.7 (+/- SE) and 10.1 +/- 9.4 ng/mL] were not significantly different; however, the TBCa values (898 +/- 99 and 806 +/- 111 g) were significantly different (P less than 0.001). When the normal postmenopausal women were regrouped according to high vs. low osteocalcin values, TBCa and phosphorus content as well as forearm linear bone density were significantly lower in the high osteocalcin group, even though most of the other variables, including urinary hydroxyproline excretion, serum alkaline phosphatase, age, height, and weight, were not different. Osteoporotic women had a mean serum osteocalcin concentration of 17.4 +/- 8.6 ng/ml and a TBCa of 657 +/- 83 g, both significantly different from the respective values in normal and pre- and postmenopausal women (P less than 0.001 for both variables in comparison to each group). These data suggest that high serum osteocalcin levels, at least on a group basis, are an index of low skeletal mass.

  13. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  14. Measurement of serum ionized versus total levels of magnesium and calcium in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Saha, H; Harmoinen, A; Pietilä, K; Mörsky, P; Pasternack, A

    1996-11-01

    Until recently, only techniques for measuring total magnesium have been available. Now commercially available instruments using new ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for Mg+2 have made possible reliable measurement of ionized magnesium also in clinical practice. We measured changes induced by a hemodialysis session in serum ionized and total pools of magnesium and calcium using ISE methods. When compared with levels in age- and sex-matched control subjects, both serum ionized magnesium (0.68 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.56 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, p < 0.001) and total magnesium (1.00 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, p < 0.001) were higher in hemodialysis patients. The fraction of ionized Mg was 68.6 +/- 2.9% in hemodialysis patients, and did not differ significantly from that in controls (68.7 +/- 5.3%). The postdialysis value was 68.1 +/- 7.7%. The corresponding ratios of calcium (ionized/total) were 51.0 +/- 2.8% pre- and 50.9 +/- 4.6% postdialysis. Both prior to and after dialysis the correlation between ionized and total magnesium was high (r = 0.976, p < 0.001, and r = 0.925, p < 0.001, respectively). The corresponding ionized versus total calcium correlations were r = 0.724 (p < 0.001) before and 0.423 (p = 0.003) after dialysis. The changes induced by a hemodialysis session in serum concentration of ionized magnesium and calcium were dependent on the concentration of the cation in the dialysate. The change in PTH (suppression or stimulation) was very closely related to the changes in the serum concentration of ionized calcium. We concluded that measurement of ionized magnesium using ion-selective electrodes for Mg++ is an interesting new method in evaluating body magnesium status. Its definitive role in clinical practice cannot be judged on the basis of the results of the present study, but it will probably not achieve the same importance as the measurement of ionized calcium in clinical nephrology.

  15. Vascular calcification and secondary hyperparathyroidism of severe chronic kidney disease and its relation to serum phosphate and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Terai, K; Nara, H; Takakura, K; Mizukami, K; Sanagi, M; Fukushima, S; Fujimori, A; Itoh, H; Okada, M

    2009-04-01

    Various complications consequent on disordered calcium and phosphate homeostasis occur frequently in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Particularly, vascular calcification has high morbidity and mortality rates. There is a clear need for a better CKD model to examine various aspects of this disordered homeostasis. Oral dosing with adenine induced CKD in rats in only 10 days. Serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were measured and calcification in aorta was assessed histologically. The effects of varying phosphorus content of diet or treatment with phosphate binders or active vitamin D(3) on these parameters were examined. After adenine dosing, significant hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) were observed during the experimental period of 15 weeks. Aortic calcification was detected in only some of the animals even at 15 weeks (approximately 40%). Treatment with vitamin D(3) for 18 days, even at a low dose (100 ng x kg(-1), 3-4 times week(-1), p.o), caused aortic calcification in all animals and increases in serum calcium levels up to the normal range. The vitamin D(3)-induced calcification was significantly inhibited by phosphate binders which lowered serum phosphate levels and the calcium x phosphate product, although serum calcium levels were elevated. These data suggest that rats dosed orally with adenine provide a more useful model for analysing calcium/phosphate homeostasis in severe CKD. Controlling serum calcium/phosphate levels with phosphate binders may be better than vitamin D(3) treatment in hyperphosphatemia and 2HPT, to avoid vascular calcification.

  16. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  17. Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary visual pathway of Pteropus poliocephalus.

    PubMed

    Ichida, J M; Rosa, M G; Casagrande, V A

    2000-01-31

    It has been proposed that flying foxes and echolocating bats evolved independently from early mammalian ancestors in such a way that flying foxes form one of the suborders most closely related to primates. A major piece of evidence offered in support of a flying fox-primate link is the highly developed visual system of flying foxes, which is theorized to be primate-like in several different ways. Because the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) show distinct and consistent distributions in the primate visual system, the distribution of these same proteins was examined in the flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) visual system. Standard immunocytochemical techniques reveal that PV labeling within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the flying fox is sparse, with clearly labeled cells located only within layer 1, adjacent to the optic tract. CB labeling in the LGN is profuse, with cells labeled in all layers throughout the nucleus. Double labeling reveals that all PV+ cells also contain CB, and that these cells are among the largest in the LGN. In primary visual cortex (V1) PV and CB label different classes of non-pyramidal neurons. PV+ cells are found in all cortical layers, although labeled cells are found only rarely in layer I. CB+ cells are found primarily in layers II and III. The density of PV+ neuropil correlates with the density of cytochrome oxidase staining; however, no CO+ or PV+ or CB+ patches or blobs are found in V1. These results show that the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the flying fox LGN is unlike that found in primates, in which antibodies for PV and CB label specific separate populations of relay cells that exist in different layers. Indeed, the pattern of calcium-binding protein distribution in the flying fox LGN is different from that reported in any other terrestrial mammal. Within V1 no PV+ patches, CO blobs, or patchy distribution of CB+ neuropil that might reveal interblobs characteristic of primate

  18. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  19. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-09-15

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10-20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH.

  20. Microcontroller-based system for estimate of calcium in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Neelamegam, Periyaswmy; Jamaludeen, Abdul Sheriff; Ragendran, Annamalai; Murugrananthan, Krishanamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a microcontroller-based control unit was designed and constructed for the estimation of serum calcium in blood samples. The proposed optoelectronic instrument used a red light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and photodiode as a sensor. The performance of the system was compared with that of a commercial instrument in measuring calcium ion. The quantitative analysis of calcium in a catalyst using arsenazo III as colorimetric reagent was used to test the device. The calibration curve for calcium binding with arsenazo III was drawn to check the range of linearity, which was between 0.1 to 4.5 mM L⁻¹. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM L⁻¹. Absorbance changes over the pH range of 2-12 were determined to optimize the assay, with maximum absorption at pH 9.0. Interferences in absorbance from monovalent (K+ and Na+) and divalent (Mg²+) cations were also studied. The results show that the system works successfully.

  1. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  2. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    PubMed

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-07-07

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust.

  3. Osteopenic disease in growing pigs: diagnostic methods using serum and urine calcium and phosphorus values, parathoromone assay, and bone analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagemoser, W A; Goff, J P; Sanderson, T P; Haynes, J S

    2000-11-01

    This research was performed to evaluate the utility of several serum and urine parameters as well as bone ash and plasma parathormone assay to diagnose and monitor diet-related osteopenia in growing pigs. Five diets were tested as follows: calcium-deficient, phosphorus-replete; moderate-deficiency of calcium and phosphorus; marked deficiency of calcium and phosphorus; calcium replete, phosphorus deficient; and vitamin D deficient. Parameters monitored included serum calcium and phosphorus as well as ratios of urine calcium to creatinine, phosphorus to creatinine, calcium to phosphorus, and percent fractional excretions of calcium and phosphorus. Plasma parathormone (PTH) levels were monitored in 2 of 3 experiments. Osteopenic bone differences at necropsy were evaluated by bone density, percent ash, ash per milliliter bone, calcium per milliliter bone, and phosphorus per milliliter bone. Marked change in urine mineral parameters, especially the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, typically occurred within 1 to 2 days of treatment and preceded significant change in serum mineral or plasma PTH by 2 to 3 weeks. When monitored, plasma PTH levels were elevated following treatment, which confirms the hyperparathyroid state induced by the test diets. Significant differences in bone mineralization between control and treatment diets at necropsy were generally observed. The results of this study indicate that the analysis of urine minerals offers an early, noninvasive technique to investigate diet-associated osteopenic disease in growing pigs, which can be supported further by bone mineral analysis at postmortem using techniques herein described. Several urine mineral reference intervals for application to field investigations are included. Research into application of similar techniques to evaluate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in pigs of all ages, including gestating and lactating gilts and sows, appears warranted.

  4. Combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia decreases serum FGF-23 level independently of calcium and PTH (COLC Study).

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Negi, Shigeo

    2012-03-01

    Increased blood levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are associated with increased mortality. We evaluated the effect of combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a new phosphate binder and calcium carbonate (CaC) on serum levels of phosphate and FGF-23. This was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter study. Hemodialysis patients with a serum phosphate level >6.0 mg/dL despite CaC therapy were also given LaC for 16 weeks at a dose up to 2250 mg/day. CaC was given at a fixed dose throughout the 16-week period. Of 42 patients enrolled, 36 completed the 16-week study. The serum phosphate level showed a significant decrease from 6.9 ± 1.4 mg/dL at week 0 to 5.5 + 1.2 mg/dL at week 16 (-20.0%, P < 0.05). The median FGF-23 level showed a significant decrease from 8250 ng/L at week 0 to 5000 ng/L at week 16 (-39.2%, P < 0.05). In contrast, corrected serum calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone level showed no significant changes. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.442, P = 0.007) was demonstrated between the percent reduction of serum FGF-23 and that of serum phosphate. Both serum phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly decreased by treatment with LaC plus CaC.

  5. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  6. Does a higher ratio of serum calcium to magnesium increase the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Sahmoun, Abe E.; Singh, Brij B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among United States (US) women. Established risk factors explain only about 13% of breast cancer incidence among women in the US. Thus, the cause of most cases of breast cancer remains unknown. In postmenopausal women, serum calcium (Ca) and serum magnesium (Mg) play an important role in skeletal health, cell proliferation and cancer. Mg is essential for DNA duplication and repair and Mg deficiency favors DNA mutations leading to carcinogenesis. Dietary intake of Mg in the US is less than the recommended amount, and the deficit is more pronounced in older individuals where gastrointestinal and renal mechanisms for Mg conservation are not as efficient. Furthermore, healthy postmenopausal women are frequently recommended to take supplemental Ca, but not Mg and vitamin D to maintain bone and overall health. Most women with hormone sensitive breast cancer are recommended to take aromatase inhibitors, which causes bone loss and thus are generally prescribed Ca and vitamin D, but not Mg. Although the association between serum Ca and breast cancer risk remains controversial, we hypothesize that this may be because Mg levels have not been accounted for. Mg level directly influences transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) related Ca influx, calcium–adenosine triphosphatase (Ca–ATP) levels, and cell proliferation, and thereby could lead to cancer. Thus a high serum Ca/Mg ratio is more appropriate and alterations in this ratio could lead to increased development of new and recurrent breast cancer. PMID:20371155

  7. Depression of serum calcium by increased plasma free fatty acids in the rat: a mechanism for hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L; Lee, K H; Napier, T W; Fournier, P O; Duchainey, D; Axelrod, L

    1985-10-01

    Some patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis have marked hypocalcemia and high levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). This study tests the hypothesis that increased plasma FFAs can significantly reduce the calcium level in vivo, a phenomenon which is different from local formation of calcium soaps due to lipolysis of adipose tissue lipids. Free fatty acid elevation was induced in rats by the administration of heparin and by the infusion of triglycerides. The results show that, compared with controls, induction of elevated FFA (from 1.57 +/- 0.08 mEq/L to 5.64 +/- 0.35, mean +/- SEM) causes the concentration of calcium to fall rapidly (from 9.04 +/- 0.06 mg/dl to 8.42 +/- 0.10, p less than 0.001). There is a significant (p less than 0.001) positive correlation between spontaneous baseline concentration of FFA and the responsiveness of calcium concentration to FFA challenge. At near-normal levels of FFA there is a significant (p less than 0.001) correlation between the magnitude of increased FFA concentration and decreased calcium concentration. Additional studies in vivo and in vitro show that elevated plasma triglycerides per se did not interfere with measurement of calcium concentration; however, FFA-albumin complexes bind calcium and lower its measured value. These findings suggest that (a) changes in the concentration of FFA occurring spontaneously may affect measured serum calcium concentration; (b) the observed depression of serum calcium concentration may be due in part to intravascular sequestration of calcium by FFA, but increased flux of circulating calcium-FFA complexes into extravascular and intracellular sites may also be important; (c) the markedly increased FFA concentration in some patients with acute pancreatitis may contribute significantly to hypocalcemia and calcium flux in these patients. As parathyroid hormone secretion, function, or integrity may be impaired in pancreatitis, the depressant effect of FFA could be even

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  9. Association between pruritus and serum concentrations of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Joshaghani, Hamid Reza; Bayzayi, Faranak; Haddad, Mahboobeh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (±SD) was 49 ± 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 ± 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 ± 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (±SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 ± 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 ± 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to

  10. Indices of intact serum parathyroid hormone and renal excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, N J; Wheeldon, J; Brocklebank, J T

    1990-01-01

    Up to date reference ranges were established for fasting renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium on 101 healthy children aged 2-15 years. A normal range for intact parathyroid hormone was also measured. The indices of calcium and magnesium excretion showed no correlation with age or sex so that a common range for all children could be established. The 97th centile values for urinary calcium:creatinine and magnesium:creatinine ratios were 0.69 mmol:mmol and 1.05 mmol:mmol respectively. The calculated tubular maximum for phosphate/litre of glomerular filtrate (TmPO4/GFR) showed no correlation with age with a geometric mean value of 1.67 mmol/l. The normal range for intact serum parathyroid hormone for the age group was 11-35 ng/l, which is lower than the adult normal range using the same assay. There was an inverse correlation between TmPO4/GFR and intact parathyroid hormone in this group of normal children. PMID:2248530

  11. Acute serum calcium changes in transient ischemic attack and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Romagnoli, S; Ragno, A; Acca, M

    1998-01-01

    Total (T-Ca), albumin corrected (A-Ca) and ionized (Ca++) serum calcium levels were measured in patients affected by transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic cerebral infarction (ICI), in order to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of calcemic status during the acute phase of these events. These results demonstrate that the calcium level is decreased in cerebral ischemia and that more substantial changes are observed in ICI than in TIA and controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.02 and p < 0.0001 respectively for T-Ca, A-Ca and Ca++; analysis of variance). The mean T-Ca was significantly reduced in patients who died during hospitalization compared with values observed in survivors (p < 0.005), whereas A-Ca and Ca++ were not different. The calcium changes observed in the early phase of TIA and ICI suggest that the severity of cerebral ischemia may condition the amount of its acute decrease. The cause of hypocalcemia is unclear (primary effect or secondary epiphenomenon of cerebral ischemia?), but when A-Ca and Ca++ are considered, its in-hospital unfavorable prognostic role may be excluded.

  12. Association of serum parathyrine and calcium levels with primary aldosteronism: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Feng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents major cause of secondary hypertension, strongly associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aldosterone excess may influence mineral homeostasis, through higher urinary calcium (Ca) excretion reducing calcium plasma levels and leading to secondary increase of parathyrine (PTH). The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association of serum PTH and Ca levels with PA using a metaanalysis approach. We searched articles indexed in the PubMed, OVID and Sciencedirect published as of September 2014 that met our predefined criteria. Six articles with 748 subjects from 8 case-control studies were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with PA had higher serum PTH concentrations and lower Ca levels than controls with essential hypertension (EH) (PTH: SMD = 1.146, 95% CI = [0.774, 1.518]; Ca: SMD = -0.698, 95% CI = [-1.102,-0.294]). Further subgroup analysis stratified by geological location found a similar pattern both in Italy and Austria (Italy: for PTH, SMD = 1.176, 95% CI = [0.758, 1.593], for Ca, SMD = -0.669, 95% CI = [-1.119,-0.219]; Austria: for PTH, SMD = 1.004, 95% CI = [0.359, 1.648], for Ca, SMD = -0.900, 95% CI = [-1.543,-0.257]). In addition, the subgroup analysis stratified by type of Ca measurement also found a similar pattern by spectrophotometry (SMD = -1.078, 95% CI = [-1.532, -0.623]), but not by ion selective electrode (SMD = -0.248, 95% CI = [-0.810, 0.315]). Sensitivity analysis showed that excluding any one study from the pooled analysis did not vary the results substantially. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association of PTH and Ca concentration with PA. Therefore, the high levels of PTH and low Ca concentrations in serum can be used as a variable predictor for PA. PMID:26628945

  13. Analysis of serum Calcium, Magnesium, and Parathyroid Hormone in neonates delivered following preeclampsia treatment.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, S; Zaman, M; Farzan, B

    2016-12-30

    Due to the approximate clinical and biochemical manifestations of calcium and magnesium disturbances, with regard to the regulatory effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), this present study is designed to analyze serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and (PTH) at the time of birth, 24 hours afterwards in newborns after the mother has been treated with Mg-sulfate. We registered 86 term and preterm neonates (43 in each group) using simple census method delivered through vagina to preeclampsia pregnant women treated with Mg-sulfate immediately before birth in Khoramabad Asali Hospital, Iran. The first specimen was obtained from umbilical cord blood at birth, followed by the second sample of 2cc peripherally obtained from blood 24 hours after birth. The mean serum Mg level was higher than normal for both specimens in both term and preterm groups with no significant difference. The mean serum Ca level was higher in term group at both occasions, which turned out to be statistically significant (P<0.000) and (P=0.001) for the first and second specimens respectively. The mean PTH level was also in normal range for both groups at both times with no statistical significance. On the other hand, magnesium level showed a significant decline at 24 hours (P = 0.005) while PTH increased significantly (p<0.000) and (p=0.005) for term and preterm groups respectively. In contrast, Ca changes were not significantly different between the two specimens. Treatment with Mg-sulfate immediately before vaginal delivery increases Mg in both term and preterm neonates with no effect on Ca and PTH levels.

  14. Vascular calcification and secondary hyperparathyroidism of severe chronic kidney disease and its relation to serum phosphate and calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Terai, K; Nara, H; Takakura, K; Mizukami, K; Sanagi, M; Fukushima, S; Fujimori, A; Itoh, H; Okada, M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Various complications consequent on disordered calcium and phosphate homeostasis occur frequently in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Particularly, vascular calcification has high morbidity and mortality rates. There is a clear need for a better CKD model to examine various aspects of this disordered homeostasis. Experimental approach: Oral dosing with adenine induced CKD in rats in only 10 days. Serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were measured and calcification in aorta was assessed histologically. The effects of varying phosphorus content of diet or treatment with phosphate binders or active vitamin D3 on these parameters were examined. Key results: After adenine dosing, significant hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) were observed during the experimental period of 15 weeks. Aortic calcification was detected in only some of the animals even at 15 weeks (∼40%). Treatment with vitamin D3 for 18 days, even at a low dose (100 ng·kg−1, 3–4 times week−1, p.o), caused aortic calcification in all animals and increases in serum calcium levels up to the normal range. The vitamin D3-induced calcification was significantly inhibited by phosphate binders which lowered serum phosphate levels and the calcium × phosphate product, although serum calcium levels were elevated. Conclusions: These data suggest that rats dosed orally with adenine provide a more useful model for analysing calcium/phosphate homeostasis in severe CKD. Controlling serum calcium/phosphate levels with phosphate binders may be better than vitamin D3 treatment in hyperphosphatemia and 2HPT, to avoid vascular calcification. PMID:19302594

  15. Evidence that serum calcium oxalate supersaturation is a consequence of oxalate retention in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, E M; Nakagawa, Y; Bushinsky, D A; Coe, F L

    1986-01-01

    Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl. PMID:3711339

  16. Hypercalcitoninemia in thyroid conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative analysis of calcium and pentagastrin stimulation of serum calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kerstin; Elwerr, Malik; Machens, Andreas; Abuazab, Mohammed; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Dralle, Henning

    2013-03-01

    Calcitonin screening aims at uncovering occult medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Elevated basal calcitonin serum levels call for calcitonin stimulation, the level of which may direct the extent of surgery. Because pentagastrin has become restricted, calcium has increasingly been used instead for stimulation. This study identified a new spectrum of patients demonstrating a false-positive hypercalcitoninemia in the absence of C-cell disease, carrying multinodular goiter (MNG), thyroiditis, and non-MTC thyroid malignancy, and endeavored to explore the feasibility of extrapolating pentagastrin-stimulated to calcium-stimulated calcitonin thresholds. Altogether, 43 (9.5 %) of 455 patients with nodular thyroid disease revealed increased basal calcitonin serum levels between 2005 and 2012, for which they underwent intravenous stimulation with pentagastrin (31 patients) or calcium gluconate (12 patients) before and after primary thyroidectomy. Stimulation with calcium gluconate resulted in significantly higher and more variable preoperative calcitonin serum levels after 2 (241.2 vs. 104.9 pg/mL; P = 0.018) and 5 min (240.6 vs. 87.4 pg/mL; P = 0.007) than stimulation with pentagastrin. Stimulation with calcium gluconate produced 10-fold (nodular goiter), 15-fold (thyroiditis), and 21-fold (thyroid neoplasia other than MTC) calcitonin increases over baseline, as opposed to 5-fold, 10-fold, and 8-fold increases after stimulation with pentagastrin. None of the 43 patients, all of whom reverted to undetectable calcitonin serum levels after thyroidectomy, had immunohistochemical evidence of C-cell disease. Subgroup analyses according to gender and thyroid disease, being limited by the low number of patients in each subgroup, did not yield significant differences. Calcium stimulation yields significantly greater calcitonin levels than pentagastrin stimulation, precluding generalization of pentagastrin-stimulated to calcium

  17. Relationship among serum creatinine, serum gastrin, calcium-phosphorus product, and uremic gastropathy in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McLeland, S M; Lunn, K F; Duncan, C G; Refsal, K R; Quimby, J M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is associated with gastrointestinal signs commonly attributed to uremic gastropathy. Consequently, patients often are treated with antacids and gastrointestinal protectants. This therapeutic regimen is based on documented gastric lesions in uremic humans and dogs, but the nature and incidence of uremic gastropathy in cats are unknown. Evaluate uremic gastropathy in CKD cats to facilitate refinement of medical management for gastrointestinal signs. Thirty-seven CKD cats; 12 nonazotemic cats Stomachs were evaluated for the presence of classic uremic gastropathy lesions. Histopathologic lesions were compared with serum creatinine concentrations, calcium-phosphorus product (CPP), and serum gastrin concentrations. Gastric ulceration, edema, and vascular fibrinoid change were not observed. The most important gastric lesions in CKD cats were fibrosis and mineralization. Sixteen CKD cats (43%) had evidence of gastric fibrosis of varying severity and 14 CKD cats (38%) had gastric mineralization. CKD cats were more likely to have gastric fibrosis and mineralization than nonazotemic controls (P = .005 and P = .021, respectively). Only cats with moderate and severe azotemia had gastric mineralization. CPP was correlated with disease severity; severely azotemic CKD cats had significantly higher CPP when compared with nonazotemic controls, and to mildly and moderately azotemic cats (P < .05). Gastrin concentrations were significantly higher in CKD cats when compared with nonazotemic controls (P = .003), but increased concentrations were not associated with gastric ulceration. Uremic gastropathy in CKD cats differs from that described in other species and this difference should be considered when devising medical management. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2012-08-01

    Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  19. Cancer stem cells from human glioblastoma resemble but do not mimic original tumors after in vitro passaging in serum-free media

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Rubio, Susana; Rackov, Gorjana; Rodríguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Cruz, Jorge Oliver-De La; Prat-Acín, Ricardo; Peris-Celda, María; Blesa, David; Ramírez-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Gómez, Pilar; Perona, Rosario; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human gliomas harbour cancer stem cells (CSCs) that evolve along the course of the disease, forming highly heterogeneous subpopulations within the tumour mass. These cells possess self-renewal properties and appear to contribute to tumour initiation, metastasis and resistance to therapy. CSC cultures isolated from surgical samples are considered the best preclinical in vitro model for primary human gliomas. However, it is not yet well characterized to which extent their biological and functional properties change during in vitro passaging in the serum-free culture conditions. Here, we demonstrate that our CSC-enriched cultures harboured from one to several CSC clones from the human glioma sample. When xenotransplanted into mouse brain, these cells generated tumours that reproduced at least three different dissemination patterns found in original tumours. Along the passages in culture, CSCs displayed increased expression of stem cell markers, different ratios of chromosomal instability events, and a varied response to drug treatment. Our findings highlight the need for better characterization of CSC-enriched cultures in the context of their evolution in vitro, in order to uncover their full potential as preclinical models in the studies aimed at identifying molecular biomarkers and developing new therapeutic approaches of human gliomas. PMID:27589567

  20. Cancer stem cells from human glioblastoma resemble but do not mimic original tumors after in vitro passaging in serum-free media.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Noemí; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Carrión-Navarro, Josefa; Esteban-Rubio, Susana; Rackov, Gorjana; Rodríguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Prat-Acín, Ricardo; Peris-Celda, María; Blesa, David; Ramírez-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Gómez, Pilar; Perona, Rosario; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2016-10-04

    Human gliomas harbour cancer stem cells (CSCs) that evolve along the course of the disease, forming highly heterogeneous subpopulations within the tumour mass. These cells possess self-renewal properties and appear to contribute to tumour initiation, metastasis and resistance to therapy. CSC cultures isolated from surgical samples are considered the best preclinical in vitro model for primary human gliomas. However, it is not yet well characterized to which extent their biological and functional properties change during in vitro passaging in the serum-free culture conditions. Here, we demonstrate that our CSC-enriched cultures harboured from one to several CSC clones from the human glioma sample. When xenotransplanted into mouse brain, these cells generated tumours that reproduced at least three different dissemination patterns found in original tumours. Along the passages in culture, CSCs displayed increased expression of stem cell markers, different ratios of chromosomal instability events, and a varied response to drug treatment. Our findings highlight the need for better characterization of CSC-enriched cultures in the context of their evolution in vitro, in order to uncover their full potential as preclinical models in the studies aimed at identifying molecular biomarkers and developing new therapeutic approaches of human gliomas.

  1. Inverse correlation between serum calcium and copper levels in male urban Colombian preschool children: relationships with anthropometry and age.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian; Jiménez, Patricia; Mosquera, Mildrey; Pradilla, Alberto Gonzalo; Gracia, Ana Beatriz; Aguilar de Plata, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    Copper and calcium are essential for human growth and development. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between calcium and copper levels, as well as their relationship to age and anthropometry in 180 preschool children ages 2-5 years old. Serum copper levels were inversely correlated with age (r = -0.184, P = 0.032) and height (r = -0.175, P = 0.043) in the whole group and with height for age Z score only in male children (r = -0.291, P = 0.016). The correlation with age is not maintained when it is analyzed for gender. Serum calcium values in the total group were inversely correlated with weight (r = -0.153, P = 0.044) and weight for height Z score (r = -0.246, P = 0.001). No differences were found for gender in the levels of both metals. A negative relationship between serum calcium and copper was found only in male children (r = -0.339, P = 0.005). Studies are required in other populations and experimental designs that can explain an inverse relationship between serum calcium and copper levels.

  2. Association between serum phosphate and calcium, long-term blood pressure, and mortality in treated hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajan K; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Stevens, Kathryn K; Mccallum, Linsay; Hastie, Claire E; Schneider, Andreas; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-10-01

    Abnormalities of bone mineral parameters are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. We assessed the impact of baseline serum phosphate and calcium on longitudinal blood pressure (BP) control and survival in hypertensive adults. We studied 9260 hypertensive adults followed for 40 years (151 789 person-years). Changes in BP over initial 5-year follow-up were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Serum phosphate levels were higher in hypertensive women (1.10 mmol/l ± 0.20) than compared to men (1.02 mmol/l ± 0.21). In treated hypertensive patients, higher baseline serum phosphate was significantly associated with poor longitudinal SBP reduction (one standard deviation increase in phosphate was associated with 0.22 and 0.59 mmHg higher SBP at 5 years in men and women, respectively). Higher serum phosphate was significantly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in men, whereas in men and women, serum calcium significantly predicted all-cause and noncardiovascular mortality. In hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease, higher phosphate was significantly associated with poorer survival. In hypertensive patients, serum phosphate and calcium are significantly associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular survival and this appears not to be related to BP control.

  3. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca(2+) concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  4. The effect of intravenous magnesium hypophosphite in calcium borogluconate solution on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jehle, W

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous (IV) administration of phosphite on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in cows. Twelve clinically healthy cows were divided into four groups of three. All cows received 600 mL of a 40% calcium borogluconate solution; three cows each received this as a rapid (20 min) IV infusion with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite, and three other cows each received this as a slow IV infusion (8 h) with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite. Samples of blood were collected for the determination of serum concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium before and 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of treatment. The concentration of calcium increased after treatment in all cows but the increase was most rapid in cows that received the rapid infusion. In cows that received the rapid IV infusion containing magnesium hypophosphite, the mean concentration of inorganic phosphorus decreased significantly 3-4 h after treatment compared with initial serum levels. The serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus did not change significantly in cows that received the rapid IV solution without magnesium hypophosphite or the slow IV infusion with or without magnesium hypophosphite. The serum concentration of magnesium increased after treatment in all cows receiving magnesium hypophosphite but remained unchanged in the others. The rapid infusion of calcium borogluconate without magnesium hypophosphite made all three cows anorexic and hypercalcaemic and the slow infusion made 1/3 anorexic. It is concluded that the IV administration of a calcium solution containing magnesium hypophosphite does not increase the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus.

  5. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  6. Calcium absorption is not consistently enhanced by maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels > 50 or 80 nmol/L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). Targeting of 25-OHD values for the entire population has been widely advocated recently with goals of 25-OHD of at least 50 or 80 nmol/L advocated. There are few pediatric data that relate 25-OHD to Ca-a...

  7. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Amitha; Mahajan, Karishma; Thomas, Biju; Shenoy, Nina; Bhandary, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    In most women bone mass reaches its peak in the third decade of life and declines thereafter with the onset of menopause and might lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis may result in reduced jaw bone mass and alterations of the mandibular structure. Qualitative and quantitative indices have been used for panoramic radiographs to assess the alveolar bone quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the alveolar bone quality of premenopausal and postmenopausal women using the panoramic mandibular index (PMI). This study also aimed to estimate the levels of serum calcium in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Single centre case control study. A total of 30 patients were divided into three groups of ten each - the healthy group, control group, and study group. Alveolar bone mass was evaluated by the PMI. Serum calcium was also assessed for all the patients. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way analysis of variance using Statistical Software SPSS version 17, Tukey test for comparision, Pearson's correlation coefficient was employed. Premenopausal women had the highest values for alveolar cortical bone mass as recorded by the PMI, followed by postmenopausal women with a healthy periodontium. The lowest values were recorded in the group of postmenopausal women with chronic generalized periodontitis. Similar results were found for serum calcium values. Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  8. Evaluation of urinary and serum metabolites in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Petrini, K R; Lulich, J P; Treschel, L; Nachreiner, R F

    1999-03-01

    Baseline renal function data was collected during 24-hr periods of feeding and fasting from three male and three female adult Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Urine was analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, and oxalate, and urinalyses were performed. There was no evidence of glucosuria, which has been previously reported in Asian small-clawed otters with urolithiasis. Urinary oxalate levels were quite high when compared with those of dogs and humans without uroliths, and the ratio of urinary oxalate to calcium was close to 1:1 during periods of food consumption. There was no significant difference in urinary oxalate excretion between the fed and fasting states. Urinary calcium excretion was five times greater during feeding than during fasting. Calcium levels were higher in the otters than those reported for dogs without uroliths but were similar to those for normal humans. Water consumption and urine production were significantly higher during periods of food consumption. Serum chemistry analyses and electrolyte levels were also determined. There was no evidence of hypercalcemia. Fractional clearance of calcium and phosphorus and endogenous creatinine clearance were significantly higher during food consumption than during fasting. Parathyroid hormone levels were similar to those reported for dogs and cats. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D was slightly lower in the otters than in dogs.

  9. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. Check the product labels. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than ...

  10. Serum Calcium and Phosphate Levels and Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    You, Shoujiang; Han, Qiao; Xu, Jiaping; Zhong, Chongke; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Yanlin; Xu, Xinshun; Liu, Chunfeng; Cao, Yongjun

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether admission serum calcium and phosphate levels are associated with short- and long-term outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. A total of 365 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Participants were classified into 4 subgroups according to serum calcium or phosphate quartiles. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all the participants. Excellent outcome was defined as discharge or 3-month modified Rankin scale scores of 0-1. Univariate analysis comparing the highest and lowest quartiles indicated that an elevated calcium level was associated with 2.26- and 2.28-fold increases in the odds for discharge and 3-month excellent outcome, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and other potential risk factors, patients in the highest quartile still had significantly increased odds of discharge and 3-month excellent outcome; the corresponding odds ratios (ORs) were 3.43 (95% confidence interval [[CI], 1.03-11.44) and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.69-16.98). When calcium was divided into two groups, the ORs of higher calcium were 2.9 (95% CI, 1.1-7.62) and 2.8 (95% CI, 1.15-6.82) for discharge and 3-month excellent outcome, respectively. However, no significant association was observed between serum phosphate and excellent outcome. Elevated admission serum calcium level but not phosphate level is positively associated with excellent outcome at discharge or 3 months in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi

    2015-03-01

    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ≦ 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly by 4 weeks, whereas whole PTH and iPTH increased. A significant and positive correlation between decreases of serum calcium, but not phosphate, with increases of whole PTH and iPTH, suggested that the decline in serum calcium with reduction of calcium load by LaC might increase parathyroid function. Serum bone resorption markers, such as serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen increased significantly by 4 weeks after LaC administration, which was followed by increases of serum bone formation markers including serum bone alkaline phosphatase, intact procollagen N-propeptide, and osteocalcin. Therefore, it was suggested that LaC attenuated CaC-induced suppression of parathyroid function and bone turnover by decreasing calcium load. In conclusion, replacement of CaC with LaC, either partially or totally, could increase parathyroid function and resultant bone turnover in hemodialysis patients with serum iPTH ≦ 150 pg/mL. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of serum copper, magnesium, zinc and calcium levels between G6PD deficient and normal Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Tsai, J L; Tsai, L Y; Chao, M C

    1999-11-01

    Minerals are important for normal hematopoiesis and may play a role in acute hemolytic anemia induced by G6PD deficiency. To compare serum magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels between G6PD deficiency and normal control adults, we investigated 69 G6PD deficient (28 male, 41 female) and 61 age- matched G6PD normal adults (26 male, 35 female). Serum magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels were determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. Our results revealed that male adults with G6PD deficiency had significantly higher serum copper and magnesium levels than those of the control group (P < 0.01, < 0.05, respectively). In G6PD normal adults, serum copper levels were significantly lower in males than in females (P < 0.01). In the group of G6PD deficiency adults, serum copper levels in males (103.0 +/- 10.4 ug/dL) were significantly lower than those in females (139.0 +/- 34.3 ug/dL) (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium values and zinc values in males (2.42 +/- 0.38 mEq/L and 102.2 +/- 26.5 ug/dL) were significantly higher than those in females (2.07 +/- 0.20 mEq/L and 87.0 +/- 14.9 ug/dL) (P all < 0.01). Female adults with G6PD deficiency had significantly higher serum calcium levels and lower magnesium levels than those of the control group (P all < 0.01). The significantly higher levels of serum copper and magnesium in G6PD deficient male adults may play some role concerning red blood cells in resistance to plasmodium falciparum.

  13. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Li’an; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 μg/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8 μg/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a −4.4% to −36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3 hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by −28.5% to −3.1% and −60.5% to −11.6% at 0 and 2 hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of −20.0%, −22.4%, −14.2%, and −29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC

  14. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor with cinacalcet increases serum gastrin levels in healthy older subjects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gastric acidity is postulated to enhance calcium absorption since calcium is better dissolved at low pH. Extracellular calcium stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in humans. Ex vivo studies indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), which is expressed on the surface of human G cells...

