Science.gov

Sample records for reservation physical characteristics

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Joan, F. Hughes

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  3. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    The Physics Entrepreneurship Program is a new, two-year Master's Program designed to empower physicists as entrepreneurs. Launched by the Dept. of Physics at Case Western Reserve University in close cooperation with the Weatherhead School of Management, the program is now in its second year. This innovative new program has already attracted important attention from the business community, including seed funding of a student launched venture, international press coverage, including an article in Business Week, and government interest, including an invitation to brief the Advisory Board of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation. This talk will discuss the structure and content of the program, the lessons we are learning, and early indicators of success including a student-launched new business venture that has already secured more than $ 250,000 in seed funding.

  5. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  6. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  7. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  8. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  9. The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, Jess; Hannan, Anthony J

    2009-12-01

    The concept of 'cognitive reserve', and a broader theory of 'brain reserve', were originally proposed to help explain epidemiological data indicating that individuals who engaged in higher levels of mental and physical activity via education, occupation and recreation, were at lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Subsequently, behavioral, cellular and molecular studies in animals (predominantly mice and rats) have revealed dramatic effects of environmental enrichment, which involves enhanced levels of sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation via housing in novel, complex environments. Furthermore, increasing levels of voluntary physical exercise, via ad libitum access to running wheels, can have significant effects on brain and behavior, thus informing the relative effects of mental and physical activity. More recently, animal models of brain disorders have been compared under environmentally stimulating and standard housing conditions, and this has provided new insights into environmental modulators and gene-environment interactions involved in pathogenesis. Here, we review animal studies that have investigated the effects of modifying mental and physical activity via experimental manipulations, and discuss their relevance to brain and cognitive reserve (BCR). Recent evidence suggests that the concept of BCR is not only relevant to brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia, but also to other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating BCR may not only facilitate future strategies aimed at optimising healthy brain aging, but could also identify molecular targets for novel pharmacological approaches aimed at boosting BCR in 'at risk' and symptomatic individuals with various brain disorders.

  10. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effective Physics Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: What do teachers and students in Turkey perceive as the common characteristics of effective physics teachers? Purpose of Study: The first aim was to investigate the common characteristics of effective physics teachers by asking students and teachers about the effects of teacher characteristics on student physics achievement and…

  11. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  12. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  13. Temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and oil characteristics at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhanim, M. N.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and soil nutrients at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve (TCBR), Pahang. A total of 1.5 ha sampling area consisting of 30 permanent sampling plots (20 × 25 m) was selected in the three TCBR management zones i.e the core, buffer and transition zones. Each zone consisted of 10 permanent sampling plots. Litter traps were installed in the 30 permanent sampling plots and the litters were collected started in December 2012. Soil samples from each sampling plot were obtained in December 2012 to represent the wet season and the soils were analysed. This paper reports our initial findings for the first five months of the litterfall data. Mean annual litterfall of the study site was estimated at 7,670.58±1.32 kg ha-1y-1. The proportion of leaf litter component (82.16%) was the highest compared to other components. The litterfall varied monthly, whereby April 2013 had the highest value at 10.37 kg and the highest mean monthly litterfall at 0.35±0.2 kg. Core zone had the highest litterfall at 0.37±0.03 kg in April 2013, whilst buffer zone recorded 0.07±0.01 kg in January 2013 that was the lowest value of litterfall production. However, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there was no significant difference amongst the mean monthly dry weight (kg) of litterfall between the three zones (p=0.05) at TCBR from December 2012 to April 2013. Physical characteristics of the soil revealed that the core zone had sandy clay texture while the buffer and transition zones were clay loam texture. The percentage of organic matter and air dry moisture were the highest at core zone. For the soil chemical characteristics, soil pH of the three study sites were very acidic. Exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were low whilst the electrical capacity (EC) was between 2.16±0.09 until 2.24±0.07 mS/cm for all three management zones. However, ANOVA also showed there were no significant differences in

  14. [Reserves and spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Gan, Haihua; Wu, Shunhui; Fan, Xiudan

    2003-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservoir and important part of soil fertility. The spatial distribution and reserves of soil organic carbon are very important for studying soil carbon cycle. According to the data from the second soil survey, soil organic carbon reserves was estimated and its spatial distribution was analysed by using GIS technique. The results showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 17.52 x 10(8) t. The carbon density of laterite, lateritic red soil and red soil in Guangdong Province is 8.83, 10.31, 9.15 kg.m-2, respectively; lower than the mean carbon density of China. The carbon density of yellow soil and rice soil is 12.08, 12.17 kg.m-2, respectively; higher than the mean carbon density of China. Soil carbon density is about 10.44 kg.m-2 in Guangdong. The spatial distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon density in Guangdong is that the carbon density in south Guangdong Province is higher than that in north Guangdong Province, in that soil organic carbon density in north and middle Guangdong Province is 5-10 kg.m-2 and in east Guangdong Province is 10-15 kg.m-2. Soil organic carbon density mostly vary among 5-15 kg.m-2.

  15. Self-Consciousness, Evaluation of Physical Characteristics, and Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Robert G.; Gilliland, LuNell

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between public self-consciousness and speed of processing information about self. Results indicated that high public self-conciousness subjects required less time to report evaluations of their physical features. In a second study high public self-conciousness was shown to be positively related to judged physical…

  16. Ubiquity, diversity and physiological characteristics of Geodermatophilaceae in Shapotou National Desert Ecological Reserve.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Min; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Li-Yan; Sen, Keya; Zhang, Yu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain insight into the diversity of culturable actinobacteria in desert soil crusts and to determine the physiological characteristics of the predominant actinobacterial group in these crusts. Culture-dependent method was employed to obtain actinobacterial strains from desert soil samples collected from Shapotou National Desert Ecological Reserve (NDER) located in Tengger Desert, China. A total of 376 actinobacterial strains were isolated and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis indicated that these isolates belonged to 29 genera within 18 families, among which the members of the family Geodermatophilaceae were predominant. The combination of 16S rRNA gene information and the phenotypic data allowed these newly-isolated Geodermatophilaceae members to be classified into 33 "species clusters," 11 of which represented hitherto unrecognized species. Fermentation broths from 19.7% of the isolated strains showed activity in at least one of the six screens for antibiotic activity. These isolates exhibited bio-diversity in enzymatic characteristics and carbon utilization profiles. The physiological characteristics of the isolates from different types of crusts or bare sand samples were specific to their respective micro-ecological environments. Our study revealed that members of the family Geodermatophilaceae were ubiquitous, abundant, and diverse in Shapotou NDER, and these strains may represent a new major group of potential functional actinobacteria in desert soil.

  17. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  18. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  19. Salience of physical appearance characteristics among young women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rongmuang, Daravan; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha

    2011-09-01

    Our aim in the present study was to identify key components of physical appearance among young Thai women. Free listings, focus groups and pile sorting were used. One-hundred twenty young women generated 78 unique physical appearance characteristics. Ninety-four nursing students validated these characteristics in focus groups and then sorted them into piles that reflected separate domains of physical appearance and labeled them. Salience analysis revealed that facial appearance (e.g., bright facial skin, high nose bridge, big eyes) was the most important domain, followed by body weight and shape, skin color and texture, hair (color, texture, length), and 'other' physical appearance (e.g., slender neck, slim fingers). This is the first study to identify aspects of physical appearance that are most salient to young Thai women and that may differ from women in other cultural contexts. These findings could be used to develop culturally grounded measures of physical appearance in Thai women.

  20. Physical and hydrologic environments of the Mulberry coal reserves in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, J.F.; Bevans, H.E.; Diaz, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Strippable reserves of Mulberry coal underlie an area of approximately 300 square miles of Miami, Linn, and Bourbon Counties of eastern Kansas. Although subject to State reclamation law, current and projected strip mining of this relatively thin coal seam could alter and hydrologic environment of the study area. Drained by the Marais des Cygnes and Little Osage Rivers and their tributaries, this area is characterized by low relief and moderately impermeable soils. Streamflows are poorly sustained by ground-water discharge and fluctuate widely due to climatic extremes and usage of surface-water supplies. Because ground-water supplies are generally unreliable in quantity and quality, surface water is used to meet most water requirements in the study area. Primary used of surface waters are for domestic supplies, maintenance of wildlife and recreational areas, and cooling needs at LaCygne Power Plant. The prevailing chemical type of the natural streamflow is calcium bicarbonate, with concentrations of dissolved solids generally less than 500 milligrams per liter and pH near neutral. Additional streamflow and water-quality data are needed to evaluate the premining characteristics of and the anticipated changes in the hydrologic environment as strip mining proceeds within the study area. A network of data-collection stations and a sampling scheme have been established to acquire this additional information. (USGS)

  1. U.S. CENSUS OF POPULATION, 1960. SUBJECT REPORTS, LABOR RESERVE--AGE, EDUCATION, OCCUPATION, AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMER MEMBERS OF THE LABOR FORCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUNSMAN, HOWARD G.

    DETAILED NATIONAL STATISTICS ARE GIVEN ON VARIOUS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBERS OF THE LABOR RESERVE. THE LABOR RESERVE IS COMPRISED OF THOSE PERSONS CLASSIFIED AS NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE AT THE TIME OF THE CENSUS BUT WHO HAD HAD SOME WORK EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE 10 YEARS PRECEDING 1960. THE STATISTICS ARE BASED ON A 5 PERCENT SAMPLE…

  2. Characteristics of Missing Physical Activity Data in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie; Fan, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of missing physical activity (PA) data of children and youth. Method: PA data from the Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study ("N" = 2,758; 1,438 boys and 1,320 girls; aged 9-17 years old) were used for the study. After the data were sorted by the…

  3. Soil carbon stock and soil characteristics at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aqlili Riana, R.; Sahibin A., R.

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine soil carbon stock and soil characteristic at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve (TCFR), Pahang. A total of 10 (20 m x 25 m) permanent sampling plot was selected randomly within the area of TCFR. Soil samples were taken from all subplots using dutch auger based on soil depth of 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm. Soil parameters determined were size distribution, soil water content, bulk density, organic matter, organic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity. All parameters were determined following their respective standard methods. Results obtained showed that the soil in TCFR was dominated by clay texture (40%), followed by sandy clay loam (30%), loam (20%). Silty clay, clay loam and sandy loam constitutes about 10% of the soil texture. Range of mean percentage of organic matter and bulk density are from 2.42±0.06% to 11.64±0.39% and 1.01 to 1.04 (gcm-ł), respectively. Soil pH are relatively very acidic and mean of electrical conductivity is low. Soil carbon content ranged from 0.83±0.03 to 1.87±0.41%. All soil parameter showed a decreasing trend with depth except electrical conductivity. ANOVA test of mean percentage of organic matter, soil water content, soil pH and electrical conductivity showed a significant difference between plot (p<0.05). However there are no significant difference of mean bulk density between plots (p>0.05). There are no significant difference in mean percentage of soil water content, organic matter and bulk density between three different depth (p>0.05). There were a significant difference on percentage of soil carbon organic between plots and depth. The mean of soil organic carbon stock in soil to a depth of 60 cm calculated was 35.50 t/ha.

  4. 40 CFR 161.190 - Physical and chemical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical and chemical characteristics. 161.190 Section 161.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  5. 40 CFR 161.190 - Physical and chemical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical and chemical characteristics. 161.190 Section 161.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  6. Effect of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics were studied. Dynamic surface tension was measured with a Sensa Dyne surface tensiometer 6000 using the maximum bubble pressure method. Viscosity was measured with a Brookfield synchro-lectric viscometer model LVT using a UL adap...

  7. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wei-yang; Min, Shermann

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  8. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  9. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  10. Ecological stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanbo; Wang, Baitian; Wei, Tingting; Ma, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Populus davidiana, Leuchtenbergia principis, and Pinus tabulaeformis are important greening tree species with a cosmopolitan distribution. However, the stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of stands of these three species are not particularly clear. In this study, we conducted a plot-level investigation of forest stands of these species in the loess area; these have been closed forest stands more than 28 years. Trees were sampled from an area of 50 m × 20 m (in 6, 8, and 9 plots, respectively), which was sufficient for shrub (2 m × 2 m), herbal species, and litter (1 m × 1 m) investigations. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in five different soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) and in the leaves, stems, branches, and roots of the plants were examined. The soil element concentrations and density were affected by soil depth. The element content had a significantly negative correlation with soil depth, and element density differed significantly among the soil layers. A particular element in a particular organ differed significantly between the forest stands, and the same element in different organs of the same stand was also significantly different. The C, N, and P element reserves in the soil were considerably higher than in the plants. Our results indicate that there are different stoichiometric characteristics and element reserves of the three stands in a closed forest on the Chinese loess plateau, which may provide a reference when we develop and optimize the structure of forest stands.

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to Being Physically Active on a Rural U.S. Northern Plains American Indian Reservation

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; McDonald, Leander R.; Wadsworth, Ann; Morin, Charles; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT). NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses) and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses) methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6), or facilitators of (n = 5), being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual’s engagement in physical activity. PMID:25421064

  12. Surface-water characteristics and quality on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about the effects of early oil-industry practices of surface disposal of produced-brine water prompted an investigation of the surface-water quality on the Osage Reservation. About 38,600 oil wells have been drilled on the Osage Reservation since drilling began in 1896. The Osage Reservation comprises three major drainage basins. The Caney River Basin is in the northeast, the Bird Creek Basin is in the southeast, and the Salt Creek Basin in the west. Variations in streamflow on the Osage Reservation during a year primarily result from variations in the quantity and frequency of rainfall, evapotranspiration, and reservoir operations. Most streams do not flow during low rainfall periods in late summer, early fall, and in winter. Percent of mean annual discharge is largest during March through June, averaging 54 to 62 percent and smallest during December, January, July, and August, averaging only 14 to 21 percent. The basin areas of Caney River in the reservation (251 square miles), Salt Creek (273 square miles), and Sand Creek (227 square miles) are about the same and the basin areas of the Bird Creek Basin (418 square miles) and Homily Creek Basin (383 square miles) are similar in area. One hundred forty surface-water sites were sampled once during either February, March or August 1999. The surface-drainage areas, incremental basins, between sample sites along a stream, range in size from 0.26 to 123 square miles with a median of 8.6 square miles. Total number of oil wells upgradient of the samples sites is 31,432 or 80 percent of the total in the reservation. The total number of oil wells in the Caney River Basin in the reservation (2,975 wells), Salt Creek Basin (4,619 wells), and Sand Creek Basin (3,858 wells) are about the same and the total number of oil wells in the Bird Creek Basin (8,858 wells) and Hominy Creek Basin (7,842 wells) are similar. The number of oil wells per square mile in the incremental basins ranges for 0.86 to 154. Surface

  13. Effects of physical activity at work and life-style on sleep in workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andressa Juliane; Vasconcelos, Suleima Pedroza; Skene, Debra Jean; Lowden, Arne; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended as a strategy for improving sleep. Nevertheless, physical effort at work might not be not the ideal type of activity to promote sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of type of job (low vs. high physical effort) and life-style on sleep of workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 148 low physical activity (factory workers) and 340 high physical activity (rubber tappers) was conducted between September and November 2011. The workers filled out questionnaires collecting data on demographics (sex, age, occupation, marital status and children), health (reported morbidities, sleep disturbances, musculoskeletal pain and body mass index) and life-style (smoking, alcohol use and practice of leisure-time physical activity). Logistic regression models were applied with the presence of sleep disturbances as the primary outcome variable. The prevalence of sleep disturbances among factory workers and rubber tappers was 15.5% and 27.9%, respectively. The following independent variables of the analysis were selected based on a univariate model (p<0.20): sex, age, marital status, work type, smoking, morbidities and musculoskeletal pain. The predictors for sleep disturbances were type of job (high physical effort); sex (female); age (>40 years), and having musculoskeletal pain (≥5 symptoms). Rubber tapper work, owing to greater physical effort, pain and musculoskeletal fatigue, was associated with sleep disturbances. Being female and older than 40 years were also predictors of poor sleep. In short, these findings suggest that demanding physical exertion at work may not improve sleep quality.

  14. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  15. Characteristics of physical activity in patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Satoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Junichi; Kubo, Kasuya; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hishinuma, Ryo; Terabe, Yuuta; Ando, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of physical activity of the patients with critical limb ischemia consecutively in order to clarify the characteristics of physical activity of critical limb ischemia. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients who were eligible for the 2 months of consecutive evaluation of the amount of physical activity were enrolled in the study (men: 11; woman: 1; mean age: 64.4 [range: 44–80]). A pedometer with an accelerometer was used for the measurement of the number of steps walked as an index of the amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to lead a regular life and no instruction was given as to the number of steps. [Results] The average number of daily steps walked was 2,323 steps (range: 404–6,505). There was no clear tendency in the number of amputation site-specific steps walked. There was also no correlation between the number of steps walked and age as well as the maximum strength of the knee-extension muscle, skin perfusion pressure of the sole and the dorsum, and QOL scores. [Conclusion] The number of steps walked of the patients with critical limb ischemia was remarkably low and no significant association with health-related QOL. PMID:28174472

  16. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  17. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players.

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics of pitaya fruits at physiological maturity.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, T A; Takahashi, L S A

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the maturation process of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus) to identify indicators that can be used to determine the point of physiological maturity and establish the optimal timing of physiological maturity for harvesting the fruit. A completely randomized experimental design was employed and four biological repeats were performed. Physiological maturity was assessed using various physical characteristics: longitudinal length (LL), equatorial diameter (ED), pericarp thickness (PeT), pulp thickness (PuT), fruit mass (FM), pulp mass (PuM), pericarp mass (PeM), pericarp percentage (%Pe), pulp percentage (%Pu), pulp/pericarp ratio (Pu/Pe), pericarp color index (CI), hue color angle (h°), lightness index (L*), chroma (C*), blue-yellow variation (b*), and green-red variation (a*). Additionally, chemical characteristics such as soluble solid content (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, and pH were screened. The data were statistically analyzed by fitting regression models and computing Pearson's correlation coefficients (P < 0.05). Physiological maturity in pitaya fruits occurred between the 30th and 32nd days after anthesis, and this proved to be the optimal period for harvest. At this time, the fruit was completely red with high SS, and had the recommended values of TA, pH, and SS/TA ratio. During this period, ED, PuT, FM, PuM, %Pu, and Pu/Pe increased while PeT, PeM, and %Pe fell; these changes are considered desirable by producers and/or consumers. PuM was the variable that displayed more strong's association with other variables in the analysis.

  19. Vesamicol blocks the recovery, by recycling cholinergic electromotor synaptic vesicles, of the biophysical characteristics of the reserve population.

    PubMed

    Rícný, J; Whittaker, V P

    1993-06-05

    The effect of vesamicol on the ability of recycling cholinergic synaptic vesicles to recover, during a period of post-stimulation rest, the biophysical properties of the reserve pool was studied in prestimulated perfused blocks of the electric organ of the electric ray, Torpedo marmorata, a tissue rich in cholinergic synapses. The effect of the drug was analysed by high-resolution centrifugal density-gradient fractionation in a zonal rotor of the extracted vesicles. The two vesicle fractions were identified by their ATP and acetylcholine content and the recycled vesicles by their acquisition of [3H]acetylcholine derived from [3H]acetate in the perfusate. Vesamicol (10 microM) blocked the uptake of tritiated acetylcholine by recycled vesicles and also prevented them from rejoining the reserve pool. This is consistent with a previously formulated model of the recovery process, whereby the increase in the acetylcholine and ATP content of the recycled vesicles which takes place during a post-stimulus period of rest increases their osmotic load and thus their content of free water. Vesamicol, by blocking acetylcholine uptake, also blocks rehydration of the recycled vesicles and thus the accompanying decrease in their density to the value characteristic of fully charged vesicles.

  20. Physical and Permeability Characteristic of Recycle Glass-Kaolin Ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R.; Safwan, A. P; Noorhidayah, C. M.

    2010-07-07

    A series of Recycle Glass-Kaolin ceramic has successful been made by solid state reaction and their physical and permeability characteristic has been studied. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterize the effect of OH group in the sample. It is found that the bulk density is in the range of 1.785gcm{sup -3} to 2.2817gcm{sup -3} while the impact energy is 1.785gcm{sup -3} to 2.2817gcm{sup -3} depending on the cullet content. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient is found to be 5.208x10{sup -4}cms{sup -1} to 1.812x10{sup -4}cms{sup -1} which is in the reducing trend. The IR Spectroscopy shows that the OH group decrease, the permeability decreases.