  15. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg. PMID:24379908

  16. Arterial stiffness depends on serum ionized calcium levels during dialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Moor, Matthias B; Kruse, Anja; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Eisenberger, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Hemodynamic effects related to changes in serum ionized calcium (iCa) are difficult to determine during conventional hemodialysis (HD) using a fixed dialysate concentration of calcium. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) allows the study of the effects of predefined iCa changes on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) during a single dialysis session. In a crossover study, 15 patients with end-stage renal disease underwent two HD sessions with RCA. Each session was divided into two study phases in which iCa was titrated either to 0.8-1.0 mm or to 1.1-1.4 mm. The sequence of phases was randomly chosen and alternated for the second session. After reaching a stable iCa level, pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial BP, and heart rate were measured. iCa levels were modified during sequence 1 (iCa low-high) from a predialysis baseline value of 1.15 ± 0.09 mm, first to 0.92 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; P < 0.001 vs. baseline) and then to 1.18 ± 0.05 (time point 2; ns). During sequence 2 (iCa high-low), iCa levels were modified from 1.15 ± 0.12 mm first to 1.20 ± 0.05 mm (time point 1; ns vs. baseline) and then to 0.93 ± 0.03 (time point 2; P < 0.001). Assuming a basic linear repeated measures model, PWV was positively related to iCa levels (P < 0.03) independent of systolic or diastolic BP, heart rate, or ultrafiltration rate. PWV is closely related to acute changes in serum iCa levels in HD patients using RCA. RCA provides an interesting opportunity to study the effects of acute iCa changes during one dialysis procedure. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fetuin-A is Associated to Serum Calcium and AHSG T256S Genotype but Not to Coronary Artery Calcification.

    PubMed

    Bellia, Chiara; Agnello, Luisa; Lo Sasso, Bruna; Milano, Salvatore; Bivona, Giulia; Scazzone, Concetta; Pivetti, Alessia; Novo, Giuseppina; Palermo, Chiara; Bonomo, Vito; La Grutta, Ludovico; Midiri, Massimo; Novo, Salvatore; Ciaccio, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification has been recently associated to an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. In few studies, Fetuin-A showed an association to coronary artery calcification (CAC), although the physiopathological mechanism underlying this association has not been fully established yet. Seventy-four patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factor and asymptomatic for coronary vasculopathy were included in the study. CAC was evaluated by Agatston score. Serum Fetuin-A levels were determined by ELISA. Molecular analysis of AHSG T256S gene variant (rs4918) was performed by PCR-RFLP. Serum Fetuin-A was correlated to serum calcium (r = 0,321; P = 0,018), but not to serum phosphorous. Multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed this association and showed that calcium and AHSG genotype were independent predictors of Fetuin-A (P = 0.037, P = 0.014, respectively). In particular, subjects carrying the SS genotype had lower levels of Fetuin-A and calcium (P = 0.037 and P = 0.038, respectively). When we compare subjects with CAC 0-10 with subjects with CAC > 10, we found that only age and male gender (P < 0.001, P = 0.035, respectively), but not Fetuin-A, were associated to CAC. Fetuin-A is not associated to CAC in subjects with low cardiovascular risk profile and asymptomatic for coronary vasculopathy, suggesting that in this setting Fetuin-A, although correlated to serum levels of calcium, could be not involved in mineral deposition on coronary vessels.

  18. Serum Ionized Calcium Quantification for Staging Canine Periodontal Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Miguel Carreira, L; Daniela, Dias; Pedro, Azevedo

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases (PD) are infectious, inflammatory, progressive diseases of the oral cavity affecting people and dogs. PD takes 2 forms: gingivitis and periodontitis. Diagnosing or staging PD can be achieved only with dental x-rays and periodontal probing, both of which require the use of general anesthesia in dogs. This study aimed to determine whether serum ionized calcium ([iCa(2+)]) levels can be useful in preliminary PD staging in dogs. A sample of 40 dogs (n = 40) was divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each) based on the following PD stages: G1 (gingivitis), G2 (initial periodontitis), G3 (moderate periodontitis), and G4 (severe periodontitis). The groups were then subjected to [iCa(2+)] quantification. Statistically significant differences were observed between PD stages and [iCa(2+)] for all stages except G3 and G4. Therefore, this parameter can be used as an additional tool to establish and monitor preliminary PD status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost−/−) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion. PMID:23530237

  20. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Zachary C; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A; Grande, Joseph P; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Singh, Ravinder J; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-04-09

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost(-/-)) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion.

  1. Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Alonso, Alvaro; Michos, Erin D; Loehr, Laura R; Astor, Brad C; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R

    2014-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, particularly among the elderly. Magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are micronutrients traditionally viewed in relation to bone health or chronic kidney disease. However, they also may be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease through a broad range of physiologic roles. With the use of data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, we tested the hypotheses that the incidence of HF is greater among individuals with low serum magnesium and those with high serum phosphorus and calcium. A total of 14,709 African Americans (27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45-64 y at baseline (1987-1989)] were observed through 2009. Proportional hazards regression was used to explore associations between biomarkers and incident HF. Serum calcium was corrected for serum albumin. Models were adjusted for demographics, behaviors, and physiologic characteristics. A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43]. Results were not modified by race, sex, or kidney function and were similar when incident coronary heart disease was included as a time-varying covariate. Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort. Whether these biomarkers will be useful candidates for HF risk prediction or targets for prevention remains to be seen. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Multicommutated flow analysis system based on fluorescence microdetectors for simultaneous determination of phosphate and calcium ions in human serum.

    PubMed

    Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Marta; Koncki, Robert

    2015-11-01

    A bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system allowing simultaneous determination of calcium and phosphate ions is developed. The detection of ions is based on measurements of fluorescence of calcein and rhodamine B, respectively. For such measurements performed under flow analysis conditions two dedicated detectors made of three integrated light emitting diodes each and operating according to fluorometric paired emitter detector diode (FPEDD) principle, have been used. The developed 2FPEDD-MCFA system has been applied for serum analysis. The system provides low detection limits (16 µM and 3.6 µM for calcium and phosphate ions, respectively) and therefore small consumption of sample (8 µL) for analysis. The throughput of the system allows about 20 bianalyte determinations per hour. The presented system was validated using human serum samples. The analysis results show good correlation with those from the clinical laboratory obtained using reference photometric methods. The results of real samples analysis show that it is necessary to determine both calcium and phosphate ions simultaneously because their levels is serum are rather weakly correlated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Sagoo, Harkiran K.; Hamza, Mustafa; Melvin, Jennifer; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmström, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations. PMID:27608013

  4. Serum ionized magnesium levels and ionized calcium-to-magnesium ratios in adult patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Sinert, Richard; Rinnert, Stephan; Chang, Betty; Heinis, Christian; Altura, Rachel A; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2004-11-01

    Low levels of total magnesium in sickle cell erythrocytes have been linked to increased sickling due to cell dehydration. We tested the null hypothesis that adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have the same serum level of ionized Mg (Mg(2+)) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio as healthy African Americans (AA) and healthy Caucasians (CAUC). We measured serum Mg(2+) and ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) with ion-selective electrodes and calculated the serum Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratios in patients with SCA and control groups (AA and CAUC). Seventy-four SCA patients and 61 controls were compared. SCA patients had significantly (P < 0.001) lower levels of serum Mg(2+) (0.52 +/- 0.05) compared to healthy AA (0.57 +/- 0.04) and CAUC (0.62 +/- 0.03). Eighty-six percent of the adult SCA patients had serum Mg(2+) levels below the mean for the AA group, and 96% of SCA patients were above the AA group's mean serum Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). Of the SCA patients studied, 25.6% (95% CI, 16.2-37.2%) had serum Mg(2+) levels below the racially adjusted lower limit of normal and 50% (95% CI, 38.1-61.9%) were above the upper limit of serum Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) for AA controls. By measuring serum Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), we were able to define a subset of SCA patients with hypomagnesemia and elevated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratios, who may benefit from magnesium supplementation.

  5. Evaluation of an electrolyte analyzer for measurement of ionized calcium and magnesium concentrations in blood, plasma, and serum of dogs.

    PubMed

    Unterer, Stefan; Lutz, Hans; Gerber, Bernhard; Glaus, Tony M; Hässig, Michael; Reusch, Claudia E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate an electrolyte analyzer for measurement of ionized calcium (Ca(i)) and magnesium (Mg(i)) concentrations in blood, plasma, and serum; investigate the effect of various factors on measured values; and establish reference ranges for Ca(i) and Mg(i) in dogs. 30 healthy adult dogs of various breeds. Precision in a measurement series, day-to-day precision, and linearity were used to evaluate the analyzer. The effects of exposure of serum samples to air, type of specimen (blood, plasma, or serum), and storage temperature on sample stability were assessed. Reference ranges were established with anaerobically handled serum. The coefficient of variation for precision in a measurement series was < or = 1.5% for both electrolytes at various concentrations. The Ca(i) and Mg(i) concentrations were significantly lower in aerobically handled serum samples, compared with anaerobically handled samples. The Ca(i) and Mg(i) concentrations differed significantly among blood, plasma, and serum samples. In anaerobically handled serum, Ca(i) was stable for 24 hours at 22 degrees C, 48 hours at 4 degrees C, and 11 weeks at -20 degrees C; Mg(i) was stable for 8 hours at 22 degrees C, < 24 hours at 4 degrees C, and < 1 week at -20 degrees C. In anaerobically handled serum, reference ranges were 1.20 to 1.35 mmol/L for Ca(i) and 0.42 to 0.58 mmol/L for Mg(i). The electrolyte analyzer was suitable for determination of Ca(i) and Mg(i) concentrations in dogs. Accurate results were obtained in anaerobically handled serum samples analyzed within 8 hours and kept at 22 degrees C.

  6. Serum levels of vitamin D, PTH and calcium and breast cancer risk-a prospective nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Martin; Bondeson, Anne-Greth; Bondeson, Lennart; Malm, Johan; Manjer, Jonas

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that calcium and its regulating hormones, i.e., parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D, might affect breast cancer risk. Evidence also suggests that this relationship could be influenced by menopausal status and BMI. We examined breast cancer risk related to prediagnostic serum levels of vitamin D (25OHD(2) and 25OHD(3)), PTH and calcium using a nested case-control design within the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. There were 764 incident breast cancer cases, and 764 controls were selected by incidence density matching, using age as the underlying time scale, matching on calendar time at inclusion, menopausal status and age at inclusion. Using logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breast cancer risk in different quartiles of the analyzed factors. All analyses were adjusted for risk factors for breast cancer, and for levels of albumin, creatinine and phosphate. Analyses were repeated stratified for BMI and menopausal status, and for low vs. high levels of 25OHD(3), PTH and calcium. There was a weak, nonsignificant inverse association between breast cancer risk and 25OHD(3), and the OR for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles, as compared to the first, were 0.84 (0.60-1.15), 0.84 (0.60-1.17) and 0.93 (0.66-1.33). Serum calcium was positively associated with breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR for the 4th quartile = 3.10:1.33-7.22 and p for quartile trend = 0.04), and in women with BMI > 25 (OR for the 4th quartile = 1.94:1.12-3.37 and p for trend < 0.01). There was no association between baseline serum PTH and breast cancer risk.

  7. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters in children with chronic kidney disease - preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Helena; Okarska-Napierała, Magdalena; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Górska, Elżbieta; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Szczepańska, Maria; Grenda, Ryszard; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Makulska, Irena; Zajączkowska, Maria Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) the function of all factors regulating mineral metabolism is disturbed, leading inevitably to renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification. The aimof the study is to assess concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and other parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism in children with CKD. 37 children with CKD 3-5, aged 1.6-17 years were included in the study. In all children serum levels of calcium (sCa), phosphate (sP), creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), FGF 23, intact parathormone (PTH), OPG and receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) were measured. Total calcium concentration was within normal limits in all children included in this study. Hyperphosphatemia was found in 2 children from group CKD 3 (12%), 6 from CKD 4 (54%) and 1 from CKD 5 (11%). FGF 23 level increased consecutively in subsequent CKD stages achieving the highest values in CKD 5 group. In all children with CKD, serum levels of OPG were correlated with FGF 23. In children with CKD 3-4 negative correlation between FGF 23 and PTH (r=-0.45; p=0.02) and positive correlation between FGF 23 and RANKL (r=0,59; p=0.006) has been found. Positive correlation between OPG concentration and HCO3 -and BE levels has been observed, as well as negative correlation between RANKL/OPG ratio and HCO3 -and BE levels. Despite maintaining serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels within recommended limits, elevated levels of FGF 23 and OPG were observed in children with chronic kidney disease, especially in it's end-stage.

  8. Changes in serum calcium, phosphate, and PTH and the risk of death in incident dialysis patients: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Melamed, M L; Eustace, J A; Plantinga, L; Jaar, B G; Fink, N E; Coresh, J; Klag, M J; Powe, N R

    2006-07-01

    Elevated bone mineral parameters have been associated with mortality in dialysis patients. There are conflicting data about calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and mortality and few data about changes in bone mineral parameters over time. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1007 incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. We examined longitudinal changes in bone mineral parameters and whether their associations with mortality were independent of time on dialysis, inflammation, and comorbidity. Serum calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product (CaP) increased in these patients between baseline and 6 months (P<0.001) and then remained stable. Serum PTH decreased over the first year (P<0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for inflammation, comorbidity, and other confounders, the highest quartile of phosphate was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57 (1.07-2.30) using both baseline and time-dependent values. The highest quartiles of calcium, CaP, and PTH were associated with mortality in time-dependent models but not in those using baseline values. The lowest quartile of PTH was associated with an HR of 0.65 (0.44-0.98) in the time-dependent model with 6-month lag analysis. We conclude that high levels of phosphate both at baseline and over follow-up are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients. High levels of calcium, CaP, and PTH are associated with mortality immediately preceding an event. Promising new interventions need to be rigorously tested in clinical trials for their ability to achieve normalization of bone mineral parameters and reduce deaths of dialysis patients.

  9. Association between direct measurement of active serum calcium and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, F; Webb, D R; Carter, P; Pitocco, D; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Kurl, S; Laukkanen, J A

    2015-06-01

    Previous prospective studies showing a positive association between serum calcium and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have relied on total calcium or an indirect estimate of active, ionized calcium (iCa). We aimed to assess this relationship using a direct measurement of iCa. iCa and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in a population-based sample of 2350 men without a known history of T2DM at baseline. Associations between iCa levels and incident cases of T2DM (self-reported, ascertained with a glucose tolerance test, or determined by record linkage to national registers) were estimated using Cox regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. At baseline, mean (standard deviation) age was 53 (5) years and mean iCa 1.18 (0.05) mmol/L. During a median follow-up of 23.1 years, 140 new cases of T2DM were recorded. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum HDL-cholesterol, and family history of T2DM, there was no association comparing second (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.18), third (0.77; 0.52-1.14), or fourth (0.98; 0.69-1.39) vs first quartile of iCa (p for trend 0.538); further adjustment for C-reactive protein, physical activity level, and triglycerides did not change the estimates (p for trend 0.389). In this study, we did not find evidence of an association between direct measurement of active calcium and risk of T2DM. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and define the relationship between factors influencing indirect calcium estimation and incident T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  11. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs.Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs.Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels.Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population.

  12. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs. Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs. Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels. Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population. PMID:27368027

  13. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in the group of 40 to 60 years of age there were

  14. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. Goal. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. Material and methods. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. Results. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in

  15. Nicotinamide treatment in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis reduces serum Fgf23 and raises heart calcium

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Austin M.; Gray, Amie K.; Moe, Sharon M.; Ichikawa, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene result in familial tumoral calcinosis, characterized by persistent hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcific masses in soft tissues. Since calcific masses often recur after surgical removal, a more permanent solution to the problem is required. Nicotinamide is reported to lower serum phosphate by decreasing sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters in the gut and kidney. However, its effectiveness in tumoral calcinosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated nicotinamide as a potential therapy for tumoral calcinosis, using a murine model of the disease–Galnt3 knockout mice. Initially, five different doses of nicotinamide were given to normal heterozygous mice intraperitoneally or orally. Treatment had no effect on serum phosphate levels; however, serum levels of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, high-dose nicotinamide (40 mM) was tested in Galnt3 knockout mice fed a high phosphate diet. The radiographic data pre- and post-treatment showed that nicotinamide did not reverse the calcification. However, the treatment retarded calcification growth after four weeks, while in the untreated animals, calcifications increased in size. The therapy did not affect serum phosphate levels, but intact Fgf23 decreased in the treated mice. The treated mice also had increased calcium in the heart. In summary, nicotinamide did not alter serum phosphate levels, likely due to compensatory decrease in Fgf23 to counteract the phosphate lowering effect of nicotinamide. Although increased calcium accumulation in the heart is a concern, the therapy appears to slow down the progression of ectopic calcifications. PMID:25007710

  16. Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Leila; Almquist, Martin; Malm, Johan; Wirfält, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas

    2013-08-15

    Low blood levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy D3, 25OHD3) in women have been associated with an increased risk of several diseases. A large part of the population may have suboptimal 25OHD3 levels but high-risk groups are not well known. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants for serum levels of 25OHD3 in women, i.e. factors such as lifestyle, menopausal status, diet and selected biochemical variables. The study was based on women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), a prospective, population-based cohort study in Malmö, Sweden. In a previous case-control study on breast cancer, 25OHD3 concentrations had been measured in 727 women. In these, quartiles of serum 25OHD3 were compared with regard to age at baseline, BMI (Body Max Index), menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) , life-style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption), socio-demographic factors, season, biochemical variables (i.e. calcium, PTH, albumin, creatinine, and phosphate), and dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. In order to test differences in mean vitamin D concentrations between different categories of the studied factors, an ANOVA test was used followed by a t-test. The relation between different factors and 25OHD3 was further investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and a logistic regression analysis. We found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and age, oral contraceptive use, moderate alcohol consumption, blood collection during summer/ autumn, creatinine, phosphate, calcium, and a high intake of vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels were associated with obesity, being born outside Sweden and high PTH levels. The present population-based study found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and to several socio-demographic, life-style and biochemical factors. The study may have implications e. g. for dietary recommendations. However, the analysis is a cross-sectional and it is difficult

  17. Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low blood levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy D3, 25OHD3) in women have been associated with an increased risk of several diseases. A large part of the population may have suboptimal 25OHD3 levels but high-risk groups are not well known. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants for serum levels of 25OHD3 in women, i.e. factors such as lifestyle, menopausal status, diet and selected biochemical variables. Methods The study was based on women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), a prospective, population-based cohort study in Malmö, Sweden. In a previous case–control study on breast cancer, 25OHD3 concentrations had been measured in 727 women. In these, quartiles of serum 25OHD3 were compared with regard to age at baseline, BMI (Body Max Index), menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) , life-style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption), socio-demographic factors, season, biochemical variables (i.e. calcium, PTH, albumin, creatinine, and phosphate), and dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. In order to test differences in mean vitamin D concentrations between different categories of the studied factors, an ANOVA test was used followed by a t-test. The relation between different factors and 25OHD3 was further investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and a logistic regression analysis. Results We found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and age, oral contraceptive use, moderate alcohol consumption, blood collection during summer/ autumn, creatinine, phosphate, calcium, and a high intake of vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels were associated with obesity, being born outside Sweden and high PTH levels. Conclusions The present population-based study found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and to several socio-demographic, life-style and biochemical factors. The study may have implications e. g. for dietary recommendations. However, the analysis

  18. Comparison of serum zinc, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and healthy pregnant women: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Lang, Lin; Li, Yijun; Liu, Qingqing; Yao, Yingshui

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between serum zinc, magnesium, and calcium levels and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is controversial. The aim of our study was to determine whether or not serum zinc, magnesium, and calcium levels are associated with PIH. In our study, we searched databases, including Wangfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed, to find literature regarding the relationship between PIH and serum trace elements. Meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager5.3 software. A total of 14 articles were included in our study. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that patients with PIH had lower serum zinc (SMD = -1.14; 95% CI] = -1.69, -0.59; P < 0.05), calcium (MD = -0.26; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.15; P < 0.05), and magnesium concentration (MD = -0.0.06; 95% CI = -0.08, -0.05; P < 0.05) than healthy gravidas. Our research suggests that serum zinc, calcium, and magnesium concentrations may have an effect on PIH. Thus, the serum zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels could be measured for PIH patients.

  19. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in school-age children are inconsistently associated with increased calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Hicks, Penni D; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2009-07-01

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). There are few similar pediatric data leading to uncertainty about the optimal target for 25-OHD to maximize Ca-abs. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between 25-OHD and Ca-abs in a large cohort of school-age children and adolescents. We evaluated data from 439 Ca-abs measurements performed using dual-tracer stable isotope techniques conducted at our center over a 15-yr period in 251 healthy children, 4.9-16.7 yr of age. Serum 25-OHD ranged from 28 to 197 nmol/liter (mean 85 +/- 2 nmol/liter) (sem). Total Ca-abs (intake times fractional absorption) were significantly correlated to 25-OHD in the whole population (r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This relationship was closer in the 197 studies in early puberty (Tanner 2 or 3, r = 0.35, P < 0.001) and not significant in pre- or late pubertal subjects. For the whole population, fractional Ca-abs adjusted for calcium intake were slightly but significantly higher at 25-OHD of 28-50 nmol/liter (0.344 +/- 0.019) compared with 25-OHD of 50-80 nmol/liter (0.280 +/- 0.014) or 25-OHD greater than 80 nmol/liter (0.297 +/- 0.015, P < 0.01 for each), suggesting adaptation to moderately low 25-OHD values. There is no consistent pattern of relationship between 25-OHD and either fractional or total calcium absorption in school-age children. However, there appears to be a modest calcium absorptive response to higher 25-OHD during early puberty.

  20. Acute and 3-month effects of calcium carbonate on the calcification propensity of serum and regulators of vascular calcification: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bristow, S M; Gamble, G D; Pasch, A; O'Neill, W C; Stewart, A; Horne, A M; Reid, I R

    2016-03-01

    Calcium supplements have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the effects of calcium supplements on the propensity of serum to calcify, based on the transition time of primary to secondary calciprotein particles (T50). Changes in serum calcium were related to changes in T50. Calcium supplements have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk; however, it is unknown whether this is related to an increase in vascular calcification. We investigated the acute and 3-month effects of calcium supplements on the propensity of serum to calcify, based on the transition time of primary to secondary calciprotein particles (T50), and on three possible regulators of calcification: fetuin-A, pyrophosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). We randomized 41 postmenopausal women to 1 g/day of calcium as carbonate, or to a placebo containing no calcium. Measurements were performed at baseline and then 4 and 8 h after their first dose, and after 3 months of supplementation. Fetuin-A, pyrophosphate and FGF23 were measured in the first 10 participants allocated to calcium carbonate and placebo who completed the study. T50 declined in both groups, the changes tending to be greater in the calcium group. Pyrophosphate declined from baseline in the placebo group at 4 h and was different from the calcium group at this time point (p = 0.04). There were no other significant between-groups differences. The changes in serum total calcium from baseline were significantly related to changes in T50 at 4 h (r = -0.32, p = 0.05) and 8 h (r = -0.39, p = 0.01), to fetuin-A at 3 months (r = 0.57, p = 0.01) and to pyrophosphate at 4 h (r = 0.61, p = 0.02). These correlative findings suggest that serum calcium concentrations modulate the propensity of serum to calcify (T50), and possibly produce counter-regulatory changes in pyrophosphate and fetuin-A. This provides a possible mechanism by which

  1. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  2. [Study on the in vitro release behavior of bovine serum albumin from calcium phosphate coating on pure titanium surface].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojing; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Wei; Ning, Chengyun; Zheng, Huade

    2014-09-01

    To study the incorporation rate and release behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) incorporated into the calcium phosphate coating by biomimetic deposition, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the hybrid coating, and to provide experimental basis for the fabrication of growth factor/biomimetic calcium phosphate coating and exploration for the loading/release behavior of growth factors. Pure titanium specimens were immersed into saturated calcium phosphate solutions(SCP) containing no BSA (controlled group) and 3 different concentrations of BSA (experimental groups) : 1, 10 and 100 mg/L. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating was formed on titanium surface and BSA was incorporated into the coating through co-deposition. The topography of the specimen was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure and phase composition of coatings were detected by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. BSA incorporation rate and release profile were determined by bicinchoninic acid protein assay kit. The biomimetic calcium phosphate coating was mainly composed of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate. BSA was successfully incorporated into the calcium phosphate coatings in all the 3 experimental groups. With the increase of BSA concentration, plate-like units of the coatings were turned into small grid structure. BSA incorporation rates of the three experimental groups were (72.4 ± 2.4)%, (62.3 ± 0.9)% and (42.2 ± 1.7)% respectively. The in vitro release test showed that all three BSA release profiles could be divided into two significant different stages: early burst release stage and later sustained release stage. The amount of BSA release of the 3 experimental groups in 24 h and 30 d were (1.57 ± 0.09), (8.82 ± 0.93), (140.24 ± 3.12) µg, and (2.39 ± 0.29), (14.39 ± 0.70), (151.06 ± 2.00) µg respectively. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating can be used as an effective carrier for

  3. Effect of serum FGF-23, MGP and fetuin-A on calcium-phosphate metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong-Mei; Wu, Qing; Fan, Wei-Feng; Ye, Xian-Wu; Niu, Jian-Ying; Gu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the role of serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, matrix Gla protein (MGP) and fetuin-A in the calcium-phosphate metabolism and their predicting value in coronary artery calcification in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study included 64 patients who receive hemodialysis in our hospital. The serum FGF-23, MGP and fetuin-A were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELlSA). Coronary artery calcification score (CACS) was evaluated by coronary artery computed tomography scan. The 64 patients (30 males, 34 females, 60.6 ± 11.3 years of age) received an average dialysis vintage of 6.88 ± 2.94 years. We divided the CACS into three levels, and 13 (20.31%), 16 (25%), and 35 (54.69%) exhibited a CACS of 0-100, 100-400, and >400, respectively. Dialysis vintage, serum FGF-23, fetuin-A, phosphorus and high-density lipoprotein-C levels were identified as independent variables of CACS by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that serum FGF-23 and fetuin-A were useful for identifying CAC in MHD patients. The cut-off value corresponding to the highest Youden's index was serum FGF-23 ≥ 256 pg/mL and fetuin-A ≤ 85 μg/mL, which was defined as the optimal predictors of CAC. Different combinations of serum FGF-23 and fetuin-A in parallel or in series effectively boosted the identification of CAC. The incidence of CAC is high in MHD patients. Serum FGF-23 and fetuin-A levels are closely correlated with CAC. © 2013 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  4. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  5. Penalized estimation in latent Markov models, with application to monitoring serum calcium levels in end-stage kidney insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a penalized likelihood form for latent Markov models. We motivate its use for biomedical applications where the sample size is in the order of the tens, or at most hundreds, and there are only few repeated measures. The resulting estimates never break down, while spurious solutions are often obtained by maximizing the likelihood itself. We discuss model choice based on the Takeuchi Information Criterion. Simulations and a real-data application to monitoring serum Calcium levels in end-stage kidney disease are used for illustration. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of various vitamin D metabolites on serum calcium and inorganic phosphate in the freshwater snake Natrix piscator.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Srivastav, S K; Singh, S; Norman, A W

    1995-10-01

    Vitamin D3 (650 pmol and 6.50 nmol/100 g body wt), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (650 pmol and 6.50 nmol/100 g body wt), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (65 pmol and 650 pmol/100 g body wt) were administered daily to the freshwater snake Natrix piscator for 15 days. Both serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels were increased significantly in all of the treated groups. This is the first report of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in reptiles induced by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

  7. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  8. A survey of the phosphorus and calcium contents of pastures and the serum inorganic phosphorus and calcium contents of cows on four Manawatu dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, K

    1989-06-01

    Serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were assessed in 20 cows on each of four Manawatu factory supply dairy farms. Blood was taken from each cow before calving and at six-week intervals during lactation. Bleeding coincided with herd testing. Herds of Friesian or Friesian X cows and Jersey or Jersey X cows were compared on adjacent farms on a Central Yellow-brown Sand and on adjacent farms on a Peat Loam overlying a Central Yellow-brown Earth soil. Pasture mass and composition were estimated to grazing height in the next two paddocks to be grazed in the rotation. Mean serum Pi concentration was higher in cows on sandy soils (1.55 mmol Pi/l than in cows on the peat loam (1.34 mmol Pi/l (P<0.001). Concentrations were highest before calving (1.69 mmol Pi/l) but fell to low levels at peak lactation (1.17mmol Pi/l when 70% of cows were below the minima of the 'normal range', and during the drought (1.29 mmol Pi/l. Pasture phosphorus (P) concentrations were adequate to support cow nutrition for lactation (>0.33% DM, ad lib. feeding) until the summer drought when low herbage mass would have restricted milk production. Serum Ca was adequate for lactating cows and changed little between months or between cows (mean 2.12 mmol Ca/l). No metabolic disorders relating to mineral deficiencies were observed. It appears that serum Pi in a high proportion of cows falls below the normal range during peak lactation without cows displaying clinical deficiency symptoms or a depression in butterfat production.

  9. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with different morphologies and polymorphs in the presence of bovine serum albumin and soluble starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxi; Chen, Yuping; Huang, Xuechen; Wu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and soluble starch. Effects of various bovine serum albumin (BSA) and soluble starch on the polymorph and morphology of CaCO3 crystals were investigated. Crystallization of vaterite is favored in the presence of BSA and soluble starch, respectively, while calcite is favored in the presence of a mixture of BSA and soluble starch. The morphologies of CaCO3 particles in the presence of mixture of BSA and soluble starch are mainly rod-like, suggesting that the BSA, soluble and their assemblies play key roles in stabilizing and directing the CaCO3 crystal growth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hypercalcitoninemia associated with return of serum calcium concentration toward normal in chronically parathyroidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, T C; Garner, S C

    1979-06-01

    In chronically parathyroidectomized male Fischer and Holtzman rats, we found a progressive rise in the levels of serum immunoreactive calcitonin (CT) despite hypocalcemia. The rise was preceded by an increase in the thyroidal CT concentration (determined by RIA) and hyperplasia of C cells (determined by the immunoperoxidase bridge technique). In association with the rise in serum CT, we also observed a return of serum Ca toward normal levels, which the evidence suggests was not due to compensatory regeneration of parathyroid remnants after incomplete parathyroidectomy. It also is unlikely that ectopic parathyroid tissue was responsible for the return of serum Ca toward normal. Since the increase in serum CT after parathyroidectomy coincided with the return of serum Ca toward normal, we postulate that a gradual rise in serum Ca in chronically parathyroidectomized rats might stimulate the "CT-saturated" thyroid glands to release CT, thus leading to a progressive increase in serum CT. Alternatively, it is possible that the increase in serum CT after parathyroidectomy may be due in part simply to nonspecific leakage of CT from the "CT-saturated" thyroid glands.

  11. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  12. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  13. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pujia, Arturo

    2012-06-06

    Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female) with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation) and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035). We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039). In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.

  14. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. Methods In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female) with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation) and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Results Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035). We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039). Conclusions In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects. PMID:22672668

  15. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  16. Calcium dobesilate reduces endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein serum levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Javadzadeh, Alireza; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Adl, Farzad Hami; Andalib, Dima; Khojasteh-Jafari, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the benefits of calcium dobesilate (CaD) administration on endothelial function and inflammatory status in patients with diabetic retinopathy through measurement of serum levels of endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with either severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy and with blood glucose level of 120–200 mg/dl were randomly allocated to treatment with either CaD tablets (500 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular status were performed before the study. The serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP were evaluated in both groups before and at the third month of the trial. Results The median serum level of hsCRP significantly differed between the groups 3 months following the CaD or placebo administration (2.2 mg/l in the CaD group versus 3.7 mg/l in the placebo group, p=0.01). The mean endothelin-1 serum level was 0.69±0.32 pg/ml in the CaD group and 0.86±0.30 pg/ml in the placebo group (p=0.01). Furthermore, in the CaD group, the serum levels of both endothelin-1 and hsCRP were significantly decreased 3 months after administration of CaD (p<0.001). Conclusions Administration of the CaD in the patients with diabetic retinopathy may reduce the serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP. This might imply amelioration of the endothelial function and inflammatory status following CaD therapy in these patients. PMID:23335852

  17. Relation of serum fetuin-A levels to coronary artery calcium in African-American patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sijie; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Bierhals, Andrew; Ash-Bernal, Rachel; Spence, Karen; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Delmez, James

    2009-01-01

    Vascular calcium deposition in end-stage renal disease occurs commonly, but its relation to cardiovascular risk factors and fetuin-A levels in African Americans is not known. Compliant African American patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD; n = 17) agreed to undergo 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The relation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age; gender; dialysis vintage; history of diabetes; means of the previous 3 years of weekly predialysis blood pressure values and hemoglobin levels; means of monthly values of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid; and albumin; and means of quarterly measurements of parathyroid hormone and lipids) and fetuin-A levels and CACS was explored using univariate analyses. Serum phosphorus levels over the previous 3 years were well controlled. The CACS range was 0 to 3,877 Agatston units (mean 996, median 196). Among the tested variables, only fetuin-A was significantly and inversely associated with CACS (standardized beta = -0.64, 95% confidence interval -18.09 to -3.62, p = 0.006). There was no association between age and fetuin-A level (standardized beta = -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.10 to 0.23). In conclusion, African-American patients who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis and with good phosphorus control exhibited a strong inverse correlation between fetuin-A level and CACS that was independent of age.

  18. Removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, D; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, G R; Salibián, A

    2006-09-01

    The uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. Authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. The function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, Columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. The study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. Pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. Comparing control specimens with gland-removed specimens, recorded serum levels after 32 days were the following (mean+/-SD): cholesterol (g/l), 3.7+/-0.6 vs. 4.1+/-0.6; total lipids (g/l), 15.7+/-2.0 vs. 13.7+/-2.7; calcium (mg/l), 100.5 +/- 24.3 vs. 99.1 +/- 9.2. None of the differences were statistically significant. Thus, no alterations of basic biochemical parameters associated with metabolism of lipids were registered. In one group of birds the calcium and cholesterol levels were determined 122 days after surgery; in this case values remained unchanged related to the beginning of the trials. Results suggest that the uropygial gland is not physiologically related to either the homeostasis of total lipids, cholesterol or the regulation of calcium metabolism.

  19. Serum PTH and ionized calcium levels as predictors of symptomatic hypocalcemia after parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Zuberi, Kashif A; Urquhart, Andrew C

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether perioperative PTH levels or ionized calcium levels are associated with symptomatic hypocalcaemia, in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Prospective noncontrolled study of a cohort of 100 patients, undergoing parathyroidectomy at a single tertiary care medical centre. Prospectively collected data from January 2002 to April 2008 on 100 unique patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated for age, sex, preoperative and intraoperative PTH levels, and preoperative and postoperative ionized calcium levels, extent of operation, final pathology, and postoperative symptomatic hypocalcaemia. Comparisons of those with and without symptomatic hypocalcaemia were made with Fisher's exact test for binary characteristics and with the Wilcoxon test for continuous characteristics. Results were deemed statistically significant at the 5% level (p < 0.05) with no correction for multiple comparisons. Twelve patients (12%) developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia in the post operative period. Neither, initial levels nor subsequent changes in PTH or ionized calcium were found to be associated with symptomatic postoperative hypocalcaemia. Patients developing hypocalcaemia tended to be younger (p = 0.057) and showed a significantly higher percentage when multiple glands were removed (p = 0.026). Initial levels or subsequent changes in PTH or ionized calcium were not found to be associated with symptomatic hypocalcaemia. The removal of more than one gland did correlate with symptomatic post operative hypocalcaemia.

  20. Analysis of S100 calcium binding protein B serum levels in different types of traumatic intracranial lesions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald; Frantal, Sophie; Pajenda, Gholam; Leitgeb, Johannes; Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Hajdu, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of intracranial traumatic lesions, the number of simultaneous traumatic lesions, and the occurrence of skull and facial bone fractures have an influence on S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) serum levels. Patients with blunt traumatic brain injury were prospectively enrolled into this cohort study over a period of 13 months. Venous blood samples were obtained prior to emergency cranial CT scan in all patients within 3 h after injury. The patients were then assigned into six groups: 1) concussion, 2) epidural hematoma, 3) subdural hematoma, 4) subarachnoid hemorrhage, 5) brain contusions, and 6) brain edema. The study included 1696 head trauma patients with a mean age of 57.7 ± 25.3 years, and 126 patients (8%) had 182 traumatic lesions on CT. Significant differences in S100B serum levels were found between cerebral edema and the other four bleeding groups: epidural p = 0.0002, subdural p < 0.0001, subarachnoid p = 0.0001, brain contusions p = 0.0003, and concussion p < 0.0001. Significant differences in S100B values between patients with one or two intracranial lesions (p = 0.014) or with three (p < 0.0001) simultaneous intracranial lesions were found. In patients with intracranial traumatic lesions, skull fractures, as well as skull and facial bone fractures occurring together, were identified as significant additional factors for the increase in serum S100B levels (p < 0.0001). Older age was also associated with elevated S100B serum levels (p < 0.0001). Our data show that peak S100B serum levels were found in patients with cerebral edema and brain contusions.

  1. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p < 0.001). Age- and gender adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 93 (86, 99) pmol/l in Pakistanis and 123 (120, 126) pmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. The difference persisted after controlling for body mass index. There was a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and s-1,25(OH)2D in both groups. S-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis; age-adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 1.28 (1.27, 1.28) mmol/l in Pakistanis and 1.26 (1.26, 1.26) mmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. In both groups, s-Ca2+ was inversely correlated to serum intact parathyroid hormone levels (s-iPTH). For any s-iPTH, s-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis, also when controlling for age. Conclusion Community-dwelling Pakistanis in Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  2. Effect of prepartum dietary calcium on intake and serum and urinary mineral concentrations of cows.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2006-02-01

    Nine multiparous and 12 primiparous cows were fed diets containing an anionic salt supplement and moderate Ca (0.99%) or high Ca (1.50%) concentrations for 21 d prepartum to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on serum and urine electrolytes and on postpartum intake and milk yield. Blood samples were collected during 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) for prepartum diets was approximately -6 mEq/100 g of dry matter (Na + K - Cl - S). Immediately postpartum, cows were fed diets with positive DCAD with greater than 1.00% Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentrations 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum were 9.62, 8.41, and 9.38 mg/dL. There were no treatment effects on serum Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentration was higher for primiparous than multiparous cows (9.34 vs. 8.93 mg/dL) for the trial and at calving (8.77 vs. 8.13 mg/dL). Mean serum HCO(3)(-) and urinary pH, respectively, were 20.32 mEq/L and 5.67 prepartum, 25.82 mEq/L and 7.62 at calving, and 26.08 mEq/L and 8.25 postpartum. No differences due to treatment were observed for serum and urinary concentrations of HCO(3)(-), pH, Mg, Na, K, and Cl. Milk yield was similar for 0.99 and 1.50% Ca treatments (22.8 and 20.7 kg/d). Diets containing 0.99 or 1.5% Ca maintained serum Ca at adequate levels around parturition and resulted in similar dry matter intake and postpartum milk yield.

  3. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  4. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  5. Metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in renal slices from the X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse: abnormal response to fall in serum calcium.

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, H S

    1984-02-01

    The effect of the X-linked Hyp mutation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) metabolism in mouse renal cortical slices was investigated. Vitamin D replete normal mice and Hyp littermates fed the control diet synthesized primarily 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-(OH)2D3); only minimal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) was detected in both genotypes and 1,25-(OH)2D3 formation was not significantly greater in Hyp mice relative to normal littermates, despite hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia in the mutants. Calcium-deficient diet fed to normal mice reduced serum calcium (p less than 0.01), increased renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase (1-OHase) activity (p less than 0.05), and decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) activity (p less than 0.05). In contrast, Hyp littermates on the calcium-deficient diet had decreased serum calcium (p less than 0.01), without significant changes in the renal metabolism of 25-OH-D3. Both normal and Hyp mice responded to the vitamin D-deficient diet with a fall in serum calcium (p less than 0.01), significantly increased renal 1-OHase, and significantly decreased renal 24-OHase activities. In Hyp mice, the fall in serum calcium on the vitamin D-deficient diet was significantly greater than that observed on the calcium-deficient diet. Therefore the ability of Hyp mice to increase renal 1-OHase activity when fed the vitamin D-deficient diet and their failure to do so on the calcium-deficient diet may be related to the resulting degree of hypocalcemia. The results suggest that although Hyp mice can respond to a disturbance of calcium homeostasis, the in vivo signal for the stimulation of renal 1-OHase activity may be set at a different threshold in the Hyp mouse; i.e. a lower serum calcium concentration is necessary for Hyp mice to initiate increased synthesis of 1,25(-OH)2D3.

  6. Effect of NaCl and NaHCO3 on serum ionised calcium and blood gas status during sprinting.

    PubMed

    Beard, L A; Hinchcliff, K W

    2002-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is often administered to horses before racing in an attempt to delay fatigue and improve performance. We examined the effect of acid-base status on serum ionised calcium concentration (iCa) during high intensity exercise in 8 Standardbred mares. In a randomised, blinded, cross-over study, mares were administered each of 3 treatments, NaCl (0.7 g/kg bwt), NaHCO3 (1 g/kg bwt) in 3 l water, or 3 l of water only, 4 h before performing a standardised exercise test to fatigue on a treadmill. Mixed venous blood samples were collected as the horses ran for 5 min at 3 m/s, to fatigue at a predetermined speed (approximately 113% VO2max) and for 5 min at 3 m/s. There was no effect of treatment on time to fatigue (P = 0.744). NaHCO3 attenuated (P<0.05) the exercise-induced decrease in venous pH (mean +/- s.e. 6.97, 6.95 and 7.06 +/- 0.02 at end of sprint for water, NaCl and NaHCO3, respectively). Both serum total calcium concentration (tCa) and iCa increased (P<0.05) with running. NaHCO3 decreased iCa (P<0.05) compared to water; iCa of 1.58 and 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmol/l before exercise and 1.69 and 1.49 +/- 0.05 end sprint, for water and NaHCO3 treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate an effect of NaHCO3 on iCa during exercise. Further study is necessary to determine the effect of alterations in iCa on exercise performance.

  7. Dietary calcium intake and serum vitamin D are major determinants of bone mass variations in women. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    del Puente, Antonio; Esposito, Antonella; Savastano, Silvia; Carpinelli, Assunta; Postiglione, Loredana; Oriente, Pasquale

    2002-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the main determinants in the pathogenesis of fractures. However, data on factors predicting longitudinal variations in BMD are still limited and incomplete. Such data would be of great importance in order to better focus prevention strategies in both the clinical setting and at the population level. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of both serological and questionnaire variables for bone mass variations in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Napoli, Italy. High completion rate (85.2%) and adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age) were examined at study entry and then again after two years (24 +/- 2 months) following the same protocol. They underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Data analysis included calculation of the percent variation in BMD in the 2-year period. Longitudinal data underwent stepwise analysis for a global evaluation of mutual interactions between independent variables. Our findings indicate that dietary and serum calcium, and serum 25(OH)vitamin D are the only independent determinants of BMD variations at the lumbar and femoral level, respectively. While the pharmacological significance of calcium and vitamin D in the therapy of established osteoporosis is still controversial, the present longitudinal data evidence their role as essential nutrients in determining the natural history of BMD variations.

  8. Status of Serum Calcium, Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone and Hematological Indices Among Lead Exposed Jewelry Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, I; Goswami, K; Ali, Md Suhrab

    2017-03-01

    Jewelry utilizes lead either directly or as a base metal. Costume jewelry requires lead before molding and plating the product with valuable metals. Therefore, such ornaments have a great potential to release heavy metals having health hazards. Also, jewelry makers engaged in preparing German silver, an alloy, apply lead in smelting, alloying, rolling and milling silver wires and pieces. The metal is taken up by blood, soft tissues and bone. The biological effects of lead are dependent upon the level and duration of exposure. Lead inhibits three enzymes of heme biosynthesis- δ-amino-levulinic-acid dehydratase (ALAD), coproporphyrin oxidase, and ferrochelatase, impairing heme synthesis and depressing serum level of erythropoietin resulting in decreased hemoglobin synthesis. Lead exposure also affects calcium metabolism and impair the synthesis of Calcitriol. In the present study, jewelry makers from Dhaka, Bangladesh, were shown to have significantly high levels of lead, protein, albumin, and parathormone in their blood, and significantly high amount of zinc-protoporphyrin and δ-amino-levulinic-acid in their urine. The control group, on the other hand showed significantly higher amounts of calcium (both total and ionized form) Vitamin D3 and non-activated erythrocyte ALAD in their blood, along with hemoglobin. It might be due to inhibition of 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme in renal tubules. Lead causes nephro-toxicity and inhibits 1-α- hydroxylase enzyme leading to decreased calcitriol synthesis resulting in impaired calcium absorption across gastro-intestinal tract and renal tubules. Low Vitamin D3 and significantly increased Parathyroid hormone (PTH) in study group has been found.

  9. Cerebral spinal fluid and serum ionized magnesium and calcium levels in preeclamptic women during administration of magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Alexander; Apostol, Radu; Ali, Erum; Choi, Anne; Ehsuni, Nazanin; Hu, Bin; Li, Lei; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2010-06-01

    To study the distribution of ionized and total magnesium (Mg) in serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in preeclamptic women receiving MgSO(4) and how this treatment affects the ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and ionized Ca:Mg ratios compared with healthy nonpregnant women and pregnant control women (HP). Controlled clinical study. An academic medical center. African-American women older than 20 and less than 35 years. The pregnant preeclamptic study and pregnant control groups each consisted of 16 women; the nonpregnant group consisted of 10 subjects. The preeclamptic women received a 6-g bolus of MgSO(4) IV started at least 4.5 hours before delivery during 15-20 minutes, then 2 g/h baseline. The CSF and serum levels of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and total Mg were measured in all three groups of women. The Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios were determined. Physiologic monitoring was done and recorded every 4 hours where appropriate. Bloods were drawn every 6 hours for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lactate dehydrogenase, uric acid, and electrolytes. Serum pH, total Mg, Apgar scores, and general health of the infants born to preeclamptic mothers given MgSO(4) were followed. The HP showed a reduction in mean serum ionized and total Mg, increase in ionized Ca, and a large increase in Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios compared with healthy nonpregnant women. Although the CSF ionized and total Mg and Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios were not altered with MgSO(4) treatment in the preeclamptic women receiving MgSO(4), the mean serum Mg values increased 3-fold. All infants were full-term, regardless of MgSO(4) treatment, and normal with respect to birth weight, Apgar scores, blood pH, total Mg, and neurologic scores. The data indicate that there is a direct relationship between the serum and CSF Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratios in HP and this ratio may be crucial in preventing vascular and neurologic complications in preeclampsia-eclampsia. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Comparative Analysis of Calcium-Binding Myeloid-Related Protein-8/14 in Saliva and Serum of Patients With Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Haririan, Hady; Andrukhov, Oleh; Pablik, Eleonore; Neuhofer, Michaela; Moritz, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to investigate calcium-binding myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8/14 in the saliva and serum of individuals with periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals for the assessment of its role in the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of periodontitis. This cross-sectional study includes 56 patients with periodontitis and 44 periodontally healthy individuals. Saliva and serum were collected for the detection of MRP-8/14 and calcium levels. Periodontopathic bacteria were determined by polymerase chain reaction in saliva. Correlations between salivary and serum MRP-8/14 levels and clinical parameters, bacteria, and calcium were analyzed with Pearson correlation in a multiple regression model. MRP-8/14 levels were documented with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Compared with healthy individuals, MRP-8/14 levels were significantly higher in both the saliva and serum of patients with periodontitis, but calcium was increased only in saliva. A high diagnostic potential of salivary MRP-8/14 was detected for periodontitis (ROC = 0.86). Salivary MRP-8/14 levels correlated significantly with the presence of the periodontopathogen Treponema denticola, as well as with the clinical parameters of periodontitis. MRP-8/14 in saliva might be a potential diagnostic parameter for periodontal disease.

  11. Combining early postoperative parathyroid hormone and serum calcium levels allows for an efficacious selective post-thyroidectomy supplementation treatment.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; Carrozza, Cinzia; D'Amato, Gerardo; Zuppi, Cecilia; Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino P

    2012-06-01

    Optimal treatment protocol to prevent symptomatic hypocalcemia following total thyroidectomy is still matter of debate. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of a selective supplementation protocol based on both early postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum calcium levels. Two hundred thirty consecutive patients were divided in three different groups of treatment according to iPTH levels 4 h after total thyroidectomy (4 h-iPTH) and serum calcium levels in the first postoperative day (1PO-Ca): group A (4 h-iPTH > 10 pg/ml, 1PO-Ca ≥ 8.5 mg/dl), no treatment; group B (4 h-iPTH > 10 pg/ml, 1PO-Ca < 8.5 mg/dl), oral calcium (OC) 3 g per day; and group C (4 h-iPTH ≤ 10 pg/ml), OC 3 g + calcitriol (VD) 1 μg per day. Development of biochemical and/or symptomatic hypocalcemia was evaluated. Fifty-nine patients (25.6%) had subnormal 4 h-iPTH levels (≤10 pg/ml) (group C). Among patients with normal 4 h-iPTH levels, 25 (10.9%) had subnormal 1PO-Ca (<8.5 mg/dl) (group B). The remaining 146 patients (63.5%) had normal 4 h-iPTH and 1PO-Ca levels (group A). One patient in group A, 2 in group B, and 18 in group C developed biochemical hypocalcemia. Only one patient in group C experienced major symptoms. Treatment was discontinued within 1 month in all the patients in group B. At a mean follow-up of 303 days, five patients in group C were still under supplementation treatment. The proposed supplementation protocol seems efficacious in preventing symptomatic hypocalcemia. It could allow a safe and early discharge of most patients, thus avoiding the constraints and the costs of routine supplementation.

  12. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3, 2009 and KNHANES V-1, 2010).

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Kim, Young-Sang; Oh, Kyungwon; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2013-04-01

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration to calcium metabolism and bone mass in a population with low calcium intake, a total of 4662 adults (2567 men and 2095 women) ≥50 years of age from the 2009-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were divided into groups according to dietary calcium intakes (quintiles means: 154, 278, 400, 557, and 951 mg/d) and serum 25(OH)D concentrations (<50, 50-75, and >75 nmol/L). Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D. Mean calcium intake was 485 mg/d; mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.1 nmol/L; PTH was 68.4 pg/mL; femoral neck BMD was 0.692 g/cm(2) ; and lumbar spine BMD was 0.881 g/cm(2) . Lower dietary calcium intakes were significantly associated with higher serum PTH concentrations and lower femoral neck BMD, not only at lower (<50 nmol/L) but also at higher (>75 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum PTH was highest and femoral neck BMD was lowest in the group, with a serum 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/L. In this low-intake population, calcium intake is a significant determinant of serum PTH and BMD at higher as well as lower 25(OH)D levels. This finding indicates that low calcium intake cannot be compensated for with higher 25(OH)D levels alone. As expected, serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with serum PTH and BMD. A calcium intake of at least 668 mg/d and a serum 25(OH)D level of at least 50 nmol/L may be needed to maintain bone mass in this calcium deficient population. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Prognosis prediction of uterine torsion mechanical treatment (rolling) after estimation of calcium and creatinine level in the serum of buffaloes (bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Amin, Said Elsayed; Eidaroos, Abdel-Salam; Hazzaa, Abo-Bakr Maher

    2012-09-15

    The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between creatinine and calcium concentration in buffalo serum in cases of uterine torsion before rolling, and 1 h and 24 h after calving. The degree, duration and site of uterine torsion, as well as fetus viability, time needed for cervical dilation, and the occurrence of uterine rupture were recorded. A total of 150 pregnant buffaloes suffering from colic and anorexia were brought to our clinic and clinically examined. Of these, 35 buffaloes were diagnosed with uterine torsion (different durations, directions and degrees) and the viability of the foeti and any evidence of uterine rupture were determined using ultrasonography and the serum levels of creatinine and calcium were estimated using calorimetric method. The animals were also examined for incidence of uterine rupture after rolling and calving. The calcium level significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increasing duration and severity of uterine torsion, however, it was higher in cases where a live fetus was delivered compared with a dead one. Conversely, the creatinine level significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increasing duration and severity of uterine torsion but was lower in cases that delivered a live fetus compared with a dead one. The calcium and creatinine levels returned to approximately normal concentration within 24 h after calving. In conclusion, calcium and creatinine serum concentration have a correlation with duration and severity of uterine torsion. Animals with low levels of calcium (below 8.44 mg/dL) and high levels of creatinine (above 2.25 mg/dL) did not usually respond to rolling or suffer from uterine rupture during calving. The calcium and creatinine levels can be used as indicators for the prognosis of mechanical treatment of uterine torsion in buffaloes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association studies of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) polymorphisms with serum concentrations of glucose and phosphate, and vascular calcification in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Babinsky, Valerie N; Hannan, Fadil M; Youhanna, Sonia C; Maréchal, Céline; Jadoul, Michel; Devuyst, Olivier; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and linked to arterial calcification. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor, plays a pivotal role in extracellular calcium homeostasis and is expressed in the intimal and medial layers of the arterial wall. We investigated whether common CASR gene variants are predictors for aortic and coronary artery calcification or influence risk factors such as serum calcium, phosphate and glucose concentrations in RTRs. Two hundred and eighty four RTRs were investigated for associations between three CASR promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs115759455, rs7652589, rs1501899), three non-synonymous CASR coding region SNPs (A986S, R990G, Q1011E), and aortic and coronary artery calcium mass scores, cardiovascular outcomes and calcification risk factors that included serum phosphate, calcium, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations. Multivariate analysis revealed that RTRs homozygous for the minor allele (SS) of the A986S SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (AA), had raised serum glucose concentrations (8.7±5.4 vs. 5.7±2.1 mmol/L, P<0.05). In addition, RTRs who were heterozygous (CT) at the rs115759455 SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (CC), had higher serum phosphate concentrations (1.1±0.3 vs. 1.0±0.2 mmol/L, P<0.05). CASR SNPs were not significant determinants for aortic or coronary artery calcification, and were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes or mortality in this RTR cohort. Common CASR SNPs may be independent predictors of serum glucose and phosphate concentrations, but are not determinants of vascular calcification or cardiovascular outcomes.

  15. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  16. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00–1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01–1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20–4.90 for tertile 3 (Ptrend = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  17. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 3–10 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 ± 1.4 y (mean ± SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 ± 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 ± 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ≤ 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ≤ 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  18. Alterations of serum zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations and the complexity of interelement relations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shohag, Hasanuzzaman; Ullah, Ashik; Qusar, Shalahuddin; Rahman, Mustafizur; Hasnat, Abul

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the status of serum trace elements: zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Forty-eight obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 48 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Patients were recruited from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University by random sampling. Serum trace element concentrations were determined using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (for zinc, copper, iron, calcium, and magnesium) as well as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (for manganese). Data were analyzed using independent t test, Pearson's correlation analysis, regression analysis, and ANOVA. Statistical analysis of these data showed a definite pattern of variation among certain elements in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to controls. In patients' serum, zinc, iron, and magnesium concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the controls. Serum manganese and calcium concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients compared to the controls. These data showed a definite imbalance in the interelement relations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients compared to controls and therefore suggest a disturbance in the element homeostasis.

  19. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-04-01

    Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood of the neonates with normal birth

  20. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. Aim: To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Methods: Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood

  1. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  2. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  3. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism. PMID:24471069

  4. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple myeloma Osteomalacia Paget disease of the bone Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review ...

  5. Ionized serum magnesium levels in umbilical cord blood of normal pregnant women at delivery: relationship to calcium, demographics, and birthweight.

    PubMed

    Handwerker, S M; Altura, B T; Royo, B; Altura, B M

    1993-09-01

    Using a novel ion-selective electrode for ionized Mg (IMg2+), we sought to: (1) determine levels and fractions of IMg2+ in umbilical vessels of normal pregnant women: (2) determine their relationships with ionized calcium (ICa2+) levels: (3) determine whether any demographic or clinical parameters affect these levels of divalent cations: and (4) compare levels of IMg2+, total Mg, percent IMg2+, and ICa2+ with sera of normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. We obtained umbilical arterial and venous serum from 38 normal subjects and venous samples from 26 normal pregnant women and 42 nonpregnant women. The mean umbilical venous IMg2+ level (0.51 +/- 0.01 mmol/liter) was significantly greater than the umbilical arterial level (0.48 +/- 0.01 mmol/liter, p < 0.05), and the latter was similar to maternal venous levels (0.48 +/- 0.01 mmol/liter). The maternal venous mean value is 20% less than that found (0.60 +/- 0.005 mmol/liter) in peripheral serum of nonpregnant women. The ionized fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the umbilical veins than umbilical arteries, and the percent IMg2+ fractions were similar in umbilical arteries and maternal venous blood. IMg2+ levels were lower in multiparous patients and those who received epidural analgesia and higher in patients who had operative vaginal delivery and in Asians. Ionized fractions of Mg in umbilical veins were higher in large for gestational age infants. Our findings provide evidence of a Mg deficiency in pregnancy and suggest that measurement of IMg2+ may have clinical value for diagnosis and therapy of such deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  7. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  8. Denosumab is Effective for Controlling Serum Calcium Levels in Patients with Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Syndrome: A Case Report on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein-producing Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ashihara, Norihiro; Nakajima, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Shirahata, Kumiko; Maeda, Chika; Uehara, Takeshi; Gomi, Daisuke; Ito, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Hypercalcemia resulting in the elevation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and suppression of serum PTH was observed in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and multiple lymph node metastases. We confirmed humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy based on PTHrP-producing CCC. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin could not control the patient's serum PTHrP levels and the patient was affected with bisphosphonate-refractory hypercalcemia. We administered a single dose of denosumab, an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand monoclonal antibody, and the patient's serum calcium levels remained close to the normal range for approximately 3 weeks without additional treatment. PMID:27904108

  9. Serum response factor regulates smooth muscle contractility via myotonic dystrophy protein kinases and L-type calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon Young; Park, Chanjae; Ha, Se Eun; Park, Paul J.; Berent, Robyn M.; Jorgensen, Brian G.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Grainger, Nathan; Blair, Peter J.; Slivano, Orazio J.; Miano, Joseph M.; Ward, Sean M.; Smith, Terence K.; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2017-01-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) transcriptionally regulates expression of contractile genes in smooth muscle cells (SMC). Lack or decrease of SRF is directly linked to a phenotypic change of SMC, leading to hypomotility of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, the molecular mechanism behind SRF-induced hypomotility in GI smooth muscle is largely unknown. We describe here how SRF plays a functional role in the regulation of the SMC contractility via myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) and L-type calcium channel CACNA1C. GI SMC expressed Dmpk and Cacna1c genes into multiple alternative transcriptional isoforms. Deficiency of SRF in SMC of Srf knockout (KO) mice led to reduction of SRF-dependent DMPK, which down-regulated the expression of CACNA1C. Reduction of CACNA1C in KO SMC not only decreased intracellular Ca2+ spikes but also disrupted their coupling between cells resulting in decreased contractility. The role of SRF in the regulation of SMC phenotype and function provides new insight into how SMC lose their contractility leading to hypomotility in pathophysiological conditions within the GI tract. PMID:28152551

  10. Predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Pettinger, Mary; Melamed, Michal L; Tylavsky, Frances A; Liu, Simin; Robbins, John; LaCroix, Andrea Z; LeBoff, Meryl S; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2010-05-01

    It is unclear how well surrogate markers for vitamin D exposure (eg, oral intake of vitamin D and estimates of sunlight exposure), with and without consideration of other potential predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, similarly rank individuals with respect to 25(OH)D blood concentrations. The objective was to determine how much variation in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) could be explained by a predictive model with the use of different vitamin D surrogate markers (latitude of residence, mean annual regional solar irradiance estimates, and oral sources) and other individual characteristics that might influence vitamin D status. A random sample of 3055 postmenopausal women (aged 50-70 y) participating in 3 nested case-control studies of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D Clinical Trial was used. Serum 25(OH)D values, assessed at year 1 (1995-2000), and potential predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations, assessed at year 1 or Women's Health Initiative baseline (1993-1998), were used. More than half of the women (57.1%) had deficient (<50 nmol/L) concentrations of 25(OH)D. Distributions of 25(OH)D concentrations by level of latitude of residence, mean annual regional solar irradiance, and intake of vitamin D varied considerably. The predictive model for 25(OH)D explained 21% of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations. After adjustment for month of blood draw, breast cancer status, colorectal cancer status, fracture status, participation in the hormone therapy trial, and randomization to the dietary modification trial, the predictive model included total vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, waist circumference, recreational physical activity, race-ethnicity, regional solar irradiance, and age. Surrogate markers for 25(OH)D concentrations, although somewhat correlated, do not adequately reflect serum vitamin D measures. These markers and predictive models of blood 25(OH)D concentrations should not be given as much

  11. Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Alonso, Alvaro; Michos, Erin D; Loehr, Laura R; Astor, Brad C; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, particularly among the elderly. Magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are micronutrients traditionally viewed in relation to bone health or chronic kidney disease. However, they also may be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease through a broad range of physiologic roles. Objective: With the use of data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, we tested the hypotheses that the incidence of HF is greater among individuals with low serum magnesium and those with high serum phosphorus and calcium. Design: A total of 14,709 African Americans (27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45–64 y at baseline (1987–1989)] were observed through 2009. Proportional hazards regression was used to explore associations between biomarkers and incident HF. Serum calcium was corrected for serum albumin. Models were adjusted for demographics, behaviors, and physiologic characteristics. Results: A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43]. Results were not modified by race, sex, or kidney function and were similar when incident coronary heart disease was included as a time-varying covariate. Conclusions: Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort. Whether these biomarkers will be useful candidates for HF risk prediction or targets for prevention remains to be seen. PMID:25030784

  12. Mortality risk for dialysis patients with different levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    PubMed

    Tentori, Francesca; Blayney, Margaret J; Albert, Justin M; Gillespie, Brenda W; Kerr, Peter G; Bommer, Jürgen; Young, Eric W; Akizawa, Tadao; Akiba, Takashi; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Port, Friedrich K

    2008-09-01

    Abnormalities in serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. No clinical trials have been conducted to clearly identify categories of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels associated with the lowest mortality risk. Current clinical practice guidelines are based largely on expert opinions, and clinically relevant differences exist among guidelines across countries. We sought to describe international trends in calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels during 10 years and identify mortality risk categories in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), an international study of hemodialysis practices and associated outcomes. Prospective cohort study. 25,588 patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis therapy for longer than 180 days at 925 facilities in DOPPS I (1996-2001), DOPPS II (2002-2004), or DOPPS III (2005-2007). Serum calcium, albumin-corrected calcium (Ca(Alb)), phosphorus, and PTH levels. Adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality calculated using Cox models. Distributions of mineral metabolism markers differed across DOPPS countries and phases, with lower calcium and phosphorus levels observed in the most recent phase of DOPPS. Survival models identified categories with the lowest mortality risk for calcium (8.6 to 10.0 mg/dL), Ca(Alb) (7.6 to 9.5 mg/dL), phosphorus (3.6 to 5.0 mg/dL), and PTH (101 to 300 pg/mL). The greatest risk of mortality was found for calcium or Ca(Alb) levels greater than 10.0 mg/dL, phosphorus levels greater than 7.0 mg/dL, and PTH levels greater than 600 pg/mL and in patients with combinations of high-risk categories of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH. Because of the observational nature of DOPPS, this study can only indicate an association between mineral metabolism categories and mortality. Our results provide important information about mineral

  13. The viability of mouse spermatogonial germ cells on a novel scaffold, containing human serum albumin and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yadegar, Mona; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Nezami Saridar, Saeide; Jebali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: In spermatogenesis, spermatogonial cells differentiate to the haploid gametes. It has been shown that spermatogenesis can be done at in vitro condition. In vitro spermatogenesis may provide an open window to treat male infertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel scaffold containing human serum albumin (HSA)/tri calcium phosphate nanoparticles (TCP NPs) on the mouse spermatogonial cell line (SCL). Materials and Methods: First, TCP NPs were synthesized by reaction of calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate at pH 13. Then, serial concentrations of TCP NPs were separately added to 500 mg/mL HSA, and incubated in the 100oC water for 30 min. In the next step, each scaffold was cut (2×2mm), placed into sterile well of microplate, and then incubated for 1, 2, and 3 days at 37oC with mouse SCL. After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by different tests including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, vital staining, and cell counting. On the other hand, the release of TCP NPs and HSA from the scaffolds was measured. Results: Based on microscopic observation, the size of cavities for all scaffolds was near 200-500 µm, and the size of TCP NPs was near 50-100 nm. All toxicity tests showed that the increase of TCP concentration in the scaffold did not affect mouse SCL. It means that the percentage of cell viability, LDH release, vital cells, and cell quantity was 85%, 105%, 90%, and 110%, respectively. But, the increase of incubation time led to increase of LDH release (up to 115%) and cell count (up to 115%). Also, little decrease of cell viability and vital cells was seen when incubation time was increased. Here, no release of TCP NPs and HSA was seen after increase of TCP concentration and incubation time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of TCP concentration in HSA/ TCP NPs scaffold does not lead to

  14. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  15. Reducing of salivary α-amylase inhibition by using bovine serum albumin and calcium chloride for forensic saliva screening.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Jun; Ohmura, Masako

    2017-09-01

    Inhibiting salivary α-amylase is a critical issue of forensic saliva identification using the catalytic method. This study aims to identify human α-amylase inhibitors in forensic saliva screening by using a blue starch amylase test and to measure the extent of enzyme inhibition. Thus, in order to demonstrate the presence of inhibitors, we prepared positively charged metal ion sources or chelators that were mixed into the saliva stains. The results of this study show that ferric chloride (FeCl3), magnesium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and citric acid significantly decrease the α-amylase activity of saliva stains. We also verified this approach using blood, a magnesium-containing liquid supplement, and two citric acid-containing soft drinks that were contaminated with saliva stains as forensic mock samples; these samples also showed a significant reduction in salivary α-amylase activity. To establish an inhibitor-resistant blue starch amylase test, we applied bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the reaction system. The results show that salivary α-amylase inhibition of the forensic mock samples occurred under normal test conditions (i.e., 300ng/µL BSA, 0mM CaCl2), and that inhibition was significantly relieved under the BSA+CaCl2 conditions (i.e., 1000ng/µL BSA, 5mM CaCl2). Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that both BSA and CaCl2 can be utilized as reaction stabilizers in forensic saliva screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated serum levels of S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) reflect disease severity in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Sik; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Ji-Won; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2010-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody to canine S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) was developed to determine the association between S100A8 and the disease severity of canine atopic dermatitis. Serum S100A8 concentrations were studied in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (n=213) and healthy dogs (n=213). Statistical correlations between these indices and atopic dermatitis activity were established, and dermatitis severity was assessed according to the CADESI score. Serum S100A8 concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). S100A8 serum levels were significantly higher in canine atopic dermatitis patients than in healthy dogs. A strong positive correlation was identified between S100A8 levels and canine atopic dermatitis patients. Our findings suggested that S100A8 is actively involved in the pathogenesis and clinical picture of canine atopic dermatitis.

  17. Increased intracellular calcium activates serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) through a calmodulin-calcium calmodulin dependent kinase kinase pathway in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Seiji; Okayama, Naotsuka; Shimizu, Manabu; Itoh, Makoto

    2003-04-04

    SGK1 is one of the protein-serine/threonine kinases that is activated by insulin in a PI3K-dependent manner. Although SGK1 mediates a variety of biological activities, the mechanisms regulating its activity remain unclear. In this study, we examined the potential roles of calcium signaling in the activation of SGK1. Treatment of CHO-IR cells with a cell-permeable calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished the insulin-induced activation of SGK1. Increasing intracellular calcium concentration by treating cells with thapsigargin or ionomycin induced a 6-8 fold increase in SGK1 activation. This was not affected by a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, but was completely inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitors, W 7 and W 5. Co-transfection of CHO cells with FLAG-SGK1 and CaMKK revealed the direct association of CaMKK with SGK1. These results suggest a calcium-triggered signaling cascade in which an increase in intracellular calcium concentration directly stimulates SGK1 through CaMKK.

  18. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty.

  19. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  20. Safety of daily teriparatide treatment: a post hoc analysis of a Phase III study to investigate the possible association of teriparatide treatment with calcium homeostasis in patients with serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Mika; Sowa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), a representative marker of bone anabolic action, is strongly related to bone mineral density during teriparatide therapy. This post hoc study analyzed data from a Phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00433160) to determine if there was an association between serum PINP elevation and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders. Research design and methods Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide 20 μg/day (n=137) or placebo (n=70) for a 12-month double-blind treatment period, followed by 12 months of open-label teriparatide treatment of all subjects. Main outcome measures Serum PINP levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. Serum calcium levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months of treatment. Results Serum PINP increased from baseline to 1 month of treatment and then remained high through 24 months. Twenty-eight of 195 subjects experienced PINP elevations >200 μg/L during teriparatide treatment. Serum calcium concentration in both the teriparatide and placebo groups remained within the normal range. There was no clinically relevant difference in serum calcium concentration between subjects with PINP >200 μg/L and subjects with PINP ≤200 μg/L. Two subjects experienced hypercalcemia and recovered without altering teriparatide treatment. Adverse events possibly related to calcium metabolism disorders included periarthritis calcarea (one subject) and chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate (two subjects), but neither was accompanied with a significant increase in PINP or serum calcium concentration. Conclusion Although the moderate size of this study prevented statistical analysis of any potential association between calcium metabolism-related disorders and elevated PINP, this analysis suggests that there was no association

  1. Relation of Serum Vitamin D to Risk of Mitral Annular and Aortic Valve Calcium (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Tibuakuu, Martin; Zhao, Di; de Boer, Ian H; Guallar, Eliseo; Bortnick, Anna E; Lutsey, Pamela L; Budoff, Matthew J; Kizer, Jorge R; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Michos, Erin D

    2017-08-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been identified as a possible modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that serum 25(OH)D concentration would be associated with calcifications of the left-sided heart valves, which are markers of CVD risk. Aortic valve calcium (AVC) and mitral annular calcium (MAC) were quantified from cardiac computed tomography scans performed on 5,530 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants at the baseline examination (2000 to 2002) and at a follow-up visit at either Examination 2 (2002 to 2004) or Examination 3 (2004 to 2005). 25(OH)D was measured from serum samples collected at the baseline examination. Using relative risk regression, we evaluated the multivariable-adjusted risk of prevalent and incident AVC and MAC in this ethnically diverse population free of clinical CVD at baseline. The mean age of participants was 62 ± 10 years; 53% were women, 40% white, 26% black, 21% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese. Prevalent AVC and MAC were observed in 12% and 9% of study sample, respectively. There were no significant associations between 25(OH)D and prevalent AVC or MAC. Over a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, 4% developed incident AVC and 5% developed incident MAC. After adjusting for demographic variables, each 10 ng/ml higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 15% (relative risk 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.98) lower risk of incident MAC but not AVC. However, this association was no longer significant after adjusting for lifestyle and CVD risk factors. Results suggest a possible link between serum 25(OH)D and the risk for incident MAC, but future studies with longer follow-up are needed to further test this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of serum uric acid on renal function in patients with calcium or uric acid stone: A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshimi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Narita, Takuma; Hamano, Itsuto; Matsumoto, Teppei; Soma, Osamu; Okamoto, Teppei; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Tohru; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Terayama, Yuriko; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    To determine the influence of serum uric acid (UA) levels on renal impairment in patients with UA stone. We retrospectively analyzed 463 patients with calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate stones (CaOx/CaP), and 139 patients with UA stones. The subjects were divided into the serum UA-high (UA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL) or the UA-low group (UA < 7.0 mg/dL). The control group comprised 3082 community-dwelling individuals that were pair-matched according to age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum UA using propensity score matching. We compared renal function between controls and patients with UA stone (analysis 1), and between patients with CaOx/CaP and with UA stone (analysis 2). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the hyperuricemia on the development of stage 3 and 3B chronic kidney disease (CKD) (analysis 3). The renal function was significantly associated with serum UA levels in the controls and patients with CaOx/CaP and UA stones. In pair-matched subgroups, patients with UA stone had significantly lower renal function than the control subjects (analysis 1) and patients with CaOx/CaP stones (analysis 2) regardless of hyperuricemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with UA stone, CaOx/CaP, hyperuricemia, presence of cardiovascular disease, higher body mass index, older age and lower hemoglobin had significantly higher risk of stage 3 and 3B CKD (analysis 3). Patients with UA stones had significantly worse renal function than controls and CaOx/CaP patients regardless of hyperuricemia. Urolithiasis (CaOx/CaP and UA stone) and hyperuricemia had an association with impaired renal function. Our findings encourage clinicians to initiate intensive treatment and education approaches in patients with urolithiasis and/or hyperuricemia in order to prevent the progression of renal impairment.