  1. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  2. Physical characteristics of a full-field digital mammography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2004-11-01

    The physical performance characteristics of a flat-panel clinical full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system were investigated for a variety of mammographic X-ray spectral conditions. The system was investigated using 26 kVp: Mo/Mo, 28 kVp: Mo/Rh, and 30 kVp: Rh/Rh, with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) "tissue equivalent material" of thickness 20, 45, and 60 mm for each of three X-ray spectra, resulting in nine different spectral conditions. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical cascaded linear systems-based model that has been developed independently by other investigators. The FFDM imager (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) uses an amorphous silicon (aSi:H) photodiode (100 μm pixel) array directly coupled to a cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The spatial resolution of the digital mammography system was determined by measuring the presampling modulation transfer function (MTF). The noise power spectra (NPS) of the system were measured under the different mammographic X-ray spectral conditions at an exposure of approximately 10 mR to the detector from which corresponding detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) were determined. The experimental results provide additional information on the performance of the mammographic system for a broader range of experimental conditions than have been reported in the past. The flat-panel imager exhibits favorable physical quality characteristics under the conditions investigated. The experimental results were compared with theoretical estimates under various spectral conditions and demonstrated good agreement.

  3. Assessment of physical and structural characteristics of almond gum.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-12-01

    Almond gum was investigated for its physical and structural characteristics in comparison to gum arabic. Among physical properties, bulk density was found to be 0.600±0.12g/mL and 0.502±0.20g/mL for almond and gum arabic respectively. Almond gum (0.820±0.13g/mL) displayed the maximum value for tapped density. Compressibility index of exudate gum powders varied from 26.79±1.47 to 37.46±0.50% and follow the order gum arabic>almond gum. Almond gum demonstrated good flow characteristics when compared to gum arabic. True density showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the exudate samples and it was recorded higher for gum arabic. The maximum value of porosity recorded in case of gum arabic indicates the presence of large number of interstitial spaces among its particles. Almond gum had fair flow character while good for the other exudate gum powder. Almond gum had relatively higher mineral content than gum arabic. The oil holding capacity of exudate gums varied from 0.87±0.05 to 0.92±0.02g/g. Exudate powder samples were found to lie in the first quadrant of the hue angle (0-90°) corresponding to the range of reddish-purple to yellow. The absence of peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of exudate samples reflects their amorphous nature. SEM micrographs revealed a lot of variability in shape and size of the exudate particles.

  4. Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sarah R; Smith, Richard M; Chapman, Philip G; Sinclair, Peter J; Funato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to profile the physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers, to identify characteristics that predict race performance and to quantify the metabolic energy contributions to simulated 200-m and 500-m dragon boat racing. Eleven, national level, male, Japanese dragon boat paddlers completed a battery of tests on a paddling ergometer including an incremental maximal aerobic capacity test, a 2-minute maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test, and simulated 200-m and 500-m races. A physiological and physical profile of subjects was compiled. Results showed that 200-m race performance correlated with flexed arm girth and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) measured in the 30 minutes after the MAOD test, whereas 500-m race performance correlated with body fat percentage, relaxed and flexed arm girth, MAOD, EPOC, and peak power during the MAOD test. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that flexed arm girth was the most powerful predictor of 200-m and 500-m race performance, followed by EPOC with the combination of these 2 factors able to explain 74% and 68% of the variance in 200-m and 500-m race performance, respectively. Aerobic energy contributions for 200-m (50 seconds) and 500-m (1 minute 50 seconds) races were (mean (95% confidence intervals)) 52.1% (range, 47.4-56.8%) and 67.5% (range, 60.1-77.8%), respectively. In conclusion, coaches should develop training programs targeted at developing upper-body musculature and increasing anaerobic capacity because these factors are the strongest predictors of 200-m and 500-m race performance. Given the substantial aerobic energy contributions even for a 200-m race event, coaches should aim to increase the maximal aerobic capacity of the paddler in preparation for both 200-m and 500-m events.

  5. Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics of single mothers in Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Ontario residents aged 15 years or older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement survey conducted between December 1990 and April 1991; of 9953 eligible participants, 1540 were mothers with at least 1 dependent child (less than 16 years of age). OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. RESULTS: Single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services. When compared by income level, poor single mothers had a higher prevalence of all mental health outcomes measured; the difference was significant for anxiety disorder in the past year or ever and for 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever. In a logistic regression analysis, single-mother status was found to have the strongest independent effect on predicting mental health morbidity and utilization of mental health services; the next strongest was low income. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers are more likely to be poor, to have an affective disorder and to use mental health services than mothers in 2-parent families. The risk of mental health problems is especially pronounced among poor single mothers. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of single motherhood, apart from economic status, affect mental health outcomes. PMID:9068569

  6. Demographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors in sixteen Michigan parks.

    PubMed

    Reed, Julian A; Price, Anna E; Grost, Lisa; Mantinan, Karah

    2012-04-01

    The Building Healthy Communities (BHC) initiative addresses inadequate physical activity in Michigan using a population-based approach to prevent chronic disease. Eighteen local health departments through 2010 received $1,505,179 to plan and implement community-based interventions to increase physical activity among low-income and minority populations. This paper examines park user demographics, compares park user demographics to the demographic characteristics and examines physical activity behaviors of park users in these parks. BHC Park usage was examined from 2008 to 2010 using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). One sample binomial tests were used to examine if the proportion of male and female park users was different than the proportion of males and females in Michigan and to examine if the proportion of white and other park users was different than the proportion of whites and others in Michigan. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to examine whether the observed proportions for age groups observed using the park differed from the actual proportions for age groups in Michigan. The majority of BHC park users were white. More children were observed than other age groups. Park users were most often observed engaging in walking or vigorous activity rather than sedentary activities. When comparing the proportion of whites (54.7%) and others (42.8%) observed using the parks to the proportion of whites (79%) and others (21%) residing in Michigan, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a greater proportion of whites and smaller proportion of persons of other ethnicities expected to be observed using the parks. This chi square goodness of fit test showed a significant difference in the observed and expected number of persons observed using the trail in each age group (χ(2) = 4,897.707, df = 3, P < 0.001) with a greater number of children (n = 1,939) and teens (n = 1,116) observed than the number of

  7. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.

  8. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity.

  9. Coronary flow reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation with microvascular dysfunction and pathophysiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kofflard, M J; Michels, M; Krams, R; Kliffen, M; Geleijnse, M L; Ten Cate, F J; Serruys, P W

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND.: The decrease in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) predisposes to myocardial ischaemia, systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. In this study we investigate to which extent haemodynamic, echocardiographic, and histological parameters contribute to the reduction of CFR. METHODS.: In ten HCM patients (mean age 44+/-14 years) and eight heart transplant (HTX) patients (mean age 51+/-6 years) CFR was calculated in the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all subjects haemodynamic, echocardiographic and histological parameters were assessed. The relationship between these variables and CFR was determined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS.: CFR was reduced in HCM compared with HTX patients (1.6+/-0.7 vs. 2.7+/-0.8, p<0.01). An increase in septal thickness (p<0.005), indexed left ventricular (LV) mass (p<0.005), LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (p<0.05) and a decrease in arteriolar lumen size (p<0.05) were all related to a reduction in CFR. CONCLUSION.: In HCM patients haemodynamic (LV end-diastolic pressure, LV outflow tract gradient), echocardiographic (indexed LV mass) and histological (% luminal area of the arterioles) changes are responsible for a decrease in CFR. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:209-15.).

  10. Coronary flow reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation with microvascular dysfunction and pathophysiological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kofflard, M.J.; Michels, M.; Krams, R.; Kliffen, M.; Geleijnse, M.L.; Ten Cate, F.J.; Serruys, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. The decrease in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) predisposes to myocardial ischaemia, systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. In this study we investigate to which extent haemodynamic, echocardiographic, and histological parameters contribute to the reduction of CFR. Methods. In ten HCM patients (mean age 44±14 years) and eight heart transplant (HTX) patients (mean age 51±6 years) CFR was calculated in the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all subjects haemodynamic, echocardiographic and histological parameters were assessed. The relationship between these variables and CFR was determined using linear regression analysis. Results. CFR was reduced in HCM compared with HTX patients (1.6±0.7 vs. 2.7±0.8, p<0.01). An increase in septal thickness (p<0.005), indexed left ventricular (LV) mass (p<0.005), LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (p<0.05) and a decrease in arteriolar lumen size (p<0.05) were all related to a reduction in CFR. Conclusion. In HCM patients haemodynamic (LV end-diastolic pressure, LV outflow tract gradient), echocardiographic (indexed LV mass) and histological (% luminal area of the arterioles) changes are responsible for a decrease in CFR. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:209-15.17612685) PMID:17612685

  11. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  12. Child Care Center Characteristics Associated With Preschoolers’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Khoury, Jane C.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite children spending long hours in child care centers, it is unknown what center characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at the center and over the 24-hour day. Methods Mixed model ANOVA evaluated associations between 23 center characteristics (e.g., policies, facilities, practices, and staff training) and time in MVPA, measured with accelerometers, at the child care center and over the 24-hour day among 388 preschoolers from 30 randomly selected child care centers in Cincinnati, Ohio. Data collection occurred from November 2009 through January 2011; data analyses occurred in 2012–2014. Results Ninety percent of centers reported scheduling two or more outdoor sessions daily, yet only 40% of children had two or more outdoor sessions; 32% had no time outdoors. Eighty-three percent of centers reported scheduling ≥60 minutes outdoors; 28% of children experienced this during observation. Children spent a mean (SE) of 2.0 (0.06) minutes/hour in MVPA. Children with ≥60 minutes outdoor time had 0.6 minutes/hour more MVPA in child care (p=0.001), and 0.5 minutes/hour over the 24-hour day (p=0.001) than those who did not. Presence of an indoor play space, large outdoor playground, portable or fixed play equipment, staff PA training, weather and clothing policies, and TV/computer use were not related to children’s MVPA. Conclusions Outdoor time occurred less frequently than scheduled. Children with ≥60 minutes of outdoor time at the center were more active than children without. Centers may increase preschoolers’ PA by adhering to the scheduled ≥60 minutes of outdoor time daily. PMID:26585052

  13. Physical characteristics of starch granules and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation.

    PubMed

    Gallant, D J; Bouchet, B; Buléon, A; Pérez, S

    1992-10-01

    Starch, the most abundant component of the diet, is characterized by its variety as well as the versatility of its derivatives in foods. This paper is an overview of the main physical characteristics of the native starch granule. Three different levels of organization are presented: macromolecular structure, crystalline organization and ultrastructure. Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is an essentially linear polymer composed of alpha-1,4-linked D-anhydroglucose units (AGU); amylopectin is a branched polymer clustering a large amount of short linear chains by the linkage of alpha-1,6-bonds, constituting about 5% of the total glycosidic bonds. In the native starch granules, a large number of the macromolecular chains are organized in crystalline structures. Three forms have been found, the A, B and C patterns. So far only A and B starch crystals have been modelled. There is a variation in the susceptibility of the starch granules to enzymatic digestion. This is explained by variation in the morphology of the granules and their crystalline organization.

  14. Physical characteristics and health effects of aerosols from collapsed buildings.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H

    2006-01-01

    Airborne pollutants can rise to extreme levels when large buildings fall down. The terrorist attack on New York's World Trade Center (WTC) towers caused the release of an enormous quantity of pulverized building materials and combustion products into the local environment. Particulate matter (PM) from crushed WTC building materials is primarily non-respirable (>96% larger than 10 microm mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD]) and composed of fibrous and nonfibrous components such as gypsum, calcite, silica, glass fibers, cellulose, and asbestos. Respirable fine WTC PM (PM(2.5)) may include finely crushed building materials as well as combustion products such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Rescue workers at the WTC site had exposure-related increases in the incidences of nasal congestion, bronchial hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and persistent cough. Toxicological studies in mice indicate that WTC PM(2.5) causes airflow obstruction above a critical dose. The review of physical characteristics and health effects of major pollutants derived from the collapse of the WTC towers has assisted in risk assessment efforts related to the collapse of large buildings.

  15. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  16. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  17. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-02-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

  18. Physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, B.; Belli, G.; Gori, C.; Rosselli Del Turco, M.

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography (GE Senographe 2000D, Lorad Selenia M-IV, Fischer Senoscan, Agfa DM 1000, and IMS Giotto) currently in clinical use. The basic performances of the mammography systems tested were assessed on the basis of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, noise equivalent quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in an experimental setting closely resembling the clinical one. As expected, all the full field digital mammography systems show a linear response curve over a dynamic range from 3.5 to 500 {mu}Gy (0.998

  19. Physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, B; Belli, G; Gori, C; Rosselli Del Turco, M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography (GE Senographe 2000D, Lorad Selenia M-IV, Fischer Senoscan, Agfa DM 1000, and IMS Giotto) currently in clinical use. The basic performances of the mammography systems tested were assessed on the basis of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, noise equivalent quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in an experimental setting closely resembling the clinical one. As expected, all the full field digital mammography systems show a linear response curve over a dynamic range from 3.5 to 500 microGy (0.998

  20. General Course and Specialist Physical Education Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, L. B.; Whiting, H. T.A.

    1972-01-01

    Physical Education students tended to be mesomorphic, stable extroverts, with driving, aggressive social responses and authoritarian attitudes as compared with general course college students. (Authors/MB)

  1. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  2. Family social characteristics related to physical growth of young children.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G

    1975-01-01

    Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354

  3. Microbial quality and physical-chemical characteristics of thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Hadi; Bagheri, Pari; Poureshg, Yusef; Rostami, Roohollah

    2016-04-01

    Microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of recreational spas were surveyed to investigate the health aspect of the spas' water. A total of 195 samples were collected from pools and springs of the spas in five sites from Ardebil Province of Iran. The effects of an independent factor defined as 'condition' and its component sub-factors (i.e., sampling point, location, and sampling date) on microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of the spas were studied by applying path analysis. The influence of physical-chemical properties on microbial quality was also considered. The percentage of samples exceeding the ISIRI (Swimming pool water microbiological specifications (vol 9412), Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran, 2007) limits for Staphylococcus (spp.) was up to 55.8 in the springs and 87.8 in the pools, 58.1 and 99.2 for HPC, 90.7 and 97.8 for total coliform and fecal coliform, and 9.3 and 34.4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. There were significant differences between the pools and springs for both physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. From the path analysis, sampling point was the most effective sub-factor of 'condition' on both the physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. Among the physical-chemical properties, water color had the most enhancing or additive influence on microbial pollution, while EC indicated a reducing or subtractive effect.

  4. The Characteristics of the Outdoor School Environment Associated with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sallis, James F.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    The school is an important setting for physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between physical environmental characteristics and participation in daily physical activity during school breaks. Data from 130 schools and 16 471 students (Grades 4-10) in Norway were obtained in 2004 through self-administered…

  5. Leadership in Physical Therapy: Characteristics of Academics and Managers: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zach; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the characteristics of physical therapy leaders in academic and managerial roles. Methods: This quantitative, cross-sectional study used an online questionnaire administered via email to Canadian physical therapists recruited through the Canadian Physiotherapy Association and via additional emails targeted to academic and health care institutions. Individuals who met the inclusion criteria after completion of the questionnaire were asked to complete the Clifton StrengthsFinder, which was used to objectively assess the extent to which participants exhibited personality characteristics. We calculated frequencies for demographic characteristics and the 10 most prominent characteristics for participants in academic and managerial roles. Results: A total of 88 participants completed the questionnaire (52 managers, 36 academics). The most prevalent strengths among both academics and managers were the learner and achiever characteristics. Conclusions: Academics and managers in physical therapy share similar core characteristics, with slight variations in secondary characteristics. PMID:27504048

  6. Income, Family Characteristics, and Physical Violence toward Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This paper discusses the ways in which existing microeconomic theories of partner abuse, intra-family bargaining, and distribution of resources within families may contribute to our current understanding of physical child abuse. The empirical implications of this discussion are then tested on data from the 1985 National Family Violence…

  7. Can basin land use effects on physical characteristics of streams be determined at broad geographic scales?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Short, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental setting (e.g., climate, topography, geology) and land use affect stream physical characteristics singly and cumulatively. At broad geographic scales, we determined the importance of environmental setting and land use in explaining variation in stream physical characteristics. We hypothesized that as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, land use would explain more of the variation in stream physical characteristics because environmental settings become more homogeneous. At a national scale, stepwise linear regression indicated that environmental setting was more important in explaining variability in stream physical characteristics. Although statistically discernible, the amount of variation explained by land use was not remarkable due to low partial correlations. At level II ecoregion spatial scales (southeastern USA plains, central USA plains, and a combination of the western Cordillera and the western interior basins and ranges), environmental setting variables were again more important predictors of stream physical characteristics, however, as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, the portion of variability in stream physical characteristics explained by basin land use increased. Development of stream habitat indicators of land use will depend upon an understanding of relations between stream physical characteristics and environmental factors at multiple spatial scales. Smaller spatial scales will be necessary to reduce the confounding effects of variable environmental settings before the effects of land use can be reliably assessed. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  8. The Tagish Lake meteorite fall: interpretation of fireball physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Revelle, D. O.; Hildebrand, A. R.

    2001-11-01

    We have analyzed available instrumental and eyewitness records associated with the fireball leading to the fall of the Tagish Lake meteorite. Initial chemical and physical studies of this carbonaceous chondrite have shown it to be unique. It is one of the most primitive meteorites yet recovered and is physically weak. By determining the meteoroid trajectory, velocity, and physical breakup in the atmosphere, we can characterise the fireball as intermediate between Type II and Type IIIa, following the classification of Ceplecha et al. (1998). Modelling suggests an initial porosity for the pre-atmospheric meteoroid in the range 40-60%. The initial fragmentation occurred under less than 0.3 MPa dynamic pressure. Determination of Tagish Lake's orbit suggests a linkage to parent bodies in the main asteroid belt, though association with Encke-type comets cannot be strictly excluded. Tagish Lake may represent an intermediate object between chondritic asteroids and cometary bodies consistent with a linkage to D-class asteroids based on results from reflectance-spectra work.

  9. Liberation characteristic and physical separation of printed circuit board (PCB).

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Fu, Jiangang; Yi, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) is an important subject and to which increasing attention is paid, both in treatment of waste as well as recovery of valuable material terms. Precede physical and mechanical method, a good liberation is the premise to further separation. In this study, two-step crushing process is employed, and standard sieve is applied to screen crushed material to different size fractions, moreover, the liberation situation and particles shape in different size are observed. Then metal of the PCB is separated by physical methods, including pneumatic separation, electrostatic separation and magnetic separation, and major metal contents are characterized by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results show that the metal and nonmetal particles of PCB are dissociated completely under the crush size 0.6mm; metal is mainly enriched in the four size fractions between 0.15 and 1.25 mm; relatively, pneumatic separation is suitable for 0.6-0.9 mm size fraction, while the electrostatic separation is suitable for three size fractions that are 0.15-0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.9-1.25 mm. The whole process that involves crushing, electrostatic and magnetic separation has formed a closed cycle that can return material and provide salable product.

  10. Physical characteristics of GE (General Electric) BWR (boiling-water reactor) fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.S.; Notz, K.J.

    1989-06-01

    The physical characteristics of fuel assemblies manufactured by the General Electric Company for boiling-water reactors are classified and described. The classification into assembly types is based on the GE reactor product line, the Characteristics Data Base (CDB) assembly class, and the GE fuel design. Thirty production assembly types are identified. Detailed physical data are presented for each assembly type in an appendix. Descriptions of special (nonstandard) fuels are also reported. 52 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  11. Correlation between crustal physical properties and aftershock sequences characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, O.; Hainzl, S.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of well constrained seismic and GPS data allows to analyze different data sets together. In our work we focus on the complex analyses of the seismic catalogs and a GSP inversions, which will help to connect the aftershock activities to the crustal physical properties. In particular, we are searching for the dependencies between aftershock parameters and seismic coupling, coseismic and postseismic slip on a regional scale. We use the ETAS model for the description of primary and secondary aftershocks. Our analysis is based on the data related to the Chilean Maule (Mw=8.8) and Californian Parkfield (Mw=6.0) aftershock sequences. We have found correlation between the first order of aftershocks and seismic coupling, slip and b-value. Our results give an opportunity for better understanding of the aftershocks appearance.

  12. The analysis of frequency-dependent characteristics for fluid detection: a physical model experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuang-Quan; Li, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shang-Xu

    2012-06-01

    According to the Chapman multi-scale rock physical model, the seismic response characteristics vary for different fluid-saturated reservoirs. For class I AVO reservoirs and gas-saturation, the seismic response is a high-frequency bright spot as the amplitude energy shifts. However, it is a low-frequency shadow for the Class III AVO reservoirs saturated with hydrocarbons. In this paper, we verified the high-frequency bright spot results of Chapman for the Class I AVO response using the frequency-dependent analysis of a physical model dataset. The physical model is designed as inter-bedded thin sand and shale based on real field geology parameters. We observed two datasets using fixed offset and 2D geometry with different fluidsaturated conditions. Spectral and time-frequency analyses methods are applied to the seismic datasets to describe the response characteristics for gas-, water-, and oil-saturation. The results of physical model dataset processing and analysis indicate that reflection wave tuning and fluid-related dispersion are the main seismic response characteristic mechanisms. Additionally, the gas saturation model can be distinguished from water and oil saturation for Class I AVO utilizing the frequency-dependent abnormal characteristic. The frequency-dependent characteristic analysis of the physical model dataset verified the different spectral response characteristics corresponding to the different fluid-saturated models. Therefore, by careful analysis of real field seismic data, we can obtain the abnormal spectral characteristics induced by the fluid variation and implement fluid detection using seismic data directly.

  13. The Distinguishing Characteristics of High Schools with High and Low Enrollments in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    This paper presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine if high schools with either high or low enrollments in physics exhibit any distinguishing characteristics that are measurable. The study involved 48 schools, 51 physics teachers, and 3767 students in the State of Michigan. Questionnaires were administered…

  14. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior: Combining GPS and Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kann, Dave H. H.; de Vries, Sanne I.; Schipperijn, Jasper; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB of children aged 8-11 years at…

  15. Physical Characteristics and Geobiology of 'Rotten' Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, C. M.; Light, B.; Orellana, M. V.; Carpenter, S.; Junge, K.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic sea ice in its final stage of demise, "rotten ice", is characterized by seriously compromised structural integrity, making it difficult to collect and study. Consequently, little is known about the physical, chemical and biological properties of this ice type. Yet, as the Arctic melt season lengthens, this ice type will likely appear sooner and become more prevalent in the Arctic Ocean and its occurrence may be more common than satellite mapping and ice charts suggest (e.g., Barber et al., 2009). Here we present physical, chemical, biological, and optical measurements of first-year ice near Barrow, Alaska during the spring and summer of 2015. Samples represent a progression from solid, "springtime" shorefast ice (May); through melting, heavily melt-ponded, "summertime" shorefast ice (June); to the final stage of barely-intact, "rotten" ice collected from small floes Beaufort Sea (July). Results indicate that rotten ice exhibits low salinity, is well drained and has a lower density than its springtime counterpart. X-ray tomography of dimethyl phthalate-casted sea ice samples indicates differences in porosity and relative permeability in rotten ice vs. spring- and summertime ice. We also present a preliminary characterization of rotten sea ice as a microbial habitat using preliminary results of chemical measurements (nutrients, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon), and microbiological characterizations (concentrations and16S/18S rDNA-based identifications) from seawater vs. sea ice vs. sea ice brines. Optical measurements show that while decreased ice thickness and increased melt pond coverage cause an overall increase in solar radiation to the ocean as sea ice warms, rotten ice is actually less transparent to solar radiation than its spring- and summertime counterparts. These factors determine solar heating in the ocean and, ultimately, the potential for accelerated ice melting (e.g., Light et al., 2008). This work provides a foundation for understanding

  16. Air Force Physical Fitness: An Assessment of Characteristics and Programs which Affect Individual Physical Fitness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    taining physical fitness. Get rid of the greasy, starchy junk foods served in alert dining halls. (679) Why don’ t you award points towards promotion...fitness tests given to 4000 children in the United States and to 3000 children in Europe showed that American youth lagged far behind European youth in...attention and lack of physical fitness are well recognized. Kraus and Raub (27:10-12) list tension, obesity , musculoskeletal dys- function, and

  17. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  18. Handwriting Characteristics among Secondary Students with and without Physical Disabilities: A Study with a Computerized Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Chan, Michelle H. Y.; Chan, Lily W. L.; Lau, Gloria M. T.; Lo, T. K.; Leung, Howard W. H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the handwriting characteristics of secondary school students with and without physical disabilities (PD). With the use of a computerized Chinese Handwriting Assessment Tool (CHAT), it was made possible to objectively assess and analyze in detail the handwriting characteristics of individual…

  19. Generation and physical characteristics of the LANDSAT-1, -2 and -3 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The generation and format of the LANDSAT 1, 2, and 3 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes are discussed. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes. Also included in the discussion are geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape.

  20. Physical and decay characteristics of commercial LWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, J.W.; Claiborne, H.C.; Ashline, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Rhyne, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information was collected from the literature and from major manufacturers that will be useful in the design and construction of a mined geologic repository for the disposal of light-water-reactor spent fuel. Pertinent data are included on mechanical design characteristics and materials of construction for fuel assemblies and fuel rods and computed values for heat generation rates, radioactivity, and photon and neutron emission rates as a function of time for four reference cases. Calculations were made with the ORIGEN2 computer code for burnups of 27,500 and 40,000 MWd for a typical boiling-water reactor and 33,000 and 60,000 MWd for a typical pressurized-water reactor. The results are presented in figures depicting the individual contributions per metric ton of initial heavy metal for the activation products, fission products, and actinides and their daughters to the radioactivity and thermal power as a function of time. Tables are also presented that list the contribution of each major nuclide to the radioactivity, thermal power, and photons and neutrons emitted for disposal emitted for disposal periods from 1 to 100,000 years.

  1. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of motor disabilited paralympic rowers.

    PubMed

    Porto, Yuri Caldas; Almeida, Marcilene; de Sá, Cloud Kennedy C; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize aerobic, anaerobic, handgrip strength, and body fat content (BF) characteristics in paralympic rowers (ROW) in order to determine motor disabled rowers' fitness level and if specific motor disabilities could impair performance in this specific population. Upper body anaerobic threshold (LacT), peak (PK-AnP), mean (M-AnP), and lower (L-AnP) anaerobic power, peak anaerobic power to weight ratio (RelPk-AnP) and fatigue index (FI) were measured by the Wingate test (WinT). Handgrip strength was also measured and skinfold sum was used to estimate BF and were compared with a reference group of recreational disabled athletes (CON). LacT was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in ROW compared with CON. RelPk-AnP and BF were significantly different (p < 0.05) in ROW compared with CON as well. All other measured parameters did not significantly differ between ROW and CON. In most of cases, rowers have shown a relative low performance level, induced probably by specific disabilities.

  2. Physical characteristics of summer sea ice across the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, W. B.; Gow, A.J.; Meese, D.A.; Bosworth, H.W.; Reimnitz, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sea ice characteristics were investigated during July and August on the 1994 transect across the Arctic Ocean. Properties examined from ice cores included salinity, temperature, and ice structure. Salinities measured near zero at the surface, increasing to 3-4??? at the ice-water interface. Ice crystal texture was dominated by columnar ice, comprising 90% of the ice sampled. Surface albedos of various ice types, measured with radiometers, showed integrated shortwave albedos of 0.1 to 0.3 for melt ponds, 0.5 for bare, discolored ice, and 0.6 to 0.8 for a deteriorated surface or snow-covered ice. Aerial photography was utilized to document the distribution of open melt ponds, which decreased from 12% coverage of the ice surface in late July at 76??N to almost none in mid-August at 88??N. Most melt ponds were shallow, and depth bore no relationship to size. Sediment was pervasive from the southern Chukchi Sea to the north pole, occurring in bands or patches. It was absent in the Eurasian Arctic, where it had been observed on earlier expeditions. Calculations of reverse trajectories of the sediment-bearing floes suggest that the southernmost sediment was entrained during ice formation in the Beaufort Sea while more northerly samples probably originated in the East Siberian Sea, some as far west as the New Siberian Islands.

  3. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  4. Physical and decay characteristics of commercial LWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, J.W.; Claiborne, H.C.; Ashline, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Rhyne, B.T.

    1985-10-01

    Information was collected from the literature and from major manufacturers that will be useful in the design and construction of a mined geologic repository for the disposal of light-water-reactor spent fuel. Pertinent data are included on mechanical design characteristics and materials of construction for fuel assemblies and fuel rods and computed values for heat generation rates, radioactivity, and photon and neutron emission rates as a function of time for four reference cases. Calculations were made with the ORIGEN2 computer code for burnups of 27,500 and 40,000 MWd for a typical boiling-water reactor and 33,000 and 60,000 MWd for a typical pressurized-water reactor. The results are presented in figures depicting the individual contributions per metric ton of initial heavy metal for the activation products, fission products, and actinides and their daughters to the radioactivity and thermal power as a function of time. Tables are also presented that list the contribution of each major nuclide to the radioactivity, thermal power, and photons and neutrons emitted for disposal periods from 1 to 100,000 years.

  5. Tabulations of Responses from the 2000 Survey of Reserve Component Personnel: Volume 4. Individual and Family Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    were combined with administrative data to create the single measure of program used in Tables 43/45/165.1-3. (The same measure of program is also one...Problem for Unit/Organization in Achieving Training Objectives -- Quality of Personnel in Lower-Grade Drill Positions: By Reserve Component...46m.2 Problem for Unit/Organization in Achieving Training Objectives -- Quality of

  6. Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

  7. Physical characteristics of bright Class I methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leurini, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Class I methanol masers are thought to be tracers of interstellar shock waves. However, they have received relatively little attention mostly as a consequence of their low luminosities compared to other maser transitions. This situation has changed recently and Class I methanol masers are now routinely used as signposts of outflow activity especially in high extinction regions. The recent detection of polarisation in Class I lines now makes it possible to obtain direct observational information about magnetic fields in interstellar shocks. Aims: We make use of newly calculated collisional rate coefficients for methanol to investigate the excitation of Class I methanol masers and to reconcile the observed Class I methanol maser properties with model results. Methods: We performed large velocity gradient calculations with a plane-parallel slab geometry appropriate for shocks to compute the pump and loss rates which regulate the interactions of the different maser systems with the maser reservoir. We study the dependence of the pump rate coefficient, the maser loss rate, and the inversion efficiency of the pumping scheme of several Class I masers on the physics of the emitting gas. Results: We predict inversion in all transitions where maser emission is observed. Bright Class I methanol masers are mainly high-temperature (>100 K) high-density (n(H2) ~ 107-108 cm-3) structures with methanol maser emission measures, ξ, corresponding to high methanol abundances close to the limits set by collisional quenching. Our model predictions reproduce reasonably well most of the observed properties of Class I methanol masers. Class I masers in the 25 GHz series are the most sensitive to the density of the medium and mase at higher densities than other lines. Moreover, even at high density and high methanol abundances, their luminosity is predicted to be lower than that of the 44 GHz and 36 GHz masers. Our model predictions also reflect the observational result that the

  8. Characteristics of urban sidewalks/streets and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Heinrich, Katie M; Poston, Walker S C; Hyder, Melissa; Pyle, Sara

    2008-03-01

    Several studies have found significant relationships between environmental characteristics (e.g., number of destinations, aesthetics) and physical activity. While a few of these studies verified that the physical activities assessed were performed in the environments examined, none have done this in an urban, neighborhood setting. This information will help efforts to inform policy decisions regarding the design of more "physically active" communities. Fourteen environmental characteristics of 60, 305-m-long segments, located in an urban, residential setting, were directly measured using standardized procedures. The number of individuals walking, jogging, and biking in the segments was assessed using an observation technique. The segments were heterogeneous with regards to several of the environmental characteristics. A total of 473 individuals were seen walking, bicycling, or jogging in the segments during 3,600 min of observation (60 min/segment). Of the 473 seen, 315 were walking, 116 bicycling, and 42 jogging. A greater number of individuals were seen walking in segments with more traffic, sidewalk defects, graffiti, and litter and less desirable property aesthetics. Only one environmental characteristic was associated with bicycling and none were significantly related with jogging. This study provides further evidence that environmental characteristics and walking are related. It also adds new information regarding the importance of scale (e.g., micro, macro) and how some environmental characteristics of urban, residential sidewalks and streets relate to physical activity.

  9. Cumulative live birth rates following IVF in 41- to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Disseldorp, J; Eijkemans, M J C; Klinkert, E R; te Velde, E R; Fauser, B C; Broekmans, F J M

    2007-04-01

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the total cohort, n = 144) were excluded from IVF treatment based on low antral follicle count (<5 follicles) and/or elevated basal FSH (>15 IU/l). Of those admitted, 66 (74%) actually started and completed a total of 125 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Treatment resulted in 10 live births (8% per cycle). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a realistic cumulative live birth rate after three cycles of 17%. The direct medical costs per live birth were calculated to be approximately 44,000 euro. These results show that selection towards favourable ovarian reserve status in the female age group 41-43 years yielded disappointing results in terms of cumulative live birth rates after IVF. In view of the costs raised per live birth, improvement of selection parameters for treatment in this age group is warranted.

  10. Quantitative physical and handling characteristics of novel antibacterial braided silk suture materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Hou, Dandan; Tang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Surgical braided silk sutures have been widely used because these materials exhibit good handling characteristics, ease of use, and ideal knot security. However, surgical silk sutures likely cause surgical site infections because these sutures are composed of natural protein materials with a braided structure. As such, antibacterial silk sutures for clinical wound closure should be developed. Braided silk suture could be treated and modified with antibacterial agent, provided that excellent physical and handling characteristics of this material should maximize maintained. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the effect of antibacterial treatment with different parameters on physical and handling characteristics of novel antibacterial braided silk sutures. Physical and handling characteristics, including appearance, knot-pull tensile strength, pullout friction resistance, tissue drag friction resistance, and bending stiffness, were evaluated. After physical and handling tests were conducted, images showed morphological characteristics were obtained and evaluated to investigate the relationship between antibacterial treatment and physical and handling properties. Results showed that suture diameter increased and reached the nearest thick size specification; knot-pull tensile strength decreased but remained higher than the standard value by at least 40.73%. Fracture asynchronism during knot-pull tensile strength test suggested that the fineness ratio of shell and core strands may enhance knot-pull tensile strength. Static and dynamic frictions of suture-to-suture friction behavior were slightly affected by antibacterial treatment, and changed to less than 16.07% and 32.77%, respectively. Suture-to-tissue friction and bending stiffness increased by approximately 50%; the bending stiffness of the proposed suture remained efficient compared with that of synthetic sutures. Therefore, good physical and handling characteristics can be maintained by selecting

  11. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Cottonwood River basin, southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Cottonwood River Basin, located in southwestern Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slop?. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  12. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the lower Minnesota River basin, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Lower Minnesota River Basin, located in south-central Minnesota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  13. Physical and chemical properties of water and sediments, Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays, Lake Superior, Grand Portage Indian Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 1993-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of data on the physical and chemical properties of water and sediments in Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays of Lake Superior along the shoreline of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data were collected during 1993-96 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data include: (1) temperature, pH, and specific conductance measurements and dissolved oxygen concentrations; (2) Secchi disk transparency, alkalinity, and turbidity measurements; (3) fecal Coliform and fecal Streptococcal bacteria colony counts (per 100 milliliters of sample water); (4) major and minor ion, nutrient, and trace-metal concentrations; (5) dissolved and suspended residue concentrations; (6) pesticide, phenol, and asbestos concentrations; (7) suspended sediment trace-metal concentrations; and (8) bottom sediment trace-metal concentrations. Water samples were collected from nine sites; suspended and bottom sediment samples were collected from five sites. The data in this report can be used to evaluate present water-quality conditions and as a reference to monitor potential long-term changes in these conditions.

  14. Generation and physical characteristics of the Landsat 1 and 2 MSS computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. L.

    1975-01-01

    The generation and format is discussed of the Landsat 1 and 2 system corrected multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes. Included in the discussion are the spacecraft sensors, scene characteristics, the transmission of data, and the conversion of the data to computer compatible tapes at the NASA Data Processing Facility. Geometric and radiometric corrections, tape formats, and the physical characteristics of the tape are also described.

  15. The Physical and Technical Characteristics of English Language Teaching Courseware in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Nimehchisalem, Vahid; Sayadian, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the physical and technical characteristics of the English language teaching courseware in Malaysia. A randomly selected group of English language teachers in Malaysia (n = 200) were surveyed to evaluate the courseware. SPSS (18.0) was applied to analyze the data. The results…

  16. Impact of Policy Environment Characteristics on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Children Attending Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin; Ajja, Rahma; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    State and national organizations recently developed policies focused on increasing physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs (ASPs). These policies emphasize "activity friendly" environment characteristics that, when present, should lead to higher levels of PA and reduce the amount of time children spend sedentary during an ASP.…

  17. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  18. National Board Certified Physical Educators: Background Characteristics, Subjective Warrants, and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Rhoades, Jesse Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teacher's (NBCPETs) demographic characteristics, recalled subjective warrants for entrance into the profession, and reasons for seeking this advanced certification. An extensive search for approximately 1,200 NBCPETs resulted in contact information for 819 NBCPETs. All were sent a…

  19. Frequency of Use and Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities Subject to Physical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Murphy, Glynis; Kelly-Pike, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of physical intervention (PI) with people with intellectual disabilities continues to cause concern. This study sought to clarify the frequency and circumstances of PI use and gather data on the characteristics of individuals subject to PI. Method: Data on individuals subject to PI were gathered by postal questionnaire…

  20. Physical characteristics of alkaline stabilized sewage sludge (N-viro soil) and their effects on soil physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Harrison, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The N-Viro process for alkaline stabilization of municipal sewage sludge combines dewatered sludge with one or more alkaline industrial byproducts and destroys pathogens by a combination of high pH, heat, and drying. The final product, N-Viro Soil, is a soil-like material that is being used as an agricultural lime substitute, soil amendment, and soil substitute. Physical characteristics of 28 N-Viro Soils were determined and compared to those of mineral soils. Results are described. 24 refs., 10 tabs.

  1. Is Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) Participation an Equitable Substitution for an Alternative Physical Education Credit in High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide struggle to raise academic achievement of students, an emphasis is made to increase the rigor of core subjects such as math, language arts, reading and writing. To balance the school day, courses such as physical education, health, and fine arts are given less prominence in scheduling. For physical education (PE), a…

  2. Physical stratigraphy, paleontology, and magnetostratigraphy of the USGS-Santee Coastal Reserve core (CHN-803), Charleston County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, G.S.; ,; Prowell, D.C.; Bybell, L.M.; Bardot, L.P.; Firth, J.V.; Huber, B.T.; Frederiksen, N.O.; MacLeod, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Santee Coastal Reserve core, a 545-ft-deep corehole in northeastern Charleston County, South Carolina, recovered sediments of Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, Eocene, and Quaternary age. The deepest sediments, the Donoho Creek Formation (545-475.7 ft), consist of 69.3 ft of muddy calcareous sand of marine origin. This formation is placed within the upper Campanian calcareous nannofossil Subzone CC 22c. The overlying Peedee Formation (475.7-367.1 ft) in the core consists of 108.6 ft of silty clay of marine origin. It is placed in upper Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil Subzones CC 25b, CC 26a, and CC 26b. Combined fossil and paleomagnetic information indicates nearly continuous deposition. Foraminifers indicate an outer neritic paleobathymetric setting. The Rhems Formation sensu stricto (367.1-267.3 ft) consists of 99.8 ft of silty clay, muddy sand, and minor calcite-cemented, shelly sand of marine origin. It is apparently the product of rapid sediment accumulation during a short period of time in the early Paleocene (calcareous nannofossil Zone NP 1). The upper part of the Rhems Formation sensu Bybell and others (1998) (267.3-237.4 ft) consists of 29.9 ft of calcite-cemented muddy sand and burrowed fine sand of marine origin. It is placed in calcareous nannofossil Zone NP 4 and, because it shows normal polarity, likely represents the upper part of the lower Paleocene. This unit may be correlative with the lower part of the Lower Bridge Member of the Williamsburg Formation in its type area. The Lower Bridge Member of the Williamsburg Formation (237.4-125.0 ft) has an unconformable contact at 205.0 ft that divides the member into lower muddy sand beds and upper calcareous clay beds. Both are placed in the upper Paleocene calcareous nannofossil Zone NP 5. The Chicora Member of the Williamsburg Formation (125-51.5 ft) consists of 73.5 ft of muddy, shelly sand of marine origin. It is poorly dated but includes late Paleocene nannofossils (Zones NP 5 and NP 6). A

  3. The Story of a Typical Atypical Graduate of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luta, Adele

    2012-02-01

    An entrepreneurial perspective to life can lead to wearing a myriad of hats. Long gone is the stereotypical start-up role. Entrepreneurs now hold physics degrees and procure innovation when called upon. An alumni of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program, Adele Luta has spent the last 5 years at NASA developing an innovative approach to spacesuit sizing. Previously, she founded Eleda International consulting firm and is currently working with Adjuvat Biosciences, on a proprietary treatment pancreatic cancer.