  3. THE EFFECT OF UVB RADIATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D AND IONIZED CALCIUM IN THE AFRICAN SPOONBILL (PLATALEA ALBA).

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rick, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) was diagnosed in two chicks produced by a captive breeding colony of African spoonbills (Platalea alba). The birds were housed indoor during the winter breeding season and had no access to natural sunlight. When the index cases occurred, the nesting birds and chicks had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration of 9.9 ± 2.7 nmol/L and a mean ionized calcium (iCa) concentration of 0.98 ± 0.12 mmol/L (winter pretreatment). For comparison purposes, serum was collected the following summer; mean 25-OHD was 20.8 ± 3.9 nmol/L and mean iCa was 1.32 ± 0.05 mmol/L (summer). During the following breeding season, ultraviolet B (UVB) lighting was provided to the flock, resulting in a mean 25-OHD of 19.0 ± 5.6 nmol/L and mean iCa of 1.23 ± 0.06 mmol/L (winter treatment 1). Both 25-OHD and iCa were significantly higher compared with winter pretreatment, and 25-OHD was not significantly different from summer, indicating that treatment during the winter months succeeded in increasing 25-OHD levels to summer levels. However, winter treatment 1 and summer iCa were significantly different. During the next breeding season (winter treatment 2), the birds were exposed to a light with higher UVB output. The mean 25-OHD of the flock was 16.5 ± 7.2 nmol/L, and the mean iCa increased to 1.34 ± 0.04 mmol/L. Both were comparable to summer values. Healthy chicks were hatched during both breeding seasons, and no further cases of MBD occurred during the course of the study. Provision of a UVB light source to captive African spoonbills maintained indoors during the winter months can increase 25-OHD and iCa to levels equivalent to those seen in the summer months, when birds have unrestricted access to natural sunlight. UVB lighting is recommended for all breeding spoonbills that do not have access to natural sunlight.

  4. Effects of a high-calcium diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yasutaka; Miwa, Misao

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of a high-calcium (Ca) diet on bone formation in magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats, this study focused on the effects of a high-Ca diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Male rats were randomized by weight into four groups, and fed one of four experimental diets containing two different Mg concentrations (0.05% (normal-Mg) or Mg-free (Mg-deficient)), and two different Ca concentrations (0.5% (normal-Ca) or 1.0% (high-Ca)) for 14 days. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1 were significantly lower in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet than in rats fed the normal-Mg diet. On the other hand, dietary Ca concentration had no significant influence on serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1. This study suggested that: 1) a high-Ca diet has no preventive effects on the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats; and 2) a high-Ca diet does not enhance serum IGF-1 levels in Mg-deficient rats. Moreover, unchanged serum IGF-1 concentrations may contribute to the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats receiving a high-Ca diet.

  5. Finger flexion resembling focal dystonia in Isaacs' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Umapathi, T; Tan, Louis C S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a patient with a 5-month history of gradually progressive painless flexion of the left ring finger associated with cramps in both thighs. She has severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was on salbutamol. Serum anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies was positive. Electromyography showed generalized neuromyotonia and myokymic discharges. The cramps were partially relieved by phenytoin. We would like to highlight that finger flexion resembling dystonia can be a presenting sign of Isaacs' syndrome.

  6. Response of serum minerals (calcium, phosphate, and magnesium) and endocrine glands (calcitonin cells and parathyroid gland) of Wistar rat after chlorpyrifos administration.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sarojni; Suzuki, Nobuo; Srivastav, Ajai Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Wistar rats (male) were daily administered chlorpyrifos at a dose of 5 mg/kg b wt. and 10 mg/kg b wt. and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week. In chlorpyrifos exposed rats hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia were recorded. At later intervals an increased levels of serum calcium and phosphate were observed. The parathyroid glands and calcitonin cells exhibited increased activity which is evident by increased nuclear volume of these cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High-Dose Intramuscular Vitamin D Provides Long-Lasting Moderate Increases in Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Levels and Shorter-Term Changes in Plasma Calcium.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Zafirau, Mark Zafir; Lim, Ee Mun; Clarke, Michael W; Dhamrait, Gursimran; Fleury, Naomi; Walsh, John P; Kaufmann, Martin; Jones, Glenville; Lucas, Robyn M

    2017-09-01

    The best management of vitamin D deficiency, defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] level <50 nM, is unclear. Intramuscular (IM) injection of a large bolus of vitamin D (≥100 000 IU) is used, but its safety is uncertain. In 10 adults given an IM injection of 600 000IU vitamin D3, we measured at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection the serum levels of vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, total 25(OH)D, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] using a standardized LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) assay; serum levels of 25(OH)D using the Abbott ARCHITECT i2000 immunoassay; and markers of bone metabolism. Bone markers and 25(OH)D (immunoassay) were remeasured at 24 weeks. All participants had baseline total 25(OH)D levels >50 nM. Serum 25(OH)D levels increased at 3, 4, and 24 weeks postinjection, peaking at 4 weeks [mean ± SEM of 126 ± 7.9 nM (immunoassay) and 100 ± 5.5 nM (LC-MS/MS)] but generally remained <125 nM, the upper limit recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. Serum 24,25(OH)2D3 levels increased at 3 and 4 weeks postinjection. Serum ionized calcium levels were higher than baseline at 1, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection but remained within the clinically normal range. Other biochemical parameters, including other vitamin D metabolites, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels, were unchanged. IM injection of a large bolus of vitamin D effectively increases serum 25(OH)D levels without evidence of metabolic abnormality.

  8. Development of a Multivariate Predictive Model to Estimate Ionized Calcium Concentration from Serum Biochemical Profile Results in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Danner, J; Ridgway, M D; Rubin, S I; Le Boedec, K

    2017-08-20

    Ionized calcium concentration is the gold standard to assess calcium status in dogs, but measurement is not always available. (1) To predict ionized calcium concentration from biochemical results and compare the diagnostic performance of predicted ionized calcium concentration (piCa) to those of total calcium concentration (tCa) and 2 corrected tCa formulas; and (2) to study the relationship between biochemical results and variation of measured ionized calcium concentration (miCa). A total of 1,719 dogs with both miCa and biochemical profile results available. Cross-sectional study. Using 1,200 dogs, piCa was determined using a multivariate adaptive regression splines model. Its accuracy and performance were tested on the remaining 519 dogs. The final model included creatinine, albumin, tCa, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, and age, with tCa, albumin, and chloride having the highest impact on miCa variation. Measured ionized calcium concentration was better correlated with piCa than with tCa and corrected tCa and had higher overall diagnostic accuracy to diagnose hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia, but not significantly for hypercalcemia. For hypercalcemia, piCa was as sensitive (64%) but more specific (99.6%) than tCa and corrected tCa. For hypocalcemia, piCa was more sensitive (21.8%) and as specific (98.4%) as tCa. Positive and negative predictive values of piCa were high for both hypercalcemia (90% and 98%, respectively) and hypocalcemia (70.8% and 87.7%, respectively). Predicted ionized calcium concentration can be obtained from readily available biochemical and patient results and seems more useful than tCa and corrected tCa to assess calcium disorders in dogs when miCa is unavailable. Validation on external data, however, is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  10. The effects of hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin on 1-wall intrabony defects of beagle dogs: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Um, Yoo-Jung; Jung, Ui-Won; Chae, Gyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of biphasic hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass (HA/CPG) scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin (BSA) on periodontal regeneration. 1-wall intrabony defects were surgically created on five beagle dogs. HA/CPG scaffolds, with a hydroxyapatite (HA)/calcium phosphate glass (CPG) ratio of 95:5 by weight (%) and surface modification done by 2% bovine serum albumin, were used. The control group received surgical flap operation, and the experimental groups were filled with HA/CPG scaffolds and HA/CPG(BSA) scaffolds. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks after surgery. Histological findings revealed better space maintenance in the experimental groups than the control group, and showed new bone formation intermittently in between the residual material particles. The newly formed bone was mostly woven bone and the residual particles were undergoing resorption. Cementum regeneration was observed with limited root resorption in all the groups. Histometric analysis also revealed greater mean values in new bone formation, cementum regeneration and bone area than the control group in both experimental groups. However, similar findings were presented between HA/CPG and HA/CPG(BSA). The result of the present study revealed the newly fabricated HA/CPG scaffold to have a potential use as a bone substitute material.

  11. Effect of calcium soap of fatty acids supplementation on serum biochemical parameters and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in crossbred ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Nour, Hayat H M; Nasr, Soad M; Hassan, Walid R

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45-55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season.

  12. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    PubMed Central

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  13. Comparison of the effects of daily and intermittent-dose calcitriol on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hostutler, Roger A; DiBartola, Stephen P; Chew, Dennis J; Nagode, Larry A; Schenck, Patricia A; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Drost, W Tod

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is complicated by secondary hyperparathyroidism, which traditionally has been controlled by dietary restriction of phosphorus and administration of phosphorus binders. Early treatment of patients with chronic renal failure with calcitriol may be indicated because once established, parathyroid gland hyperplasia does not readily resolve with therapy. Daily and intermittent dosing of calcitriol will decrease plasma parathyroid hormone concentration in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure without causing ionized hypercalcemia. Ten normal cats; 10 cats with chronic renal failure. Phase 1 was daily calcitriol administration (2.5 ng/kg PO q24h) for 14 days. Phase 2 was intermittent calcitriol administration (8.75 ng/kg PO q84h) for 14 days. A 7-day washout period separated phases 1 and 2. Before each phase, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and ionized calcium concentrations were measured. On days 1, 2, and 3 of both phases, serum ionized calcium concentrations were measured. On the last day of both phases, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and ionized calcium concentrations were measured 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after calcitriol administration. Overall, serum parathyroid hormone concentrations were significantly higher in cats with chronic renal failure than in normal cats (P = .022), but serum parathyroid hormone concentrations for both normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure were not significantly different before and after 14 days of treatment with calcitriol, regardless of whether calcitriol was administered daily or intermittently. Adverse effects of calcitriol administration (specifically ionized hypercalcemia) were not seen in either feline group during either phase of the study over the 3-day evaluation after calcitriol administration was initiated. At the dosages used, calcitriol treatment did not result in significant differences in serum parathyroid hormone concentrations before and after treatment in both normal cats and

  14. Basal Serum Calcitonin, After Calcium Stimulation, and in the Needle Washout of Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Mild or Moderate Basal Hypercalcitoninemia.

    PubMed

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2017-02-01

    This prospective study evaluated the concentrations of basal serum calcitonin (Ctn), Ctn after stimulation with calcium, and Ctn in the needle washout (FNA-Ctn) as predictors of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with thyroid nodules and basal Ctn between 10 and 100 pg/ml. Forty-one patients were included in the study. MTC was diagnosed in only 6 patients (14.6%). None of the patients with basal Ctn≤24.6 pg/ml (n=26) or stimulated Ctn≤186.5 pg/ml (n=21) had MTC. All patients without MTC had basal Ctn<47 pg/ml and stimulated Ctn<655.2 pg/ml. Among patients with basal Ctn between 24.6 and 47 pg/ml (n=12), 3 (25%) had MTC. Among patients with stimulated Ctn between 186.5 and 655.2 pg/ml (n=18), 4 (22.2%) had MTC. FNA-Ctn distinguished nodules that were MTC (n=6) from those that were not (n=60), without overlapping results. In the calcium stimulation test, 19 patients (46.3%) reported some adverse effect, but none of them was severe or required specific treatment. Our results highlight that in patients without a history suspicious for MTC, mild or moderate basal hypercalcitoninemia should not establish the diagnosis of this tumor. Depending on the concentration found, basal Ctn should be sufficient to define patient management. In doubtful cases, FNA-Ctn seems to be the best diagnostic test. Calcium stimulation testing was safe, but more studies are needed to determine the Ctn cutoff after stimulation with calcium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Status of serum-calcium and -albumin measurement in Argentina assessed in 300 representative laboratories with 20 fresh frozen single donation sera.

    PubMed

    Stepman, Hedwig C M; Stöckl, Dietmar; Acheme, Rosana; Sesini, Sandra; Mazziotta, Daniel; Thienpont, Linda M

    2011-11-01

    The Fundación Bioquímica Argentina (FBA) performs external quality assessment (EQA) of >3200 laboratories. However, FBA realizes that sample non-commutability and predominant use of heterogeneous systems may bias the estimated performance and standardization status. To eliminate these confounding factors, a study using frozen single donation sera was undertaken with the focus on serum-calcium and -albumin measurement. Target values were established from the results produced with homogeneous systems. In groups of n=7, system effects were investigated. Laboratory performance was evaluated from the correlation coefficient r between the measurement results for all sera and the target values. This allowed ranking of the laboratories and judgment of the deviation for individual samples (total error) against a 10% limit. The total error specification was a deviation for ≥ 5 samples exceeding 10% and/or causing a result outside the laboratory's reference interval. For calcium (n=303) (range: 2.06-2.42 mmol/L), 81 laboratories had an r-value <0.6, 43 even <0.4; the total error was relevant for 97 (10% limit) and 111 (reference interval) laboratories. For albumin (n=311) (range: 34.7-45.7 g/L) r was <0.7 (<0.4) in 44 (16) laboratories; 83 and 36 laboratories exceeded the total error criteria. Laboratories using homogeneous systems were generally ranked higher by correlation. System effects were moderate for calcium, but significant for albumin. The study demonstrated the need to improve the quality and harmonization of calcium and albumin testing in the investigated laboratories. To achieve this objective, we promote co-operation between laboratories, EQA provider and manufacturers.

  16. Evaluation of Bone Density, Serum Total and Ionized Calcium, Alkaline Phosphatase and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, and their Relationship with TSH Suppression by Levothyroxine.

    PubMed

    Kachui, Ali; Tabatabaizadeh, Seyed Mashaallah; Iraj, Bijan; Rezvanian, Hasan; Feizi, Awat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the situation of Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Z score, T score, serum level of corrected and ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) patients and correlation of these variants with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression level by levothyroxine. Among the patients referred to Esfahan's endocrinology research center, 34 PTC patients (aged 20-50 years) with a history of thyroidectomy and conceived radioactive iodine and suppressive dose of levothyroxine were evaluated in this case-control study, and 38 healthy persons participated as the control group (matched by age and sex, body mass index). Bone density was evaluated with the DEXA method in four areas: Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter and distal of forearm. A reference laboratory assessed TSH, corrected and ionized calcium, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 25OH vitamin D levels using fasting plasma and evaluated correlation of TSH level with variants by multivariate variance analysis. There was no significant difference in bone density and laboratory data (unless TSH) between the groups. In the PTC group, there was no significant correlation between TSH and difference values of BMD, Z score or T score, corrected calcium (P value = 0.12), ionized calcium (P = 0.54), ALP (P = 0.22) and 25 OH vitamin D (P = 0.38). There was no significant correlation in the TSH subgroups with BMD. The TSH suppression level has no relation with the elevated prevalence of low BMD, hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency. Difference in odds ratio was not significant for osteopenia and osteoporosis between the TSH subgroups (TSH < 0.02, >0.02 and <0.1 and >0.1 mu/L). Suppressive therapy with levothyroxine cannot decrease BMD, Z score and T score in PTC patients.

  17. Acute sleep deprivation increases serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Nilsson, Emil K; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Vågesjö, Evelina; Massena, Sara; Pettersson, Ulrika; Christoffersson, Gustaf; Phillipson, Mia; Broman, Jan-Erik; Lannfelt, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) affects circulating concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in humans. These factors are usually found in the cytoplasm of neurons and glia cells. Increasing concentrations of these factors in blood may be therefore indicative for either neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or both. In addition, amyloid β (Aβ) peptides 1-42 and 1-40 were measured in plasma to calculate their ratio. A reduced plasma ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 is considered an indirect measure of increased deposition of Aβ 1-42 peptide in the brain. Subjects participated in two conditions (including either 8-h of nocturnal sleep [22:30-06:30] or TSD). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after sleep interventions (19:30 and 07:30, respectively). Sleep laboratory. 15 healthy young men. TSD increased morning serum levels of NSE (P = 0.002) and S-100B (P = 0.02) by approximately 20%, compared with values obtained after a night of sleep. In contrast, the ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 did not differ between the sleep interventions. Future studies in which both serum and cerebrospinal fluid are sampled after sleep loss should elucidate whether the increase in serum neuron-specific enolase and S100 calcium binding protein B is primarily caused by neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or is just a consequence of increased gene expression in non-neuronal cells, such as leukocytes.

  18. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  19. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in

  20. Influence of diet transition on serum calcium and phosphorus and fatty acids in zoo giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Koutsos, E A; Armstrong, D; Ball, R; Dikeman, C; Hetherington, J; Simmons, L; Valdes, E V; Griffin, M

    2011-01-01

    In response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, Ca and P and added n3 fatty acids. This diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. Over the next 4 years, serum Ca, P, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months (summer and winter). Serum Ca was not affected by season (P = 0.67) or by diet (P = 0.12). Serum P was not affected season (P = 0.14), but was reduced by diet (P<0.01), and serum Ca:P was also increased by diet (P<0.01). The ratio of serum Ca:P tended to be affected by season (P = 0.07), in which animals tended to have greater Ca:P during the summer vs. the winter. The diet transition resulted in reduced serum saturated fatty acids (including lauric, myristic, palmitic, arachidic, and behenic acids), and increases in n6 fatty acids (including linolenic and arachidonic acids) and n3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid) (P<0.05 for each). Overall, this diet transition resulted in blood nutrient profiles that more closely match that of values found in free-ranging giraffe.

  1. Calcium: total or ionized?

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of serum total calcium (tCa) has been relied on for assessment of calcium status, despite the fact that it is the ionized calcium (iCa) fraction that has biologic activity. Serum tCa does not accurately predict iCa status in many clinical conditions. For accurate assessment of iCa status, iCa should be directly measured. Anaerobic measurement of serum iCa under controlled conditions provides the most reliable assessment of calcium status; aerobic measurement of iCa with species-specific pH correction is highly correlated with anaerobic measurements.

  2. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  3. New techniques for ion-selective measurements of ionized calcium in serum after pH adjustment of aerobically handled sera.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H D

    1976-04-01

    I report further experience in measuring ionized calcium (Ca2+) with the AMT Electron System and its serum standards and solid-state, dip, calcium-selective electrodes. With this system, serum pH can be adjusted with CO2 gas and Ca2+ and pH simultaneously measured; when 5.2% CO2 (40 mm pco2) is used for sample equilibration, the standard bicarbonate concentration is also provided. I measured serum Ca2+ as a function of pH between pH 7.0 and 9.0 and found the relationship to be reproducible, with no evidence of irreversible complexing of Ca2+. When the pH of aerobically exposed, mailed sera was restored to the original values, their values for Ca2+ were the same as for the fresh sera. Measurement of Ca2+ in routinely (aerobically) handled sera after pH restoration with CO2 gas was therefore validated, both samples from within an institution and mailed specimens. Standardization to pH 7.40 is recommended for routine measurements, is generally more accurate than use of heparin or quasianaerobic techniques, and is a practical approach. In patients with possible uncompensated acid-base disturbance (which may be indicated by an abnormal standard bicarbonate concentration if not suspected clinically), patient pH should be measured independently as part of the usual strict, anaerobic blood-gas-analysis procedures. Abnormal patient pH must be considered in the interpretation of Ca2+ results determined at pH 7.40 which are borderline or slightly abnormal; most accurately, Ca2+ may be measured in the separated sera at the previously determined patient pH value. Studies of aqueous solutions with the currently used Ca2+ electrodes showed a selectivity coefficient (the constant which relates the activity of an interfering ion to the activity of calcium that would contribute the same emf) KNa=0.0031 +/- 0.0003 (SE) and KMg=0.046 +/- 0.004 (SE). At physiological concentrations of Ca2+, physiologically encountered variation in Na+ is of no significance in resulting Ca2+, but

  4. Association between Hypoadiponectinemia and Low Serum Concentrations of Calcium and Vitamin D in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Sahar; Sharifi, Faranak; Hajihosseini, Reza; Kalantari, Sadroddin; Mazloomzadeh, Saideh

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the possible association of calcium and vitamin D deficiency with hypoadiponectinemia in women with PCOS. Subjects and Methods. In this case-control study, 103 PCOS cases and 103 controls included. The concentrations of calcium, 25-OH-vitamin D (25OHD), adiponectin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and androgens were measured in fasting blood samples. Results. Adiponectin (8.4 ± 2.7 ng/mL versus 13.6 ± 5 ng/mL in control group, P : 0.00), calcium (2 ± 0.1 mmol/L versus 2.55 ± 0.17 mmol/L in controls, P : 0.00), and 25-OH-Vit D (30 ± 2.99 nmol/L versus 43.7 ± 5.2 nmol/L in control group, P : 0.00) levels were decreased in women with PCOS. Subjects with PCOS had higher concentrations of TG (1.4 ± 0.77 mmol/L versus 1.18 ± 0.75 mmol/L in control group, P : 0.019) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (10.7 ± 11 mmol/L versus 9.7 ± 10.4, P : 0.02 in control group). There were significant correlations between adiponectin concentrations with calcium (r : 0.78, P : 0.00) and 25OHD levels (r : 0.82, P : 0.00). The association of hypoadiponectinemia and PCOS was not significant considering 25OHD as a confounding factor. Conclusion. The present findings indicate that the association of hypoadiponectinemia with PCOS is dependent on vitamin D. A possible beneficiary effect of vitamin D on the metabolic parameters in PCOS may be suggested.

  5. OPG-Fc treatment in growing pigs leads to rapid reductions in bone resorption markers, serum calcium, and bone formation markers.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Zysset, P; Kostenuik, P; Mayrhofer, E; Bogdan, C; Rauner, M; Stolina, M; Dwyer, D; Sommerfeld-Stur, I; Pendl, G; Resch, H; Dall'Ara, E; Varga, P; Pietschmann, P

    2011-12-01

    Inhibition of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of osteoporosis and related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone metabolism and structure in pigs after RANKL inhibition. 12 growing pigs were assigned to 2 groups with 6 animals each. The OPG group received recombinant human OPG-Fc (5 mg/kg IV) at day 0, the control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. Serum levels of OPG-Fc, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and bone turnover markers were evaluated every 5 days, and pigs were euthanized on day 20. Serum OPG-Fc concentration peaked at day 5 and coincided with significantly decreased Ca, P, and bone turnover markers. By day 15, measureable OPG-Fc serum levels could only be detected in 2/6 animals. With OPG-Fc clearance starting at day 10, serum Ca and P concentrations were not different between the 2 groups. TRACP5b, P1CP, and BAP levels significantly decreased by 40-70% relative to vehicle controls in the OPG-Fc group between days 5 and 10, indicating that pharmacologic concentration of OPG-Fc led to systemic concomitant inhibition of bone formation and resorption in young growing pigs. Dual X-ray absorptiometry data derived from the proximal femur did not differ between the 2 groups. μCT analysis of selected bone sites demonstrated an OPG-Fc-induced improvement of specific bone architectural indices and bone mineralization.

  6. Mechanistic analysis for time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Nakane, Masaki; Chen, Yung-wu; Mizobuchi, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, 5/6 NX male, Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or cinacalcet (10 mg/kg, oral, 1× daily). On Day 0 (before treatment), Day 12 and 13 after treatment (to approximate the clinical practice), and also at 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours after the last dosing, blood was collected for analysis. After 12 or 13 days of cinacalcet treatment, modest changes were observed in serum Ca and phosphorus (Pi), while PTH decreased by >45% to Sham levels (152 ± 15 pg/mL). Detailed mapping found that cinacalcet caused a significant time-dependent decrease in serum Ca following dosing, reaching a lowest point at 8 hours (decrease by 20% to 8.43 ± 0.37 mg/dL), and then returning to normal at 24 hours. Cinacalcet also caused a significant increase in serum Pi levels (by 18%). To investigate the potential mechanism of action, a broad approach was taken by testing cinacalcet in a panel of 77 protein-binding assays. Cinacalcet interacted with several channels, transporters, and neurotransmitter receptors, some of which are involved in brain and heart, and may impact Ca homeostasis. Cinacalcet dose-dependently increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA expression by 48% in cardiomyocytes, but had no significant effects on left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function. The results suggest that cinacalcet's hypocalcemic effect may be due to its nonspecific interaction with other receptors in brain and heart. PMID:24303131

  7. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    PubMed

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P < 0.01) faecal excretion of ash, Ca and P concentrations, and shear force with stress of the tibia in association with decreased feed intake, whereas improved albumen height and Haugh unit values in the egg. 3. Supplemental B significantly decreased the feed consumption, egg weight and final body weight in hens, as well as the albumen height, but had no effect on either the biomechanical characteristics of bones or the mineral profile of the bones and serum. However, there was a significant increase in the egg production rate and a reduction in the damaged and shell-less egg ratio, and in the feed conversion rate in hens fed adequate Ca-P with 150 mg/kg B compared to those of the unsupplemented controls. 4. The amount of B that accumulated in the bones and serum was correlated with the amount of B consumed. B increased the faecal excretion of ash, Ca and B. In general, dietary variables had no effect on mineral composition of serum and tibia. 5. The magnitude of the response to dietary B was much more pronounced in hens fed a diet deficient in Ca-P with 75 mg/kg B; these hens exhibited a production performance and an egg quality comparable to those given adequate Ca-P with no added B. 6. The data presented in this study describing the measured bone properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  8. Solid contact ion sensor with conducting polymer layer copolymerized with the ion-selective membrane for determination of calcium in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Abramova, Natalia; Moral-Vico, Javier; Soley, Jordi; Ocaña, Cristina; Bratov, Andrey

    2016-11-02

    A new solid contact ion selective electrode with intermediate conducting polymer (CP) layer formed by electropolymerization on a gold electrode of a bifunctional monomer, n-phenyl-ethylenediamine-methacrylamide (NPEDMA), which contains a methacrylamide group attached to aniline, is presented. The conducting polymer was studied by means of optical spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and potentiometric measurements. Ca(2+)-ion-selective membrane based on acrylated urethane polymer was shown to co-polymerize with the CP forming highly adhesive boundary that prevents formation of water layers between the CP and membrane, thus enhancing the stability and life-time of the sensor. The designed ion-selective electrode was successfully used for determination of total calcium ion concentration in blood serum samples.

  9. Effects of a sustained release formulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycosides for milk fever prevention on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcium and phosphorus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Heinrich; Lanz, Michael; Kehrle, Susanne; Bittner, Wolfgang; Toggenburger, Annick; Mathis, Georg A; Rambeck, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake. With the understanding of the underlying mechanism, calcium supply management and vitamin D supplementation became prime candidates for MF prevention and therapy. Several strategies have been developed for MF prevention. Application of the active form of Vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, was found to prevent MF effectively. In order to prevent a delayed hypocalcemia, which was occasionally seen after stopping the treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, a new approach was chosen by applying Solanum glaucophyllum extract (SGE), which contains 1,25(OH)2D3-glycosides, as instant-release (irSGE) in combination with slow-release (srSGE) tablets. In a first study, non-lactating cows were treated with a single bolus of either synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, irSGE, or srSGE and the results were compared to a control group without treatment. Blood serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and magnesium (Mg) were followed for 11days and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Calcium and phosphate excretion in urine were determined during 15days. While serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 was back to pre-treatment level in the irSGE, srSGE and 1,25(OH)2D3 treated group within 3days, calcium and phosphate levels remained elevated for up to 9days. AUC of serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was 2.89 (1,25D), 3.13 (irSGE) and 4.21 (srSGE) times higher than control. Serum calcium levels were 1.07(*) (for 1.25D); 1.08(*) (for irSGE) and 1.12(*) (for srSGE) times higher than control. Serum

  10. Elevation of serum soluble E- and P-selectin in patients with hypertension is reversed by benidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hironobu; Midorikawa, Sanae; Yatabe, Junichi; Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Katoh, Tetsuo; Baba, Tsuneharu; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2005-11-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Selectins, cell-surface adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte rolling and attachment to the vascular endothelium, play a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether or not serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules are elevated in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and examined whether antihypertensive therapy lowers such levels. Twenty-one patients who had untreated mild to moderate EH without diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or obesity were recruited at a clinic for hypertensive patients. Blood pressure was measured, and the serum levels of soluble E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and after 12, 24, and 53 weeks of antihypertensive treatment with benidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, given at a dose of 6 mg/day for 53 weeks. As a control, 21 age- and sex-matched patients without hypertension were studied. Serum E- and P-selectin levels were significantly higher in the subjects with EH than in the controls (p < 0.01). There were no differences in serum levels of soluble L-selectin, VCAM-1, or ICAM-1 levels between the patients with EH and the controls. Treatment with benidipine decreased the elevated blood pressure over a 53-week study period (mean blood pressure: 119.8 +/- 6.5 mmHg at baseline, 101.0 +/- 5.9 mmHg at 12 weeks, 98.6 +/- 7.3 mmHg at 24 weeks, and 93.9 +/- 5.5 mmHg at 53 weeks). Serum levels of soluble E- and P-selectin decreased after the initiation of benidipine treatment and correlated with diastolic blood pressure. Serum levels of soluble L-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 did not change significantly during the period of benidipine treatment. Benidipine treatment reduced the content of P-selectin in the platelets from patients with EH, as determined by Western blot

  11. Serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate, and the risk of mortality in a European haemodialysis population.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Kim, Joseph; Ireland, Elizabeth; Chazot, Charles; Drueke, Tilman; de Francisco, Angel; Kronenberg, Florian; Marcelli, Daniele; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schernthaner, Guntram; Fouqueray, Bruno; Wheeler, David C

    2011-06-01

    A number of US observational studies reported an increased mortality risk with higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and/or phosphate. The existence of such a link in a European haemodialysis population was explored as part of the Analysing Data, Recognising Excellence and Optimising Outcomes (ARO) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Research Initiative. The association between the markers of mineral and bone disease and clinical outcomes was examined in 7970 patients treated in European Fresenius Medical Care facilities over a median of 21 months. Baseline and time-dependent (TD) Cox regression were performed using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) target ranges as reference categories, adjusting for demographics, medical history, dialysis parameters, inflammation, medications and laboratory parameters. Fractional polynomial (FP) models were also used. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates from baseline analysis for iPTH were U-shaped [>600 pg/mL, HR = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.73; <75 pg/mL, HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.17-1.83]. TD analysis confirmed the results for iPTH. Baseline analysis showed that calcium >2.75 mmol/L increased risk of death (HR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.19-2.42). TD analysis showed that both low (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37) and high calcium (HR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.30-2.34) increased risk of death. Baseline analysis for phosphate showed a U-shaped pattern (<1.13 mmol/L, HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.37; >1.78 mmol/L, HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.55). TD analysis confirmed the results for phosphate <1.13 mmol/L. HR estimates were higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes for baseline analysis only (P-value = 0.014). FP analysis confirmed the results of baseline and TD analyses. Patients with iPTH, calcium and phosphate levels within the KDOQI target ranges have the lowest risk of mortality compared with those outside the target ranges.

  12. Serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate, and the risk of mortality in a European haemodialysis population

    PubMed Central

    Floege, Jürgen; Kim, Joseph; Ireland, Elizabeth; Chazot, Charles; Drueke, Tilman; de Francisco, Angel; Kronenberg, Florian; Marcelli, Daniele; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schernthaner, Guntram; Fouqueray, Bruno; Wheeler, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. A number of US observational studies reported an increased mortality risk with higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and/or phosphate. The existence of such a link in a European haemodialysis population was explored as part of the Analysing Data, Recognising Excellence and Optimising Outcomes (ARO) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Research Initiative. Methods. The association between the markers of mineral and bone disease and clinical outcomes was examined in 7970 patients treated in European Fresenius Medical Care facilities over a median of 21 months. Baseline and time-dependent (TD) Cox regression were performed using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) target ranges as reference categories, adjusting for demographics, medical history, dialysis parameters, inflammation, medications and laboratory parameters. Fractional polynomial (FP) models were also used. Results. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates from baseline analysis for iPTH were U-shaped [>600 pg/mL, HR = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62–2.73; <75 pg/mL, HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.17–1.83]. TD analysis confirmed the results for iPTH. Baseline analysis showed that calcium >2.75 mmol/L increased risk of death (HR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.19–2.42). TD analysis showed that both low (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.37) and high calcium (HR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.30–2.34) increased risk of death. Baseline analysis for phosphate showed a U-shaped pattern (<1.13 mmol/L, HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.01–1.37; >1.78 mmol/L, HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.13–1.55). TD analysis confirmed the results for phosphate <1.13 mmol/L. HR estimates were higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes for baseline analysis only (P-value = 0.014). FP analysis confirmed the results of baseline and TD analyses. Conclusion. Patients with iPTH, calcium and phosphate levels within the KDOQI target ranges have the lowest risk of mortality compared with those outside the target ranges. PMID:20466670

  13. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    PubMed

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  14. Chronic High Fructose Intake Reduces Serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 Levels in Calcium-Sufficient Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J. Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D. PMID:24718641

  15. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  16. The effect of recombinant PTH(1-34) and PTH(1-84) on serum ionized calcium, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and urinary calcium excretion: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Piemonte, Sara; Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Cipriani, Cristiana; Fassino, Valeria; Del Fiacco, Romano; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Scillitani, Alfredo; D'Erasmo, Emilio; Tancredi, Andrea; Minisola, Salvatore

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the frequency of hypercalcemia and/or hypercalciuria following parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 and 1-84 administration in a crossover trial. Ten postmenopausal osteoporotic women previously treated with bisphosphonates were subdivided into two groups of five patients each. A 24-h urine collection to determine baseline calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) the day before administration of PTH was followed by determination of serum ionized Ca (Ca(2+)), Cr, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)(2)D at baseline. Thereafter, 100 mcg of PTH(1-84) or 20 mcg of PTH(1-34) was administered. A 24-h urinary collection and blood samples 2, 4, and 24-h after each PTH administration were again taken. One week after the first PTH administration patients were rechallenged with the second PTH. The PTH peptides did not differ with respect to changes in Ca(2+) at 2, 4, and 24 h postinjection; at the last time point the values were virtually identical to the initial values. There was no difference in urinary Ca on the day following PTH injection compared to baseline, in terms both of Ca/Cr and of Ca excretion. The two PTH peptides did not differ with respect to changes in 1,25(OH)(2)D at 2, 4, and 24 h considering both the absolute values and the percent changes with respect to baseline (24-h 1-84 = 125.6 + or - 58.6 pg/ml, 153% increase; 1-34 = 124.1 + or - 64.7, 130%). Our results indicate no difference in postinjection serum Ca(2+), 1,25(OH)(2)D, or urinary Ca excretion after a single dose of either PTH(1-84) or PTH(1-34) in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates.

  17. Relation of Resemblance in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietilainen, Pirkko

    1982-01-01

    Presents a method for using the amount of semantic information in search-query terms as a weighting factor in constructing a fuzzy relation of resemblance between retrieved items in information retrieval online. Two tables, two figures, and a reference list accompany the text. (Author/JL)

  18. Predictive value of derived calcium figures based on the measurement of ionised calcium.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Fyffe, J A; Jenkins, A S

    1981-03-01

    The algorithms used in this hospital to assess calcium status are calculated ionised serum calcium and the serum calcium concentration adjusted for albumin. In order to establish their clinical usefulness, they were compared with the ionised calcium concentration measured on the Nova 2 instrument in patients with various calcium and protein abnormalities. Good correlation was found between the measured and calculated values. The predictive values for the calculated results and for total serum calcium concentrations are presented. In this series, the derived values were useful in predicting the serum ionised calcium concentration of the patients studied.