  4. Fish assemblage relationships with physical characteristics and presence of dams in three eastern Iowa rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Nicholas L. Ahrens,; Anna K. Loan-Wilsey,; Gregory A. Simmons,; Gregory T. Gelwicks,

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream-distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream-distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human-influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern.

  5. Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-09-01

    Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis.

  6. Neighborhood Characteristics: Influences on Pain and Physical Function in Youth at Risk for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Cathleen; Reed, Emily A.; Hingston, Tessa; Dennis, Catlin H.; Wilson, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood features such as community socioeconomic status, recreational facilities, and parks have been correlated to the health outcomes of the residents living within those neighborhoods, especially with regard to health-related quality of life, body mass index, and physical activity. The interplay between one’s built environment and one’s perceptions may affect physical health, well-being, and pain experiences. In the current study, neighborhood characteristics and attitudes about physical activity were examined in a high-risk (youths with a parent with chronic pain) and low-risk (youths without a parent with chronic pain) adolescent sample. There were significant differences in neighborhood characteristics between the high-risk (n = 62) and low-risk (n = 77) samples (ages 11–15), with low-risk participants living in residences with more walkability, closer proximity to parks, and higher proportion of neighborhood residents having college degrees. Results indicate that neighborhood features (e.g., walkability and proximity to parks), as well as positive attitudes about physical activity were correlated with lower levels of pain and pain-related disability, and higher performance in physical functioning tests. These findings suggest that the built environment may contribute to pain outcomes in youth, above and beyond the influence of family history of pain. PMID:27869773

  7. Characteristics of water, sediment, and benthic communities of the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, water years 1986-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses and interpretation of water quality, sediment, and biological data from water years 1986 through 1998 indicated that land use and other human activities have had only minimal effects on water quality in the Wolf River upstream from and within the Menominee Indian Reservation in northeastern Wisconsin. Relatively high concentrations of calcium and magnesium (natural hardness), iron, manganese, and aluminum were measured in Wolf River water samples during water years 1986?98 from the three sampled sites and attributed to presence of highly mineralized geologic materials in the basin. Average calcium and magnesium concentrations varied from 22?26 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 11?13 mg/L, respectively. Average iron concentrations ranged from 290?380 micrograms per liter (?g/L); average manganese concentrations ranged from 53?56 mg/L. Average aluminum concentrations ranged from 63?67 ?g/L. Mercury was present in water samples but concentrations were not at levels of concern. Levels of Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphorus in water samples were often low or below detection limits (0.01? 0.10 mg/L). Trace amounts of atrazine (maximum concentration of 0.031 ?g/L), deethylatrazine (maximum 0.032 ?g/L), and alachlor (maximum of 0.002 ?g/L) were detected. Low concentrations of most trace elements were found in streambed sediment. Tissues of fish and aquatic invertebrates collected once each year from 1995 through 1998 at the Langlade and Keshena sites, near the northern and southern boundaries of the Reservation, respectively, were low in concentrations of most trace elements. Arsenic and silver in fish livers from both sites were less than or equal to 2 ?g/g arsenic and less than 1 ?g/g silver for dry weight analysis, and concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and uranium were all below detection limits (less than 1 ?g/g dry weight). Concentrations of most other trace elements in fish

  8. Robinow syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Pfeiffer syndrome: an overview of physical, neurological, and oral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Horbelt, Carlton V

    2010-01-01

    The general population expects dentists to be well-versed in the typical and atypical orofacial characteristics of all potential patients. As a result, dentists must possess a reasonable amount of knowledge concerning the physical and intraoral traits associated with developmental disorders such as those associated with Robinow syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Pfeiffer syndrome. None of the physical, neurological, or oral anomalies discussed in this column present insurmountable barriers to providing dental care. Dental techniques and procedures performed on patients with any of these syndromes will be identical or very similar to those done on any other patient.

  9. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Chippewa River basin, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.; Krumrie, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Chippewa River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  11. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  12. Triangulation method for determining capillary blood flow and physical characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gorti, S; Tone, H; Imokawa, G

    1999-08-01

    A method capable of measuring blood flow at precise depths within the skin is described. The method determines the static and the dynamic properties of light that is backscattered to small areas on the surface of the skin at several contiguous locations along the expected trajectory of laser-light propagation. From observations the method has been shown to be capable of determining physical characteristics that are unique to the different layers of the skin.

  13. Comparison of Upper Extremity Physical Characteristics Between Adolescent Competitive Swimmers and Nonoverhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Laudner, Kevin; Berkoff, David J.; Kucera, Kristen L.; Yu, Bing; Myers, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Context Alterations to upper extremity physical characteristics of competitive swimmers (posture, range of motion [ROM], and subacromial-space distance) are commonly attributed to cumulative training load during a swimmer's competitive career. However, this accepted clinical belief has not been established in the literature. It is important to understand whether alterations in posture and associated physical characteristics occur as a result of sport training or factors other than swimming participation to better understand injury risk and possible interventions. Objective To compare posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral external-rotation, internal-rotation, and horizontal-adduction ROM between adolescent competitive swimmers and nonoverhead athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local swimming pools and high school athletic training rooms. Patients or Other Participants Forty-four competitive adolescent swimmers and 31 nonoverhead athletes who were not currently experiencing any elbow, shoulder, neck, or back pain that limited their sport activity. Intervention(s) Posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral ROM were measured using photography, diagnostic ultrasound, and a digital inclinometer, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) Forward shoulder posture, forward head posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, internal-rotation ROM, and external-rotation ROM. Results No clinically significant differences existed between swimmers and nonoverhead athletes for posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, or external- or internal-rotation ROM. Swimmers presented with less horizontal-adduction ROM than nonoverhead athletes. Conclusions Factors other than swimming participation, such as school and technology use, play important roles in the adaptation of physical characteristics in adolescents. Adolescents, regardless of swimming participation, presented with postural deviations. It is important to consider factors other than

  14. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Juvenile Steelhead Survey and Factors that Affect Abundance in Selected Streams in the Lower Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, Paul A.; Johnson, David B.

    1986-08-01

    A biological and physical inventory of selected tributaries in the lower Clearwater River basin was conducted to collect information for the development of alternatives and recommendations for the enhancement of the anadromous fish resources in streams on the Nez Perce Reservation. Five streams within the Reservation were selected for study: Bedrock and Cottonwood Creeks were investigated over a two year period (1983 to 1984) and Big Canyon, Jacks and Mission Creeks were studied for one year (1983). Biological information was collected and analyzed on the density, biomass, production and outmigration of juvenile summer steelhead trout. Physical habitat information was collected on available instream cover, stream discharge, stream velocity, water temperature, bottom substrate, embeddedness and stream width and depth. The report focuses on the relationships between physical stream habitat and juvenile steelhead trout abundance.

  15. Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.

    PubMed

    Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, δ(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted δ(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation.

  16. Physical characteristics of residential psychiatric and substance abuse programs: organizational determinants and patients outcomes.

    PubMed

    Timko, C

    1996-02-01

    Described the Physical and Architectural Characteristics Inventory (PACI), which assesses the physical characteristics of hospital- and community-based psychiatric and substance abuse residential treatment programs for adults. Developed using data from 94 representative programs, the PACI has 7 dimensions that assess community accessibility, physical features that add convenience, aid recreation, and provide support for patients, and space for patient and staff functions. In comparison to community-based programs (n = 63), hospital programs (n = 31) had more social-recreational and prosthetic aids, safety features, staff facilities, and space. The PACI dimensions were also related to other organizational features, such as facility ownership and program size and staffing level. Programs with more physical amenities had patients who were more involved in self-initiated and community activities and were more likely to successfully complete the program and be discharged to independent living situations and paid jobs. Programs with more social-recreational and prosthetic aids, space, and access to community resources also had better patient outcomes. In addition, PACI dimensions were related to observers' ratings of facility attractiveness. Potential applications of the PACI and the full inventory of which it is a part are discussed.

  17. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  18. The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Sallis, James F; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-04-01

    The school is an important setting for physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between physical environmental characteristics and participation in daily physical activity during school breaks. Data from 130 schools and 16 471 students (Grades 4-10) in Norway were obtained in 2004 through self-administered questionnaires to principals and students. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed that boys at secondary level with a larger number of outdoor facilities at school had 2.69 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-5.98] and girls 2.90 times (95% CI = 1.32-6.37) higher odds of being physically active compared with students in schools with fewer facilities. Boys at secondary level with areas for hopscotch/skipping rope had 2.53 times (95% CI = 1.55-4.13), with a soccer field 1.68 times (95% CI = 1.15-2.45), with playground equipment 1.66 times (95% CI = 1.16-2.37) and with a sledding hill 1.70 times (95% CI = 1.23-2.35) higher odds to be physically active compared with students in schools without these facilities. A sledding hill was also associated with girls' physical activity participation in secondary school (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.11-2.24). Outdoor facilities in secondary schools are associated with students' daily physical activity participation during school breaks. Therefore, improving the outdoor environment should be considered in physical activity promotion school programs in secondary schools.

  19. A study of automotive workers anthropometric physical characteristics from Mexico Northwest.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of anthropometric information in northwest Mexico, we did an anthropometric study that represents the population physical characteristics and that is reliable for the design or redesign of workstations. The study was divided in two phases. The first one was the anthropometric study of 2900 automotive industry workers in northwest of Mexico. The study includes 40 body dimensions of 2345 males and 555 females personalized to be used in future researches. Second phase includes compared anthropometric characteristics of population reported in four Mexican studies and a Colombian study against the current study. Benefits of this project are: a reliable database of anthropometric characteristic of automotive industry population for workstations design or redesign that match with the users, increase product quality and reduce economic, medical and union complains.

  20. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities.

  1. Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Under 19, Under 21 and Senior Male Beach Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players’ role (blocker vs. defender specialist) in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19), 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21), and 1480 rallies from senior (senior) (Men’s Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011) were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams’ competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as “balanced”, “moderate balanced” and “unbalanced” games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies) and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers) characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player’s role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a) balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19) and U21; b) moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c) unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players’ performances according to age group and players’ role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics. Key Points Player

  2. Physical and temporal characteristics of under 19, under 21 and senior male beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players' role (blocker vs. defender specialist) in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19), 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21), and 1480 rallies from senior (senior) (Men's Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011) were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams' competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as "balanced", "moderate balanced" and "unbalanced" games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies) and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers) characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player's role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a) balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19) and U21; b) moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c) unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players' performances according to age group and players' role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics. Key PointsPlayer roles, quality of opposition

  3. Child and context characteristics in trajectories of physical and relational victimization among early elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Macdonald, Stuart W S

    2011-02-01

    Transactional models suggest that peer victimization results from both individual and context differences, and understanding these differences may point to important targets for prevention and interventions that reduce victimization. Multilevel modeling was used to examine within-person (aggression and emotional dysregulation), between-person (sex and age), and between-school (participation in a victimization prevention program) factors that influence changes in physical and relational victimization over the first three years of elementary school. Children (n = 423) reported their experiences of peer victimization at entry into Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3. On average, trajectories of both physical and relational victimization declined. However, for individual children, teacher-rated aggression was associated with increases in physical and relational victimization, while emotional dysregulation was associated with attenuation of longitudinal declines in physical victimization and increases in relational victimization. Individual differences in sex and age at entry into Grade 1 did not significantly influence victimization trajectories over Grades 1 to 3. Children who participated in the WITS® victimization prevention program showed significant declines in physical and relational victimization. Levels of victimization among nonparticipants remained stable. Implications of child and context characteristics for preventing peer victimization in elementary school are discussed.

  4. All rights reserved, or can we just copy? Cost sharing arrangements and characteristics of health care systems.

    PubMed

    Ros, C C; Groenewegen, P P; Delnoij, D M

    2000-05-01

    In most European countries cost sharing has been introduced in order to reduce the demand for care. Different forms of cost sharing are available, but because of historically grown system characteristics and prevailing values countries differ in the application of specific forms. This review focuses on eighteen European countries, and on the combinations of health system characteristics and present forms of cost sharing. We found that some combinations are more present: different payment systems for primary care physicians go together with different forms of cost sharing, different services have different forms of cost sharing. In countries with a GP as gatekeeper no charges are in use for the GP. No distinct relationship could be found between the financing system (tax-based or insurance-based) and the form of cost sharing or the exclusion of vulnerable populations. It is concluded that there are two ways of filtering 'unnecessary' demand. One is by introducing cost sharing for directly accessible services such as GPs. The second way is by having GPs act as gatekeepers to more specialized, and more costly care.

  5. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark.

  6. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 ± 8.4, U17 = 81.3 ± 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 ± 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 ± 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 ± 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 ± 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development.

  7. Physical, anthropometrical, and body composition characteristics of workers at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasley, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, workers are often exposed to cardiovascular and muscular stress in job-related activities which may require a high level of physical fitness in order to safely complete the work task. Similar tasks will be performed at other launch and landing facilities and in space for the Space Station. One such category includes workers who handle toxic propellants and must wear Self-Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensembles (SCAPE) that can weigh 56 lbs. with the air pack. These suits provide a significant physical challenge to many of the workers in terms of carrying this load while moving about and performing work. Furthermore, under some conditions, there is a significant thermal stress. The physical characteristics of these workers are, therefore, of consequence. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometry, body composition, strength, power, endurance, flexibility, aerobic fitness, and blood variables of a representative sample of male KSC SCAPE workers and to compare them with characteristics of other male workers at KSC (total population N=110). Three separate comparisons were made.

  8. Use of Chemical and Physical Characteristics To Investigate Trends in Biochar Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Mukome, Fungai N. D.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Six, Johan; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that pyrolysis method and temperature are the key factors influencing biochar chemical and physical properties; however, information on the nature of biochar feedstocks is more accessible to consumers, making feedstock a better measure for selecting biochars. This study characterizes physical and chemical properties of commercially available biochars and investigates trends in biochar properties related to feedstock material to develop guidelines for biochar use. Twelve biochars were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Compiled data from this study and from the literature (n = 85) were used to investigate trends in biochar characteristics related to feedstock. Analysis of compiled data reveals that despite clear differences in biochar properties from feedstocks of algae, grass, manure, nutshells, pomace, and wood (hard- and softwoods), characteristic generalizations can be made. Feedstock was a better predictor of biochar ash content and C/N ratio, but surface area was also temperature dependent for wood-derived biochar. Significant differences in ash content (grass and manure > wood) and C/N ratio (softwoods > grass and manure) enabled the first presentation of guidelines for biochar use based on feedstock material. PMID:23343098

  9. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  10. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars.

  11. Physical characteristics and chemical composition of Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) eggs from farmed populations.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J L; Barri, F R; Maestri, D M; Labuckas, D O; Martella, M B

    2003-09-01

    1. Eggs from 4 farmed populations of Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. 2. None of the physical variables (weight of whole egg, yolk, albumen and shell; proportion of yolk based on egg content; proportion of shell based on entire egg weight; volume; density) showed significant differences between populations. 3. Among chemical variables, moisture, both saturated fatty acids (palmitic 16:0 and stearic 18:0), one monounsaturated fatty acid (palmitoleic 16:1), and one polyunsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic 20:4), did not differ between populations, whereas other variables (protein, lipid and ash contents; fatty acids: oleic 18:1, linoleic 18:2, linolenic 18:3; PUFA; PUFA/SFA; cholesterol) differed significantly.

  12. Mexican-American children's perspectives: neighborhood characteristics and physical activity in Texas-Mexico border colonias.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Lee, Chanam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Wang, Xiaohui; Irizarry, David; Avila-Rodriguez, Elias H; Trevino, Laura; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-10-01

    The qualitative study described in this article investigated perceptions about environmental factors influencing physical activity (PA) among children from underserved neighborhoods known as colonias in the U.S.-Mexico border. Ten focus groups were conducted with 67 Mexican-American colonia children ages 8 to 13 living in one of the poorest border counties in the U.S. Analyses indicated that PA among children was influenced by neighborhood characteristics, including litter, speeding cars, unleashed dogs, and dark streets. The children also underlined intrapersonal and social environmental factors. Findings may inform policy makers and public health professionals about ways to promote PA among underserved children through urban planning and programs focusing on PA-supportive infrastructure, neighborhood safety, and family- and home-based physical activities.

  13. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  14. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  15. Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Cancer Referred for Outpatient Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Lee, Derek; Bour, Barbara; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer rehabilitation is a developing area, with an increasing number of survivors of cancer in the United States. The increase in survivorship occurs alongside impairments arising directly from cancer or from treatment-related side effects. Objective This study described clinical characteristics of patients with cancer referred for outpatient physical therapy and explored patterns in frequency of impairments between type of cancer and mode of cancer treatment. Design This was a retrospective chart review of patients with cancer referred to a tertiary care physical therapy clinic over a 2-year period. Methods Characteristics such as age, sex, cancer type, mode of treatment, and neuromusculoskeletal impairments were identified. Impairment frequencies were computed based on cancer type and mode of treatment. Results Data from 418 patients (mean age=57.9 years, SD=14.3; 41.1% female) were examined. Genitourinary cancer (n=169) and breast cancer (n=90) were the most prevalent types of cancer reported in this sample. Impairments in strength (83.6%) and soft tissue (71.3%) were the most common examination findings. Lymphedema was most common in patients with breast cancer, and incontinence was most common in patients with genitourinary cancer. Limitations The types of cancer identified in this study may be reflective of this tertiary center and may not generalize to other facilities. Impairment identification during the initial physical therapist evaluation was not performed systematically. Conclusion These data reinforce that physical therapists should screen for lymphedema in patients with breast cancer and incontinence in urogenital cancers. Strength and soft tissue integrity should be evaluated in most patients with cancer. Assessing pain and fatigue levels is recommended for patients who have had radiation therapy. PMID:25504482

  16. Daytime Physical Activity and Sleep in Hospitalized Older Adults: Association with Demographic Characteristics and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982

  17. Investigation on thermo physical characteristics of ethylene glycol based Al:ZnO nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Kiruba.; George, Ritty; M, Gopalakrishnan.; A, Kingson Solomon Jeevaraj.

    2015-06-01

    The present work describes the experimental aspects of viscosity and thermal conductivity characteristics of nanofluids. Aluminium doped zinc oxide nanostructures were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Ultrasonic technique is used to disperse the nanostructures in ethylene glycol. Structural and morphological properties of Al doped ZnO nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopic technique. The effect of concentration and temperature on thermo-physical properties of Al/ZnO nanofluids is also investigated. The experimental results showed there is enhancement in thermal conductivity with rise in temperature which can be utilized for coolant application.

  18. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 3: Physical and combustion characteristics of engine residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of starting problems in the hypergolic rocket engines of the Apollo reaction control (RCS) engines. The scope of the investigation was as follows: (1) to establish that chemical reactions occurred during the preignition and post combustion periods, (2) to identify the chemical species of the products of preignition and post combustion reaction, and (3) to determine the explosive nature of the identified species. The methods used in identifying the chemical products are described species. The infrared spectra, X-ray spectra, and other signatures of the compounds are presented. The physical and explosion characteristics of various hypergolic agents are reported.

  19. Investigation on thermo physical characteristics of ethylene glycol based Al:ZnO nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kiruba, R. E-mail: drkingson@karunya.edu; George, Ritty; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Kingson Solomon Jeevaraj, A.

    2015-06-24

    The present work describes the experimental aspects of viscosity and thermal conductivity characteristics of nanofluids. Aluminium doped zinc oxide nanostructures were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Ultrasonic technique is used to disperse the nanostructures in ethylene glycol. Structural and morphological properties of Al doped ZnO nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopic technique. The effect of concentration and temperature on thermo-physical properties of Al/ZnO nanofluids is also investigated. The experimental results showed there is enhancement in thermal conductivity with rise in temperature which can be utilized for coolant application.

  20. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7 cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The experimental program consisted basically of measuring the differential neutron spectra and the changes in critical mass that accompanied the stepwise addition of (Li-7)3N, Hf, Ta, and W to a basic core fueled with U metal in a pin-type Ta honeycomb structure. In addition, experimental results were obtained on power distributions, control characteristics, neutron lifetime, and reactivity worths of numerous absorber, structural, and scattering materials.

  1. Physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer goalkeepers.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2011-12-01

    The soccer goalkeeper (GK) is required to perform strenuous actions during practice sessions and actual games. One of the objectives of those professionals who work with GKs is to obtain relevant information on physical characteristics and physiological attributes of GKs, and to use it effectively when planning training programs for them. This article has three purposes: (a) to review a series of studies (n = 23) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer GKs; (b) to outline a number of methodological limitations and research concerns associated with these studies; and (c) to suggest several practical recommendations for soccer coaches who work with GKs. Four main findings emerged from our review: (a) professional adult GKs usually are over 180 cm tall and have a body mass of over 77 kg; (b) studies on agility and speed produced mixed results, with some showing similar values between GKs and field players and others showing reduced performance in GKs; (c) GKs usually have higher vertical jump values when compared with players playing the various field positions; (d) GKs cover approximately 5.5 km during a game, mostly by walking and jogging. Four methodological limitations and research concerns associated with the reviewed studies were discussed, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach and the lack of on-field performance studies. Three practical recommendations are made for coaches, one of which is that coaches should adopt a careful approach when selecting testing protocols and devices for the assessment of GKs' physiological attributes.

  2. Physical characteristics of Ti-6A1-4V implants fabricated by electrodischarge compaction.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Lee, W H; Kim, D K; Kopczyk, R A

    1991-12-01

    Physical characteristics of a Ti-6A1-4V implant were evaluated following fabrication using a new electrodischarge compaction technique. Ti-6A1-4V atomized powders were loaded into Pyrex tubes (3.3 mm ID) and subjected to a high-voltage, high-current-density pulse in air for a period of less than 300 microseconds. Single pulses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 KJ/grampowder) were applied from a capacitor bank (240, 480 or 720 microF) to produce solid core implants with porous surface layers. Implants were evaluated microscopically for core size, neck size, pore size, grain structure, and incorporated oxide film. Hardness was also evaluated. Implants were compared with Ti-6A1-4V commercial powders. Core size increased and pore size decreased with increases in energy and capacitance. The cores were composed of equiaxed grains which were free of oxide at the grain boundary. Porous layers, consisting of particles connected in three dimensions by necks, were free of oxide films at the connecting interfaces. Neck size increased with increases in input energy and capacitance. Hardness readings of the core, necks, and porous particles resulted in readings higher than or similar to control materials. Electrodischarge compaction did not alter the physical characteristics during compaction.

  3. The physical characteristics of the members during the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Brotherhood, J R; Budd, G M; Regnard, J; Hendrie, A L; Jeffery, S E; Lincoln, G J

    1986-01-01

    Twelve male medical scientists formed the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA). Their physical characteristics and maximum oxygen uptakes (VO2max) were measured in association with three series of thermal tolerance tests in Sydney, twice before and once after going to the Antarctic. In the Antarctic they lived in tents and spent 15 days travelling by motor toboggan. Their body mass (BM) and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured four times during the 69 days the expedition spent in the field. The characteristics of the group were (ranges): age 26-52 years, height 1680-1889 mm, BM 58.5-103.4 kg, fatness 16-34% BM and VO2max 33-49 ml X kg-1 X min-1. In the Antarctic 9 men lost between 0.7 and 5.5 kg (mean 2.7 kg) of BM with a decrease in SFT, whilst 2 men increased BM by 1.2 and 1.9 kg without change in SFT. One man retired early from the expedition. BM and SFT were regained and physical fitness lost during the return voyage to Australia. Consequently there was no difference in average SFT between the pre- and post-Antarctic laboratory tests, but BM was greater after the Antarctic implying gains in fat free mass. VO2max was lower in the final laboratory tests than in the tests before Antarctica.

  4. Fatal child maltreatment: characteristics of deaths from physical abuse versus neglect.

    PubMed

    Damashek, Amy; Nelson, Melanie McDiarmid; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts.

  5. Effects of a soccer season on anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness in elite young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; Nebigh, Ammar; Le Moal, Emmeran; Ben Ounis, Omar; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soccer-training season on the anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite youth soccer players. Two groups (age: 14.4 years) participated in this study: (1) 24 soccer players training 8 to 10 hours per week and (2) 26 non-athletic boys used as controls. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1) and anaerobic (counter-movement-jump (CMJ), squat-jump (SqJ), five-jump-test (5JT), and speed (T5m, 10 m, 30 m)) performances were assessed twice during 8 months (T0: October; T1: May) of the competitive season. Data showed significant differences in height and weight at T0 between the two groups (P < 0.05), while no difference in the percentage of body fat (%BF) was observed. However, the soccer players were significantly taller and had lower %BF than age-matched controls at T1. Compared to the controls, the soccer players attained better results in the physical fitness test (P < 0.05) at T0 and T1 except in (T5m) sprinting speed. Hence, significant improvements (P < 0.05) in physical parameters were observed between T0 and T1 only in soccer players. The results demonstrate that soccer-training season was able to provide maturation free improvement in anthropometric and performance characteristics in young soccer players during the training season.

  6. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  7. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Handball Players from Teams with a Different Ranking

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible discriminant physical and physiological characteristics between elite male handball players from elite teams with different league rankings. Players from three teams (A, B and C), which competed in the first league of the Greek championship during the season 2011–2012 participated in the study. Team A finished first, B came second and C came eighth out of eleven clubs. Teams A and B also participated in European Cups, and team A won the European Challenge Cup. The players (n=44) were examined for anthropometric characteristics and performed a series of physical fitness tests. Players from teams A and B were taller (6.2 cm (0.7;11.7), mean difference (95% CI) and 9.2 cm (4.0;14.5), respectively), and had a higher amount of fat free mass (6.4 kg (1.1;11.8) and 5.4 kg (0.2;10.5)) compared to those of team C. Players from team A performed better than players from team C in the squat jump (5.5 cm (1.0;10.0)), the countermovement jump without (5.5 cm (0.4;10.6)) and with arm-swing (6.0 cm (0.7;11.3)) and in the 30 s Bosco test (5.7 W·kg−1 (1.2;10.2)). Also, players from team A outperformed team B in mean power during the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, 0.5 W·kg−1(0;0.9)) and in the Bosco test (7.8 W·kg−1 (3.4;12.2)). Overall, players from the best ranked team performed better than the lowest ranked team on WAnT, vertical jumps and the Bosco test. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that stature and mean power during the Bosco test were the most important characteristics in TH players, accounting for 54.6% of the variance in team ranking. These findings indicate the contribution of particular physical fitness components (stature, fat free mass and anaerobic power) to excellence in TH. In addition, the use of the Bosco test as an assessment tool in talent identification and physical fitness monitoring in this sport is further recommended. PMID:24235989

  8. Effect of basin physical characteristics on solute fluxes in nine alpine/subalpine basins, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sueker, J.K.; Clow, D.W.; Ryan, J.N.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Alpine/subalpine basins may exhibit substantial variability in solute fluxes despite many apparent similarities in basin characteristics. An evaluation of controls on spatial patterns in solute fluxes may allow development of predictive tools for assessing basin sensitivity to outside perturbations such as climate change or deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Relationships between basin physical characteristics, determined from geographical information system (GIS) tools, and solute fluxes and mineral weathering rates were explored for nine alpine/subalpine basins in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, using correlation analyses for 1993 and 1994 data. Stream-water nitrate fluxes were correlated positively with basin characteristics associated with the talus environment; i.e., the fractional amounts of steep slopes (??? 30??), unvegetated terrain and young debris (primarily Holocene till) in the basins, and were correlated negatively with fractional amounts of subalpine meadow terrain. Correlations with nitrate indicate the importance of the talus environment in promoting nitrate flux and the mitigating effect of areas with established vegetation, such as subalpine meadows. Total mineral weathering rates for the basins ranged from about 300 to 600 mol ha-1 year -1. Oligoclase weathering accounted for 30 to 73% of the total mineral weathering flux, and was positively correlated with the amount of old debris (primarily Pleistocene glacial till) in the basins. Although calcite is found in trace amounts in bedrock, calcite weathering accounted for up to 44% of the total mineral weathering flux. Calcite was strongly correlated with steep slope, unvegetated terrain, and young debris-probably because physical weathering in steep-gradient areas exposes fresh mineral surfaces that contain calcite for chemical weathering. Oligoclase and calcite weathering are the dominant sources of alkalinity in the basins. However, atmospherically deposited acids consume much of the

  9. Physical and Radiative Characteristics and Long Term Variability of the Okhotsk Sea Ice Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishio, Fumihiko; Comiso, Josefino C.; Gersten, Robert; Nakayama, Masashige; Ukita, Jinro; Gasiewski, Al; Stanko, Boba; Naoki, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Much of what we know about the large scale characteristics of the Okhotsk Sea ice cover comes from ice concentration maps derived from passive microwave data. To understand what these satellite data represents in a highly divergent and rapidly changing environment like the Okhotsk Sea, we analyzed concurrent satellite, aircraft, and ship data and characterized the sea ice cover at different scales from meters to tens of kilometers. Through comparative analysis of surface features using co-registered data from visible, infrared and microwave channels we evaluated how the general radiative and physical characteristics of the ice cover changes as well as quantify the distribution of different ice types in the region. Ice concentration maps from AMSR-E using the standard sets of channels, and also only the 89 GHz channel for optimal resolution, are compared with aircraft and high resolution visible data and while the standard set provides consistent results, the 89 GHz provides the means to observe mesoscale patterns and some unique features of the ice cover. Analysis of MODIS data reveals that thick ice types represents about 37% of the ice cover indicating that young and new ice represent a large fraction of the lice cover that averages about 90% ice concentration, according to passive microwave data. A rapid decline of -9% and -12 % per decade is observed suggesting warming signals but further studies are required because of aforementioned characteristics and because the length of the ice season is decreasing by only 2 to 4 days per decade.

  10. Effects of thermal hydrolysis temperature on physical characteristics of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guohong; Guo, Yabing; Tan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Effects of thermal hydrolysis temperature on the physical properties of municipal sludge was further studied by a series of experiments. There was a decrease in bound water content with an increase in hydrolysis temperature, while there was an increase in pH at temperatures below 120 °C, and a decrease at temperatures exceeding 120 °C. An analysis of settleability, centrifugation and vacuum filtration of the treated sludge indicated that the threshold temperature was 120 °C, which was the same as the temperature for the bound water content and particle size. In addition, raw sludge with a solids content of 100 g/L, exhibited significant non-Newtonian fluid characteristics. At thermal hydrolysis temperatures exceeding 120 °C, non-Newtonian fluid characteristics including liquid and solid characteristics were significantly weakened. The consistency index (k) decreased from 5.90 Pa·s to 0.068 Pa·s, while the flow index (n) increased from 0.31 to 0.74, suggesting that thermal hydrolysis sludge was much closer to Newtonian fluids compared to raw sludge. Modification of bound water content, particle size and viscosity with hydrolysis temperature, revealed the nature of improved dewaterability by thermal hydrolysis. The fractal dimension of the sludge floc increased from 2.74 to 2.90, meaning that the floc became more compact after thermal hydrolysis.

  11. Physical characteristics of a lava flow determined from thermal measurements at the lava's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A. T.; Kovtunov, D. A.; Korotkii, A. I.; Melnik, O. E.; Tsepelev, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the problem about determination of characteristics of a lava flow from the physical parameters measured on its surface. The problem is formulated as an inverse boundary problem for the model simulating the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting incompressible inhomogeneous fluid, where, on the basis of additional data at one part of the model boundary, the missing conditions at another part of the boundary have to be determined, and then the characteristics of fluid in the entire model domain have to be reconstructed. The considered problem is ill-posed. We develop a numerical approach to the solution of the problem in the case of a steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are known at the upper surface of the lava, we determine the flow characteristics inside the lava. We compute model examples and show that the lava temperature and flow velocity can be determined with a high precision when the initial data are smooth or slightly noisy.

  12. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2016-11-05

    This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level non-professional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top- and middle-level players in Japan in order to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. One hundred sixty-eight American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into one of three position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and non-selected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the three position groups. Compared with non-selected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and non-selected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND) , where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially

  13. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  14. Associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity among youth within rural-urban commuting areas in the US.

    PubMed

    Kasehagen, Laurin; Busacker, Ashley; Kane, Debra; Rohan, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The association among rural-urban communities, neighborhood characteristics, and youth physical activity is inconsistent in the literature. We used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, for youth aged 10-17 years (n = 45,392), to examine the association between physical activity and neighborhood characteristics, after adjusting for known confounders. We also examined the association between physical activity and neighborhood characteristics within seven levels of Rural-Urban Commuting Areas (RUCAs) that depict a continuum from isolated rural to dense urban communities. Attainment of a minimum physical activity level differed by RUCA (P = 0.0004). In adjusted, RUCA-specific models, the presence of parks was associated with attaining a minimum physical activity level in only one of the seven RUCAs (adjusted odds ratio: 3.49; 95 % confidence interval: 1.55, 7.84). This analysis identified no association between youths' minimum physical activity attainment and neighborhood characteristics in unstratified models; and, RUCA-specific models showed little heterogeneity by rural-urban community type. Although this analysis found little association between youth physical activity and neighborhood characteristics, the findings could reflect the crude categorization of the neighborhood amenities (sidewalks, parks, recreation centers) and detracting elements (litter, dilapidated housing, vandalism) and suggests that simple measurement of the presence of an amenity or detracting element is insufficient for determining potential associations with reaching minimum levels of physical activity. By exploring neighborhood characteristics and features of neighborhood amenities within the context of well-defined community types, like RUCAs, we can better understand how and why these factors contribute to different levels of youth physical activity.

  15. Neighborhood contextual characteristics and leisure-time physical activity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Faerstein, Eduardo; de Leon, Antônio Carlos Monteiro Ponce

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between neighborhood contextual variables and leisure-time physical activity. METHODS Data were analyzed for 2,674 adults from Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, participating in the longitudinal study in 1999. Leisure-time physical activity in the two preceding weeks was assessed dichotomously. Sex, age, income, education and marital status were analyzed as individual variables. Neighborhood contextual characteristics were the social development index, the Theil index and the proportion of the area occupied by parks, squares and gardens, categorized in quintiles. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was higher in residents in neighborhoods with higher indices of social development (between 32.3% and 53.1%) and a greater proportion of parks, squares and gardens (between 35.8% and 53.1%). Regarding the social development index, the adjusted odds ratios for physical activity were 1.22 (95%CI 0.93;1.61), 1.44 (95%CI 1.09;1.89), 1.75 (95%CI 1.31;2.34) and 2.25 (95%CI 1.70;3.00) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles, respectively, compared with residents in neighborhoods in the first quintile. The odds ratios for the proportion of parks, squares and gardens were 0.90 (95%CI 0.69;1.19), 1.41 (95%CI 1.04;1.90), 1.63 (95%CI 1.24;2.14) and 1.05 (95%CI 0.80;1.38) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles. After adjusting for the other variables, only the social development index continued to be associated with leisure-time physical activity, with odds ratios of 1.41 (95%CI 1.02;1.95); 1.54 (95%CI 1.12;2.12); 1.65 (95%CI 1.14;2.39) and 2.13 (95%CI 1.40;3.25) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time physical activity was more common in residents in

  16. The Physical and Athletic Performance Characteristics of Division I Collegiate Female Soccer Players by Position.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Risso, Fabrice G; Davis, DeShaun L; Crelling, Jeff B; Lockwood, John R; Jalilvand, Farzad

    2016-07-07

    Playing positions in soccer can exhibit different movement demands during a match, contributing to variations in physical and performance characteristics. NCAA soccer features different substitution rules when compared to FIFA-sanctioned matches, which could influence each players' characteristics. Therefore, this study determined the athletic performance characteristics of Division I female soccer players. Twenty-six players (3 goalkeepers; 8 defenders; 10 midfielders; 5 forwards) from the same squad completed assessments of: lower-body power (vertical and standing broad jump); linear (0-5, 0-10, 0-30 meter [m] sprint intervals) and change-of-direction (pro-agility shuttle; Arrowhead change-of-direction speed test) speed; and soccer-specific fitness (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test [YYIRT] levels 1 and 2). Players were split into position groups, and a Kruskal-Wallis H test with post hoc pairwise analyses (p < 0.05) calculated significant between-group differences. There were no differences in age, height, or body mass between the positions. Midfielders had a faster 0-5 m time compared to the defenders (p = 0.017), and the goalkeepers (p = 0.030). The defenders (p = 0.011) and midfielders (p = 0.013) covered a greater YYIRT2 distance compared to the goalkeepers. There were no other significant between-position differences. Overall, Division I collegiate female players from the same squad demonstrated similar characteristics as measured by soccer-specific performance tests, which could allow for flexibility in position assignments. However, a relatively homogenous squad could also indicate commonality in training prescription, particularly regarding acceleration and high-intensity running. Strength and conditioning coaches may have to consider the specific movement demands of individual positions when training these capacities.

  17. Physical characteristics of the environment and BMI of young urban children and their mothers☆,☆ ☆

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Chambers, Earle C.; Rundle, Andrew; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    The study examined whether characteristics of the urban physical environment are associated with child and maternal body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 3 year-old children and their mothers from 18 US cities (N=1997 dyads). BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Characteristics of the interior and exterior physical environment, assessed and rated by trained interviewers, were related to child BMI at age 3 and to their mother’s BMI. Negative aspects of the physical environment were more strongly related to maternal BMI among whites than among African–Americans or Hispanics. PMID:20729127

  18. Physical characteristics of the M.D. Anderson Hospital clinical neutron beam.

    PubMed

    Horton, J L; Otte, V A; Schultheiss, T E; Stafford, P M; Sun, T; Zermeno, A

    1988-09-01

    The physical characteristics of the M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) clinical neutron beam are presented. The central-axis percent depth-dose values are intermediate between a 4 and 6 MV X-ray beam. The build-up curves reach a depth of maximum dose at 1.2 cm and have surface dose values of approximately 30%. Teflon flattening filters are employed to flatten the beam at the depth of the 75% dose level. Two wedges are available for shaping the beam; they are made of Teflon and produce wedge angles of 31 degrees and 45 degrees as defined by the ICRU. Output factors ranged from 0.88 for a 4 x 4 cm field to 1.12 for a 20 x 20 cm field. Tungsten blocks reduced the dose received at Dmax to 25% of the unblocked value but only 52% of the unblocked value at a depth of 22.8 cm.

  19. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The range of the previous experimental investigations has been expanded to include the reactivity effects of:(1) surrounding the reactor with 15.24 cm (6 in.) of polyethylene, (2) reducing the heights of a portion of the upper and lower axial reflectors by factors of 2 and 4, (3) adding 45 kg of W to the core uniformly in two steps, (4) adding 9.54 kg of Ta to the core uniformly, and (5) inserting 2.3 kg of polyethylene into the core proper and determining the effect of a Ta addition on the polyethylene worth.

  20. Physical characteristics of phycocyanin from spirulina microcapsules using different coating materials with freeze drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, E. N.; Purnamayati, L.; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical characteristics of phycocyanin microcapsules (F) from Spirulina sp. with different coating materials, such as κ-Carrageenan (C) and Na-alginate (A) in combination with maltodextrin (M) by freeze drying method. Microcapsules were prepared in three variations of coating materials i.e. maltodextrin (FM); maltodextrin and Na-alginate (FMA); and maltodextrin and carrageenan (FMC) with concentration of each materials were 10%; 9%:1.0%; and 9%:1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that FMA with Na-alginate 1.0% produced the highest bulk density and total soluble solid, there were 0,334 g/ml and 9,067%, respectively. Color analysis by chromameter showed that FMC produced the bluest color compared to other samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) investigated with Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in all of the samples.

  1. [Physical and chemical characteristics of a new cefazolin sodium hydrate crystal].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Qin; Yin, Li-Hui; Liang, Ya-Ning

    2008-08-01

    One kind of new cefazolin sodium hydrate crystal was obtained in the isopropyl alcohol - water system. There are two symmetry independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, both being well ordered in the lattice, and ten independent water positions but generally four to six (mean five) water molecules and one sodium ion present in the unit cell structure. Huge solvent tunnels can be found. Again there are two general regions of water molecules, those in the large solvent tunnels and those in proximity of the sodium ion and the tetrazole moieties of the drug molecule. The physical and chemical characteristics of the new cefazolin sodium hydrate crystal are similar to that of the alpha-form cefazolin sodium crystal, and the new crystal has better chemical stability than amorphous cefazolin sodium powder.