  19. Multi-omics Analysis of Serum Samples Demonstrates Reprogramming of Organ Functions Via Systemic Calcium Mobilization and Platelet Activation in Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Muqaku, Besnik; Eisinger, Martin; Meier, Samuel M; Tahir, Ammar; Pukrop, Tobias; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Slany, Astrid; Reichle, Albrecht; Gerner, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiologies of cancer-associated syndromes such as cachexia are poorly understood and no routine biomarkers have been established, yet. Using shotgun proteomics, known marker molecules including PMEL, CRP, SAA, and CSPG4 were found deregulated in patients with metastatic melanoma. Targeted analysis of 58 selected proteins with multiple reaction monitoring was applied for independent data verification. In three patients, two of which suffered from cachexia, a tissue damage signature was determined, consisting of nine proteins, PLTP, CD14, TIMP1, S10A8, S10A9, GP1BA, PTPRJ, CD44, and C4A, as well as increased levels of glycine and asparagine, and decreased levels of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine concentrations, as determined by targeted metabolomics. Remarkably, these molecules are known to be involved in key processes of cancer cachexia. Based on these results, we propose a model how metastatic melanoma may lead to reprogramming of organ functions via formation of platelet activating factors from long-chain polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines under oxidative conditions and via systemic induction of intracellular calcium mobilization. Calcium mobilization in platelets was demonstrated to alter levels of several of these marker molecules. Additionally, platelets from melanoma patients proved to be in a rather exhausted state, and platelet-derived eicosanoids implicated in tumor growth were found massively increased in blood from three melanoma patients. Platelets were thus identified as important source of serum protein and lipid alterations in late stage melanoma patients. As a result, the proposed model describes the crosstalk between lipolysis of fat tissue and muscle wasting mediated by oxidative stress, resulting in the metabolic deregulations characteristic for cachexia.

  20. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO3 crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO3 crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0mg/mL.

  1. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Shahana; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease. PMID:28168057

  2. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Shahana; Adil, Mohammed Abdul Majid; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50-85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  3. Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium in the Serum, Tissues, and Urine of Streptozotocin-Induced Mild Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Tahiry; Bequer, Leticia; Mollineda, Angel; Molina, José L; Álvarez, Alain; Lavastida, Mayrelis; Clapés, Sonia

    2017-03-03

    The present study aimed to investigate, in the streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rat model, the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentration in serum, liver, and kidney tissues, and urine samples from adult Wistar rats treated neonatally with streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetes was induced by subcutaneous administration of streptozotocin (100 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats of 2 days old (STZ, n = 10). Control group (CG, n = 10) received only sodium-citrate buffer. The mineral concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The validity and accuracy were checked by conventional methods. STZ neonatal injection successfully leaded to mild diabetes in the adult rats. Serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and Mg showed no changes (p > 0.05) due to diabetes. The Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg concentrations in liver and kidney tissues were not different (p > 0.05) between STZ and CG. The mean values of Cu were higher (p < 0.05) in liver and kidney samples from STZ as compared to CG. Urine minerals concentrations (Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca) in STZ-rats group were lower (p < 0.05) than CG. However, the content of all evaluated minerals in the excreted urine were higher (p < 0.01) in STZ-rats during a 24 h collection period. Urinary excretion of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and Mg was strongly correlated with urinary volume during the 24 h period (r > 0.7; p < 0.001). Observed changes in mineral metabolism of STZ-induced mild diabetes model could be due to the endocrine imbalance associated with the diabetic condition.

  4. Stability and gelation behavior of bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates in the presence of calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Arosio, Paolo; Podolskaya, Olga Gennadievna; Wei, Dan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-04-14

    We study, using wide-angle and small-angle light scattering techniques, the stability and aggregation/gelation behaviors of denatured filamentous bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates (BSA-PAs), induced by CaCl(2). It is observed that transparent filamentous gels can be formed not only at low CaCl(2) concentrations but also at high CaCl(2) concentrations, while turbid gels are obtained at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations. Although the filamentous gels at low CaCl(2) concentrations and the turbid gels at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations are consistent with the literature observations, the filamentous gels at high CaCl(2) concentrations have to be explained by different mechanisms. The latter is attributed to the repulsive hydration interactions originating from increased surface dipoles generated by counterion binding. Since such surface dipole-induced hydration is very short-range and occurs mainly on charged or polar patches of proteins (thus protected from aggregation), the aggregation of the filamentous BSA-PAs at hydrophobic patches at the two ends is still possible, leading to formation of the filamentous gels.

  5. Effect of apatite formation of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) on osteoblastogenesis using simulated body fluid (SBF) with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Zhou, Bo; Wu, Huayu; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Although biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) holds promise in therapy of bone defect, surface mineralization prior to implantation may improve the bioactivity to better integrate with the host. Immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and bovine serum albumin-simulated body fluid (BSA-SBF) are common methods to form apatite interface layer. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SBF and BSA-SBF treatment on the bioactivity of BCP in vitro. In this study, osteoblasts were grown on BCP with or without treatment of SBF or BSA-SBF, and detected with general observation, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cell proliferation assay, morphology observation, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, and osteogenic specific gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (BGLAP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) after culture of 2, 5 and 8days. As the results shown, BCP pre-incubated in SBF and BSA-SBF up-regulated ALP activity and osteogenic related genes and proteins, which testified the positive effect of SBF and BSA-SBF. Especially, BSA-SBF enhanced the cell growth significantly. This study indicated that treatment by BSA-SBF is of importance for BCP before clinical application.

  6. Effects of different doses of oral cholecalciferol on serum 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium and bone markers during fall and winter in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, A A; Hosseinpanah, F; M Ardakani, E; Ghazi, S; Hedayati, M; Azizi, F

    2010-12-01

    Controversies surround the actual requirements of vitamin D in adolescents. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different doses of vitamin D in high schoolchildren of Taleghan (latitude 36.5°N) near Tehran. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 210 subjects, aged 14-20 years, 105 boys and 105 girls were assigned to three groups; group A (n=70) received 50 000 U oral cholecalciferol monthly (equal to 1600 U per day), group B (n=70), 50 000 U bimonthly (equal to 800 U/day) and group C (n=70), placebo. The study began in November 2007 and continued until April 2008. Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca) and bone markers were measured. At baseline, girls had significantly lower concentrations of 25(OH)D than boys (19.25±16 vs 40.5±14 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D increased from 32±22 to 60±27.5 and 28.25±14.5 to 45.75±24 in groups A and B, respectively (P<0.001); however, it did not change over time in group C (29±18 vs 29±17.5). Increment of mean 25(OH)D was higher in group A than in group B (P<0.01). In all groups, girls had lower concentrations of 25(OH)D than boys (P<0.001). Serum Ca increased and PTH decreased in groups A and B (P<0.001). In group A, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase increased (P<0.001), but in group B only OC increased (P<0.001). Urine C telopeptide and Ca did not change in all three groups; no case of hypercalcemia was observed. Although monthly administration of 50 000 U vitamin D(3) increased serum 25(OH)D significantly, it was apparently not enough to correct vitamin D deficiency, especially in girls.

  7. Predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D Clinical Trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Pettinger, Mary; Melamed, Michal L; Tylavsky, Frances A; Liu, Simin; Robbins, John; LaCroix, Andrea Z; LeBoff, Meryl S; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is unclear how well surrogate markers for vitamin D exposure (eg, oral intake of vitamin D and estimates of sunlight exposure), with and without consideration of other potential predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, similarly rank individuals with respect to 25(OH)D blood concentrations. Objective: The objective was to determine how much variation in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) could be explained by a predictive model with the use of different vitamin D surrogate markers (latitude of residence, mean annual regional solar irradiance estimates, and oral sources) and other individual characteristics that might influence vitamin D status. Design: A random sample of 3055 postmenopausal women (aged 50–70 y) participating in 3 nested case-control studies of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D Clinical Trial was used. Serum 25(OH)D values, assessed at year 1 (1995–2000), and potential predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations, assessed at year 1 or Women's Health Initiative baseline (1993–1998), were used. Results: More than half of the women (57.1%) had deficient (<50 nmol/L) concentrations of 25(OH)D. Distributions of 25(OH)D concentrations by level of latitude of residence, mean annual regional solar irradiance, and intake of vitamin D varied considerably. The predictive model for 25(OH)D explained 21% of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations. After adjustment for month of blood draw, breast cancer status, colorectal cancer status, fracture status, participation in the hormone therapy trial, and randomization to the dietary modification trial, the predictive model included total vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, waist circumference, recreational physical activity, race-ethnicity, regional solar irradiance, and age. Conclusions: Surrogate markers for 25(OH)D concentrations, although somewhat correlated, do not adequately reflect serum vitamin D measures. These markers and predictive models of

  8. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  9. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  10. A structural equation model for assessment of links between changes in serum triglycerides, -urate, and -glucose and changes in serum calcium, -magnesium and -phosphate in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetes metabolism.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena; Bäckman, Lennart; Törnkvist, Birgitta

    2011-12-22

    This study investigates the associations between changes in serum triglycerides (S-TG), -urate (S-Urate), and -glucose (S-Glu) and changes in serum calcium (S-Ca), -magnesium (S-Mg), and -phosphate (S-P) in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic patients. The analysis is based on data collected from a secondary prevention population of women and men (W/M) at risk for cardiovascular disease (type 2 diabetes, 212/200; non-diabetes 968/703). The whole population (n = 2083) had a mean age of 51.0 (9.7) years and was stratified for sex and according to type 2 diabetes or non-diabetes. The patients were followed for, either half a year or one year and changes in risk factors were calculated from follow-up to baseline, the time when patients were admitted to the health center. The pattern of relationships was evaluated using a structural equation model. Higher S-TG and S-Glu but lower S-Urate was revealed at baseline in type 2 diabetes women and men as compared to their counterparts, non-diabetes patients. Women with type 2 diabetes had higher S-Ca and lower S-Mg than non-diabetes women. Changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-Ca (+), baseline S-Ca (+), and S-Urate (-) in type 2 diabetes men. Changes in S-Urate were associated with changes in S-Mg (+) in type 2 diabetes women and non-diabetes men. In men with non-diabetes, changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-Mg (-). In women with non-diabetes, changes in S-Glu were associated with changes in S-P (-) and changes in S-Urate with changes in S-Ca (+). With respect to metabolic disturbances in non-diabetes and the awareness of risk for type 2 diabetes, changes in S-Glu and changes in S-Ca, S-Mg, and S-P should be considered as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased early detection and corrections of high S-Ca, low S-Mg, and S-P in obese patients may improve their metabolism and reduce the risk of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. ISRCTN: ISRCTN79355192.

  11. Role of calcium in trypanocidal drug action.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, A B; Amole, B O

    1982-06-18

    The synergistic effect of serum on the drug combination of salicylhydroxamic acid plus glycerol, which is active against Trypanosoma brucei, is due to diffusible calcium ions. The synergistic activity can be removed by dialysis of the serum or by addition of calcium chelating agents. A buffer containing calcium can mimic the synergistic activity of serum. This finding may have important implications in the clinical management of African trypanosomiasis in humans. Calcium also has a synergistic effect on melarsoprol, the only drug available for treating sleeping sickness patients with central nervous system involvement, and the concentration of calcium has been reported to be depressed inthe serum of experimentally infected animals.

  12. The Effects of Dietary Supplements of Calcium, Vitamin D and Estrogen Hormone on Serum Levels of OPG and RANKL Cytokines and their Relationship with Increased Bone Density in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piri, Fatemeh; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Moradipour, Ayat; Derakhshan, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoprotegerin (OPG)-Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) pathway is one of the contributing factors in the regulation of osteogenesis and bone resorption routes. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various dietary supplements on this pathway. Materials and Methods The samples for this study (24 newborn rats) were divided in three groups according to the experiment applied for each group. Rats were given special diet according to their group plan for six weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure their serum levels of OPG and RANKL and all organs of rats were used to measure their bone density too. The results were analysed using appropriate statistical analysing tests. Results Levels of whole-body bone mineral density in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen (Ca + D + E) group and calcium plus vitamin D (Ca + D) group were significantly increased compared to control group. Mineral density was highest in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group and was about 0.1357 g/cm2. RANKL had a significant decrease in calcium plus vitamin D plus Estrogen group compared to control and calcium plus vitamin D groups. There was a significant increase in the mean calcium and OPG in both experimental groups rather than control. Also, significant increase in estrogen was observed in Ca + D group than the control group. Conclusion The results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin D and estrogen at determined dose led to an increase in OPG and RANKL cytokines reduction which ultimately led to an increase in bone mineral density. But Ca, D and E synergies were more effective in increasing bone mineral density compared to only the use of Ca and D. PMID:27790417

  13. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels.

  14. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone

  15. Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Rules to Reduce Repeat Measurement of Serum Ionized Calcium, Serum Magnesium, and N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Intensive Care Unit Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ann M; Saenger, Amy K; Willrich, Maria; Donato, Leslie J; Baumann, Nikola A; Block, Darci R; Botz, Chad M; Khan, Munawwar A; Jaffe, Allan S; Hanson, Curtis A; Karon, Brad S

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the impact of clinical decision support (CDS) rules within the electronic health record for ionized calcium (iCa), serum magnesium (Mg), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients at a large academic center. A repeat order for measurement of iCa or Mg placed within 24 (iCa) or 48 (Mg) h of a previously nonactionable result, or additional orders for NT-proBNP beyond 1 within a single hospitalization, triggered a CDS pop-up alert showing the prior result and offering the opportunity to cancel the order or to place the order after entering an indication for repeat testing. The number of tests performed for each of these analytes and incidence of adverse clinical outcomes potentially associated with hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia were compared between the 90-day period before CDS implementation and two 90-day periods immediately following. iCa test volumes decreased by 48%, Mg by 39%, and NT-proBNP by 28% in the 90-day period immediately following implementation and remained decreased by 54%, 49%, and 22%, respectively, during the following 90-day period (all P values <0.0002). Adverse clinical outcomes potentially associated with hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia did not increase (all P-values >0.17). Implementation of CDS dramatically decreased repeat testing of iCa, Mg, and NT-proBNP without adversely impacting clinical outcomes in the ICU. Expansion of the rules from the ICU units to include the entire hospitalized patient population and expansion to additional analytes is expected to lead to further reductions in testing. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  17. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  18. Spinal Tuberculosis Resembling Neoplastic Lesions on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculous spondylitis is one of the commonest forms of skeletal tuberculosis in developing countries like India causing significant morbidity due to compression of spinal cord and adjacent nerve roots. Diagnosis and intervention at early stage can prevent permanent damage such as spinal deformity and neurological deficits. Aim The purpose of this study was to demonstrate atypical MRI features in cases of tubercular spondylitis resembling neoplastic lesions and to stress that tuberculous spondylitis should be one of the differential diagnoses in any spinal pathology especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study done in the patients diagnosed as tuberculous spondylitis on 0.2 T Siemens MRI between June 2011 and December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in India. Total 529 cases of tubercular spinal lesions were diagnosed. Out of which only 59 patients showed atypical features on MR imaging which resembled neoplastic lesions were included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology, histopathology, serology and corroborative findings. Results Lumbo-sacral region involvement (30.5%) is the commonest in our study followed by dorsal and cervical region. Multiple level lesions are seen in 14 cases (23.7%). All the 59 (100%) cases show no involvement of intervetebral disc. Posterior appendage involvement seen in 32 cases (54.2%). Soft tissue component seen in Intraspinal (37.2%) and paraspinal (45.7%) compartments. Cord compression seen in 19 cases (32.2%), out which only 7 cases (11.8%) shows cord oedema. Conclusion On MRI, tubercular spondylitis may have variable pictures on imaging. For any spinal and paraspinal lesions, we should also consider the possibility of tubercular aetiology along with other. Since early diagnosis avoids unnecessary delay in the treatment thereby reducing morbidity and possible complications. PMID:26675162

  19. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  20. Giant sublingual epidermoid cyst resembling plunging ranula

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Sonkar, A A; Kumar, Rahul; Gupta, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. We describe a rare case of large epidermoid cyst in floor of mouth, with an oral as well as submental component resembling plunging ranula reported in the literature from India. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with complaints of a mass in sublingual region, difficulty chewing, and dysphagia for about 5 months. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed keratin flakes and proteinaceous material. Contrast-enhanced CT oral cavity was done and showed 7.0 × 5 × 4.5 cm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending into the floor of the mouth. On examination, a firm swelling was noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. The patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. On histopathology, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. PMID:23833501

  1. Decreased mRNA expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor and type II sodium-dependent phosphate transporter in the kidney of rats fed a high phosphorus diet accompanied with a decrease in serum calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-12-01

    This study investigates the phosphorus (P) homeostasis in the process of an altered parathyroid hormone (PTH) action in the kidney of rats fed a high P diet. Four-week-old male Wistar strain rats were fed diets containing five different P levels (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%) for 21 days. The serum PTH concentration and urinary excretion of P were elevated with increasing dietary P level. Compared to rats fed the 0.3% P diet, the serum calcium (Ca) concentration remained unchanged, while the serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentration and urinary excretion of cAMP were elevated with increasing dietary P level in rats fed the high P diets containing 0.6-0.9% P. On the other hand, a lower serum Ca concentration was observed in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P. The serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentration remained unchanged in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P, comparison with rats fed the 0.3% P diet. The urinary excretion of cAMP and PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor and type II sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-2) mRNA in the kidney were both decreased in rats fed the high P diets containing 1.2% or greater P. In conclusion, a high P diet with subsequent decrease in serum Ca concentration suppressed the PTH action in the kidney due to PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA down-regulation. Furthermore, an increase in the urinary excretion of P might have been caused by decreased NaPi-2 mRNA expression without the effects of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3).

  2. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets.

  3. Autogenous vein graft thrombosis following exposure to calcium-free solutions (calcium paradox).

    PubMed

    Nozick, J H; Farnsworth, P; Montefusco, C M; Parsonnet, V; Ruigrok, T J; Zimmerman, A N

    1981-01-01

    The morphological and functional effects of calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions on canine jugular vein intima were examined under conditions which closely resemble those techniques currently employed in peripheral vascular and aortocoronary bypass surgery. Veins that had been exposed only to calcium-containing solutions remained patent for the duration of the experimental period. Vein perfusion with a calcium-free solution, however, resulted in disruption of the jugular vein intima once calcium ions were reintroduced. Autogenous as a femoral arterial graft became thrombosed within 60 minutes. It is therefore suggested that vein grafts of autogenous origin be irrigated with calcium-containing solutions to prevent intimal damage and thrombosis.

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  5. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  6. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Altura, B T; Memon, Z I; Zhang, A; Cheng, T P; Silverman, R; Cracco, R Q; Altura, B M

    1997-07-11

    Ninety-eight patients admitted to the emergency rooms of three urban hospitals with a diagnosis of either ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke exhibited early and significant deficits in serum ionized Mg2+ (IMg2+), but not total Mg, as measured with a unique Mg2+-sensitive ion-selective electrode. Twenty-five percent of these stroke patients exhibited >65% reductions in the mean serum IMg2+ found in normal healthy human volunteers or patients admitted for minor bruises, cuts or deep lacerations. The stroke patients also demonstrated significant elevation in the serum ionized Ca2+ (ICa2+)/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and cerebrovasospasm. Exposure of primary cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells to the low concentrations of IMg2+ found in the stroke patients, e.g. 0.30-0.48 mM, resulted in rapid and marked elevations in cytosolic free calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) as measured with the fluorescent probe, fura-2, and digital image analysis. Coincident with the rise in [Ca2+]i, many of the cerebral vascular cells went into spasm. Reintroduction of normal extracellular Mg2+ ion concentrations failed to either lower the [Ca2+]i overload or reverse the rounding-up of the cerebral vascular cells. These results suggest that changes in Mg2+ metabolism play important roles in stroke syndromes and in the etiology of cerebrovasospasm associated with cerebral hemorrhage.

  7. The influence of dietary boron supplementation on egg quality and serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Eren, M; Uyanik, F; Küçükersan, S

    2004-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on egg production, interior and exterior egg quality and serum parameters related to egg formation in laying hens. Two hundred and twenty four, 18 week old, Hyline Brown 98 strain hens were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates. After 10 days of adaptation the hens were fed for 8 weeks on diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H(3)BO(3)). Live weight, feed consumption and egg production were reduced in the 400 mg/kg B supplemented group. Increases were determined in serum Ca, inorganic P and Mg levels and serum ALP activity was not influenced by supplemental B. Boron changed the interior and exterior quality of eggs. In particular, high level of B supplementation reduced live weight, feed consumption and egg production and changed some blood metabolites.

  8. Calcium bioavailability of nanonized pearl powder for adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Chang, J H; Wu, J S B

    2008-11-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the calcium bioavailability of pearl powder for humans. Both the nanonized pearl powder (NPP) and the micronized pearl powder (MPP) prepared by a dry grinder were tested. A group of healthy adults free from hyperthyroidism, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia were recruited as the subjects for oral administration with the pearl powder. The bioavailability was evaluated by the serum total calcium increment, the serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) reduction, and the urine calcium/creatinine ratio increment in 6 h after administration. The results show better absorption and retention of calcium from NPP, as reflected with the shorter time elapsed before the maximum concentration of calcium appeared in the serum, higher iPTH reduction, more calcium absorption, and higher maximum calcium concentration (C(max)) in serum after ingestion, than that from MPP. We conclude that pearl powder is a beneficial source of calcium for adults and that nanonization improves its calcium bioavailability.

  9. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  10. Serum S100 calcium binding protein A4 improves the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Bo; Zhu, Xia; He, Min; Tang, Hong

    2017-07-05

    The diagnostic performance of Fibroscan might be improved when combined with other serum fibrosis related markers. Previous study has demonstrated that S100A4 expression is associated with liver fibrosis in humans with hepatitis. This study aimed to clarify diagnostic accuracy of serum S100A4 levels for significant liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and develop a combined algorithm of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and S100A4 to predict significant liver fibrosis in CHB. One hundred and seventy-five CHB patients who had performed liver biopsy were consecutively included. We evaluated serum S100A4 levels, LSM values and other clinically-approved fibrosis scores. Serum S100A4 level was higher in CHB patients with significant fibrosis, compared to those without [199.58 (33.31-1971.96) vs. 107.15 (2.10-1038.94), P<0.001]. Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, the area under the curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of S100A4 were found to be 0.749, 62.7%, 75.9% and 0.70 for significant fibrosis (≥Stage 2), respectively. Although not superior to LSM, these results were better than the fibrosis index based on the 4 factor (FIB-4) and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) for significant fibrosis detection. An algorithm consisting of S100A4 and LSM was derived. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of model based on serum S100A4 level and LSM were 0.866, 86.6%, 77.8% and 0.79 for significant fibrosis detection, superior to those based on LSM alone (0.834, 76.1%, 80.7% and 0.76, P=0.041). Serum S100A4 level was identified as a fibrosis marker of liver fibrosis in patients with CHB. Combining serum S100A4 with LSM improved the accuracy of transient elastography for hepatitis B significant fibrosis detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of serum zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and magnesium level and complexity of interelement relations in generalized anxiety disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Reazul; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Mitu, Shahida Akter; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Rahman, G K M Mustafizur; Qusar, M M A Shalahuddin; Hasnat, Abul

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of serum trace and other essential elements of generalized anxiety disorder patients and to find out the relationship between element levels and nutritional status or socioeconomic factors. The study was conducted among 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Patients were selected and recruited in the study with the help of a clinical psychologist by random sampling. The concentrations of serum trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) and other two essential elements (Ca and Mg) were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by independent t test, Pearson's correlation analysis, regression analysis, and analysis of variance. The serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, and Mg in generalized anxiety disorder patients were 1.069 ± 0.40, 1.738 ± 0.544, 1.374 ± 0.750, 3.203 ± 2.065, 108.65 ± 54.455, and 21 ± 4.055 mg/L, while those were 1.292 ± 0.621, 0.972 ± 0.427, 0.704 ± 0.527, 1.605 ± 1.1855, 101.849 ± 17.713, and 21.521 ± 3.659 mg/L in control subjects. Significantly decreased (p < 0.05) serum Zn concentration was found in the patient group compared to the control group while serum level of Cu, Mn, and Fe was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, but the differences of the concentration of Ca and Mg between the patient and control groups were not significant (p > 0.05). Socioeconomic data revealed that most of the patients were in the lower middle class group and middle-aged. Mean BMI of the control group (23.63 ± 3.91 kg/m(2)) and the patient group (23.62 ± 3.77 kg/m(2)) was within the normal range (18.5-25.0 kg/m(2)). The data obtained from different interelement relations in the generalized anxiety disorder patients and control group strongly suggest that there is a disturbance in the element homeostasis. So changes in the serum trace element level in

  12. Apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not direct calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins defines pathogenic effects of calcium phosphate bions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutikhin, Anton G.; Velikanova, Elena A.; Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A.; Glushkova, Tatiana V.; Borisov, Vadim V.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Antonova, Larisa V.; Filip'Ev, Dmitriy E.; Golovkin, Alexey S.; Shishkova, Daria K.; Burago, Andrey Yu.; Frolov, Alexey V.; Dolgov, Viktor Yu.; Efimova, Olga S.; Popova, Anna N.; Malysheva, Valentina Yu.; Vladimirov, Alexandr A.; Sozinov, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.; Russakov, Dmitriy M.; Lomzov, Alexander A.; Pyshnyi, Dmitriy V.; Gutakovsky, Anton K.; Zhivodkov, Yuriy A.; Demidov, Evgeniy A.; Peltek, Sergey E.; Dolganyuk, Viatcheslav F.; Babich, Olga O.; Grigoriev, Evgeniy V.; Brusina, Elena B.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.

    2016-06-01

    Calcium phosphate bions (CPB) are biomimetic mineralo-organic nanoparticles which represent a physiological mechanism regulating the function, transport and disposal of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. We hypothesised that CPB may be pathogenic entities and even a cause of cardiovascular calcification. Here we revealed that CPB isolated from calcified atherosclerotic plaques and artificially synthesised CPB are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable entities. Their formation is accelerated along with the increase in calcium salts-phosphates/serum concentration ratio. Experiments in vitro and in vivo showed that pathogenic effects of CPB are defined by apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not by direct tissue calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins. Since the factors underlying the formation of CPB and their pathogenic mechanism closely resemble those responsible for atherosclerosis development, further research in this direction may help us to uncover triggers of this disease.

  13. Apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not direct calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins defines pathogenic effects of calcium phosphate bions

    PubMed Central

    Kutikhin, Anton G.; Velikanova, Elena A.; Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A.; Glushkova, Tatiana V.; Borisov, Vadim V.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Antonova, Larisa V.; Filip’ev, Dmitriy E.; Golovkin, Alexey S.; Shishkova, Daria K.; Burago, Andrey Yu.; Frolov, Alexey V.; Dolgov, Viktor Yu.; Efimova, Olga S.; Popova, Anna N.; Malysheva, Valentina Yu.; Vladimirov, Alexandr A.; Sozinov, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.; Russakov, Dmitriy M.; Lomzov, Alexander A.; Pyshnyi, Dmitriy V.; Gutakovsky, Anton K.; Zhivodkov, Yuriy A.; Demidov, Evgeniy A.; Peltek, Sergey E.; Dolganyuk, Viatcheslav F.; Babich, Olga O.; Grigoriev, Evgeniy V.; Brusina, Elena B.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bions (CPB) are biomimetic mineralo-organic nanoparticles which represent a physiological mechanism regulating the function, transport and disposal of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. We hypothesised that CPB may be pathogenic entities and even a cause of cardiovascular calcification. Here we revealed that CPB isolated from calcified atherosclerotic plaques and artificially synthesised CPB are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable entities. Their formation is accelerated along with the increase in calcium salts-phosphates/serum concentration ratio. Experiments in vitro and in vivo showed that pathogenic effects of CPB are defined by apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not by direct tissue calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins. Since the factors underlying the formation of CPB and their pathogenic mechanism closely resemble those responsible for atherosclerosis development, further research in this direction may help us to uncover triggers of this disease. PMID:27251104

  14. A High-Calcium and Phosphate Rescue Diet and VDR-Expressing Transgenes Normalize Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Profiles and Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 Expression in VDR Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Martin; Lee, Seong Min; Pike, J Wesley; Jones, Glenville

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-dependent gene expression is compromised in the VDR null mouse. The biological consequences include: hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2D3, and consequential skeletal abnormalities. CYP24A1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the side chain oxidation and destruction of both 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3). In the current studies, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology to compare the metabolic profiles of VDR null mice fed either a normal or a calcium and phosphate-enriched rescue diet and to assess the consequence of transgenic expression of either mouse or human VDR genes in the same background. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in VDR null mice on normal chow were highly elevated (>3000 pg/mL) coincident with undetectable levels of catabolites such as 24,25-(OH)2D3 and 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone normally observed in wild-type mice. The rescue diet corrected serum Ca(++), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D3 values and restored basal expression of Cyp24a1 as evidenced by both renal expression of Cyp24a1 and detection of 24,25-(OH)2D3 and the 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. Unexpectedly, this diet also resulted in supranormal levels of 3-epi-24,25-(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. The reappearance of serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 and renal Cyp24a1 expression after rescue suggests that basal levels of Cyp24a1 may be repressed by high PTH. Introduction of transgenes for either mouse or human VDR also normalized vitamin D metabolism in VDR null mice, whereas this metabolic pattern was unaffected by a transgene encoding a ligand binding-deficient mutant (L233S) human VDR. We conclude that liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling is an ideal analytical method to study mouse models with alterations in calcium/phosphate homeostasis.

  15. Calcium levels during the initiation of labor.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Lampros; Chasiotis, Georgios; Seferiadis, Konstantinos; Thanasoulias, Nikos C; Dousias, Vasilis; Tsanadis, Georgios; Stefos, Theodor

    2004-07-15

    To investigate the physiological role of calcium in the labor process. Eighty-eight term healthy pregnant women who gave birth to normal healthy neonates participated in our study. We compared calcium levels between pregnant women who had normal delivery and those who underwent scheduled cesarean section. The control group consisted of pregnant women with gestation > or =37 weeks without contractions. The groups were compared with respect to calcium levels: (a) in maternal blood serum; (b) in blood serum of the neonates and mothers; and (c) in blood serum between neonates. Significantly higher calcium levels were found in the group of pregnant women who delivered vaginally compared to those who delivered by scheduled cesarean section and those of the control group. We assume that the increased calcium levels during the first stage of labor are involved with a possible role of calcium in the mechanism of initiation of labor.

  16. Capacitative calcium entry is colocalised with calcium release in Xenopus oocytes: evidence against a highly diffusible calcium influx factor.

    PubMed

    Petersen, C C; Berridge, M J

    1996-06-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium stores activates the plasma membrane capacitative calcium entry pathway in many cell types. The nature of the signal that couples the depletion of the intracellular calcium stores to the activation of the plasma membrane calcium influx pathway is as yet unknown. It has recently been suggested that a highly diffusible calcium influx factor is involved in the activation of capacitative calcium entry, and that its action is potentiated by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores in a localised region of a Xenopus oocyte was found to evoke capacitative calcium entry exclusively colocalised across the stimulated area of the plasma membrane, arguing against the involvement of a highly diffusible calcium influx factor. Equally, no evidence could be found for the presence of a soluble calcium influx factor in the bulk cytosol of Xenopus oocytes. The potentiation of capacitative calcium entry by okadaic acid resembled that mediated by the activation of protein kinase C, thus suggesting that okadaic acid activity may not necessarily be related to the action of a putative calcium influx factor.

  17. Candidate reference measurement procedures for chloride, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and lithium by inductively coupled plasma (isotope dilution) sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-(ID) SFMS) in serum.

    PubMed

    Kramer, U; Kress, M; Reinauer, H; Spannagl, M; Kaiser, P

    2013-01-01

    Standardization of the measurement of electrolyte concentrations in serum is of considerable interest for quality assurance in patient care. To promote the ongoing process of standardization we developed candidate reference measurement procedures of highest metrological order for Cl, K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Li using ICP-(ID) SFMS. Serum samples were diluted with 4 mmol/L nitric acid and were spiked with the internal standard for quantification, separately for each analyte. The samples were introduced in the ICP-SFMS device by continuous infusion using a peristaltic pump. The measurement results were compared with reference measurement procedure values obtained by atom absorption spectroscopy, flame emission spectroscopy, and coulometry. The measurement accuracy and precision was calculated by analyzing certified reference materials and EQAS samples. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of the ICP-MS procedures for the serum samples was 0.65% for Cl, 0.46% for K, 0.51% for Na, 0.77% for Ca, 0.78% for Mg, and 0.58% for Li. The mean bias from target values of NIST certified reference materials was +0.85% for Cl, -0.46% for K, +0.68% for Na, -0.21% for Ca, +0.27% for Mg, and -0.39% for Li. Candidate reference measurement procedures for 6 electrolytes were developed by high performance magnetic sector field ICP-MS fulfilling the requirements of ISO 15193:2009 for reference measurement procedures with traceability to SI according to ISO 17511:2003 and can be used for setting target values in EQAS and for certification of reference materials.

  18. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperthyroidism Sarcoidosis Tuberculosis Prolonged immobilization Excess vitamin D intake Thiazide diuretics Kidney transplant HIV/AIDS Low total calcium (hypocalcemia) The most common cause of low total calcium is: Low blood protein levels, especially a low level of albumin , which ...

  19. Calcium-sensing receptors.

    PubMed

    Goodman, William G

    2004-01-01

    It is now known that variations in extracellular calcium concentration exert diverse physiologic effects in a variety of tissues that are mediated by a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSRs). In parathyroid tissue, the CaSR represents the molecular mechanism by which parathyroid cells detect changes in blood ionized calcium concentration, modulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion accordingly, and thus maintain serum calcium levels within a narrow physiologic range. In the kidney, the CaSR regulates renal calcium excretion and influences the transepithelial movement of water and other electrolytes. More generally, activation of the CaSR represents an important signal transduction pathway in intestine, placenta, brain, and perhaps bone. Some of these actions involve cell cycle regulation, changes that may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of parathyroid gland hyperplasia in secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by chronic kidney disease. The CaSR represents an appealing target for therapeutic agents designed to modify parathyroid gland function in vivo, offering the prospect of novel therapies for selected disorders of bone and mineral metabolism. Other receptors capable of responding to extracellular calcium ions also have been identified, but the functional importance of these interactions remains to be determined.

  20. Intentions vs. resemblance: understanding pictures in typical development and autism.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    Research has debated whether children reflect on artists' intentions when comprehending pictures, or instead derive meaning entirely from resemblance. We explore these hypotheses by comparing how typically developing toddlers and low-functioning children with autism (a population impaired in intentional reasoning) interpret abstract pictures. In Experiment 1, both groups mapped familiar object names onto abstract pictures, however, they related the same representations to different 3-D referents. Toddlers linked abstract pictures with intended referents they did not resemble, while children with autism mapped picture-referent relations based on resemblance. Experiment 2 showed that toddlers do not rely upon linguistic cues to determine intended referential relations. Experiment 3 confirmed that the responding of children with autism was not due to perseveration or associative word learning, and also provided independent evidence of their intention-reading difficulties. We argue that typically developing children derive meaning from the social-communicative intentions underlying pictures when resemblance is an inadequate cue to meaning. By contrast, children with autism do not reflect on artists' intentions and simply relate pictures to whatever they happen to resemble. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of guinea-pig serum amyloid P component.