  2. Relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and physical performance capacity in trained athletic boys.

    PubMed

    Mero, A; Jaakkola, L; Komi, P V

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and the physical performance capacity of trained athletic boys (aged 11-13 years) were studied over 2 days. The subjects were divided into two groups according to muscle fibre distribution. The 'fast' group (FG) comprised 10 subjects (sprinters, weightlifters, tennis players) with more than 50% fast-twitch fibres (type II), and the 'slow' group (SG) comprised 8 subjects (endurance runners, tennis players, one weightlifter) with more than 50% slow-twitch fibres (type I) in their vastus lateralis muscle. The 'fast' group had 59.2 +/- 6.3% and the 'slow' group had 39.4 +/- 9.8% type II fibres. Other clear differences (P less than 0.05-0.01) between the groups were observed as regards reaction time, rate of force development and rise of the body's centre of gravity in the squatting jump. For these variables, the 'fast' group was superior to the 'slow' group. Muscle fibre distribution (% type II) correlated (P less than 0.05-0.01) negatively with reaction time. Muscle fibre area (% type II) correlated negatively with reaction time (P less than 0.05-0.001) and positively with chronological age (P less than 0.05) height (P less than 0.05), mass (P less than 0.001), serum testosterone (P less than 0.05), force production (P less than 0.05-0.01) and blood lactate (P less than 0.05) in the 60-s maximal anaerobic test. There were no significant correlations between muscle fibre characteristics and maximal oxygen uptake. The present study assumes that heredity partly affects the selection of sporting event. Growth, development and training are associated with muscle fibre area, which affects the physical performance capacity of the neuromuscular system in trained young boys.

  3. Physical characteristics of chitosan-silica composite of rice husk ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sri Iswari, Retno; Marwoto, Putut; Rahayu, Endah F.

    2016-02-01

    Some previous studies showed that the characteristics of chitosan membranes have a very rigid and non-porous structure so that its utilization is not maximized, particularly in the filtration process. Hence, it needs modification to improve the quality of the chitosan membranes. Adding the silica into the chitosan membranes is one of the offered solutions to overcome the problems of physical and mechanical properties of chitosan. This study aims to investigate the effect of variations in the silica composition to the physical characteristics of the chitosan-silica membranes of rice husk ash that were synthesized. The chitosan used is derived from the chitin of Vannamei shrimps’ shell with 82% degree of de-acetylation, while the silica was synthesized from rice husk ash with rendering of silica (SiO2) by 5% and the results of XRD analysis showed an amorphous phase. Membrane synthesis was performed using the phase inversion method with chitosan-silica mass ratios of rice husk ash, which were 1:0.0; 1:0.5; 1:1.0; 1:1.5 and 1:2.0. The results showed that the addition of silica increases the swelling index and the membrane permeability. The results of the analysis, FTIR spectra, obtained a new functional group after the addition of silica, they are Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and CO- NH2. The morphology test using CCD Microscope MS-804 results in the very tight chitosan membranes without the silica surface, it has no pores, smooth and homogeneous, while the chitosan-silica composite membrane of rice husk ash obviously has cracks and small cavities that seemed to spread out.

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of mucin secreted by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Mekkawy, Ahmed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin. Method: PMP mucin, from the three categories (soft, semi hard and hard mucin) was solubilised and then various physical characteristics such as turbidity, density, kinematic viscosity were measured. The water content and the density of solid mucin were also determined. This was followed by the determination of sialic acid, glucose, lipid, Thiol (S-S and S-H) content of the samples. Lastly, the distribution of MUC2, MUC5B and MUC5AC was determined using western blot technique. Results: Both turbidity and kinematic viscosity and sialic acid content increased linearly as the hardness of mucin increased. However, density, hydration, protein, glucose, lipid and sulfhydryl and disulphide content decreased linearly as hardness of mucin increased. The distribution ratio of mucins (MUC2:MUC5B:MUC5AC) in soft mucin is 2.25:1.5:1.0, semi hard mucin is 1:1:1 and hard mucin is 3:2:1. Conclusion: The difference in texture and hardness of mucin may be due to cellular content, hydration, glucose, protein, lipids, thiol and MUC distribution. Soft mucin is solely made of glycoprotein whilst the others contained cellular materials. PMID:28138305

  5. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  6. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Kengyelics, S M; Davies, A G

    2008-05-01

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H.

  7. Comparison of chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players by division and playing position.

    PubMed

    Köklü, Yusuf; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erol, A Emre; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players' CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players' (p≤0.05), whereas second division players' 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players' (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s(-1)(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs according to

  8. Positional physical characteristics of players drafted into the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the positional physical requirements necessary to be drafted into the National Football League (NFL), data from the annual NFL combine over the years 2005-2009 were examined. Only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,136) were included in the study. Data from 8 combine physical performance tests were examined for 15 positions. Combine measures evaluated for the center, cornerback, defensive end, defensive tackle, free safety, fullback, inside linebacker, offensive guard, offensive tackle, outside linebacker, quarterback, running back, strong safety, tight end, and wide receiver positions were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, the vertical and broad jumps, the 18.3-m shuttle run, the 3-cone drill, and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions and, from this, a predicted measure of 1 repetition maximum. A 1-way analysis of variance detected differences in all 9 performance measures (p < 0.01). Post hoc independent t-tests indicated that over most tests many positions exhibited outcomes significantly different from most other positions. Generally, lineman positions performed inferiorly in sprint, jump and change-of-direction ability measures and superiorly in the upper body strength measures. Conversely, defensive back positions were the worst performers in the upper body strength test, and wide receivers and defensive backs were the best performers in all other measures. In general, offensive and defensive positions that commonly compete directly against one another display similar physical characteristics. Any advantages (statistically significant and not) between positions in direct competition were consistently in favor of defensive positions. The results of the present research present position-specific profiles for each of 15 positions. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL.

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  10. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qobadi, Mina; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-01-01

    Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used in this study (n = 3794). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male) after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years), those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active) or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate) or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate) were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male) and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years) were less likely to be obese. PMID:28273824

  11. Physical and Radiative Characteristic and Long-term Variability of the Okhotsk Sea Ice Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishio, Fumihiko; Comiso, Josefino C.; Gersten, Robert; Nakayama, Masashige; Ukita, Jinro; Gasiewski, Al; Stanko, Boba; Naoki, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Much of what we know about the large scale characteristics of the Okhotsk Sea ice cover has been provided by ice concentration maps derived from passive microwave data. To understand what satellite data represent in a highly divergent and rapidly changing environment like the Okhotsk Sea, we take advantage of concurrent satellite, aircraft, and ship data acquired on 7 February and characterized the sea ice cover at different scales from meters to hundreds of kilometers. Through comparative analysis of surface features using co-registered data from visible, infrared and microwave channels we evaluated the general radiative and physical characteristics of the ice cover as well as quantify the distribution of different ice types in the region. Ice concentration maps from AMSR-E using the standard sets of channels, and also only the 89 GHz channel for optimal resolution, are compared with aircraft and high resolution visible data and while the standard set provides consistent results, the 89 GHz provides the means to observe mesoscale patterns and some unique features of the ice cover. Analysis of MODIS data reveals that thick ice types represents about 37% of the ice cover indicating that young and new ice types represent a large fraction of the ice cover that averages about 90% ice concentration according to passive microwave data. These results are used to interpret historical data that indicate that the Okhotsk Sea ice extent and area are declining at a rapid rate of about -9% and -12 % per decade, respectively.

  12. The physical characteristics of lyophilized tablets containing a model drug in different chemical forms and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Płaczek, Marcin; Klunder, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Orodispersible tablets, usually prepared using freeze-drying method, are becoming a popular drug formulation for patients who have difficulties swallowing solid dosage forms. The influence of drug solubility and concentration on the physical characteristics of lyophilized tablets composed of mannitol and gelatin was investigated. Phenobarbital and phenobarbital sodium were studied as model drugs. The tablets were analyzed for mechanical strength using a new method employing Instron, a material testing apparatus. For tablets containing phenobarbital in the form of sodium salt, better mechanical strength was demonstrated than for tablets prepared with water insoluble phenobarbital--acid form. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of the tablets indicate that plasticity and porosity were reduced when sodium phenobarbital was incorporated at a higher dose. Lyophilized tablets were not hygroscopic and only a small increase of tablet mass by 1% and 3% was observed after 4 weeks of storage at 40% and 60% RH, respectively. All formulations disintegrated in seconds in water, at a temperature of 37 degrees C.

  13. Perceived environment and physical activity: a meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J; Spence, John C; Mummery, W Kerry

    2005-01-01

    Background Several narrative reviews have been conducted on the literature examining environmental correlates of physical activity (PA). To date these reviews have been unable to provide definitive summaries of observed associations. This study utilizes meta-analytical techniques to calculate summaries of associations between selected environmental characteristics and PA. Methods Published studies were identified from electronic databases and searches of personal files. Studies were examined to determine the environmental constructs most frequently studied. Included studies (N = 16) examined at least one identified construct and determined associations between perceived environmental constructs and PA using logistic regression. Data were analyzed separately for crude and adjusted ORs using general-variance based fixed effect models. Results No significant associations emerged between environmental characteristics and PA using crude OR. The perceived presence of PA facilities (OR 1.20, 95% 1.06–1.34), sidewalks (OR 1.23, 95% 1.13–1.32), shops and services (OR 1.30, 95% 1.14–1.46) and perceiving traffic not to be a problem (OR 1.22, 95% 1.08–1.37) were positively associated with activity using adjusted ORs. Variance in PA accounted for by significant associations ranged from 4% (heavy traffic not a problem) to 7% (presence of shops and services). Conclusion Results of the meta-analysis support the relevance of perceived environmental characteristics for understanding population PA. These results should encourage the use of comprehensive ecological models that incorporate variables beyond basic demographic information. PMID:16138933

  14. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Lunging and Change of Direction Speed in Fencing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony; Bishop, Chris; Chavda, Shyam; Edwards, Mike; Brazier, Jon; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-08-01

    Turner, A, Bishop, C, Chavda, S, Edwards, M, Brazier, J, Kilduff, LP. Physical characteristics underpinning lunging and change of direction speed in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2235-2241, 2016-Lunge velocity (LV) and change of direction speed (CODS) are considered fundamental to success during fencing competitions; investigating the physical characteristics that underpin these is the aim of this study. Seventy fencers from the British Fencing National Academy took part and on average (±SD) were 16.83 ± 1.72 years of age, 178.13 ± 8.91 cm tall, 68.20 ± 9.64 kg in mass, and had 6.25 ± 2.23 years fencing experience. The relationship between anthropometric characteristics (height, arm span, and adductor flexibility) and measures of lower-body power (bilateral and unilateral countermovement jump height and reactive strength index) were examined in their ability to influence LV and CODS. In testing the former, fencers lunged (over a self-selected distance) to and from a force plate, where front leg impact and rear leg propulsive force were quantified; the lunging distance was divided by time to establish LV. Change of direction speed was measured over 12 m involving shuttles of between 2 and 4 m. Results revealed that LV and CODS averaged at 3.35 m·s and 5.45 seconds, respectively, and in both cases, standing broad jump was the strongest predictor (r = 0.51 and -0.65, respectively) of performance. Rear leg drive and front leg impact force averaged at 14.61 N·kg and 3 times body weight, respectively, with single leg jumps revealing an asymmetry favoring the front leg of 9 ± 8%. In conclusion, fencers should train lower-body power emphasizing horizontal displacement, noting that this seems to offset any advantage one would expect fencers of a taller stature to have. Also, the commonly reported asymmetry between legs is apparent from adolescence and thus also requires some attention.

  15. Physical, technical, and economic accessibility of resources and reserves need to be distinguished by grade: Application to the case of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P

    2017-01-15

    The amount of phosphorus in the total environment is finite, yet recent estimates suggest that more than enough phosphate ore resources exist in the lithosphere to meet future increases in demand during the next century. Still, it remains unclear how the accessibility of this resource stock - which is heterogeneous in terms of grade and location - will change as currently accessible resources are utilized, as extraction and processing technologies develop, and as the relative economic costs vary. This study uses an economic framework, the World Trade Model with Rectangular Choice-of-Technology, to link estimates of known geological resources of various grades with the technically and economically accessible reserves. Using the most recent public data on phosphate ore stocks and mining and technological capacity, this study estimates that the ~400,000teragrams (Tg) of known apatite ore (>1% P2O5 content) equate to ~110,000Tg when converted to potential reserves (~30% P2O5) using existing technologies, with over half of these remaining potential reserves converted from resources with grades below 20% P2O5. Corresponding global reserves are estimated at ~70,000Tg using the Rectangular Choice-of-Technology model, but since any reserve estimate is contingent on the state of the world economy, a set of five illustrative scenarios are constructed to show how this estimate can vary between ~67,000 and ~98,000Tg with only a small number of changes to the economic and technical parameters and variables. Calculating accessibility using consistent definitions for resources and reserves while distinguishing between grades not only creates a clearer picture of remaining non-renewable resources, but creates a framework that can be used to explore future geopolitical scenarios about ore availability, extraction technologies, supply networks, and global commodity prices.

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2006-07-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning is more common among people of low socioeconomic status (SES) and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether the SES inequalities in functioning can be explained by the SES differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 male and female civil servants, aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine (1) whether there were employment-grade (SES) differences in poor physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and (2) whether these SES differences were explained by work and family characteristics. In general, low control at work, high demands, low social support, short and long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning in both men and women. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of low-grade employees for poor physical functioning was 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-2.69) in comparison to high-grade employees. The grade difference was mildly attenuated, when adjusted for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.72)(1.20-2.47). The age-adjusted OR of the low-grade employees for poor mental functioning was 1.88 (1.29-2.74). The grade difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusted for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.51)(0.99-2.31). Among women, there were no significant grade-differences in poor physical and mental functioning. Although longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations, improvements in SES differences in work and family characteristics may be important for reducing SES inequalities in physical and mental functioning among Japanese men. The different patterns of SES inequalities in health between men and women deserve further research.

  17. Overweight in intellectually-disabled population: physical, behavioral and psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mikulovic, Jacques; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Salleron, Julia; Marcellini, Anne; Compte, Roy; Fardy, Paul Stephen; Bui-Xuan, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Intellectually disabled (ID) people are at high risk of overweight and obesity. Prevalence and risk factors were assessed in a French population of ID adults attending specialized institutions, using a questionnaire focusing on demographic characteristics, physical activities, food habits and self-awareness about body and health. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate regression. Overall, 570 participants were included in the analysis (59% male), aged 19-59 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 kg/m(2); 45.6% of participants were overweight (BMI ≥ 25), including 17.2% who were obese (BMI ≥ 30). Participants practiced sports for 5.7h/week on average and were sedentary for 21.8h/week (time spent in front of some kind of screen). Most participants had food and self-care habits usually regarded as healthy. Eighty percent of them felt unhappy with their body and their physical capacities, but otherwise expressed a rather good opinion of themselves. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that some behavioral habits were associated with a reduced incidence of overweight and/or obesity, such as regular sport practice outside the institution, good personal body care or alcohol avoidance. The strongest risk factor was gender. Women were much more at risk than men of being overweight (53.9% versus 39.9%) and obese (28.2% versus 9.5%). Results suggest numerous ways to improve the health of institutionalized ID adults, related to sports education, nutrition and self-care, with particular attention paid to women.

  18. Orbital and physical characteristics of meter-scale impactors from airburst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Wiegert, P.; Clark, D.; Tagliaferri, E.

    2016-03-01

    We have analyzed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of 59 Earth-impacting fireballs, produced by meteoroids 1 m in diameter or larger, described here as meter-scale. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we determine that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in strengths of the population of meter-scale impactors at the Earth. We use fireballs producing recovered meteorites and well documented fireballs from ground-based camera networks to calibrate our ablation model interpretation of the observed peak height of luminosity as a function of speed. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. This is in contrast to earlier suggestions by Ceplecha (Ceplecha, Z. [1994]. Astron. Astrophys. 286, 967-970) that the majority of meter-tens of meter sized meteoroids are ;… cometary bodies of the weakest known structure;. We find a lower limit of ∼10-15% of our objects have a possible cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, also show evidence for weaker than average structure. Two events, Sumava and USG 20131121, have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though both were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several events in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex; no other major meteoroid streams show probable linkages to the orbits of our meter-scale population. Our impactors cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but

  19. Dispersion states and surface characteristics of physically blended polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polymer hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Rahul

    Control of dispersion and segregation states of nanostructured additives is one of the biggest challenges in realizing the optimum potential of high performance hybrid polymer nanocomposites. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals, with their hybrid organic-inorganic nature and flexible functionalization with a variety of organic substituents, yield possibilities to control dispersion and tune compatibility in a wide range of polymer systems. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the fundamental parameters that influence the dispersion and segregation states of POSS nanostructured chemicals, and to understand chain dynamics and conformations in physically blended POSS hybrid polymer nanocomposites (HPNC's). Multiple structural and mechanical factors influencing macro to nano scale surface and bulk properties were successfully investigated and correlated. A strategy based on thermodynamic principles for selective control of POSS dispersion states in a given polymer matrix is developed and discussed. This dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides a detailed introduction about the development and current research interest in POSS/polymer nanocomposites. This chapter also discusses limitations of current advanced nanoprobe techniques. Chapter 2 establishes the overall goal of this research and specific research ii objectives. Chapter 3 establishes the preferential surface migration behavior of physically dispersed, non-reactive, closed cage octaisobutyl POSS (Oib-POSS) in a non-polar polypropylene matrix. Furthermore, influence of POSS surface segregation on the surface properties, especially nano-tribomechanical behavior is also discussed. Chapter 4 expands the studies by melt blending two different types of POSS molecules, a non-reactive, closed cage Oib-POSS and an open cage trisilanolphenyl POSS (Tsp-POSS), in a nylon 6 matrix. This chapter discusses the morphology, nano-dispersion and macro- to

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  1. Physical Activity Characteristics across GOLD Quadrants Depend on the Questionnaire Used

    PubMed Central

    Demeyer, Heleen; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hornikx, Miek; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Boer, Willem I.; Karlsson, Niklas; de Jong, Corina; Van der Molen, Thys; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Troosters, Thierry; Polkey, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The GOLD multidimensional classification of COPD severity combines the exacerbation risk with the symptom experience, for which 3 different questionnaires are permitted. This study investigated differences in physical activity (PA) in the different GOLD quadrants and patient’s distribution in relation to the questionnaire used. Methods 136 COPD patients (58±21% FEV1 predicted, 34F/102M) completed COPD assessment test (CAT), clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) questionnaire. Exacerbation history, spirometry and 6MWD were collected. PA was objectively measured for 2 periods of 1 week, 6 months apart, in 5 European centres; to minimise seasonal and clinical variation the average of these two periods was used for analysis. Results GOLD quadrants C+D had reduced PA compared with A+B (3824 [2976] vs. 5508 [4671] steps.d-1, p<0.0001). The choice of questionnaire yielded different patient distributions (agreement mMRC-CAT κ = 0.57; CCQ-mMRC κ = 0.71; CCQ-CAT κ = 0.72) with different clinical characteristics. PA was notably lower in patients with an mMRC score ≥2 (3430 [2537] vs. 5443 [3776] steps.d-1, p <0.001) in both the low and high risk quadrants. Conclusions Using different questionnaires changes the patient distribution and results in different clinical characteristics. Therefore, standardization of the questionnaire used for classification is critical to allow comparison of different studies using this as an entry criterion. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01388218 PMID:26974332

  2. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  3. Sensitivity of dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics of the particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, F. M.; Witham, C. S.; Hort, M. C.; Stevenson, J. A.; Bonadonna, C.; Millington, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of atmospheric dispersion model forecasts of volcanic ash clouds to the physical characteristics assigned to the particles. We show that the particle size distribution (PSD) used to initialise a dispersion model has a significant impact on the forecast of the mass loading of the ash particles in the atmosphere. This is because the modeled fall velocity of the particles is sensitive to the particle diameter. Forecasts of the long-range transport of the ash cloud consider particles with diameters between 0.1 μm and 100 μm. The fall velocity of particles with diameter 100 μm is over 5 orders of magnitude greater than a particle with diameter 0.1 μm, and 30 μm particles fall 88% slower and travel up to 5× further than a 100 μm particle. Identifying the PSD of the ash cloud at the source, which is required to initialise a model, is difficult. Further, aggregation processes are currently not explicitly modeled in operational dispersion models due to the high computational costs associated with aggregation schemes. We show that using a modified total grain size distribution (TGSD) that effectively accounts for aggregation processes improves the modeled PSD of the ash cloud and deposits from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. Knowledge of the TGSD of an eruption is therefore critical for reducing uncertainty in quantitative forecasts of ash cloud dispersion. The density and shape assigned to the model particles have a lesser but still significant impact on the calculated fall velocity. Accounting for the density distribution and sphericity of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, modeled particles can travel up to 84% further than particles with default particle characteristics that assume the particles are spherical and have a fixed density.

  4. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications.

  5. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Blue Earth River Basin, south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data describing the physical characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Blue Earth River basin, located in south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the basin, the percentage area of the basin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the basin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the mainchannel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least five square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations.

  6. A physics based investigation of Gurney flaps for enhancement of rotorcraft flight characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byung-Young

    Helicopters are versatile vehicles that can vertically take off and land, hover, and perform maneuver at very low forward speeds. These characteristics make them unique for a number of civilian and military applications. However, the radial and azimuthal variation of dynamic pressure causes rotors to experience adverse phenomena such as transonic shocks and 3-D dynamic stall. Adverse interactions such as blade vortex interaction and rotor-airframe interaction may also occur. These phenomena contribute to noise and vibrations. Finally, in the event of an engine failure, rotorcraft tends to descend at high vertical velocities causing structural damage and loss of lives. A variety of techniques have been proposed for reducing the noise and vibrations. These techniques include on-board control (OBC) devices, individual blade control (IBC), and higher harmonic control (HHC). Addition of these devices adds to the weight, cost, and complexity of the rotor system, and reduces the reliability of operations. Simpler OBC concepts will greatly alleviate these drawbacks and enhance the operating envelope of vehicles. In this study, the use of Gurney flaps is explored as an OBC concept using a physics based approach. A three dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed by the present investigator is coupled to an existing free wake model of the wake structure. The method is further enhanced for modeling of Blade-Vortex-Interactions (BVI). Loose coupling with an existing comprehensive structural dynamics analysis solver (DYMORE) is implemented for the purpose of rotor trim and modeling of aeroelastic effects. Results are presented for Gurney flaps as an OBC concept for improvements in autorotation, rotor vibration reduction, and BVI characteristics. As a representative rotor, the HART-II model rotor is used. It is found that the Gurney flap increases propulsive force in the driving region while the drag force is increased in the driven region. It is concluded that the deployable

  7. Drug intelligence based on MDMA tablets data: 2. Physical characteristics profiling.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Raymond; Weyermann, Céline; Delaporte, Céline; Esseiva, Pierre; Aalberg, Laura; Besacier, Fabrice; Bozenko, Joseph S; Dahlenburg, Rainer; Kopper, Carola; Zrcek, Frantisek

    2008-06-10

    One of the tasks of the European project entitled "Collaborative Harmonisation of Methods for Profiling of Amphetamine Type Stimulants" (CHAMP) funded by the sixth framework programme of the European Commission was to develop a harmonised methodology for MDMA profiling and the creation of a common database in a drug intelligence perspective. Part I was dedicated to the analysis of organic impurities formed during synthesis in order to investigate traffic tendencies and highlight potential links between samples, whereas this part focuses on physical characteristics of the MDMA tablets. Diameter, thickness, weight and score were demonstrated to be reliable and relevant features in this drug intelligence perspective. Distributions of samples coming from the same post-tabletting batch (post-TB) and samples coming from different post-TB were very well discriminated by using the squared Euclidean or the Manhattan distance on standardised data. Our findings demonstrated the possibility to discriminate between MDMA samples issued from different post-TB and to find out links between samples coming from a same post-TB. Furthermore, the hypothesis that most of the MDMA samples found on the international market come from the same countries was supported.

  8. Physical characteristics of Cenaturs and trans-Neptunian objects from combined K2 and Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Csaba; Pal, Andras; Farkas Anikó, Takácsné; Marciniak, Anna; Mueller, Thomas G.; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Szabo, Gyula M.; Szabo, Robert; Sarneczky, Krisztian; Molnar, Laszlo

    2016-10-01

    Here we present the results of a comprehensive rotational and radiometric analysis of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) observed with the Kepler Space Observatory in the K2 mission and earlier with the Herschel Space Observatory at infrared wavelengths. The combined optical light curves and thermal emission data revealed a slow rotation rate of ~45h for the large Kuiper belt object 2007 OR10, and we obtained a diameter of ~1535 km that makes 2007 OR10 the third largest TNO after Pluto and Eris. The large size also implies a relatively dark surface, unusual among the dwarf planets in the outer Solar system. We also present rotational curves, physical characteristics and shape models for the Centaur 2002 KY14, for three Classical Kuiper belt objects, 1998 SN165, 2001 QT322 and 2003 QW90, and for two resonant TNOs, 2001 YH140 and 2005 RS43. In the case of 2003 QW90, 2001 YH140 and 2005 RS43 our results are based on so far unpublished thermal emission data from Herschel and Spitzer observations.

  9. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    PubMed

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes.

  10. Predictors of race time in male Ironman triathletes: physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether physical characteristics, training, or prerace experience were related to performance in recreational male Ironman triathletes using bi- and multivariate analysis. 83 male recreational triathletes who volunteered to participate in the study (M age 41.5 yr., SD = 8.9) had a mean body height of 1.80 m (SD = 0.06), mean body mass of 77.3 kg (SD = 8.9), and mean Body Mass Index of 23.7 kg/m2 (SD = 2.1) at the 2009 IRONMAN SWITZERLAND competition. Speed in running during training, personal best marathon time, and personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon were related to the Ironman race time. These three variables explained 64% of the variance in Ironman race time. Personal best marathon time was significantly and positively related to the run split time in the Ironman race. Faster running while training and both a fast personal best time in a marathon and in an Olympic distance triathlon were associated with a fast Ironman race time.

  11. Effects of physical characteristics and residence style on alignment of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangwon; Park, Hye-Sang

    2016-04-01

    This research was performed to identify the incidence of deformity of lower extremity and to identify the relationship of the incidence between the deformities. Once the incidences and relationship are found, next purpose was to find the effects of physical characteristics and residence styles on the development of lower extremity deformities. One hundred fifteen males and 108 females participated in this study. Data collecting was performed by questionnaire and visual postural evaluation. The incidence of genu varus was significantly high in standing-up life style compared to sitting-on life style (chi-square=8.28; P=0.004). However, the incidences of heel varus (chi-square=13.223; P=0.004) and femoral torsion (chi-square=19.347; P<0.0001) were significantly high in sitting-on life style than standing-up life style. The incidences of genu varus (chi-square=24.18; P<0.0001), heel varus (chi-square= 15.412; P<0.0001), and tibial torsion (chi-square=6.285; P<0.012) were significantly high in sitting-on life style compared to standing-up life style (P<0.05). The odd ratio result for sitting-on life style against standing-up life style showed 6.6 times significantly high relationship in femoral torsion (95% confidence range, 1.64-26.47) in men.

  12. Physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of aluminum nitride insulator coatings for fusion reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of various concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. Based on the requirements for an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the MHD pressure drop during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, AlN was selected as a candidate coating material for the Li self-cooled blanket concept. This report discusses the results from an ongoing study of physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of AlN electrical insulator coatings in a liquid Li environment. Details are presented on the AlN coating fabrication methods, and experimental data are reported for microstructures, chemistry of coatings, pretreatment of substrate, heat treatment of coatings, hardness data for coatings, coating/lithium interactions, and electrical resistance before and after exposure to lithium. Thermodynamic calculations are presented to establish regions of stability for AlN coatings in an Li environment as a function of O concentration and temperature, which can aid in-situ development of AlN coatings in Li.

  13. Determining Physical Characteristics of Coronal Loops Through Differential Emission Measure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schemlz, J. T.; Allen, J. D.; Hubbard, P. J.

    2001-05-01

    Through the use of differential emission measure curves for points along coronal loops on the limb, physical characteristics can be determined that will help further constrain current theoretical models. This study used data obtained from observations taken on 20 Apr 1998 and 13 Nov 1997 by both the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer and the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. Pixel coordinates were established for multiple points along each loop, and the intensities of different spectral lines were calculated for each pixel. Differential emission measures curves were constructed for each of the chosen points, and the density and pressure at each position was determined. Radiative and conductive losses are also calculated from the data. The arc length of the loop was measured and the temperature scale heights for specific ions were calculated and compared to the observed heights above the limb. A significant intensity is measured for the O V line at 629.73 angstroms with a peak formation temperature of T = .26 MK in both loops about 50 scale heights above the limb. In order to account for these O V intensities, the oxygen abundance must be enhanced by a factor of 10 to 40 above normal coronal values; or the cool end (below 1 MK) of the differential emission measure curves must turn up again, even for the pixels at the top of the loops, well off the limb.

  14. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, M.E.; Edelmann, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir, a main-stem, multipurpose reservoir on the Arkansas River, are described on the basis of data collected from 1985 through 1989. Water quality in the reservoir varies temporally and spatially as a result of seasonality of water quality in the Arkansas River, reservoir stratifi- cation, mixing and flow-through patterns, biological activity, and settling of particulate matter. Thermal stratification typically was strong from May into August. Fall turnover resulted in established well-mixed conditions throughout most of the reservoir from September or October into the spring. Water transparency increased downstream from the inflow as a result of settling of particulate matter. Anoxic conditions were measured in the hypolimnion on several occasions during the summer. The anoxic conditions resulted in relatively large releases of manganese from the bottom sediments into the water column. Concentrations of lead, mercury, and zinc in the bottom sediments were elevated compared to baseline values reported in the literature; metal-mine drainage in the upper Arkansas River Basin is a possible source of these metals. The median concentration of dissolved solids increased between the inflow and outflow from 224 milligrams per liter to 262 milligrams per liter. Phosphorus concentrations were low and potentially limiting to phytoplankton growth. Three species of phytoplankton that are associated with taste-and- odor problems in drinking-water supplies were observed at concentrations exceeding critical taste-and-odor threshold limits.

  15. Cardboard/sawdust briquettes as biomass fuel: Physical-mechanical and thermal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lela, B; Barišić, M; Nižetić, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper elaborates experimental analysis of cardboard/sawdust briquettes as a viable option for biomass fuel. Physical-mechanical and thermal characteristics of cardboard/sawdust briquettes were investigated. The influence of the main parameters on heating content was also examined through an ANOVA and regression analysis, i.e. pressure influence (that was applied in a punch-and-die process), cardboard/sawdust ratio influence and finally drying temperature influence. In order to find the maximum heating value, minimum ash content and maximum compressive strength optimization were done. The optimal values obtained for the studied briquetting process parameters are a compression force of 588.6 kN, a sawdust mass of 46.66% and a drying temperature of 22°C. According to the mathematical model obtained, these optimal values give a maximum higher heating value of 17.41 MJ/kg, a minimum ash content of 6.62% and a maximum compressive strength of 149.54 N/mm. Finally, Cardboard/sawdust briquettes showed potential for application as viable biomass fuel.

  16. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of compounds used in hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, William T; Domen, Jeremy K; Camarillo, Mary Kay; Sandelin, Whitney L; Borglin, Sharon

    2014-06-30

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF), a method to enhance oil and gas production, has become increasingly common throughout the U.S. As such, it is important to characterize the chemicals found in HF fluids to evaluate potential environmental fate, including fate in treatment systems, and human health impacts. Eighty-one common HF chemical additives were identified and categorized according to their functions. Physical and chemical characteristics of these additives were determined using publicly available chemical information databases. Fifty-five of the compounds are organic and twenty-seven of these are considered readily or inherently biodegradable. Seventeen chemicals have high theoretical chemical oxygen demand and are used in concentrations that present potential treatment challenges. Most of the HF chemicals evaluated are non-toxic or of low toxicity and only three are classified as Category 2 oral toxins according to standards in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals; however, toxicity information was not located for thirty of the HF chemicals evaluated. Volatilization is not expected to be a significant exposure pathway for most HF chemicals. Gaps in toxicity and other chemical properties suggest deficiencies in the current state of knowledge, highlighting the need for further assessment to understand potential issues associated with HF chemicals in the environment.

  17. Thiolate–Protected Gold Nanoparticles Via Physical Approach: Unusual Structural and Photophysical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yohei; Akita, Ikumi; Sumi, Taiki; Matsubara, Masaki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a novel physical approach for thiolate–protected fluorescent gold nanoparticles with a controlled size of the order of a few nanometers. This approach is based on a sputtering of gold into a liquid matrix containing thiolate ligand as a stabilizer at various concentrations, thus no reductant was used. The size of the gold nanoparticles was successfully controlled to range from 1.6 to 7.4 nm by adjusting the thiol concentrations. Surface plasmon absorption was observed in larger nanoparticles, but it was not observed in smaller ones. Such smaller nanoparticles fluoresced at around 670 nm with a small spectral shift according to their size, however, the diameter (1.6–2.7 nm) was very strange to show such red emission compared with photophysical characteristics of reported gold cluster or nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method. By detailed investigations using TEM, HAADF-STEM, XPS, and TGA, and size fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, we finally arrived at the plausible mechanism for the origin of unusual fluorescence property; the obtained gold nanoparticles are not single-crystal and are composed of aggregates of very small components such as multinuclear gold clusters or complexes. PMID:27427446

  18. Physical Model of Solar Activity Influence on Climate Characteristics of Troposphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodykh, S. I.; Zherebtsov, G. A.; Kovalenko, V. A.

    2009-10-01

    A new model of solar activity influence on the parameters of the terrestrial climate system is discussed. The main points of the model of solar activity effect on the terrestrial climate system are presented. The key conception of this model is the influence of heliogeophysical disturbances on the terrestrial climate system parameters controlling the energy flux going from the Earth to the space in polar regions. The model is based on the physical mechanism of the influence of heliogeophysical factors on climate characteristics and atmospheric circulation in high-latitude troposphere through atmospheric electricity. According to this model, the growth of solar activity results in the decrease of radiative cooling in high-latitude regions, increase of temperature of lower and middle troposphere, reorganization of the thermobaric field, decrease of the mean meridional gradient of temperature between polar and equatorial regions, which determine the meridional transportation of heat. The decrease of heat flow-out from low-latitude regions results in temperature increase in lower and middle latitude regions, and increase of heat content of the ocean and climate system. Some observational data are presented that confirm the proposed model.

  19. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  20. Stress Burden and Diabetes in Two American Indian Reservation Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Roubideaux, Yvette; Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Whitesell, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between psychosocial stress and diabetes in two American Indian reservation communities (Northern Plains and Southwest). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The American Indian Services Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP), a cross-sectional probability sample survey, interviewed 3,084 randomly selected members of two American Indian tribal groups. Included were a psychiatric epidemiological interview, a physical health problems checklist, and an extensive sociodemographic section. RESULTS Stress was common in these reservation communities, and the stress burden was greater among those with diabetes. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, early-life interpersonal trauma and community family dysfunction were significantly associated with increased odds of diabetes in the Northern Plains, while discrimination and community addiction problems were significantly associated with increased odds of diabetes in the Southwest. CONCLUSIONS A number of psychosocial stresses were significantly associated with increased odds of self-reported diabetes in these two American Indian communities. PMID:18070997

  1. Establishment of Nature Reserves in Administrative Regions of Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  2. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  3. Regional variation in the biogeochemical and physical characteristics of natural peatland pools.

    PubMed

    Turner, T Edward; Billett, Michael F; Baird, Andy J; Chapman, Pippa J; Dinsmore, Kerry J; Holden, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Natural open-water pools are a common feature of northern peatlands and are known to be an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Pool environmental variables, particularly water chemistry, vegetation community and physical characteristics, have the potential to exert strong controls on carbon cycling in pools. A total of 66 peatland pools were studied across three regions of the UK (northern Scotland, south-west Scotland, and Northern Ireland). We found that within-region variability of pool water chemistry was low; however, for many pool variables measured there were significant differences between regions. PCA analysis showed that pools in SW Scotland were strongly associated with greater vegetative cover and shallower water depth which is likely to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mineralisation rates, whereas pools in N Scotland were more open and deeper. Pool water DOC, particulate organic carbon and dissolved CH4 concentrations were significantly different between regions. Pools in Northern Ireland had the highest concentrations of DOC (mean=14.5 mg L(-1)) and CH4 (mean=20.6 μg C L(-1)). Chloride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in the pools in N Scotland (mean values 26.3 and 2.40 mg L(-1), respectively) than elsewhere, due to a stronger marine influence. The ratio of UV absorbance at 465 nm to absorbance at 665 nm for pools in Northern Ireland indicated that DOC was sourced from poorly humified peat, potentially increasing the bioavailability and mineralisation of organic carbon in pools compared to the pools elsewhere. This study, which specifically aims to address a lack of basic biogeochemical knowledge about pool water chemistry, clearly shows that peatland pools are highly regionally variable. This is likely to be a reflection of significant regional-scale differences in peatland C cycling.

  4. Associations between demographic characteristics and physical activity practices in Nevada schools.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2017-02-01

    Schools are important settings for not only providing and promoting children's physical activity (PA) but also for reducing PA disparities. We investigated associations between school-level demographic characteristics (racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition, urban-rural status, and student-to-teacher ratio) and 16 PA-promoting practices in 347 Nevada public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2014. We found that low-cost and easy-to-implement practices are most prevalent. There is relative demographic equity in ten of 16 PA practices and significant differences in six PA practices in Nevada schools. Schools with comparatively larger percentages of Black students are the most disadvantaged, as they have the fewest PA-supportive practices in place. Higher percent black was associated with lower odds of providing classroom activity breaks (AOR=0.632, 95% CI=0.453-0.881) and bike racks (AOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.362-0.996), greater odds of withholding recess/PE for disciplinary reasons (AOR=1.377, 95% CI=1.006-1.885), and lower odds of having recess supervisors who are trained to promote PA (AOR=0.583, 95% CI=0.374-0.909). Schools with greater percentages of Hispanic students have lower odds of providing before-school PA programs (AOR=0.867, 95% CI=0.761-0.987), whereas schools with greater percentages of low-SES students have greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Higher student-to-teacher ratio was also associated with greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Urban-rural status was unrelated to all PA practices.

  5. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  6. Impact of Spatial Permeability Distribution Characteristics on Hyporheic Flow Using a Physical System and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonedahl, S. H.; Gibson, C.; Reiter, C.; Stonedahl, F.; Sawyer, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Permeability heterogeneity has been found to significantly affect the volume and speed with which water flows through the hyporheic zone. In this study we investigated how characteristics of spatial permeability distributions within a simple Tóthian system affected hyporheic flow both in physical and simulated domains. Our setup consisted of a 13x7x1 grid of two sediments with a divide bisecting the surface water and top middle cell creating two regions of constant head, which induced flow through the grid. Cells were filled with sand and sandy-gravel in a 2:1 ratio and positioned according to TProGS outputs. We ran a blue dye and salt solution through the system, recorded dye location using time-lapse photography, and measured the electrolytic conductivity as the water exited the system. We also calculated a grid of head values using MODFLOW and simulated flow through the system, yielding simulated dye-fronts, residence times, and exiting salt concentrations for the modeled system. We found strong agreement between the simulation and experimental procedure. We generated an additional 100 grids with the 2:1 sediment ratio for each of the transition probabilities 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0. We simulated these with 1, 2, and 3 order of magnitude differences in permeability values and used moving averages with varying window sizes to investigate the effect of the abruptness of transitions between sediment types. For these cases we compared cumulative residence time distributions, volumetric flux, and deviation from the normalized velocity field for homogenous sediment. We found that smoothing the transition between grid cells increased the volumetric flux, decreased the median residence times, and increased the deviation from a normalized homogenous velocity field. These effects were generally greater on grids created with larger transition probabilities and greater differences in K values.

  7. Physical characteristics and optical properties of PbS nanoclusters: DFT simulation and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanhua; Wen, Jianxiang; Sun, Xiaolan; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-08-01

    The physical characteristics and optical properties of PbS nanoclusters are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) of first-principles. Microstructure models of (PbS)n (n=1-9) nanoclusters and bulk materials are built on Materials Studio platform, and its energy band structures, highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap (HOMO-LUMO gap), density of state (DOS), and optical properties are calculated, respectively. Compared to PbS bulk materials, PbS nanoclusters show a discrete energy gap as well as the DOS, because of the quantum confinement effect. It is interesting that the HOMO-LUMO gap of (PbS)n (n=1-9) shows oscillates with the increasing of the n number. However, when its size is large enough, the HOMO-LUMO gap is gradually decrease with the increasing of size (>27 atoms). And, the HOMO-LUMO gap of PbS nanoclusters of different sizes is range from 2.575 to 0.58 eV, which covers the low loss communication band of optical communication. In addition, PbS nanomaterials (NMs) with small size are synthesized by using oleylamine as ligands. Sizes of PbS NMs can be accurately controlled through control of the reaction time as well as the growth temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra show strong size dependence, which is large red shift with increasing size of the NMs. This trend is basically in agreement with the theoretical calculation above. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further reveals the morphology of PbS NMs. PbS NMs can be used in optical fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers because of its unique optical properties in optical communication bands.