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, S; Hind, C R; Munn, E A; Buttress, N; Pepys, M B

    1986-01-01

    A pentraxin was isolated from acute-phase guinea-pig serum by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography on agarose. It was immunochemically identical to guinea-pig amyloid P component and therefore has been called guinea-pig serum amyloid P component (SAP). Guinea-pig SAP has an apparent MW of between 265,000 and 300,000 by different techniques, and is composed of 10 noncovalently associated subunits arranged in two pentameric annular discs interacting face-to-face. It is apparently composed of two types of subunit, which run as a closely spaced doublet on reduced sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). At least one type of subunit is glycosylated. The serum concentration was 16 +/- 4 mg/l in outbred animals, rising to 25 +/- 4 mg/l in an acute-phase response. Binding to agarose correlated with the agarose pyruvate content and was completely abolished by diazomethane treatment of the agarose, which methylates the pyruvate carboxylic moiety. Binding was also inhibited in the presence of free methyl 4,6-o-(carboxyethylidine)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. No protein resembling C-reactive protein (CRP) was obtained by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography of acute-phase guinea-pig serum on phosphorylcholine (PC)-Sepharose, and it not clear whether a counterpart of CRP exists in this species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3770806

  2. Calcium bioavailability and kinetics of calcium ascorbate and calcium acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianwei; Zhang, Qinmin; Wastney, Meryl E; Weaver, Connie M

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the bioavailability and mechanism of calcium absorption of calcium ascorbate (ASC) and calcium acetate (AC). A series of studies was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. In the first study, each group of rats (n = 10/group) was assigned to one of the five test meals labeled with (45)Ca: (i) 25 mg calcium as heated ASC or (ii) unheated ASC, (iii) 25 mg calcium as unheated AC, (iv) 3.6 mg Ca as unheated ASC, or (v) unheated AC. Femur uptake indicated better calcium bioavailability from ASC than AC at both calcium loads. A 5-min heat treatment partly reduced bioavailability of ASC. Kinetic studies were performed to further investigate the mechanism of superior calcium bioavailability from ASC. Two groups of rats (n = 10/group) received oral doses of 25 mg Ca as ASC or AC. Each dose contained 20 micro Ci (45)Ca. Two additional groups of rats (n = 10/group) received an intravenous injection (iv) of 10 micro Ci (45)Ca after receiving an unlabeled oral dose of 25 mg calcium as ASC or AC. Sequential blood samples were collected over 48 hrs. Urine and fecal samples were collected every 12 hrs for 48 hrs and were analyzed for total calcium and (45)Ca content. Total calcium and (45)Ca from serum, urine, and feces were fitted by a compartment kinetics model with saturable and nonsaturable absorption pathways by WinSAAM (Windows-based Simulation Analysis and Modeling). The difference in calcium bioavailability between the two salts was due to differences in saturable rather than passive intestinal absorption and not to endogenous secretion or calcium deposition rate. The higher bioavailability of calcium ascorbate was due to a longer transit time in the small intestine compared with ASC.

  3. A hypothesis to explain accuracy of wasp resemblances.

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Vane-Wright, Richard I; Wickler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist. We here propose an additional hypothesis to Batesian and Müllerian mimicry (both typically involving selection by learning vertebrate predators; cf. Table 1) that reflects another possible scenario for the evolution of multifold and in particular very accurate resemblances to wasps: an innate, visual inhibition of aggression among look-alike wasps, based on their social organization and high abundance. We argue that wasp species resembling each other need not only be Müllerian mutualists and that other insects resembling wasps need not only be Batesian mimics, but an innate ability of wasps to recognize each other during hunting is the driver in the evolution of a distinct kind of masquerade, in which model, mimic, and selecting agent belong to one or several species (Figure  1b). Wasp mimics resemble wasps not (only) to be mistaken by educated predators but rather, or in addition, to escape attack from their wasp models. Within a given ecosystem, there will be selection pressures leading to masquerade driven by wasps and/or to mimicry driven by other predators that have to learn to avoid them. Different pressures by guilds of these two types of selective agents could explain the widely differing fidelity with respect to the models in assemblages of yellow jackets and yellow jacket look-alikes.

  4. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-09-26

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway.

  5. Trpv6 mediates intestinal calcium absorption during calcium restriction and contributes to bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lieben, L.; Benn, B. S.; Ajibade, D.; Stockmans, I.; Moermans, K.; Hediger, M.A.; Peng, J.B.; Christakos, S.; Bouillon, R.; Carmeliet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Energy-dependent intestinal calcium absorption is important for the maintenance of calcium and bone homeostasis, especially when dietary calcium supply is restricted. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is a crucial regulator of this process and increases the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (Trpv6) calcium channel that mediates calcium transfer across the intestinal apical membrane. Genetic inactivation of Trpv6 in mice (Trpv6−/−) showed, however, that TRPV6 is redundant for intestinal calcium absorption when dietary calcium content is normal/high and passive diffusion likely contributes to maintain normal serum calcium levels. At the other hand, Trpv6 inactivation impaired the increase in intestinal calcium transport following calcium restriction, however without resulting in hypocalcemia. A possible explanation is that normocalcemia is maintained at the expense of bone homeostasis, a hypothesis investigated in this study. In this study, we thoroughly analyzed the bone phenotype of Trpv6−/− mice receiving a normal (~ 1%) or low (~ 0.02%) calcium diet from weaning onwards using micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and serum parameters. When dietary supply of calcium is normal, Trpv6 inactivation did not affect growth plate morphology, bone mass and remodeling parameters in young adult or ageing mice. Restricting dietary calcium had no effect on serum calcium levels and resulted in a comparable reduction in bone mass accrual in Trpv6+/+ and Trpv6−/− mice (−35% and 45% respectively). This decrease in bone mass was associated with a similar increase in bone resorption, whereas serum osteocalcin levels and the amount of unmineralized bone matrix were only significantly increased in Trpv6−/− mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that TRPV6 contributes to intestinal calcium transport when dietary calcium supply is limited and in this condition indirectly regulates bone formation

  6. Calcium regulates FGF-23 expression in bone.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin; Quarles, L Darryl

    2013-12-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2(-/-) and Cyp27b1(-/-) mutant mice. Gcm2(-/-) mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1(-/-) mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2(-/-) mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1(-/-) mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2(-/-) mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia.

  7. A comparison of double-focusing sector field ICP-MS, ICP-OES and octopole collision cell ICP-MS for the high-accuracy determination of calcium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Lorna A; Hearn, Ruth; Merson, Sheila; Catterick, Tim

    2005-02-28

    Human serum is routinely measured for total calcium content in clinical studies. A definitive high-accuracy and low-uncertainty method is required for reference measurements to underpin medical diagnoses. This study presents a novel octopole collision cell ICP-MS, high-accuracy, methodology and comparison of that technique with double-focusing sector field ICP-MS and an ICP-OES method. Double-matched isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was employed for ICP-MS techniques and an exact matching bracketing technique using scandium as an internal standard was used for ICP-OES analysis. Medium resolution mode was utilised for double-focusing sector field ICP-MS analysis to resolve the dominant interferences on the (44)Ca/(42)Ca isotope pair. Hydrogen reaction gas was employed to chemically resolve a number of polyatomic interferences predominantly through charge transfer reactions in the octopole collision cell. Comparison data presented for NIST CRM 909b human serum analysis from all three techniques demonstrates highest accuracy (99.6%) and lowest uncertainty (1.1%) for octopole collision cell ICP-MS. Data from ICP-OES using a non-IDMS technique produces comparably accurate data and low-uncertainties. The much higher total expanded uncertainties for double-focusing sector field ICP-MS compared with octopole collision cell data are explained by lower precision on the measurement of the (44)Ca/(42)Ca isotope ratio. Data for octopole collision cell ICP-MS submitted for an international blind trial comparison (CCQM K-14) demonstrated excellent agreement with the mean of all participants with a low expanded uncertainty.

  8. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  9. [An active, cell-mediated process, resembling osteogenesis in molecular mechanism of vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification causes management of hemodynamics more difficult and finally leads to cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Thinking about the crucial mechanisms of vascular calcification, recent researches reveal the evidence of a biological linkage between bone and vascular calcification. Accumulating evidences show that vascular calcification is attributable to an active 'cell-mediated process' resembling osteogenesis in bone rather than passive mineral precipitation, so called calcium shift theory, as a previous hypothesis. Especially, major mechanism shows the importance of phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteo/chondrocytic-like cells under correlation of bone morphogenetic proteins, potent osteo/chondrogenic transcription factors Runx2, and so on. The detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms may lead to new opportunity to find the therapeutic strategies, concordantly enhancing bone mineral density and preventing vascular calcification.

  10. Family resemblance in fat intake in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Feunekes, G I; Stafleu, A; de Graaf, C; van Staveren, W A

    1997-12-01

    To assess family resemblance in fat intake in a representative sample of Dutch families. Households (n = 1077) with children between 1 and 30 y old were selected from the data set of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1992. Two-day diet records were available for all household members. Pearson correlation coefficients for fat and fatty acid intakes (En%) ranged from r = 0.51 to r = 0.61 between parents, and from r = 0.52 to r = 0.72 between siblings. The mean associations in fat and fatty acid intake (En%) between mothers or fathers and children ranged from r = 0.37 to r = 0.50, and they were surprisingly similar for children from 1-3 y of age up to children above 21 y of age. Associations were consistently high for foods eaten at home, and weak for foods eaten outside of the home. Similar within-family associations were found in a set of 1052 households of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey of 1987. Reported adherence to a therapeutic diet by one of the parents did not erase within-family intake correlations, suggesting that family resemblance is a dynamic phenomenon. Dutch parents and children living together resemble each other in short term intake of fats and fatty acids. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. Fat intake; dietary intake; social environment; family resemblance.

  11. ASL Nominal Constructions Involving Signs That Resemble Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Vivion Smith

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines six different types of noun phrases that commonly occur in American Sign Language. These noun phrases all include at least a head noun and one of four signs resembling a pronoun. Videos of natural ASL discourses are gathered, multiple instances of the six types of noun phrases are identified, and their meanings are…

  12. Differential grandparental investment - the impact of phenotypic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Schlee, Juliane; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Differential grandparental investment is mainly explained as a result of paternity uncertainty. Phenotypic resemblance may be interpreted as an indicator of genetically relatedness. Consequently the present study focused on the impact of phenotypic resemblance on grandparental investment, i.e. solicitude, contact frequency and quality of relationship. 213 adults persons between the age 19 and 32 years (x = 25.5; SD = 3.4) were enrolled in the study. Data concerning grandparental investment during childhood were collected retrospectively using a 30 item questionnaire. Grandparental investment patterns differed significantly according grandparent category. In detail maternal grandmothers showed the highest contact frequency and the highest solicitude while - as to be expected - the paternal grandfather exhibited the lowest degree of investment. Grandparental investment was independent of grandparent category mainly influenced by residential distance. Phenotypic resemblance had an impact on grandparental investment independent of residential distance. This was first of all true of paternal grandfathers. An impact of phenotypic resemblance on grandparental investment patters can be assumed.

  13. Calcium fortification systems differ in bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Rafferty, Karen; Dowell, M Susan; Bierman, June

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from two fortification systems used in orange juice. The design was randomized crossover, within-subject. The subjects were 25 healthy premenopausal women in an academic health sciences center. Two commercially marketed calcium-fortified orange juices, ingested in an amount providing 500 mg calcium, were taken at breakfast after an overnight fast. The two fortification systems tested were calcium citrate malate and a combination of tricalcium phosphate and calcium lactate (tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate). The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) for the increase in serum calcium from 0 to 9 hours after ingesting the test calcium source. Statistical analyses performed were repeated measures analysis of variance, testing source, and sequence. AUC 9 was 48% greater for calcium citrate malate than for tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate ( P < .001); absorbed calcium calculated from AUC 9 values (mean+/-standard error of the mean) was 148+/-9.0 mg and 100+/-8.9 mg for calcium citrate malate and tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate, respectively. The results indicate that equivalent calcium contents on a nutritional label do not guarantee equivalent nutritional value. Nutritionists and dietetics professionals should encourage manufacturers of fortified products to provide information on bioavailability.

  14. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  15. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to ...

  16. Dwarfism in Alaskan malamutes: a disease resembling metaphyseal dysplasia in human beings.

    PubMed Central

    Sande, R. D.; Alexander, J. E.; Spencer, G. R.; Padgett, G. A.; Davis, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    In a study of 300 Alaskan Malamutes, dwarfism was shown to be an autosomal recessive inherited disease with complete penetrance that resulted in disturbed endochondral bone formation. Osseous growth disturbance was manifest at the metaphyses of tubular bones. Clinical and radiographic changes were very similar to those of rickets, although appositional bone formation rates were normal. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were within normal limits. Urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, and amino acids were normal. Excess matrix was formed in the zone of cartilage cell proliferation, and the matrix persisted in the growth plate. Normal stresses resulted in microfractures in the metaphyses with subsequent interference of vascular penetration into the zone of degenerated cartilage cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7065114

  17. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heath, H; Lambert, P W; Service, F J; Arnaud, S B

    1979-09-01

    Experimentally diabetic rats have low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, intestinal malabsorption of calcium, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone loss. To examine the hypothesis that abnormalities similar to those in the diabetic rat might explain human diabetic osteopenia, we studied calcium metabolism in 40 healthy control and 82 diabetic patients aged 18--75 yr [47 untreated: fasting plasma glucose (mean +/- SE), 267 +/- 8 mg/dl; 19 treated but hyperglycemic: glucose 305 +/- 24 mg/dl; 16 treated and in better control: glucose, 146 +/- 8 mg/dl]. Serum total calcium, ionic calcium, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (Arnaud method, GP-1M and CH-12M antisera), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Haddad method), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Lambert method) concentrations were normal in all 3 groups of diabetics and were not significantly different from values in the control group. We determined absorption of calcium from the intestine by a double isotope method (100 mg Ca carrier; normal range, 40--80%) in 11 control and 13 untreated, uncontrolled diabetics (mean plasma glucose, 285 +/- 17 mg/dl). Absorption of calcium in controls was 60 +/- 3% and in diabetics was 56 +/- 3% (not significantly different). We have found no derangement of calcium metabolism in adults with insulin-requiring juvenile- and adult-onset diabetes regardless of treatment status. The experimental diabetic rat model does not appear to be useful for determining the pathogenesis of adult human diabetic osteopenia.

  18. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-28

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (2·4 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (5·2 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (≤ 5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions.

  19. Facial resemblances between heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Researchers have noted a physical resemblance (homophily) between human sex partners. To date, these studies and their related interpretations have been based on heterosexual couples. The present study compared physical resemblances between gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples, using 40 photographs of each from national newspapers, which were rated by 34 men and 56 women (M age = 53 yr., SD = 12.1). Half the photographs were of actual couples and half were randomly mixed within each group. Actual couples were rated as significantly more similar in appearance than random pairings of people. Ratings of similarity were significantly higher (indicating greater perceived homophily) for gay couples than heterosexual couples, while there was no statistically significant difference in similarity ratings between lesbian couples versus gay and heterosexual couples. The results were interpreted in terms of evolutionary and parental imprinting hypotheses.

  20. Arteriovenous shunts resembling patent ductus arteriosus in dogs: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoko; Aoki, Takuma; Takano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Ryokichi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2009-12-01

    Three dogs presented for the evaluation of cardiac murmurs were diagnosed with aberrant arteriovenous shunts. All cases demonstrated the following findings: 1) relatively soft continuous murmur loudest at the left heart base resembling patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); 2) shunt flow signals in the pulmonary artery on echocardiography; and 3) no PDA on selective angiography, but evidence of anomalous shunting vessels from thoracic aorta to pulmonary vasculature. An aberrant arteriovenous shunt should be considered when a continuous murmur of relatively small intensity is heard.

  1. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  3. Preparation of material to control precision of calcium selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fyffe, J A; Jenkins, A S; Bolland, C J; Dryburgh, F J; Gardner, M D

    1981-03-01

    A simple procedure is described for the preparation of a stable precision quality control material for use in the measurement of level of ionised calcium in serum at or near the reference range. Repeat analyses on a Nova 2 ionised calcium analyser of serum pools stored at different temperatures over a period of three months showed coefficients of variation less of less than 4%.

  4. Differences in gastrointestinal calcium absorption after the ingestion of calcium-free phosphate binders.

    PubMed

    Behets, Geert J; Dams, Geert; Damment, Stephen J; Martin, Patrick; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    Both calcium-containing and noncalcium-containing phosphate binders can increase gastrointestinal calcium absorption. Previously, we observed that lanthanum carbonate administration to rats with renal failure is not associated with increased calciuria. Additionally, lanthanum carbonate treatment in dialysis patients has been associated with a less pronounced initial decrease in serum parathyroid hormone compared with other phosphate binders. For 8 days, male Wistar rats received a diet supplemented with 2% lanthanum carbonate, 2% sevelamer, 2% calcium carbonate, or 2% cellulose. Calciuria was found to be increased in animals with normal renal function treated with sevelamer or calcium carbonate but not with lanthanum carbonate. In animals with renal failure, cumulative calcium excretion showed similar results. In rats with normal renal function, serum ionized calcium levels were increased after 2 days of treatment with sevelamer, while calcium carbonate showed a smaller increase. Lanthanum carbonate did not induce differences. In animals with renal failure, no differences were found between sevelamer-treated, calcium carbonate-treated, and control groups. Lanthanum carbonate, however, induced lower ionized calcium levels within 2 days of treatment. These results were confirmed in normal human volunteers, who showed lower net calcium absorption after a single dose of lanthanum carbonate compared with sevelamer carbonate. In conclusion, these two noncalcium-containing phosphate-binding agents showed a differential effect on gastrointestinal calcium absorption. These findings may help to improve the management of calcium balance in patients with renal failure, including concomitant use of vitamin D.

  5. Development and validation a LC-MS/MS method for determination of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel and NMDA receptor antagonist NGP1-01 in mouse serum

    PubMed Central

    Jogiraju, Harini; Zhou, Xiang; Gobburi, Ashta Lakshmi Prasad; Pedada, Kiran K.; Geldenhuys, Werner J.; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Crish, Samuel D.; Anderson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    NGP1-01 (8-benzylamino-8, 11-oxapentacyclo [5.4.0.02, 6.03, 10.05, 9] undecane) is a heterocyclic cage compound with multifunctional calcium channel blocking activity that has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative models. A sensitive internal standard LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify NGP1-01 in mouse serum. The internal standard (IS) was 8-phenylethyl-8, 11-oxapentacyclo [5.4.0.0(2, 6).0(3, 10).0(5, 9)] undecane. Sample preparation involved a protein precipitation procedure by addition of acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex phenyl-hexyl column (100 x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) employing a gradient (45% isocratic 3 min, 45% to 95% linear gradient 6 min, 95% isocratic 3 min) of an elution mobile phase of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 100% acetonitrile mixing with an application mobile phase of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 2% acetonitrile. Detection was achieved by a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer (AB Sciex) employing electrospray ionization in the positive mode with multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) for NGP1-01 (m/z 266 → 91) and IS (m/z 280 → 105). The method validation was carried out in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The method had a linear range of at least 0.5–50 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient 0.999. The intra-assay and inter-assay precisions (%CV) were equal to or within the range of 1.0 to 4.3% and the accuracies (% relative error) equal to or within −2.5% to 3.4%. The analyte was stable for at least 2 months at −20°C, for at least 8 h at room temperature and for at least three freeze thaw cycles. The extraction recovery was 94.9 to 105.0%, with a %CV ≤ 9.5%. The technique was found to be free of any matrix effects as determined by experiments involving five different lots of mouse serum. Cross-talk interferences were not present. Two different gradient slope chromatography runs were done on dosed mouse serum samples to assess a

  6. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determination of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel/NMDA receptor antagonist NGP1-01 in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Jogiraju, Harini; Zhou, Xiang; Gobburi, Ashta Lakshmi Prasad; Pedada, Kiran K; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Crish, Samuel D; Anderson, David J

    2014-07-15

    NGP1-01 (8-benzylamino-8,11-oxapentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane) is a heterocyclic cage compound with multifunctional calcium channel blocking activity that has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative models. A sensitive internal standard LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify NGP1-01 in mouse serum. The internal standard (IS) was 8-(2-phenylethylamino)-8,11-oxapentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane. Sample preparation involved a protein precipitation procedure by addition of acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex phenyl-hexyl column (100 mm×2.1mm, 2.6 μm) employing a gradient (45% isocratic 3 min, 45-95% linear gradient 6 min, 95% isocratic 3 min) of an elution mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate in 100% acetonitrile mixing with an application mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate in 2% acetonitrile. Detection was achieved by a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer (AB Sciex) employing electrospray ionization in the positive mode with multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) for NGP1-01 (m/z 266→91) and IS (m/z 280→105). The method validation was carried out in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The method had a linear range of at least 0.5-50 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient 0.999. The intra-assay and inter-assay precisions (%CV) were equal to or within the range of 1.0-4.3% and the accuracies (% relative error) equal to or within -2.5% to 3.4%. The analyte was stable for at least 2 months at -20°C, for at least 8h at room temperature and for at least three freeze-thaw cycles. The extraction recovery was 94.9 to 105.0%, with a %CV ≤ 9.5%. The technique was found to be free of any matrix effects as determined by experiments involving five different lots of mouse serum. Cross-talk interferences were not present. Two different gradient slope chromatography runs were done on dosed mouse serum samples to assess a possible positive

  7. [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi

    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney. Then, 1,25(OH)2D binds to vitamin D receptor(VDR), which works as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are caused by various disorders including abnormal regulation of PTH and vitamin D production and their signal transduction.

  8. Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Marlies; Basson, Sandra

    2015-04-21

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathicimmune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report onthe use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans.

  9. Extraocular muscle dysinnervation disorder resembling Duane retraction syndrome in a 9-month-old French Bulldog.

    PubMed

    Mari, Lorenzo; Blacklock, Benjamin T; Stavinohova, Renata; De Risio, Luisa

    2016-06-18

    A 9-month-old French Bulldog was presented with a chronic history of lateral strabismus and intermittent third eyelid protrusion in the left eye. The neuro-ophthalmological examination revealed mild ptosis of the left upper eyelid, mild lateral strabismus, and external ophthalmoparesis of the left eye. Retraction and ventral deviation of the left eye globe with protrusion of the third eyelid and elevation of the upper eyelid were elicited on attempted voluntary adduction of the left eye. Hematology, serum biochemistry, serology for infectious diseases, magnetic resonance of the head, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal significant abnormalities. Forced duction test did not show signs of mechanical restriction in ocular motility. A suspected congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder resembling Duane retraction syndrome in humans was diagnosed based on the typical clinical signs and exclusion of structural abnormalities. The clinical signs remained stable for 9 months until the time of writing this report.

  10. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance.

  11. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  12. Postprandial parathyroid hormone response to four calcium-rich foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, M U; Wiersma, J W; Lamberg-Allardt, C J

    1997-06-01

    We studied the effects of four calcium-rich foodstuffs on postprandial parathyroid hormone secretion. Four hundred milligrams calcium from either Emmental cheese, milk, sesame seeds, spinach, or calcium salt (calcium lactate gluconate + calcium carbonate) or no additional calcium (control session) were given to nine female volunteers immediately after a first blood sample (at 0900) in random order with a light standardized meal containing 37 mg Ca. Blood samples were taken at 0900 (before the calcium load), 1000, 1100, 1300, and 1500 at every study session. Urine was collected during the sessions. Serum ionized calcium, phosphate, magnesium, intact parathyroid hormone, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. The serum ionized calcium concentration increased significantly after ingesting cheese (P = 0.004, contrast analysis) or calcium salt (P = 0.05, contrast analysis) compared with the control session. Compared with the control session, the serum phosphate concentration increased after the cheese session (P = 0.004, contrast analysis) and after the milk session (P = 0.02, contrast analysis). Calcium salt (P = 0.007, contrast analysis) and cheese (P = 0.002, contrast analysis) caused a significant decline in serum intact parathyroid hormone compared with the control session. The urinary calcium excretion with cheese was 141% (P = 0.001), with milk was 107% (P = 0.004), and with calcium salt was 75% (P = 0.02) above that of the control session. Our results show that calcium from sesame seeds and spinach does not cause an acute response in calcium metabolism. Our results indicate that fermented cheese could be a better dietary source of calcium than milk when the metabolic effects of the foodstuffs are considered.

  13. The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kikunaga, S; Arimori, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-04-01

    We estimated the utilization of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats, and the effect of oxalic acid on absorption of dietary calcium by using calcium-deficient rats. The body weight gain of the calcium-deficient rats for 8 days receiving a calcium-deficient diet supplemented with raw-powdered spinach (R-sp), boiled-powdered spinach (B-sp), or calcium-oxalate (Ca-ox), and a control diet supplemented with oxalic acid (OX-C) were 4.8, 2.8, 4.9, and 5.1 g, respectively. The calcium content in the liver and kidney of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets significantly increased as compared with the calcium-deficient rats. Significant differences in the liver calcium levels were not observed among the rats receiving various additional diets, though the content in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets were 28.0, 21.5, 0.11, and 0.59 mg, respectively. An especially large amount of calcium was accumulated in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The calcium concentration in the serum of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than the calcium concentration in the serum of the R-sp, B-sp, and calcium-deficient rats. The calcium content in the left tibiae of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than that of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats was highest in the OX-C group, and higher in the R-sp and Ca-ox groups than the breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats fed on B-sp diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of the rats rose in the order of the R-sp, B-sp, and Ca-ox groups, although significant differences of the activity were not observed between the Ca-ox and the OX-C groups. The calcium retention of the rats receiving the calcium-deficient, R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets was -18.5, 35.2, 25.6, 41.6, and 45.8%, respectively. About 35% of the calcium in the spinach was

  14. SN 2013fs now resembles a SN IIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B.; Tucker, B.

    2013-10-01

    Further to ATel #5455, we obtained another 40-minutes spectrum of SN 2013fs (was PSN J23194467+1011045) with WiFeS on 2013 Oct 24. The spectrum now strongly resembles an SN IIP, with clear P-Cygni H-alpha, with no evidence of broadened emission. SNID gives a best match to SN 1999em at phase +7. The previously observed emission from the Oct 08 spectrum which prompted a possible IIn classification was most likely due to the host, however we cannot rule out SN-related emission which has faded since the first epoch.

  15. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified λ phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  16. Effects of two marine dietary supplements with high calcium content on calcium metabolism and biochemical marker of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, J-M; Lamotte, C; Boukandoura, B; Cayzeele, A; Libersa, C; Delannoy, C; Borgiès, B

    2008-07-01

    Calcium is essential for the bone metabolism but daily calcium requirements are not met in a significant proportion of the population. Fortunately, oral calcium supplementation can help to meet these needs; however, the calcium bioavailability depends on the calcium sources. The calcium absorption and bioavailability of dietary supplements from marine sources are not known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two marine dietary supplements with a high calcium content: a fishbone powder (Phoscalim) and a ray cartilage hydrolysate (Glycollagene), in comparison with milk, and a placebo (maltodextrin), on calcium metabolism and a biochemical marker of bone resorption, using the oral calcium tolerance test. Twenty male volunteers were randomized to eat 836 mg of calcium from different sources compared to maltodextrin during a Latin square study. Serum calcium concentrations and other parameters of the calcium metabolism, such as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum C telopeptides (s-CTX), were measured after an acute oral calcium load based on the Pak protocol. An increase in serum-corrected calcium areas under the curve (AUC) occurred with Phoscalim and Glycollagene when compared to milk. Significantly lower iPTH concentrations were observed with Glycollagene than with milk at T0+1 h, T0+3 h, T0+6 h and with Phoscalim than with milk at T0+6 h. A significantly lower s-CTX concentration was observed with Glycollagene than with milk and Phoscalim at T0+6 h. Furthermore, the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increased significantly more with Glycollagen than with milk in T0 h+3 h and T3 h+6 h. These two dietary supplements from marine sources constitute oral calcium sources when compared to milk on calcium absorption and bone resorption markers on short time.

  17. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monitor someone who has a problem with the parathyroid gland , which helps control calcium levels in the blood ... much production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in the neck (hyperparathyroidism) Use of loop diuretics ...

  18. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  20. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  1. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  2. Ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling impetigo herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Atsuki; Abe, Hiroko; Abe, Sumino; Kawai, Naoki; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old nulligravida woman without a history of dermatosis was hospitalized for threatened preterm labor at 29 weeks' gestation; therefore, continuous infusion of ritodrine hydrochloride was started. At 31 weeks' gestation, erythematous plaques appeared and spread over the body surface; therefore, a topical steroid preparation was applied. At 32 weeks' gestation, the eruptions developed into irregular annular areas of erythema with multiple pustules accompanied by severe itching, and oral prednisolone treatment was started. Bacterial cultures of the pustules were negative, and a crural cutaneous biopsy revealed Kogoj's spongiform pustules. Based on the clinicopathological findings, the most likely diagnosis was impetigo herpetiformis, which causes cutaneous symptoms closely resembling pustular psoriasis in pregnant females without a history of psoriasis. To rule out ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions, the ritodrine infusion was stopped and treatment with an MgSO(4) preparation was started at 33 weeks' 3 days' gestation; however, the uterine contractions could not be suppressed. Because of the patient's highly edematous, severely painful feet, a cesarean section was performed the same day. Within several days of delivery, the eruptions began to resolve, and no recurrence was observed after treatment with oral prednisolone was stopped 31 days after delivery. On the basis of a positive patch test for ritodrine, we diagnosed pustular drug eruptions caused by ritodrine hydrochloride. Although ritodrine-induced pathognomonic cutaneous eruptions are rare, we would like to emphasize that ritodrine can cause drug-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling life-threatening impetigo herpetiformis.

  3. Extending disorder: essentialism, family resemblance and secondary sense.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2013-05-01

    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where the focus is solely on the characteristics or attributes of things, both these approaches seem to fail to meet the criteria for valid extension. However, this focus on attributes is mistaken. The criteria for valid extension are met in the case of family resemblance by the pattern of characteristics associated with a concept, and by the limits of intelligibility of applying a concept. Secondary sense, though it may have some claims to be a good account of the relation between physical and mental disorder, cannot claim to meet the two criteria of valid extension.

  4. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium. Common calcium supplements may be labeled as: Calcium carbonate (40 percent elemental calcium) Calcium citrate (21 percent ... forms of calcium supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is cheapest and therefore often a good first ...

  5. [Evaluation of Payne's formula for the correction of calcium: comparison with improved calcium and albumin measurement methods].

    PubMed

    Ohbal, Takashi; Shiraishi, Takeko; Kabaya, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinichiro

    2014-02-01

    The ionized or free fraction of serum calcium is physiologically important for cellular function, but we most often measure total serum calcium. There are a number of correction formulas that can be used to estimate whether low total serum calcium can be attributed simply to low albumin or serum protein. In Japan, Payne's formula has been widely used to correct calcium concentration. However, there are some problems in the measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin which were used to establish Payne's formula with respect to specificity, calibration curve and stability. Recently, improved measurement methods of calcium and albumin have been adopted at clinical laboratories. Here we evaluated Payne's formula by comparing it with improved measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin. For the total calcium measurement, o-CPC (o-cresolphthaleincomplexone), CPZ(chlorophosphonazo) III, and enzymatic methods were used. For the serum albumin measurement, BCG (bromocresol green) and improved BCP(bromocresol purple) methods were used. The results of this comparison study suggest that the calcium correction equation is not affected by changes in total calcium concentration, but the assay used for albumin may affect the calcium correction equation. Using multiple linear regression, the following equations were derived: BCG between CPZ III [corrected Ca(mg/dL) = total Ca-0.76ALB + 3.2], and improved BCP between CPZ III [corrected Ca = total Ca-0.7ALB + 2.6]. These formulas are simplified respectively as [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.8(4-ALB], and [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.7 (4-ALB)]. We conclude that Payne's formula is valid with the BCG method, but with the improved BCP method, our formula is more suitable for correcting calcium.

  6. Cinacalcet, dialysate calcium concentration, and cardiovascular events in the EVOLVE trial.

    PubMed

    Pun, Patrick H; Abdalla, Safa; Block, Geoffrey A; Chertow, Glenn M; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Dehmel, Bastian; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Moe, Sharon M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Wheeler, David C; Middleton, John P

    2016-07-01

    Among patients receiving hemodialysis, abnormalities in calcium regulation have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Cinacalcet lowers serum calcium concentrations through its effect on parathyroid hormone secretion and has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. In observational cohort studies, prescriptions of low dialysate calcium concentration and larger observed serum-dialysate calcium gradients have been associated with higher risks of in-dialysis facility or peri-dialytic sudden cardiac arrest. We performed this study to examine the risks associated with dialysate calcium and serum-dialysate gradients among participants in the Evaluation of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events (EVOLVE) trial. In EVOLVE, 3883 hemodialysis patients were randomized 1:1 to cinacalcet or placebo. Dialysate calcium was administered at the discretion of treating physicians. We examined whether baseline dialysate calcium concentration or the serum-dialysate calcium gradient modified the effect of cinacalcet on the following adjudicated endpoints: (1) primary composite endpoint (death or first non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or peripheral vascular event); (2) cardiovascular death; and (3) sudden death. In EVOLVE, use of higher dialysate calcium concentrations was more prevalent in Europe and Latin America compared with North America. There was a significant fall in serum calcium concentration in the cinacalcet group; dialysate calcium concentrations were changed infrequently in both groups. There was no association between baseline dialysate calcium concentration or serum-dialysate calcium gradient and the endpoints examined. Neither the baseline dialysate calcium nor the serum-dialysate calcium gradient significantly modified the effects of cinacalcet on the outcomes examined. The effects of cinacalcet on cardiovascular death and major cardiovascular events

  7. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man.

  8. Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumour- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Gül, Ayhan; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumours (UTROSCTs) are an extremely rare type of uterine body tumours arising from the endometrial stroma. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and natural history of UTROSCTs are still a question of debate, as there is little available data in the literature. Although rare, the possibility of UTROSCTs should be kept in mind, when a patient presents with abnormal bleeding and an enlarged uterus. UTROSCTs appear dirty white/cream-coloured, gelatinous, well-circumscribed mass with smooth surface on macroscopic examination. We present a rare case of endometrial stromal tumour with sex-cord-like differentiation which was successfully treated by hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. PMID:28208949

  9. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder resembling honeycomb in a child.

    PubMed

    Akçam, Mustafa; Buyukyavuz, Ilker; Ciriş, Metin; Eriş, Naim

    2008-09-01

    Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is believed to be an uncommon pathologic condition of the gallbladder in childhood. Only three pediatric cases have been described in the literature up to now. Honeycomb gallbladder has been described in two adult patients; no patients have been reported in childhood until now. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder which resembled honeycomb, in a 9-year-old girl presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, and confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and finally cholecystectomy. In conclusion, ultrasound scanning performed more generally in children presenting with recurrent abdominal pain might lead to accurate diagnosis of adenomyomotosis of the gallbladder during childhood.

  10. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  11. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed.

  12. Negative calcium balance during lactation in rural Mexican women.

    PubMed

    DeSantiago, Soledad; Alonso, Leticia; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Isoard, Fernando; Bourges, Héctor

    2002-10-01

    Additional calcium is required during lactation, and several calcium regulatory factors are involved in calcium balance. In lactating rural women who have marginal nutrition and consume a high-fiber diet, negative calcium balance may be expected. We evaluated calcium balance and its association with potential calcium regulatory factors in lactating, rural Mexican women who had marginal nutrition and consumed a high-fiber diet. This cross-sectional study included women at 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo of lactation (L1, L3, L6, and L12 groups) and women who had weaned their infants (W group). Age-matched, nonlactating women (NL group) were also included. Calcium balance and concentrations of calcium regulatory factors were determined. Correlation analysis was performed by using data from all of the lactating women. Calcium balance in the L1, L3, and L6 groups was negative and was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that in the W and NL groups. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2)D] concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the W group than in the L and NL groups. Calcium balance was positively associated with serum estradiol concentrations (r = 0.58, P < 0.05) and negatively associated with serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations (r = -0.52, P < 0.05). Breast-milk calcium concentrations correlated positively with serum PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) concentrations (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and negatively with serum estradiol concentrations (r = -0.57, P < 0.05). Negative calcium balance was observed during lactation in rural Mexican women who consumed a high-fiber diet. Furthermore, the data suggest that the hormones estradiol and PTHrP are involved in the regulation of calcium balance and of the calcium content of milk during lactation.

  13. High-calcium diet in spontaneously hypertensive rats: intervention with calcium antagonist verapamil.

    PubMed

    Saelens, D A; Zawada, E T; Peterson, J; Lembke, J M

    1993-04-01

    A number of studies have shown an antihypertensive effect for high-calcium diets, but others have found no effect or, even a prohypertensive effect. Because of these disparate results, studies were conducted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed either a normal calcium diet (1.0% calcium) or a high-calcium diet (4.0% calcium) with or without verapamil HCl (50 mg/kg body weight) from ages 5 to 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by indirect tail cuff method. During the analysis of the electrolytes and vasoactive hormones monitored in this study, it was found that rats fed high-calcium diet had significantly elevated serum ionized and total calcium and calcium excretion. Systolic blood pressure for the verapamil-normal calcium diet (week 5, 148 +/- 4 mm Hg; week 7, 162 +/- 4 mm Hg) did not differ significantly from that of normal calcium diet (week 5, 152 +/- 2 mm Hg; week 7, 160 +/- 1 mm Hg). The high-calcium diet potentiated the development of hypertension, i.e., SBP was (157 +/- 2 mm Hg) on the 5th week and (174 +/- 4 mm Hg) on the 7th week. Conversely, verapamil high-calcium diet prevented the development of hypertension (week 5, SBP was 139 +/- 4 mm Hg; week 7, SBP was 146 +/- 3 mm Hg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  15. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  16. Calcium Regulates FGF-23 Expression in Bone

    PubMed Central

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2−/− and Cyp27b1−/− mutant mice. Gcm2−/− mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1−/− mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2−/− mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1−/− mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2−/− mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia. PMID:24140714

  17. [Crohn's disease with the onset resembling systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Nishinarita, S; Son, K; Tomita, Y; Yoshihiro; Matsukawa; Kitamura, N; Horie, T; Baba, M; Hiranuma, M

    1999-06-01

    We described a 37-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at his disease onset. He was admitted to the municiple Akiru Hospital in October 1986 by fever, aphtous oral ulcerations, sore throat and polyarthralgia. Hematologic examination showed leukocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, positive tests for antinuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and LE cell phenomenon. He has had episodes of convulsion and conciousness loss of unknown etiology when he was 17 years old. The diagnosis of SLE was made, and oral medication of prednisolone was started. Several weeks later, most of symptoms and autoantibodies disappeared, although the oral aphtous ulcerations and leukocytopenia remained. In May 1987, he admitted to the other hospital because of bloody vomiting. Endoscopic examination showed the esophagial ulceration, and histology of biopsied-specimen was nonspecific esophagitis. The combination of prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide or methotrexate was employed thereafter. However, the leukocytopenia, oral aphtous ulceration and esophagial ulceration continued in spite of these treatments. All the immunosuppressive treatment was stopped at March 1992. In October 1995, he admitted to our hospital because of body weight loss and continuous diarrhea with occasional bloody stool. Barium enema and endoscopic examination of the colon revealed the findings compatible with CD. The patient responded favorably to methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral sulphasalazine. This case indicated that cases with inflammatory bowel diseases like CD could show similar clinical signs and symptoms to SLE, and in some cases of CD might satisfied the classification of criteria for SLE.

  18. A neural network dynamics that resembles protein evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrán, Edgardo A.; Ferrara, Pascual

    1992-06-01

    We use neutral networks to classify proteins according to their sequence similarities. A network composed by 7 × 7 neurons, was trained with the Kohonen unsupervised learning algorithm using, as inputs, matrix patterns derived from the bipeptide composition of cytochrome c proteins belonging to 76 different species. As a result of the training, the network self-organized the activation of its neurons into topologically ordered maps, wherein phylogenetically related sequences were positioned close to each other. The evolution of the topological map during learning, in a representative computational experiment, roughly resembles the way in which one species evolves into several others. For instance, sequences corresponding to vertebrates, initially grouped together into one neuron, were placed in a contiguous zone of the final neural map, with sequences of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals associated to different neurons. Some apparent wrong classifications are due to the fact that some proteins have a greater degree of sequence identity than the one expected by phylogenetics. In the final neural map, each synaptic vector may be considered as the pattern corresponding to the ancestor of all the proteins that are attached to that neuron. Although it may be also tempting to link real time with learning epochs and to use this relationship to calibrate the molecular evolutionary clock, this is not correct because the evolutionary time schedule obtained with the neural network depends highly on the discrete way in which the winner neighborhood is decreased during learning.

  19. On the resemblance of synapse formation and CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R G; Lyons, D A

    2014-09-12

    The myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for nervous system formation, function and health. CNS myelination continues well into adulthood, but not all axons become myelinated. Unlike the peripheral nervous system, where we know of numerous axon-glial signals required for myelination, we have a poor understanding of the nature or identity of such molecules that regulate which axons are myelinated in the CNS. Recent studies have started to elucidate cell behavior during myelination in vivo and indicate that the choice of which axons are myelinated is made prior to myelin sheath generation. Here we propose that interactions between axons and the exploratory processes of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) lead to myelination and may be similar to those between dendrites and axons that prefigure and lead to synapse formation. Indeed axons and OPCs form synapses with striking resemblance to those of neurons, suggesting a similar mode of formation. We discuss families of molecules with specific functions at different stages of synapse formation and address studies that implicate the same factors during axon-OPC synapse formation and myelination. We also address the possibility that the function of such synapses might directly regulate the myelinating behavior of oligodendrocyte processes in vivo. In the future it may be of benefit to consider these similarities when taking a candidate-based approach to dissect mechanisms of CNS myelination. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  1. Comparison of the Absorption of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Citrate after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tondapu, P.; Provost, D.; Adams-Huet, B.; Sims, T.; Chang, C.; Sakhaee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) restricts food intake. Consequently, patients consume less calcium. In addition, food no longer passes through the duodenum, the main site of calcium absorption. Therefore, calcium absorption is significantly impaired. The goal of this study is to compare two common calcium supplements in gastric bypass patients. Method Nineteen patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study comparing the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate and calcium citrate salts. Serum and urine calcium levels were assessed for peak values (Cmax) and cumulative calcium increment (area under the curve [AUC]). Serum PTH was assessed for minimum values (PTHmin) and cumulative PTH decrement (AUC). Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated analysis of variance model. Results Eighteen subjects completed the study. Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly higher serum Cmax (9.4+0.4 mg/dl vs. 9.2+0.3 mg/dl, p=0.02) and serum AUC (55+2 mg/dl vs. 54+2 mg/dl, p=0.02). Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly lower PTHmin (24+11 pg/ml vs. 30+13 pg/ml, p=0.01) and a higher AUC (−32+51 pg/ml vs. −3+56 pg/ml, p=0.04). There was a non-significant trend for higher urinary AUC in the calcium citrate group (76.13+36.39 mg/6 h vs. 66.04+40.82, p=0.17). Conclusion Calcium citrate has superior bioavailability than calcium carbonate in RYGB patients. PMID:19437082

  2. Transient modulation of calcium and parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andy B; Minami, Kazumasa; Raposo, João F; Matsuura, Nariaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yokota, Hiroki; Ferreira, Hugo G

    2016-10-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone can stimulate bone formation. Parathyroid hormone is a natural hormone that responds to serum calcium levels. In this study, we examined whether a transient increase and/or decrease in the serum calcium can stimulate bone formation. Using a mathematical model previously developed, we first predicted the effects of administration of parathyroid hormone, neutralizing parathyroid hormone antibody, calcium, and EGTA (calcium chelator) on the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone and calcium. The model predicted that intermittent injection of parathyroid hormone and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid transiently elevated the serum parathyroid hormone, while that of parathyroid hormone antibody and calcium transiently reduced parathyroid hormone in the serum. In vitro analysis revealed that parathyroid hormone's transient changes (both up and down) elevated activating transcription factor 4-mediated osteocalcin expression. In the mouse model of osteoporosis, both intermittent administration of calcium and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid showed tendency to increase bone mineral density of the upper limb (ulna and humerus) and spine, but the effects varied in a region-specific manner. Collectively, the study herein supports a common bone response to administration of calcium and its chelator through their effects on parathyroid hormone.

  3. Serum calcitonin may falsely estimate tumor burden in chronic hypercalcemia: a case of prostatic and multiple bone metastases from medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Bae, Woo Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Shim, Hyun Jeong; Yoon, Jee Hee; Kang, Ho-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a calcitonin (Ct)-secreting tumor of the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid gland. Higher serum Ct levels are associated with larger tumor size, distant metastases, and prognosis. We report herein a case of prostate and multiple bone metastases of nonfamilial MTC with mildly elevated Ct levels. A 73-year-old man who was found to have a 2.5 cm MTC in the left thyroid lobe with cervical lymph node metastases presented with confused mental status because of severe hypercalcemia (albumin-modified serum calcium concentration 15.2 mg/dL) associated with multiple bone metastases. Prostate biopsy was performed because the patient had frequent urination with mildly elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (5.297 ng/mL). Histologically, the prostate was diagnosed as MTC metastasis, forming a tissue architecture closely resembling the previously diagnosed MTC, and the cells were positive for Ct, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor 1. Although the patient had multiple MTC metastases, basal and calcium-stimulated serum Ct levels were not significantly elevated, measuring 22.7 pg/mL (normal <10 pg/mL) and 22.1 pg/mL, respectively. A chronic hypercalcemic state may exhaust Ct reserves and diminish the Ct response to an acute intravenous calcium injection. Therefore, the Ct level of a patient in a hypercalcemic state should be carefully interpreted. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature in which serum Ct levels were not significantly increased when associated with hypercalcemia, and an MTC metastasis to the prostate.

  4. Familial resemblance for body composition measures: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Daw, E W; Gagnon, J; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1997-11-01

    A sex-specific familial correlation model was used to assess the heritable contributions to several measures of body composition in 86 sedentary white families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. For this study, sedentary families were recruited, tested for a battery of measures, endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and remeasured. This sample is unique in that activity level was controlled for in these families at baseline measurement. In this report, three body composition variables measured at baseline were analyzed, two indexing adiposity (total subcutaneous fat based on eight skinfold measurements [SF8] and percent body fat measured by underwater weighing techniques [%BF]) and one assessing fat free mass ([FFM] derived from underwater weighing). The maximal heritabilities for SF8 (34%) and %BF (62%) were consistent with those reported in previous studies. There were no sex nor generation differences in the familial correlations, and the spouse correlation was significant, consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation reflects genetic and familial environmental factors. However, the results for FFM were very different. The most parsimonious pattern of familial resemblance was consistent with mitochondrial inheritance (i.e., mother-offspring and sibling correlations were equal and were larger than those for spouse and father-offspring pairs). Under the mitochondrial hypothesis, 39% of the variance was accounted for by familial/genetic effects. However, under a nonmitochondrial hypothesis, which could not be ruled out, 65% of the FFM phenotypic variance was accounted for by familial/genetic factors. This high heritability level, as compared with results from previous studies, is consistent with the hypothesis that activity may constitute an important environmental determinant of FFM. These alternative hypotheses for FFM warrant further investigation using complex multilocus-multitrait segregation models, which allow for major genetic

  5. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease.

  6. Calcium and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

  7. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  8. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  9. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Facial Resemblance to Emotions: Group Differences, Impression Effects, and Race Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers’ stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

  11. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  12. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  13. Regulation of calcium metabolism during prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, A. I.; Morukov, B. V.; Dorokhova, B. R.; Rustamyan, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of the regulation of calcium exchange in healthy persons exposed to 182 days of antiorthostatic hypokinesia are investigated. Total calcium concentrations, ionized calcium activities and parathyroid hormone concentrations in blood serum were determined, before, during, and up to 15 days after a 182-day period of strict bed rest at a head down tilt of 4 deg; and tests of blood urine responses to a calcium lactate stress were performed to study the role of the kidneys. An increase in calcium ion activity is observed during the period of hypokinesia, while total calcium concentrations changed to a lesser degree. Plasma parathyroid hormone levels are found to significantly exceed background levels during hypokinesia and in the recovery period immediately following. Finally, the increase in calcium excretion in the urine during prolonged limitations of muscular activity is found to be connected with both an enhancement of calcium filtration and a decrease in its reabsorption in the kidneys, possibly due to changes in hormonal regulation.

  14. Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses.

    PubMed

    Grubb, T L; Foreman, J H; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Constable, P D; Olson, W O; Davis, L E

    1996-01-01

    Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.

  15. Ulipristal acetate resembles mifepristone in modulating human fallopian tube function.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Liao, Su-Bin; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu; O, Wai-Sum; Ho, Pak-Chung

    2014-10-10

    Do ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone have an effect on ciliary beat frequency and muscular contractions in the human Fallopian tube? UPA, in resemblance to mifepristone, inhibits ciliary beat and muscular contraction of the human Fallopian tube, probably through an agonistic effect on the tubal progesterone receptor. UPA, like mifepristone, acts as an emergency contraceptive mainly by inhibiting ovulation. Little is known about its effects on tubal function. This was an in vitro experimental study using Fallopian tube samples collected from 11 women undergoing hysterectomy for benign non-tubal gynaecological conditions. The tubal epithelium and longitudinal smooth muscle fibres were isolated, cultured and treated with UPA at graded concentrations of 0, 20, 200 and 2000 ng/ml, and mifepristone at graded concentrations of 0, 300, 3000 and 30 000 ng/ml, respectively. After treatment, ciliary beat frequency was determined using a photometric method. Basal tone, amplitude and frequency of muscular contraction were recorded through a force transducer. The mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (total and PR-B isoform), glycodelin and adrenomedullin were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. There was an overall dose-dependent suppressive effect on ciliary beat frequency (P < 0.0001) after treatment with UPA at all concentrations and with mifepristone at 3000 ng/ml or above. The basal tone, amplitude and frequency of muscular contractions were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after treatment with UPA at 200 ng/ml or above, and with mifepristone at 3000 ng/ml or above. UPA treatment at 200 ng/ml or above significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of progesterone receptor and glycodelin and down-regulated the mRNA expression of adrenomedullin in Fallopian tube tissue (P < 0.05). Whether or not the tubal effect may translate into additional mechanisms for contraceptive action in vivo is uncertain. The clinical relevance of UPA with regard to contraceptive

  16. Alkaline phosphatase and bone calcium parameters.

    PubMed

    Fauran-Clavel, M J; Oustrin, J

    1986-01-01

    Effects of cadmium, an alkaline phosphatase inhibitor, on the calcium content of rat bone were investigated in vivo by a radioisotopic method. Disturbance of bone metabolism is observed in both the superficial (delta) and slow exchanges (Ve), which are also significantly decreased. The crystallized calcium bone compartment (E) is also strongly affected. It appears that changes in the superficial calcium exchanges cause the observed decrease in the crystallized calcium mass. The slowing of osteogenesis is confirmed by the decrease of serum alkaline phosphatase activity. A statistical examination of the correlation coefficient reveals a close link (P less than 0.01) between serum alkaline phosphatase activity and the influx of superficial calcium (Vo+) and, as a result, the crystallized bone calcium parameters. These results show that cadmium can be used to study the relationship between alkaline phosphatase and calcification. The present observations allow us to consider the possibility that alkaline phosphatase may play a role in determining the calcium content of the crystallized phases in deep bone through its action on the tissue surface.

  17. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  18. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  19. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  1. Calcium signaling in human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Apáti, Ágota; Berecz, Tünde; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2016-03-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide new tools for developmental and pharmacological studies as well as for regenerative medicine applications. Calcium homeostasis and ligand-dependent calcium signaling are key components of major cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Interestingly, these phenomena have not been characterized in detail as yet in pluripotent human cell sates. Here we review the methods applicable for studying both short- and long-term calcium responses, focusing on the expression of fluorescent calcium indicator proteins and imaging methods as applied in pluripotent human stem cells. We discuss the potential regulatory pathways involving calcium responses in hPS cells and compare these to the implicated pathways in mouse PS cells. A recent development in the stem cell field is the recognition of so called "naïve" states, resembling the earliest potential forms of stem cells during development, as well as the "fuzzy" stem cells, which may be alternative forms of pluripotent cell types, therefore we also discuss the potential role of calcium homeostasis in these PS cell types.

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your ... yogurt and cheese are high in calcium. Certain green vegetables and other foods contain calcium in smaller ...

  3. Calcium Acetate or Calcium Carbonate for Hyperphosphatemia of Hemodialysis Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Yang, Bo; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of serum phosphorus both at baseline and during follow-up are associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, and administration of phosphate binders was independently associated with improved survival among hemodialysis population. Calcium-based phosphate binders are the most commonly used phosphate binders in developing countries for their relatively low costs. Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety between calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and Chinese databases (Wanfang, Weipu, National Knowledge Infrastructure of China) were searched for relevant studies published before March 2014. Reference lists of nephrology textbooks and review articles were checked. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in adult patients with MHD was performed using Review Manager 5.0. Results A total of ten studies (625 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. There was insufficient data in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events for meta-analysis. Compared with calcium carbonate group, the serum phosphorus was significantly lower in calcium acetate group after4 weeks’ administration (MD -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.01) and after 8 weeks’ administration (MD -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11). There was no difference in serum calcium levels or the incidence of hypercalcemia between two groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. No statistical difference was found in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or serum calcium by phosphorus (Ca x P) product. There was significantly higher risk of intolerance with calcium acetate treatment (RR 3.46, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.26). Conclusions For hyperphosphatemia treatment, calcium acetate showed better efficacy and with a higher incidence of intolerance compared with

  4. Calcium acetate or calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia of hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Xie, Guoqiang; Huang, Yuanhang; Zhang, Han; Yang, Bo; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    High levels of serum phosphorus both at baseline and during follow-up are associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, and administration of phosphate binders was independently associated with improved survival among hemodialysis population. Calcium-based phosphate binders are the most commonly used phosphate binders in developing countries for their relatively low costs. To compare the efficacy and safety between calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and Chinese databases (Wanfang, Weipu, National Knowledge Infrastructure of China) were searched for relevant studies published before March 2014. Reference lists of nephrology textbooks and review articles were checked. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in adult patients with MHD was performed using Review Manager 5.0. A total of ten studies (625 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. There was insufficient data in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events for meta-analysis. Compared with calcium carbonate group, the serum phosphorus was significantly lower in calcium acetate group after4 weeks' administration (MD -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.01) and after 8 weeks' administration (MD -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11). There was no difference in serum calcium levels or the incidence of hypercalcemia between two groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. No statistical difference was found in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or serum calcium by phosphorus (Ca x P) product. There was significantly higher risk of intolerance with calcium acetate treatment (RR 3.46, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.26). For hyperphosphatemia treatment, calcium acetate showed better efficacy and with a higher incidence of intolerance compared with calcium carbonate. There are insufficient data to

  5. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, John F; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul; Yeh, James K

    2013-11-01

    Bone health is influenced by the intake of both calcium and vitamin D. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on PTH and bone turnover. SETTING, PATIENTS, AND DESIGN: At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that was 6 months in duration. Subjects were randomly allocated to 4 groups: 1) double placebo, 2) calcium (1200 mg daily) plus placebo, 3) vitamin D3 (100 μg) plus placebo, and 4) vitamin D3 and calcium. Serum and urine were collected fasting and 2 hours after a calcium load at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Serum PTH, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. Before study medication, a calcium load resulted in a decline in PTH and CTX and an increase in urinary calcium excretion. Serum CTX and P1NP declined over time with calcium supplementation but did not change with increased vitamin D intake. There was a decline in PTH in the vitamin D groups in the fasting state compared with placebo. Suppression of PTH was greater after a calcium load in the vitamin D groups. A calcium load decreased PTH and CTX and raised urinary calcium. Fasting PTH declines with vitamin D supplementation. PTH declines after calcium intake. Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to100 μg vitamin D3/d does not.

  6. Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biochemical markers of altered mineral metabolism have been associated with increased mortality in end stage renal disease patients. Several studies have demonstrated non-linear (U-shaped or J-shaped) associations between these minerals and mortality, though many researchers have assumed linear relationships in their statistical modeling. This analysis synthesizes the non-linear relationships across studies. Methods We updated a prior systematic review through 2010. Studies included adults receiving dialysis and reported categorical data for calcium, phosphorus, and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) together with all-cause mortality. We performed 2 separate meta-analyses to compare higher-than-referent levels vs referent and lower-than-referent levels vs referent levels. Results A literature review showed that when a linear relationship between the minerals and mortality was assumed, the estimated associations were more likely to be smaller or non-significant compared to non-linear models. In the meta-analyses, higher-than-referent levels of phosphorus (4 studies, RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.25), calcium (3 studies, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14), and PTH (5 studies, RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.16) were significantly associated with increased mortality. Although no significant associations between relatively low phosphorus or PTH and mortality were observed, a protective effect was observed for lower-than-referent calcium (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.83-0.89). Conclusions Higher-than-referent levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in dialysis patients were associated with increased mortality risk in a selection of observational studies suitable for meta-analysis of non-linear relationships. Findings were less consistent for lower-than-referent values. Future analyses should incorporate the non-linear relationships between the minerals and mortality to obtain accurate effect estimates. PMID:23594621

  7. Serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Worwood, M

    1979-01-01

    (1) Brief introduction to iron metabolism and the biochemistry of ferritin. (2) Early studies of circulating ferritin. (3) Methods for measuring serum ferritin concentrations -- immunoradiometric, radioimmuno- and enzyme-linked immuno assays based on liver or spleen ferritin -- an evaluation of these techniques. (4) Serum ferritin concentrations in normal subjects -- definition of normality -- relationship between storage iron and serum ferritin concentrations -- changes during development from birth to old age -- iron deficiency -- variability of serum ferritin concentration -- evaluation of use of ferritin assay for assessment of storage iron levels. (5) Serum ferritin concentrations in disease -- hemochromatosis -- secondary iron overload -- liver damage -- infection and chronic disease -- cancer. (6) Assay of serum ferritin with antibodies to ferritins other than liver or spleen -- ferritinemia and cancer. (7) Properties of serum ferritin -- molecular weight -- iron content -- isoelectric focusing patterns -- carbohydrate content -- immunological properties. (8) Physiology of circulating ferritin -- release of ferritin from tissues -- origin of circulating ferritin -- clearance from the plasma -- iron and protein turnover. (9) Summary -- factors influencing serum ferritin concentrations and clinical use of ferritin estimations.

  8. Aluminum disruption of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction resembles change that occurs in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, J R

    2012-01-01

    Most humans living in industrialized societies are routinely exposed to bioavailable aluminum salts in the form of additives-in commercially-prepared foods, alum-clarified drinking water, certain pharmaceuticals, sunscreens, and other topical applications. Minute amounts of this aluminum are absorbed into the circulation. Trace aluminum levels cross the blood-brain barrier and progressively accumulate in large pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, cortex, and other brain regions vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. More aluminum enters the brain than leaves, resulting in a net increase in intraneuronal aluminum with advancing age. Aluminum is responsible for two main types of toxic damage in cells. As a pro-oxidant, aluminum causes oxidative damage both on its own and in synergy with iron. Aluminum also competes with, and substitutes for, essential metals-primarily Mg2+, iron and Ca2+ ions-in or on proteins and their co-factors. The author hypothesizes that intraneuronal aluminum interferes with Ca2+ metabolism in the aged brain and describes a way to test this hypothesis. This paper reviews: 1) major changes that occur in brain Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signaling, subtly with aging and more overtly in Alzheimer's disease; and 2) evidence from the scientific literature that aluminum causes these same changes in neurons.

  9. Oral Calcium-loading Test in Rickets and in Neonatal Tetany: Effect of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Barr, David G. D.; Forfar, John O.

    1969-01-01

    In an oral calcium-loading test performed on 10 infants with vitamin-D deficiency rickets and low fasting calcium levels, a comparison of results before and after therapy showed that vitamin D raised the serum calcium level at each stage of the test and altered the response so that a more rapid and substantial rise and fall in serum calcium occurred. The effects of vitamin D therapy on newborn infants with hypocalcaemic hyperphosphataemic tetany in another study suggests that these infants should be treated in this way to make them more responsive to oral calcium therapy. PMID:5792914

  10. Design and data quality of a mixed longitudinal study to elucidate the role of dietary calcium and phosphorus on bone mineralization in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    van Beresteyn, E C; van 't Hof, M A; de Waard, H; Dekker, P R; Neeter, R; Winkeldermaat, H J; Visser, R M; Schaafsma, G; van Schiak, M; Duursma, S A

    1986-04-01

    The study design and data quality control of an ongoing study (10 yr duration) in a few hundred women are presented. Good variables with respect to their longitudinal usefulness are: body weight, body height, and span-width. Reasonable variables are the bone parameters of the radius (BMC, BW, and BMC/BW). Poor variables are: dietary calcium and phosphorus intake, dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio, urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio, hematocrit, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum gamma-GT activity, and serum parathyroid-hormone concentration. Bad variables are: urinary phosphorus-to-creatinine ratio, urinary hydroxyproline-to-creatinine ratio, creatinine clearance, hemoglobin, MCHC, serum calcium, serum ionized calcium, serum phosphorus, serum total protein, serum albumin, and serum creatinine. In conclusion, it is possible to relate bone loss to food intake and to changes in anthropometric variables on an individual basis. However, quantification of the metabolic process is not possible.

  11. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-Qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias.A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone.The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia.As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess.

  12. Calcium and Calcium-Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-01-01

    alloys have •been made in electrical contacts. Little is known of’ the high - calcium alloys,» The aluminum-calcium diagram from Hansen^1) is shown in...list is still incom- plete« No use has been suggested for high calcium -aluminum alloys, ..•Arsenic-pal’c-iüm- Alloys •K.. Calcium arsenide, OajAsg...hot CaCUy, by X-ray determination of the structure. The probability of finding a useful high - calcium alloy in this system is based-on-the-validity

  13. Calcium modulation of the renin-aldosterone axis.

    PubMed

    Porter, L; Conlin, P R; Scott, J; Brown, E M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    1999-02-01

    Changes in the extracellular calcium concentration have important effects on hormone secretion. In vitro, kidney juxtaglomerular cells have been shown to secrete renin in an inverse relationship to the extracellular calcium concentration. The effect of physiologic changes in calcium on renin secretion in humans is less clear. We therefore investigated the effects of physiologic changes in extracellular calcium levels on renin and aldosterone secretion in 7 healthy men. Serum ionized calcium, ACTH, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone levels were serially measured during 90-min infusions of dextrose, disodium edetate (EDTA) and calcium gluconate, and the latter two infusions were repeated with dexamethasone pre-treatment. ACTH levels decreased during the 5% dextrose in water and the EDTA infusions but increased during the calcium infusion. Similarly, PRA and aldosterone levels fell during the D5W and EDTA infusions but this decrease was absent with increments in calcium levels. Dexamethasone administration suppressed ACTH and the aldosterone response to calcium but did not affect the PRA response to the calcium infusion. Our data indicate that increases in calcium within the physiological range blunt the diurnal decline in both PRA and aldosterone. This appears to be a direct effect of calcium on PRA but mediated through ACTH in the case of aldosterone.

  14. Emotional Family Resemblances? Darwin's Contributions to a Theory of Emotions and Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    A family resemblance model of emotions is proposed which uses Darwin's discussion of emotions and Eleanor Rosch's and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein's work on family resemblances. In Darwin's discussion of emotions, certain core features are thought to be widely shared by the members of the respective families of emotions, and more marginal…

  15. Calcium-binding sites on sensory processes in vertebrate hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, D T; Rowley, J C; Asher, D L

    1981-01-01

    Vertebrate lateral line and vestibular systems center their function on highly mechanosensitive hair cells. Each hair cell is equipped with one kinocilium (which resembles a motile cilium) and 50-100 actin-containing stereocilia (which resemble microvilli) at the site of stimulus reception. This report describes electron-microscopic localization of calcium-binding sites on the sensory processes of vertebrate hair cells. Using the Oschman-Wall technique for calcium localization [Oschman, J. L. & Wall, B. J. (1972) J. Cell Biol. 55, 58-73] together with electron-probe x-ray microanalysis of thin sections, we observed: (i) calcium- and iron-containing deposits in the region of the ciliary necklace in goldfish lateral line hair cells, (ii) calcium deposits upon the surface of stereocilia of hair cells of the bullfrog inner ear, and (iii) calcium deposits upon stereocilia of hair cells of the guinea pig vestibular system. Images PMID:6973762

  16. Calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease on low- and high-calcium diets.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David M; Brady, Kate

    2012-06-01

    Calcium balance in chronic kidney disease is poorly understood as calcium deficiency is a stimulus for secondary hyperparathyroidism and consequent bone loss while calcium excess promotes extraosseous calcifications. To help resolve this, we evaluated calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on daily diets containing 800 and 2000 mg elemental calcium. Both normal individuals and patients with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD were in slightly negative to neutral calcium balance on the 800-mg calcium diet. Normal individuals were in modest positive calcium balance on the 2000-mg diet, while patients with CKD on the same diet were in marked positive calcium balance at least over the 9 days of study; and significantly greater than the normal individuals. Increased calcium intake significantly decreased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels but did not alter the serum calcium concentration. Thus, our findings have important implications for both preventing calcium deficiency and loading in individuals with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD.

  17. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    PubMed

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  18. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  19. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica) relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Horacio A; Ortega, Hugo H; Ramos, Jorge G; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2003-01-01

    Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis). Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed

  20. Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: The pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Ramos, Óscar; González, Mabel Cristina; Rodríguez, Camilo; Medina, Iliana; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-04-01

    Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern. Heterospecific resemblance in colorful patches was highest between species at the same locality, but unrelated to concomitant variation in toxicity. Surprisingly, resemblance was lower for the conspicuous femoral patches compared to the inconspicuous dorsum. By building visual models, we further tested whether resemblance was affected by the visual system of model predators. As predicted, mimic-model resemblance was higher under the visual system of simulated predators compared to no visual system at all. Our results indicate that femoral patches are aposematic signals and support a role of mimicry in driving phenotypic divergence or mimetic radiation between localities. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL, were randomized in a double-blind study to vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400 IU, or placebo. A calcium supplement was given to increase mean calcium intake at baseline from 706 mg/d to 1031 mg/d. Calcium absorption was measured at baseline and after 12 months using a single isotope method with radiocalcium45 and 100 mg of calcium. Mean baseline serum 25OHD was 13.4 ng/mL (33.5 nmol/L) and increased to 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) on the highest dose of 2400 IU. Using a multivariate regression analysis with significant predictors, baseline absorption, calcium intake, and weight, there was no increase in 12-month calcium absorption compared with baseline on any dose of vitamin D in either whites or African Americans. There was no significant relationship between 12-month calcium absorption and final serum 25OHD. In an analysis of calcium absorption and serum 25OHD at baseline, serum 25OHD levels were divided into groups: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, or 16 to 20 ng/mL. There was no evidence of a threshold decrease in calcium absorption or serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels <5 ng/mL. There is no need to recommend vitamin D for increasing calcium absorption in normal subjects. Very efficient calcium absorption at very low levels of serum 25OHD explains why people do not develop osteomalacia provided that dietary intakes of calcium and phosphorus are adequate.

  2. A novel calcium-sensing domain in the BK channel.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, M; Salkoff, L

    1997-01-01

    The high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (mSlo) plays a vital role in regulating calcium entry in many cell types. mSlo channels behave like voltage-dependent channels, but their voltage range of activity is set by intracellular free calcium. The mSlo subunit has two parts: a "core" resembling a subunit from a voltage-dependent K+ channel, and an appended "tail" that plays a role in calcium sensing. Here we present evidence for a site on the tail that interacts with calcium. This site, the "calcium bowl," is a novel calcium-binding motif that includes a string of conserved aspartate residues. Mutations of the calcium bowl fall into two categories: 1) those that shift the position of the G-V relation a similar amount at all [Ca2+], and 2) those that shift the position of the G-V relation only at low [Ca2+]. None of these mutants alters the slope of the G-V curve. These mutant phenotypes are apparent in calcium ion, but not in cadmium ion, where mutant and wild type are indistinguishable. This suggests that the calcium bowl is sensitive to calcium ion, but insensitive to cadmium ion. The presence and independence of a second calcium-binding site is inferred because channels still respond to increasing levels of [Ca2+] or [Cd2+], even when the calcium bowl is mutationally deleted. Thus a low level of activation in the absence of divalent cations is identical in mutant and wild-type channels, possibly because of activation of this second Ca2+-binding site. PMID:9284303

  3. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Stephen J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Pang, Jian L.; Kantham, Lakshmi; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Pollak, Martin; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] despite no change in FGF23, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus appears to be fundamentally important in coordinating the serum levels of both mineral ions and ensuring that the calcium × phosphorus product remains within a physiological range. PMID:23233539

  4. REFERENCE RANGE FOR SERUM PARATHYROID HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Feuerman, Martin; Yeh, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the reference range for parathyroid hormone (PTH) should be lowered (from 65 pg/mL to a proposed value of 46 pg/mL) with use of the Allegro radioimmunometric assay. Methods We examined the reference range for PTH, adjusted for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), in 503 healthy African American and white women, who were 20 to 80 years old. We also analyzed other factors that are thought to influence PTH levels. Results Univariate predictors of PTH were identified, and a multivariate model was developed with use of the variables and PTH. Serum PTH was significantly higher in black study subjects than in white study subjects (P<0.02). Increasing PTH was also significantly correlated with increasing body mass index, age, and serum creatinine and with decreasing dietary calcium intake and serum 25-OHD levels. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following predictors of PTH: body mass index (R2 = 9.4%), age (R2 = 1.0%), and serum 25-OHD (R2 = 0.8%). In our study population, many PTH values were above the proposed new upper limit of 46 pg/mL. Conclusion The upper limit of the reference range for serum PTH should not be changed. Factors to be considered in analysis of serum PTH values in the upper reference range in patients with normocalcemia include obesity, race, 25-OHD levels, advanced age, serum creatinine, and dietary calcium intake. PMID:16690460

  5. [Pharmacology of the extracellular calcium ion receptor].

    PubMed

    Ruat, Martial

    2003-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to family 3 of G-protein coupled receptors. The CaSR, expressed at the surface of the parathyroid cells, controls parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and is the main regulator of calcium homeostasis. Its activity is regulated by small changes in the physiological concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions present in the serum and extracellular fluids, leading to the stimulation of the phospholipases C and A2. Molecules that potentiate the effect of extracellular calcium are called calcimimetics. They reduce the PTH level in vivo and have been proposed to be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The blocking of CaSR by a calcilytic molecule results in the increase in serum PTH and might be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. The CaSR is also expressed in the thyroid, kidney, bone and in neuronal and glial cell populations, where it should be involved in the complex responses associated with calcium and magnesium ions present in the extracellular fluids.

  6. Calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease on low and high calcium diets

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, David M.; Brady, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Calcium balance in chronic kidney disease is poorly understood since its deficiency is a stimulus for secondary hyperparathyroidism and consequent bone loss while calcium excess promotes extra-osseous calcifications. To help resolve this, we evaluated calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on daily diets containing 800 and 2000 mg elemental calcium. Both normal individuals and patients with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD were in slightly negative to neutral calcium balance on the 800 mg calcium diet. Normal individuals were in modest positive calcium balance on the 2000 mg diet while patients with CKD on the same diet were in marked positive calcium balance at least over the 9 days of study; and significantly greater than the normal individuals. Increased calcium intake significantly decreased 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels but did not alter the serum calcium concentration. Thus, our finding have important implications for both preventing calcium deficiency and loading in individuals with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD. PMID:22297674

  7. How does bovine serum albumin prevent the formation of kidney stone? A kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2006-05-11

    To attain a better understanding of the crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals under the influence of the protein bovine serum albumin, we examined not only the nucleation kinetics but also the structural synergy between the biomineral and the biosubstrate. It follows that during the crystallization process of calcium oxalate crystals bovine serum albumin inhibits the nucleation of calcium oxalate by increasing the kink kinetics barrier. The results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show, however, that bovine serum albumin promotes the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate. Apart from this, bovine serum albumin facilitates the ordered calcium oxalate crystal assembly by suppressing the supersaturation-driven interfacial structure mismatch. The physics questions behind the mentioned effects have been addressed from the kinetics point of view. This may explain why bovine serum albumin plays an important role in suppressing urine stone formation.

  8. Dietary calcium requirements do not differ between Mexican-American boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-08-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. Adolescents aged 12-15 y were studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging from 600 to 2300 mg/d using randomized-order, crossover 3-wk balance studies. Skeletal calcium retention was calculated as dietary calcium intake minus calcium excreted in feces and urine over the last 2 wk of balance. A linear model was developed to explain the variation in calcium retention. Boys (n = 20) were taller and had higher lean mass, usual dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content, and serum alkaline phosphatase compared with girls, whereas girls (n = 20) had higher Tanner scores and greater fat mass. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake (P < 0.0001) and did not differ by sex (P = 0.66). In boys and girls considered together, calcium intake explained 33% of the variation in calcium retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase explained an additional 11% of the variation in calcium retention. Other variables measured, including the urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine ratio, Tanner score, serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, weight, height, and body mass index, did not contribute to the variance in calcium retention. In adolescence, calcium retention in both Mexican-American boys and girls was higher than determined previously in adolescent nonHispanic white girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01277185. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yutao U. T.; Killian, Christopher E.; Olson, Ian C.; Appathurai, Narayana P.; Amasino, Audra L.; Martin, Michael C.; Holt, Liam J.; Wilt, Fred H.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline biominerals do not resemble faceted crystals. Current explanations for this property involve formation via amorphous phases. Using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), here we examine forming spicules in embryos of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchins, and observe a sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC·H2O) → dehydrated amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) → calcite. Unexpectedly, we find ACC·H2O-rich nanoparticles that persist after the surrounding mineral has dehydrated and crystallized. Protein matrix components occluded within the mineral must inhibit ACC·H2O dehydration. We devised an in vitro, also using XANES-PEEM, assay to identify spicule proteins that may play a role in stabilizing various mineral phases, and found that the most abundant occluded matrix protein in the sea urchin spicules, SM50, stabilizes ACC·H2O in vitro. PMID:22492931

  10. Assembling polycyclic bisguanidine motifs resembling batzelladine alkaloids by double tethered Biginelli condensations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Frederick; Collins, Shawn K; Overman, Larry E

    2003-11-13

    [reaction: see text] Double tethered Biginelli condensations furnish linked polycyclic bisguanidines or bisureas. Alteration of the bis-beta-ketoester component allows bispolycyclic guanidine motifs to be constructed that resemble natural batzelladine alkaloids or have novel linkages.

  11. RESEMBLANCES BETWEEN THE ELECTROMOTOR VARIATIONS OF RHYTHMICALLY REACTING LIVING AND NON-LIVING SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Lillie, R S

    1929-09-20

    1. The electromotor variations of pure iron wires, arranged to react rhythmically with nitric acid, are recorded and described. 2. Resemblances between these variations and those of rhythmically reacting living tissues (especially the heart) are pointed out and discussed.

  12. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  13. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  14. In chronic kidney disease, serum α-Klotho is related to serum bicarbonate and proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Hage, Valerie; Pelletier, Solenne; Dubourg, Laurence; Drai, Jocelyne; Cuerq, Charlotte; Lemoine, Sandrine; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Laville, Maurice; Fouque, Denis

    2014-11-01

    Klotho is an "aging-suppressor" gene and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in renal tubules. Whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects serum Klotho is poorly documented. We aimed to measure the relationship of serum α-Klotho with renal function, acid-base status, bone biomarkers, and proteinuria in CKD patients. We measured serum α-Klotho, serum FGF23, and glomerular filtration rate by inulin clearance in 60 CKD patients between January and July 2011. We also measured serum creatinine, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein, and 25-OH vitamin D. Proteinuria was obtained from a 24-h urine collection. The median serum α-Klotho was 478 (348-658) pg/mL. We found an inverse relationship between serum α-Klotho and serum creatinine (r = -0.36, P = .007), proteinuria (r = -0.36, P = .013), and a positive relationship with serum bicarbonate (r = 0.33, P = .011). There was no further significant relation between serum α-Klotho and inulin clearance or serum FGF23. Multiple regression analysis including serum bicarbonate, serum creatinine, and proteinuria indicated that only serum bicarbonate was associated with serum α-Klotho (P = .003). This study shows that in CKD, serum α-Klotho is related to serum bicarbonate and proteinuria and not to renal function. Further research is required to determine whether correcting these 2 amenable conditions would improve serum α-Klotho. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium homeostasis during oral glucose load in healthy women.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Ragno, A; Raejntroph, N; Vecci, E; Acca, M

    1999-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that in healthy subjects during oral glucose tolerance test, serum calcium declines, while urinary calcium excretion increases, even if there is not a general agreement in this regard. The study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of glucose oral load on calcium homeostasis in eight healthy adult women, also considering ionized calcium, plasma insulin and parathyroid hormone changes. The results showed a decline of total and ionized serum calcium (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively; maximum of the decrease at time 120'), in parallel with the increase of urinary calcium/ creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). Serum glucose and insulin increase (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0005 respectively; maximum value at time 60'), while the parathyroid hormone level decreases (maximum decline at time 120', p < 0.01). No changes were observed in fasting control subjects for all parameters considered. The changes of these parameters with time suggest that the effects of glucose oral load on calcium metabolism in healthy adult women may be the consequence of parathyroid hormone suppression induced by acute hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia. The results confirm in vivo the PTH behaviour in vitro, on cultured bovine parathyroid cells, with high glucose concentration.

  16. Who Resembles Whom? Mimetic and Coincidental Look-Alikes among Tropical Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resemblance of the model to the “mimic” inadvertently attracts the latter to it, and reinforcement of this social trapping by learned benefits leads to the “mimic” regularly associating with the model. I examine three well known cases of supposed aggressive mimicry among reef-fishes in relation to nine predictions from these hypotheses, and assess which hypothesis offers a better explanation for each. One case, involving precise and complex morphological and behavioral resemblance, is strongly consistent with mimicry, one is inconclusive, and one is more consistent with a social-trap based on coincidental, imprecise resemblance. Few cases of supposed interspecific mimicry among tropical reef fishes have been examined in depth, and many such associations may involve social traps arising from generalized, coincidental resemblance. Mimicry may be much less common among these fishes than is generally thought. PMID:23372795

  17. Calcium homeostasis disorder during and after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Rambaud, Jerome; Guellec, Isabelle; Guilbert, Julia; Léger, Pierre-Louis; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used during pediatric resuscitation in case of refractory hypoxemia or septic shock under maximum therapy. Previous studies describe calcium homeostasis dysregulation. The aim of this study was to confirmed of calcium homeostasis dysregulation in neonates under ECMO and supposed news explanation. Subjects and Methods: From November 2012 to July 2013, we performed a prospective single center observational study. Eleven neonatal patients were included. Blood was obtained before and during ECMO (day 7, 14 and 21) for parathyroid hormone (PTH), protein adjusted serum calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and calcitriol levels. All surviving patients underwent a consultation up to 6 months after ECMO weaning. Results: During ECMO PTH was inadequately high with normal serum calcium on day 7 (PTH: 73.54 ± 40 ng/l; calcemia: 2.33 ± 0.21 mmol/l), day 14 (PTH: 57.63 ± 29.57 ng/l; calcemia: 2.44 ± 0.43 mmol/l) and day 21 (PTH: 54.93 ± 8.43 ng/l; calcemia: 2.13 ± 0.09 mmol/l). The absence of correlation between serum calcium and PTH levels seem to confirm the dysregulation of PTH - serum calcium metabolism during ECMO. Six months after ECMO weaning, we noticed hypercalcemia with normal PTH. Conclusions: We confirmed the existence of severe disturbances of calcium homeostasis in neonates on ECMO and supposed the possible damage of calcium regulation. We did not succeed in finding clear explanations of these disturbances. PMID:26430336

  18. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salmon and sardines canned with their soft bones Almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tahini, and dried beans ... greens = 100 mg of calcium ¼ cup of almonds = 100 mg of calcium 1 medium orange = 50 ...

  19. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    PubMed

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  20. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected joint. CPPD ... using a microscope to see small calcium pyrophosphate crystals in joint fluid. Anti-inflammatory medications reduce pain ...

  1. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  2. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  3. Distribution, burrowing, and growth rates of the clam Tridacna crocea on interior reef flats : Formation of structures resembling micro atolls.

    PubMed

    Hamner, W M; Jones, M S

    1976-09-01

    Larvae of the burrowing clam Tridacna crocea (Tridacnidae) settle preferentially on top of detached coral heads lying on the surface of the interior reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef province. This species burrows as it grows, eroding the central top surfaces of coral boulders, producing structures that superficially resemble micro-atolls. Storm surges roll these coral heads onto the now flattened surface, killing the live population of clams, and exposing the fresh underside for unimpeded larval settlement. As these clams grow and burrow into the substratum, the coral head becomes progressively flattened and finally breaks apart. Field observations and growthring data documented growth rate; growth rates plus burrow volumes were converted to annual sediment production. At average population densities approximately 140 gm/m(2)/yr of coral are eroded. Concomitant with erosion is a calcium carbonate increase in the shell of these clams amounting to 60gm/m(2)/yr. Assuming a stable population structure, with annual mortality equal to annual estimated growth, total sediment production is 200 gm/m(2)/yr. Clams are usually aggregated at higher densities, however, with numbers regularly exceeding 100 clams/m(2). Consequently maximum sediment production rate locally is often 4,500 gm/m(2)/yr.

  4. Circulating CD21low B cells in common variable immunodeficiency resemble tissue homing, innate-like B cells.

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Keller, Baerbel; Gutenberger, Sylvia; Foerster, Christian; Hoenig, Manfred; Driessen, Gertjan; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques J; Wiech, Elisabeth; Visentini, Marcella; Quinti, Isabella; Prasse, Antje; Voelxen, Nadine; Salzer, Ulrich; Goldacker, Sigune; Fisch, Paul; Eibel, Hermann; Schwarz, Klaus; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Warnatz, Klaus

    2009-08-11

    The homeostasis of circulating B cell subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy adults is well regulated, but in disease it can be severely disturbed. Thus, a subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) presents with an extraordinary expansion of an unusual B cell population characterized by the low expression of CD21. CD21(low) B cells are polyclonal, unmutated IgM(+)IgD(+) B cells but carry a highly distinct gene expression profile which differs from conventional naïve B cells. Interestingly, while clearly not representing a memory population, they do share several features with the recently defined memory-like tissue, Fc receptor-like 4 positive B cell population in the tonsils of healthy donors. CD21(low) B cells show signs of previous activation and proliferation in vivo, while exhibiting defective calcium signaling and poor proliferation in response to B cell receptor stimulation. CD21(low) B cells express decreased amounts of homeostatic but increased levels of inflammatory chemokine receptors. This might explain their preferential homing to peripheral tissues like the bronchoalveolar space of CVID or the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, as a result of the close resemblance to the gene expression profile, phenotype, function and preferential tissue homing of murine B1 B cells, we suggest that CD21(low) B cells represent a human innate-like B cell population.

  5. Reduced capacitative calcium entry correlates with vesicle accumulation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jayadev, S; Petranka, J G; Cheran, S K; Biermann, J A; Barrett, J C; Murphy, E

    1999-03-19

    A preneoplastic variant of Syrian hamster embryo cells, sup(+), exhibits decreased endoplasmic reticulum calcium levels and subsequently undergoes apoptosis in low serum conditions (Preston, G. A., Barrett, J. C., Biermann, J. A., and Murphy, E. (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 537-542). This decrease in endoplasmic reticulum calcium appears to be due, at least in part, to reduced capacitative calcium entry at the plasma membrane. Thus we investigated whether inhibition of capacitative calcium entry per se could reduce endoplasmic reticulum calcium and induce apoptosis of cells. We find that treatment with either SKF96365 (30-100 microM) or cell-impermeant 1,2-bis(o-amino-5-bromophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (5-10 mM) is able to induce apoptosis of cells in conditions where apoptosis does not normally occur. Because previous work has implicated vesicular trafficking as a mechanism of regulating capacitative calcium entry, we investigated whether disruption of vesicular trafficking could lead to decreased capacitative calcium entry and subsequent apoptosis of cells. Coincident with low serum-induced apoptosis, we observed an accumulation of vesicles within the cell, suggesting deregulated vesicle trafficking. Treatment of cells with bafilomycin (30-100 nM), an inhibitor of the endosomal proton ATPase, produced an accumulation of vesicles, decreased capacitative entry, and induced apoptosis. These data suggest that deregulation of vesicular transport results in reduced capacitative calcium entry which in turn results in apoptosis.

  6. Normalization of priming solution ionized calcium concentration improves hemodynamic stability of neonates receiving venovenous ECMO.

    PubMed

    Meliones, J N; Moler, F W; Custer, J R; Dekeon, M K; Chapman, R A; Bartlett, R H

    1995-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this investigation were: 1) to prospectively determine whether a normocalcemic priming solution would result in elimination of hypocalcemia after the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); 2) to investigate whether normocalcemia would result in improvements in the patient's hemodynamics during the initiation of ECMO; and 3) to further define the relationship between ionized calcium measurements and total calcium, serum total protein, serum albumin, and total magnesium. This was a prospective study done in our neonatal intensive care unit, and included nine neonatal patients placed on ECMO for cardiopulmonary support. The bypass circuit was primed in the standardized manner with 100 mg calcium chloride. Circuit ionized calcium measurements were performed, and additional calcium chloride was added to normalize the ionized calcium in the priming solution. Ionized calcium was measured from the circuit and the patient before the initiation of ECMO, and then again from the patient 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the initiation of ECMO. The patients' mean arterial pressure was measured simultaneously with each ionized calcium measurement. Ionized calcium, serum total calcium, total protein, serum albumin, and total magnesium were measured from blood samples simultaneously collected four times daily. There was no significant change in the ionized calcium measured in the patients after the initiation of ECMO. There was, however, a significant increase in blood pressure 5 min after the initiation of ECMO (62 +/- 7 mmHg vs 53 +/- 6 mmHg, p = 0.01). Thereafter, there was no difference in blood pressure measured when compared with pre ECMO values. A poor correlation was demonstrated between ionized calcium and total calcium (r2 = 0.35), serum total protein (r2 = 0.26), serum albumin (r2 = 0.27), and total magnesium (r2 = 0.05). On the basis of the authors' data, the initiation of ECMO with a normocalcemic prime results

  7. Familial resemblance on the Thurstone Activity Scale, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol among first degree relatives of subjects with and without coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Carmelli, D; Rosenman, R

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the pattern of familial resemblance of three different risk factors assessed in families of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and controls is presented. The fathers of these families participated in the Western Collaborative Group Study that first established the type A/B behavior pattern as an independent risk factor for CHD. A recently developed methodology, the Structured Exploratory Data Analysis (SEDA), was implemented to examine parental interaction, parent-offspring closeness, asymmetries in transmission, and other differences in the pattern of familial similarities among family members of case and control subjects. The analysis performed revealed pronounced parent-child similarity for total serum cholesterol values in both case and control families; spouse closeness and parent-child resemblance for systolic blood pressure measurements only in control families; and sex asymmetries in the parent-child closeness on pace of activity, which also differed between case and control families. The results of this investigation underscore the value of examining the joint pattern of familial resemblance of a number of risk factors as a means for differentiating between cultural and biological factors affecting familial aggregation of CHD.

  8. Familial resemblance for hostility: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weidner, G; Rice, T; Knox, S S; Ellison, R C; Province, M A; Rao, D C; Higgins, M W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether several aspects of hostility as measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (ie, aggressive responding, hostile affect, cynicism, and overall hostility score) were determined in part by family factors (ie, genes and/or familial environments). Analyses were based on 680 European-American families (2525 individuals) from the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS), a population-based study of genetic and nongenetic determinants of CHD, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular risk factors. The influence of family relationships, age, and education on the variation in each of the four hostility scores were estimated. Significant familial resemblance in all hostility scores was found, accounting for 42% of the variance in total hostility, 30% in cynicism, 38% in aggressive responding, and 18% in hostile affect. Very little of this resemblance could be explained by similarities in education. Familial resemblance for cynicism was solely due to significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations (ie, no spouse resemblance), suggesting the possibility of genetic influences. Gender and generation differences were also evident in the familial correlations. Hostility aggregates in families. Both family environmental and genetic sources of resemblance are suggested for hostility.

  9. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a ‘pop-out’ effect for anger, more quickly locating an angry than a happy face in a neutral array, suggests that both age groups may be equally sensitive to emotion resemblance. We used computer modeling to assess the degree to which neutral faces objectively resembled emotions and assessed whether that resemblance predicted trait impressions. We found that both OA and YA showed anger and surprise overgeneralization in ratings of danger and naiveté, respectively, with no significant differences in the strength of the effects for the two age groups. These findings suggest that well-documented OA deficits on emotion recognition tasks may be more due to processing demands than to an insensitivity to the social affordances of emotion expressions. PMID:24058225

  10. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    PubMed Central

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  11. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  12. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  13. From similitude to success: The effects of facial resemblance on perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Scant empirical research has focused on how impressions of teams are formed based on members' collective appearance, even though team photos are omnipresent in visual communications and teamwork is a common theme to elicit positive responses. Across 4 studies, we show that a subtle increase in the facial resemblance among team members enhances observers' evaluations of team effectiveness. This resemblance effect is mediated by perceived cooperative intent among team players. Furthermore, we demonstrate a reversal of the resemblance effect through the moderating role of information valence and extend the finding from team perception to behavioral intention. These results hold across different manipulations, contexts, stimuli, and sample characteristics. Collectively, this research presents the first empirical evidence that inferences based on facial morphology persist well beyond evaluations of individuals to influence the way a team, as a whole, is perceived.

  14. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Spousal resemblance in psychopathology: A comparison of parents of children with and without psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wesseldijk, L W; Dieleman, G C; Lindauer, R J L; Bartels, M; Willemsen, G; Hudziak, J J; Boomsma, D I; Middeldorp, C M

    2016-04-01

    Spouses resemble each other for psychopathology, but data regarding spousal resemblance in externalizing psychopathology, and data regarding spousal resemblance across different syndromes (e.g. anxiety in wives and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] in husbands) are limited. Moreover, knowledge is lacking regarding spousal resemblance in parents of children with psychiatric disorders. We investigated and compared spousal resemblance within and across internalizing and externalizing symptom domains in parents of children with and without psychopathology. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, avoidant personality, ADHD, and antisocial personality were assessed with the Adult Self Report in 728 mothers and 544 fathers of 778 children seen in child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics and in 2075 mothers and 1623 fathers of 2784 children from a population-based sample. Differences in symptom scores and spousal correlations between the samples were tested. Parents in the clinical sample had higher symptom scores than in the population-based sample. In both samples, correlations within and across internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology were significant. Importantly, correlations were significantly higher in the clinical sample (P=0.03). Correlations, within and across symptoms, ranged from 0.14 to 0.30 in the clinical sample and from 0.05 to 0.23 in the population-based sample. This large study shows that spousal resemblance is not only present within but also across symptom domains. Especially in the clinical sample, ADHD symptoms in fathers and antisocial personality symptoms in mothers were correlated with a range of psychiatric symptoms in their spouses. Clinicians need to be alert of these multiple affected families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Stretch-activated calcium channels relay fast calcium waves propagated by calcium-induced calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2007-03-01

    For nearly 30 years, fast calcium waves have been attributed to a regenerative process propagated by CICR (calcium-induced calcium release) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, I propose a model containing a new subclass of fast calcium waves which is propagated by CICI (calcium-induced calcium influx) through the plasma membrane. They are called fast CICI waves. These move at the order of 100 to 1000 microm/s (at 20 degrees C), rather than the order of 3 to 30 microm/s found for CICR. Moreover, in this proposed subclass, the calcium influx which drives calcium waves is relayed by stretch-activated calcium channels. This model is based upon reports from approx. 60 various systems. In seven of these reports, calcium waves were imaged, and, in five of these, evidence was presented that these waves were regenerated by CICI. Much of this model involves waves that move along functioning flagella and cilia. In these systems, waves of local calcium influx are thought to cause waves of local contraction by inducing the sliding of dynein or of kinesin past tubulin microtubules. Other cells which are reported to exhibit waves, which move at speeds in the fast CICI range, include ones from a dozen protozoa, three polychaete worms, three molluscs, a bryozoan, two sea urchins, one arthropod, four insects, Amphioxus, frogs, two fish and a vascular plant (Equisetum), together with numerous healthy, as well as cancerous, mammalian cells, including ones from human. In two of these systems, very gentle local mechanical stimulation is reported to initiate waves. In these non-flagellar systems, the calcium influxes are thought to speed the sliding of actinomyosin filaments past each other. Finally, I propose that this mechanochemical model could be tested by seeing if gentle mechanical stimulation induces waves in more of these systems and, more importantly, by imaging the predicted calcium waves in more of them.

  17. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  18. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  19. The effects of fasting and refeeding on serum parathormone and calcitonin concentrations in young and old male rats.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, Z; Myśliwski, A; Wyrzykowska, M; Hoppe, A

    2001-05-01

    Although fasting and refeeding reveal the existence of age-related changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, the effects of aging on mineral metabolism in refed animals are unknown. We therefore investigated hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in young (4 months) and old (26 months) male rats fasted for 48 hours and then refed for 4 or 24 hours. Serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium and parathormone were similar in control young and old rats. Serum calcitonin level was higher, and the concentrations of albumin and inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in fed old rats. In young fasted rats, the serum ionized and total calcium was decreased, and phosphate concentration was increased. In old rats, fasting resulted in the increase of serum parathormone level. Fasting reduced serum alkaline phosphatase activity to a similar extent in both age groups. In young rats, refeeding for 24h normalized serum calcium and phosphate levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, and decreased serum concentrations of PTH and calcitonin. In old refed rats, serum calcitonin concentration was raised by 77% compared to fed or fasted animals, whereas parathormone levels were normalized. Our results indicate that old fasted or refed rats maintain normal serum calcium concentration in a different way than young animals, possibly through the increase in serum levels of parathormone and/or calcitonin. Thus, dietary manipulations such as fasting and refeeding constitute an interesting model for the investigation of the effects of aging on the hormonal regulation of serum calcium level.

  20. Calcium accentuates injury induced by ethanol in human gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Deshpande, Y; Wolff, A B; Rieckenberg, C; Miller, T A

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism(s) whereby ethanol induces cellular injury remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the role of calcium in gastric mucosal injury under in vitro conditions is poorly defined. The major objectives of this study were to (1) define the temporal relationship between intracellular calcium accumulation induced by ethanol and cellular injury, (2) characterize the mechanism(s) whereby ethanol increases cellular calcium content, and (3) determine whether calcium removal would attenuate ethanol-induced cellular injury. Human gastric cells (AGS) were used for all experiments. Sustained intracellular calcium accumulation induced by ethanol, but not transient changes, preceded and directly correlated with cellular injury. Cells exposed to damaging concentrations of ethanol demonstrated an initial calcium surge that appeared to be a consequence of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) generation and subsequent internal store release followed by a sustained plateau resulting from extracellular calcium influx through store-operated calcium channels. Finally, both morphologic (cellular injury) and functional (clearance of bovine serum albumin) changes induced by ethanol were significantly attenuated when extracellular Ca(+&plus) influx was prevented, and further decreased when intracellular Ca(++) stores were depleted. These data indicate that calcium plays a significant role in cellular injury induced by ethanol.

  1. Effect of Calcium Carbonate on Bioavailability of Orally Administered Gemifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Pletz, M. W.; Petzold, P.; Allen, A.; Burkhardt, O.; Lode, H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calcium carbonate on the oral bioavailability of gemifloxacin. Gemifloxacin was administered alone, 2 h before, simultaneously, or 2 h after calcium carbonate in 16 volunteers. Data for 320 mg of gemifloxacin alone were as follows: maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax),13 μg/ml; half-life, 7.33 h; and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC∞), 6.79 μg · h/ml. Only simultaneous coadministration of calcium carbonate reduced Cmax (−17%) and AUC∞ (−21%) significantly. PMID:12821462

  2. [Bone and tooth in calcium and phosphate metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate is indispensable for maintaining normal physiological condition. Imbalance of this regulation leads to pathophysiological disorders including heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and ectopic calcification. Formation and mineralization of bone and tooth are greatly influenced by calcium and phosphate metabolism since both organs are mainly consist of calcium-phosphate. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis is under hormonal control on its target organs such as kidney, bone and intestine. Calcium and phosphate are absorbed in intestine and reabsorbed and excreted in kidney. Bone store and release them in response to changing physiological demand by osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Bone is also important as an endocrine organ that releases FGF23 from osteocytes, a novel hormone that targets the kidney to inhibit phosphate reabsorption and 1α, 25 (OH) (2)D(3) production.

  3. Management of calcium ureterolithiasis in a French lop rabbit.

    PubMed

    White, R N

    2001-12-01

    A 19-month-old entire male French lop rabbit was presented with a two-week history of a depressed appetite and lethargy. Clinical and laboratory findings, together with abdominal radiographic studies, suggested a diagnosis of right-sided calcium ureterolithiasis. Management included the surgical removal and analysis of the urolith. Confirmation of a calcium-containing urolith and the presence of hypercalcaemia necessitated the introduction of a low calcium diet. Recovery was complicated by the occurrence of a second urolith within the left ureter. This was also removed successfully by surgical means. The rabbit made a full recovery and assessment of serial serum calcium concentration has since confirmed the long-term maintenance of calcium levels within their normal range.

  4. Stimulated and Unstimulated Saliva Levels of Calcium and Magnesium in Giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Shaddel, Minoo; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Sharifi-Sarasiabi, Khojasteh; Kamali, Zahra; Dastgheib, Mani

    2017-01-22

    Giardia lamblia causes malabsorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and saliva calcium and magnesium levels in patients with giardiasis. Thirty patients with giardiasis as a case and 30 person without giardiasis as a control group were enrolled. The stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva and serum calcium and magnesium levels were assayed by Arsenazo reaction and xylidyl blue complex methods, respectively. Mean calcium and magnesium level was low in serum and stimulated saliva of case group than that of controls. However, they were higher in the unstimulated saliva of the case group. It is suggested that patients suffering from giardiasis have low calcium and magnesium levels, and they lose the most of calcium and magnesium by saliva during unstimulated condition.

  5. Phenotypically resembling myeloid derived suppressor cells are increased in children with HIV and exposed/infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Nelita; Jacobs, Ruschca; Gutschmidt, Andrea; Fang, Zhuo; van Helden, Paul D; Lutz, Manfred B; Hesseling, Anneke C; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays. Peripheral frequencies of cells phenotypically resembling MDSCs were significantly increased in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and M.tb-infected children, but peaked in children with TB disease and remained high following treatment. MDSC in HIV-infected (HI) children were similar to unexposed uninfected controls; however, HAART-mediated MDSC restoration to control levels could not be disregarded. Increased MDSC frequencies in HHC coincided with enhanced indoleamine-pyrrole-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), whereas increased MDSC in TB cases were linked to heightened IDO and arginase-1. Increased MDSC were paralleled by reduced plasma IP-10 and thrombospondin-2 levels in HEU and significantly increased plasma IL-6 in HI HHC. Current investigations into MDSC-targeted treatment strategies, together with functional analyses of MDSCs, could endorse these cells as novel innate immune regulatory mechanism of infant HIV/TB susceptibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Shwachman–Bodian–Diamond syndrome gene mutations cause a neonatal form of spondylometaphysial dysplasia (SMD) resembling SMD Sedaghatian type

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Gen; Nakashima, Eiji; Hirose, Yuichiro; Cole, Trevor; Cox, Phillip; Cohn, Daniel H; Rimoin, David L; Lachman, Ralph S; Miyamoto, Yoshinari; Kerr, Bronwyn; Unger, Sheila; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Superti‐Furga, Andrea; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2007-01-01

    The Shwachman–Bodian–Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene is a causative gene for Shwachman–Diamond syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction and skeletal dysplasia. We report here on two patients with skeletal manifestations at the severest end of the phenotypic spectrum of SBDS mutations. An 11‐year‐old Japanese girl presented with neonatal respiratory failure necessitating lifelong ventilation support, severe short stature and severe developmental delay. She developed neutropenia in infancy, and decreased serum amylase was noted in childhood. A British boy was a stillbirth with pulmonary hypoplasia and hepatic fibrosis found on autopsy. Both cases had neonatal skeletal manifestations that included platyspondyly, lacy iliac crests and severe metaphysial dysplasia, and thus did not fall in the range of the known Shwachman–Diamond syndrome skeletal phenotype but resembled spondylometaphysial dysplasia (SMD) Sedaghatian type. The girl harboured a recurrent mutation (183TA→CT) and a novel missense mutation (79T→C), whereas the boy carried two recurrent mutations (183TA→CT and 258+2T→C). We also examined SBDS in one typical case with SMD Sedaghantian type and eight additional cases with neonatal SMD, but failed to discover SBDS mutations. Our experience expands the phenotypic spectrum of SBDS mutations, which, at its severest end, results in severe neonatal SMD. PMID:17400792

  7. PLTP secreted by HepG2 cells resembles the high-activity PLTP form in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Sarah; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Tenhunen, Jukka; Ehnholm, Christian

    2003-09-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important regulator of plasma HDL levels and HDL particle distribution. PLTP is present in plasma in two forms, one with high and the other with low phospholipid transfer activity. We have used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to study PLTP secreted from hepatic cells. PLTP activity was secreted by the cells into serum-free culture medium as a function of time. However, modification of a previously established ELISA assay to include a denaturing sample pretreatment with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate was required for the detection of the secreted PLTP protein. The HepG2 PLTP could be enriched by Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and eluted in size-exclusion chromatography at a position corresponding to the size of 160 kDa. PLTP coeluted with apolipoprotein E (apoE) but not with apoB-100 or apoA-I. A portion of PLTP was retained by an anti-apoE immunoaffinity column together with apoE, suggesting an interaction between these two proteins. Furthermore, antibodies against apoE but not those against apoB-100 or apoA-I were capable of inhibiting PLTP activity. These results show that the HepG2-derived PLTP resembles in several aspects the high-activity form of PLTP found in human plasma.

  8. Calcium Oxalate Induces Renal Injury through Calcium-Sensing Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoran; Ma, Junhai; Shi, Wei; Su, Yu; Fu, Xu; Yang, Yanlin; Lu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays a role in calcium-oxalate-induced renal injury. Materials and Methods. HK-2 cells and rats were treated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals with or without pretreatment with the CaSR-specific agonist gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or the CaSR-specific antagonist NPS2390. Changes in oxidative stress (OS) in HK-2 cells and rat kidneys were assessed. In addition, CaSR, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38 expression was determined. Further, crystal adhesion assay was performed in vitro, and the serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in the kidneys were also examined. Results. CaOx increased CaSR, ERK, JNK, and p38 protein expression and OS in vitro and in vivo. These deleterious changes were further enhanced upon pretreatment with the CaSR agonist GdCl3 but were attenuated by the specific CaSR inhibitor NPS2390 compared with CaOx treatment alone. Pretreatment with GdCl3 further increased in vitro and in vivo crystal adhesion and renal hypofunction. In contrast, pretreatment with NPS2390 decreased in vitro and in vivo crystal adhesion and renal hypofunction. Conclusions. CaOx-induced renal injury is related to CaSR-mediated OS and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which subsequently leads to CaOx crystal adhesion. PMID:27965733

  9. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  10. LINGAM AS A SACRED OBJECT AND THE HEAD-DRESS OF SUFI RESEMBLING IT

    PubMed Central

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study scans into past of ancient man and discusses meticulously how the reproductive organ Lingam became sacred object to Hindus and why a sufi wore a phallus shaped head-dress resembling to it. In this manner the author demystifies here the procreation, the law of nature. PMID:22557692

  11. Schwannoma of the biliary tract resembling cholangiocarcinoma: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Sanz, I; Muñoz de Nova, JL; Valdés de Anca, A; Martín Pérez, ME

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign tumours derived from Schwann cells and are extremely rare in the biliary tract. We present the case of a 62-year-old patient with a common bile duct schwannoma that resembled a cholangiocarcinoma. We also review all 17 previously published cases of schwannoma of the biliary tract and discuss the challenges of preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27269434

  12. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  14. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Meena; Khazai, Natasha B; Ziegler, Thomas R; Nanes, Mark S; Abrams, Steven A; Tangpricha, Vin

    2010-08-01

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn's disease (CD), may impair calcium absorption. This pilot study evaluated vitamin D- dependent calcium absorption in subjects with CD. Male subjects with CD (n=4) and healthy age-matched controls (n=5) were studied. All subjects had fractional calcium absorption (FCA; by the dual calcium isotope method), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum calcium and 24 h urinary calcium excretion measurements at baseline. The FCA in response to vitamin D therapy was re-assessed following administration of oral calcitriol 0.25 mcg twice daily for 1 wk, followed by oral calcitriol 0.50 mcg twice daily for 1 wk. Serum calcium and 24 h urinary calcium determinations were re-assessed after each increasing dose of calcitriol as safety measures. There was no significant difference in calcium FCA at baseline or after increasing doses of calcitriol between the CD and controls. FCA in the control and CD group was approximately 35% at baseline, which increased to 60% after calcitriol therapy. No subject developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Our results suggest that CD patients have a normal response to vitamin D in enhancing the efficacy of calcium absorption. This suggests that stable CD patients can follow calcium and vitamin D guidelines of non-CD adults. Other factors independent of vitamin D status may impair intestinal calcium absorption in CD, including the degree and location of inflammation, presence of surgical resection and/or use of glucocorticoids.

  15. Normocalcemia is maintained in mice under conditions of calcium malabsorption by vitamin D–induced inhibition of bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Lieben, Liesbet; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Van Looveren, Riet; Schrooten, Jan; Baatsen, Pieter; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Dresselaers, Tom; Feng, Jian Q.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Meyer, Mark B.; Pike, J. Wesley; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Serum calcium levels are tightly controlled by an integrated hormone-controlled system that involves active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which can elicit calcium mobilization from bone when intestinal calcium absorption is decreased. The skeletal adaptations, however, are still poorly characterized. To gain insight into these issues, we analyzed the consequences of specific vitamin D receptor (Vdr) inactivation in the intestine and in mature osteoblasts on calcium and bone homeostasis. We report here that decreased intestinal calcium absorption in intestine-specific Vdr knockout mice resulted in severely reduced skeletal calcium levels so as to ensure normal levels of calcium in the serum. Furthermore, increased 1,25(OH)2D levels not only stimulated bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, but also suppressed bone matrix mineralization. This resulted in extensive hyperosteoidosis, also surrounding the osteocytes, and hypomineralization of the entire bone cortex, which may have contributed to the increase in bone fractures. Mechanistically, osteoblastic VDR signaling suppressed calcium incorporation in bone by directly stimulating the transcription of genes encoding mineralization inhibitors. Ablation of skeletal Vdr signaling precluded this calcium transfer from bone to serum, leading to better preservation of bone mass and mineralization. These findings indicate that in mice, maintaining normocalcemia has priority over skeletal integrity, and that to minimize skeletal calcium storage, 1,25(OH)2D not only increases calcium release from bone, but also inhibits calcium incorporation in bone. PMID:22523068

  16. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  17. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. References Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  18. Architecture of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Oxenoid, Kirill; Dong, Ying; Cao, Chan; Cui, Tanxing; Sancak, Yasemin; Markhard, Andrew L; Grabarek, Zenon; Kong, Liangliang; Liu, Zhijun; Ouyang, Bo; Cong, Yao; Mootha, Vamsi K; Chou, James J

    2016-05-12

    Mitochondria from many eukaryotic clades take up large amounts of calcium (Ca(2+)) via an inner membrane transporter called the uniporter. Transport by the uniporter is membrane potential dependent and sensitive to ruthenium red or its derivative Ru360 (ref. 1). Electrophysiological studies have shown that the uniporter is an ion channel with remarkably high conductance and selectivity. Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria is also known to activate the tricarboxylic acid cycle and seems to be crucial for matching the production of ATP in mitochondria with its cytosolic demand. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is the pore-forming and Ca(2+)-conducting subunit of the uniporter holocomplex, but its primary sequence does not resemble any calcium channel studied to date. Here we report the structure of the pore domain of MCU from Caenorhabditis elegans, determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy (EM). MCU is a homo-oligomer in which the second transmembrane helix forms a hydrophilic pore across the membrane. The channel assembly represents a new solution of ion channel architecture, and is stabilized by a coiled-coil motif protruding into the mitochondrial matrix. The critical DXXE motif forms the pore entrance, which features two carboxylate rings; based on the ring dimensions and functional mutagenesis, these rings appear to form the selectivity filter. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest membrane protein structures characterized by NMR, and provides a structural blueprint for understanding the function of this channel.

  19. The effect of treatment of acidosis on calcium balance in patients with chronic azotemic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Litzow, J R; Lemann, J; Lennon, E J

    1967-02-01

    Small but statistically significant negative calcium balances were found in each of eight studies in seven patients with chronic azotemic renal disease when stable metabolic acidosis was present. Only small quantities of calcium were excreted in the urine, but fecal calcium excretion equaled or exceeded dietary intake. Complete and continuous correction of acidosis by NaHCO(3) therapy reduced both urinary and fecal calcium excretion and produced a daily calcium balance indi