  8. Ontogenetic variation in chemical and physical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bringe, Katja; Schumacher, Christina F A; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2006-01-01

    composition of cuticular waxes are discussed in relation to the varying physical characteristics of the cuticle during ontogenesis of apple leaves.

  9. 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome: Physical Characteristics and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Colleen A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Paciorkowski, Alex P.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Dugan, Sarah L.; Rope, Alan F.; Bader, Patricia; Hendon, Laura G.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Osborne, Lucy R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to describe the physical characteristics, medical complications, and natural history of classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome [hereafter Dup7 (MIM 609757)], reciprocal duplication of the region deleted in Williams syndrome [hereafter WS (MIM 194050)], we systematically evaluated 53 individuals aged 1.25–21.25 years and 11 affected adult relatives identified in cascade testing. In this series, 27% of probands with Dup7 had an affected parent. Seven of the 26 de novo duplications that were examined for inversions were inverted; in all 7 cases one of the parents had the common inversion polymorphism of the WS region. We documented the craniofacial features of Dup7: brachycephaly, broad forehead, straight eyebrows, broad nasal tip, low insertion of the columella, short philtrum, thin upper lip, minor ear anomalies, and facial asymmetry. Approximately 30% of newborns and 50% of older children and adults had macrocephaly. Abnormalities were noted on neurological examination in 88.7% of children, while 81.6% of MRI studies showed structural abnormalities such as decreased cerebral white matter volume, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and ventriculomegaly. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were found in 62.3%, hypotonia in 58.5%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 74.2%, and Speech Sound Disorder in 82.6%. Behavior problems included anxiety disorders, ADHD, and oppositional disorders. Medical problems included seizures, 19%; growth hormone deficiency, 9.4%; patent ductus arteriosus, 15%; aortic dilation, 46.2%; chronic constipation, 66%; and structural renal anomalies, 18%. We compare these results to the WS phenotype and offer initial recommendations for medical evaluation and surveillance of individuals who have Dup7. PMID:26333794

  10. Explaining Performance on Military Tasks in the Canadian Armed Forces: The Importance of Morphological and Physical Fitness Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tingelstad, Hans Christian; Theoret, Daniel; Spicovck, Michael; Haman, Francois

    2016-11-01

    Several occupations apply physical fitness tests to assess occupational physical performance to confirm that their employees meet minimum physical employment standards. Knowledge about factors affecting performance on these physical fitness tests could provide valuable information concerning mode of training. The main purpose of this study was to determine which morphological and/or physiological characteristics could explain overall performance outcome on six complex military tasks used to measure Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members' occupational fitness. Measures of morphology (height, weight, and body composition) and physical fitness (grip strength, shuttle run time, and plank time etc.), together with performance on six common military tasks were recorded from female (n = 127) and male (n = 294) CAF members. Results showed large differences in both morphology and physical fitness between top and bottom performers in both the male and female group. Despite large differences in morphology, multiple linear regression analyses showed that measures of upper body strength and aerobic capacity could explain a large part of the performance variability in both the male and female group. This study showed that total performance on the CAF military physical fitness test is dependent on physical fitness rather than morphology.

  11. Atomic-Scale Investigation of Latent Fission Tracks in Fluorapatite: Physical Characteristics and Annealing Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tracy Anne

    1993-01-01

    A JEOL JEM-2000FX analytical transmission electron microscope, equipped with a cold stage and anticontamination device, has been used to study the physical characteristics and annealing behavior of artificially induced fission tracks in fluorapatite. Near the atomic level, unetched fission tracks are not continuous, but are comprised of segments of extended damage that are separated by gaps of undamaged microstructure. From dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it appears that the crystalline damage around tracks, although intensive, is not extensive. As such, the defect density may be represented by a Gaussian-type distribution function. The disordered nature of the track core and defect distribution geometry supports the Ion-Explosion Theory that has been proposed for track formation. TEM analysis reveals that track width is crystallographically controlled. Parallel to the c-axis, tracks display widths of 5 to 13 nm and hexagonal faceting on the (0001) plane. Tracks perpendicular to the c-axis display widths of 3 to 9 nm and prismatic faceting on the (1000) plane. The track cross-section facets mimic etch-pit morphologies and provide a relative measure of the crystal's surface free energy. A consequence of differential bond strengths and elastic properties in the fluorapatite structure, track-width anisotropy resolves etching- and annealing-rate anisotropy that has been reported for fission tracks in fluorapatite. TEM observation of the behavior of fission tracks in response to electron beam exposure (i.e., radiolytic annealing), and temperature increase (i.e., thermal annealing), yields a physical and a kinetic description of the annealing process. Annealing commences with bulging at the track's tapered ends, followed by detachment of a single sphere. This process is replicated until a critical track radius is encountered at which the track geometry approaches an ideal right cylinder. A sinusoidal boundary develops at the track

  12. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. Method A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI −3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. Results In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. Conclusions The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different

  13. Effect of physical properties of Cu-Ni-graphite composites on tribological characteristics by grey correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiran; Gao, Yimin; Sun, Liang; Li, YeFei; Zheng, Baochao; Zhai, Wenyan

    Cu-Ni-graphite composites are intended for using as switch slide baseplates materials in high-speed railways industrials. The tribological characteristics of Cu-Ni-graphite composites with different graphite content were affected by physical properties and were generated variation correspondingly. It is difficult to study the correlation degree between tribological characteristics and physical properties by the means of experiments. However, grey correlation analysis (GCA) is a suitable mathematic method for researching the correlation with each factor. In this study, Cu-Ni-graphite composites were prepared by powder metallurgy and the correlation degree between tribological characteristics (Cu-Ni-graphite composites slid against U75V steel) and physical properties were calculated by GCA method. The results showed that through the calculating by GCA method, compared with physical properties of Cu-Ni-graphite composites, the most effective way to reduce the friction coefficient is to improve the relative density as well as the increasing of hardness can also bring down the friction coefficient usefully. The best way to reduce wear rate is the increasing of work of rupture and flexural strength, when these two properties have a small amount of ascension, the wear rate would be rapidly decreasing. The GCA results could help to improve materials' performance and give reasonable advices to the following studies.

  14. Physical and structural characteristics of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol)-alginate conjugates.

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Pinhas, Maya; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2011-07-01

    Transmucosal delivery of therapeutic agents is a non-invasive approach that utilizes human entry paths such as the nasal, buccal, rectal and vaginal routes. Mucoadhesive polymers have the ability to adhere to the mucus layer covering those surfaces and by that promote drug release, targeting and absorption. We have recently demonstrated that acrylated polymers display enhanced mucoadhesive properties due to their ability to covalently attach to mucus type glycoproteins. We have synthesized an acrylated poly(ethylene glycol)-alginate conjugate (alginate-PEGAc), a molecule which combines the gelation ability of alginate with the mucoadhesion properties arising from both the characteristics of poly(ethylene glycol) and the acrylate functionality. In the current investigation we introduce an in-depth characterization of the thermal, mechanical and structural properties of alginate-PEGAc aimed at gaining a better knowledge of its structure-function relations. The thermal stability, evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, was compared with that of alginate and the intermediate product thiolated alginate. Dehydration at temperatures up to 200 °C was detected for all samples, followed by distinctive decomposition steps arising from the decomposition of the polymer backbone and side-chains. The nanostructure of the solutions and gels was evaluated from small angle X-ray scattering patterns, to which the "broken rod linked by flexible chain" model was fitted, and from rheology measurements. The maxima arising from electrostatic repulsion between the highly charged alginate chains was diminished for both modified alginate samples, suggesting that modification led to electrostatic screening. Alginate, thiolated alginate and alginate-PEGAc cross-linked with calcium ions demonstrated similar scattering patterns. However, different scattering intensities, gel strengths, and gelation kinetics were observed, suggesting a decrease in the

  15. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal

  16. Sex differences in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-12-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations.

  17. Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics in Habitats of High and Low Presence of Anopheline Larvae in Western Kenya Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Ndenga, Bryson A.; Simbauni, Jemimah A.; Mbugi, Jenard P.; Githeko, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Characteristics of aquatic habitats determine whether mosquitoes will oviposit, hatch, develop, pupate and successfully emerge into adults or not, thus influencing which mosquito species will occupy a habitat. This study determined whether physiochemical and biological characteristics differ between habitats with high and low presence of anopheline larvae. Methods Physical, chemical and biological characteristics were evaluated in selected habitats twice per month within three highland valleys in western Kenya. Aquatic macro-organisms were sampled using a sweep-net. Colorimetric methods were used to determine levels of iron, phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and nitrite in water samples. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was used to compare parameters between the two categories of anopheline presence. Results Habitats with high anopheline presence had greater abundance of mosquito aquatic stages and tadpoles and two times more levels of nitrate in water, whereas habitats with low anopheline presence had wider biofilm cover and higher levels of iron in water. Conclusion Habitats of high and low presence of anopheline larvae, which differed in a number of physical, chemical and biological characteristics, were identified in valleys within western Kenya highlands. Differences in habitat characteristics are critical in determining the number of anopheline larvae that will fully develop and emerge into adults. PMID:23110145

  18. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  19. Cultural Factors in Decision-Making about Child Physical Abuse: Identifying Reporter Characteristics Influencing Reporting Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…

  20. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  1. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Middle Minnesota - Little Cottonwood River Basin, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    1997-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Middle Minnesota-Little Cottonwood River Basin, located in south-central Minnesota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  2. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River Basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  3. Physical properties, evaporation and combustion characteristics of nanofluid-type fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanvir, Saad

    Nanofluids are liquids with stable suspension of nanoparticles. Limited studies in the past have shown that both energetic and catalytic nanoparticles once mixed with traditional liquid fuels can be advantageous in combustion applications, e.g., increased energy density and shortened ignition delay. Contradictions in existing literature, scarcity of experimental data and lack of understanding on how the added nanoparticles affect the physical properties as well as combustion characteristics of the resulting fuel motivated us to launch a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation. The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended nanoparticles were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size. This is because the Van der Waals forces between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy that overcomes any electrostatic repulsion between the particles and increases surface tension. This present work also reports experimental analysis of the latent heat of vaporization ( Hfg) of nanofluids. Results show that the addition of Ag and Fe nanoparticles in water results is a substantial reduction in Hfg. On the contrary Al addition slightly increases Hfg. Similar observations are made for ethanol based nanofluids. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the strength of bonding between particles and the fluid molecules is the governing factor in the variation of Hfg upon particle addition. The thermal conductivity was measured using KD2-Pro from Decagon Devices based on the transient line heat source method. The rheological properties of the ethanol and ethanol/nanoparticles suspensions are measured using a StresstechRTM rotational rheometer. Both properties increased with increasing particle concentration. Trends are found to be consistent

  4. Characteristics of 'tween' participants and non-participants in the VERB™ summer scorecard physical activity promotion program.

    PubMed

    Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L; McDermott, Robert J; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Bryant, Carol A; Baldwin, Julie A

    2011-04-01

    Creating community-based opportunities for youth to be physically active is challenging for many municipalities. A Lexington, Kentucky community coalition designed and piloted a physical activity program, 'VERB™ summer scorecard (VSS)', leveraging the brand equity of the national VERB™--It's What You Do! campaign. Key elements of VSS subsequently were adopted in Sarasota County, FL. This study identified characteristics of Sarasota's VSS participants and non-participants. Students in Grades 5-8 from six randomly selected public schools completed a survey assessing VSS participation, physical activity level, psychosocial variables, parental support for physical activity and demographics. Logistic regression showed that VSS participants were more likely to be from Grades 5 to 6 versus Grades 7 and 8 [odds ratio (OR) = 6.055] and perceive high versus low parental support for physical activity (OR = 4.627). Moreover, for each unit rise in self-efficacy, the odds of VSS participation rose by 1.839. Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) analysis suggested an interaction effect between grade and school socioeconomic status (SES), with a large proportion of seventh and eighth graders from high SES schools being non-participants (76.6%). A VSS-style program can be expected to be more effective with tweens who are younger, in a middle SES school, having high self-efficacy and high parental support for physical activity.

  5. Does the Effect of a Physical Activity Behavioral Intervention Vary by Characteristics of People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pilutti, Lara A.; Klaren, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral interventions have significantly increased physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, there has been interindividual variability in the pattern and magnitude of change. This study documented the efficacy and variability of a behavioral intervention for changing physical activity and examined the possibility that efficacy varied by the characteristics of individuals with MS. Methods: Eighty-two people with MS were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: behavioral intervention (n = 41) or waitlist control (n = 41). We collected information before the study on MS type, disability status, weight status based on body-mass index, and current medications. Furthermore, all participants completed the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the abbreviated International Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 1 week to measure minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity before and after the 6-month intervention period. Results: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that participants in the behavioral intervention had significantly higher levels of physical activity than control participants after the 6-month period (P < .001). There was substantial interindividual variability in the magnitude of change, and ANCOVA indicated that MS type (relapsing vs. progressive) (P < .01), disability status (mild vs. moderate) (P < .01), and weight status (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) (P < .05) moderated the efficacy of the behavioral intervention. Conclusions: The behavioral intervention was associated with improvements in physical activity, particularly for those with mild disability, relapsing-remitting MS, or normal weight status. PMID:25892976

  6. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured.

  7. Reduced functional loads alter the physical characteristics of the bone-PDL-cementum complex

    PubMed Central

    Niver, Eric L.; Leong, Narita; Greene, Janelle; Curtis, Donald; Ryder, Mark I.; Ho, Sunita P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adaptive properties of the bone-PDL-tooth complex have been identified by changing the magnitude of functional loads using small-scale animal models such as rodents. Reported adaptive responses as a result of lower loads due to softer diet include decreased muscle development, change in structure-function relationship of the cranium, narrowed PDL-space, changes in mineral level of the cortical bone and alveolar jaw bone, and glycosaminoglycans of the alveolar bone. However, the adaptive role of the dynamic bone-PDL-cementum complex due to prolonged reduced loads has not been fully explained to date, especially with regards to concurrent adaptations of bone, PDL and cementum. Hence, the temporal effect of reduced functional loads on physical characteristics such as morphology and mechanical properties, and mineral profiles of the bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-cementum complex using a rat model was investigated. Materials and Methods Two groups of six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed nutritionally identical food with a stiffness range of 127–158N/mm for hard pellet or 0.32–0.47N/mm for soft powder forms. Spatio-temporal adaptation of the bone-PDL-cementum complex was identified by mapping changes in: 1) PDL-collagen orientation and birefringence using polarized light microscopy, bone and cementum adaptation using histochemistry, and bone and cementum morphology using micro X-ray computed tomography, 2) mineral profiles of the PDL-cementum and PDL-bone interfaces by X-ray attenuation, and 3) microhardness of bone and cementum by microindentation of specimens at ages six, eight, twelve, and fifteen weeks. Results Reduced functional loads over prolonged time resulted in 1) altered PDL orientation and decreased PDL collagen birefringence indicating decreased PDL turnover rate and decreased apical cementum resorption; 2) a gradual increase in X-ray attenuation, owing to mineral differences, at the PDL-bone and PDL-cementum interfaces without

  8. Assessment of differences in physical watershed characteristics between gaged and ungaged portions of the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. S.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.; Kult, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of hydrologic response in ungaged basins often relies on regression relationships between physical watershed characteristics in gaged basins and either calibrated rainfall-runoff model parameters or model-independent hydrologic response indices (e.g. runoff, runoff ratio, baseflow index, etc.). Predictive skill using these types of modeling approaches may be compromised when watershed characteristics in the ungaged areas are substantially different from those in the gaged areas used to establish the regression relationships. In the case of the Great Lakes basin, regionalization may be complicated by characteristics unique to coastal regions. For example, coastal regions of the Great Lakes contain eight large urbanized metro areas (Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Windsor, Toronto, and Buffalo), unique coastal wetland areas, and distinctive meteorological conditions (e.g. lake effect snow). This research investigates the extent to which a set of physical watershed characteristics may vary between gaged (inland) and ungaged (coastal) portions of the Great Lakes basin and therefore complicate regionalization schemes. The work is conducted alongside development of a new regionalization scheme for simulating discharge to the Great Lakes.

  9. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  10. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  11. Public Parks in Hong Kong: Characteristics of Physical Activity Areas and Their Users

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sit, Cindy H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Public parks, salient locations for engaging populations in health promoting physical activity, are especially important in high-density cities. We used the System for Observing Physical Activity in Communities (SOPARC) to conduct the first-ever surveillance study of nine public parks in Hong Kong (288 observation sessions during 36 weekdays and 36 weekend days) and observed 28,585 visitors in 262 diverse areas/facilities. Parks were widely used throughout the day on weekdays and weekend days and across summer and autumn; visitor rates were among the highest seen in 24 SOPARC studies. In contrast to other studies where teens and children dominated park use, most visitors (71%) were adults and seniors. More males (61%) than females used the parks, and they dominated areas designed for sports. Over 60% of visitors were observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a rate higher than other SOPARC studies. Facilities with user fees were less accessible than non-fee areas, but they provided relatively more supervised and organized activities. Assessing parks by age, gender, and physical activity can provide useful information relative to population health. This study not only provides information useful to local administrators for planning and programming park facilities relative to physical activity, but it also provides a baseline for comparison by other high-density cities. PMID:27367709

  12. Influence of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on the physical and mental status of software engineers.

    PubMed

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Karita, Kanae; Nomura, Kyoko; Yano, Eiji

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the impact of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on physical and mental status, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 377 workers (average age; 28 years old) in an information-technology (IT) company, engaged in consultation, system integration solution, and data management relevant to IT system. The psychophysical outcomes of overtime work were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), Profile of Mood Status (POMS), major physical symptoms, and overtime work data for the preceding three-months. Sleep duration was directly asked by a physician. A job strain index was defined as the ratio of job-demands to job-control scores evaluated using the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). In a univariate analysis, overtime work was significantly related with HDS scores, POMS anger-hostility scores, and the total physical symptom count in both sexes (all p < 0.05), but not in multiple regression models, after controlling for sleep duration and the job strain index. Sleep duration was negatively related to the symptom count in men and to POMS tension-anxiety scores in women (both p < 0.05); the job strain index was positively related to POMS anger-hostility scores in both sexes and to HDS scores and POMS tension-anxiety scores in men (all p < 0.05). Although overtime work was associated with physical and mental complaints, sleep duration and the job strain index seemed to be better indicators for physical and mental distress in overloaded workers.

  13. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended.

  14. Mass modeling of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit with some physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Feizollah; Rahmati, Satar

    2013-03-01

    Horticultural crops with the similar weight and uniform shape are in high demand in terms of marketing value, which are used as food. For proper design of grading systems, important relationships among the mass and other properties of fruits such as length, width, thickness, volumes, and projected areas must be known. The aim of this research was to measure and present some physical properties of fig fruits. In addition, Linear, Quadratic, S-curve, and Power models are used for mass predication of fig fruits based on measured physical properties. The results showed that all measured physical properties were statistically significant at the 1% probability level. For mass predication of fig fruits, the best and the worst models were obtained based on criteria projected area and thickness of the fruits with determination coefficients (R (2)) of 0.984 and 0.664, respectively. At last, from economical standpoint, mass modeling of fig fruits based on first projected area is recommended.

  15. [Comparative characteristics of physical development in rural and urban schoolchildren in the Krasnoyarsk region].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    We examined schoolchildren aged from 7 to 17 years: 2683 in Krasnoyarsk and 1552 in districts of Krasnoyarsk territory in order to study the level of their physical development. We performed somatometry (body mass and length measurements) and worked out comparative evaluation of harmony in physical development upon Ketle2 index (BM1 kg/m2). We found out that the majority of the tested schoolchildren show disharmony variants in physical development. Body mass deficit was registered more often in rural (26.8%), than in urban schoolchildren (15.4%; p < 0.001). Overweight was marked more often in urban (38.2%) than in rural schoolchildren (26.4%; p < 0.001). In 6.9% of urban and in 6.8% of rural schoolchildren the overweight approached the level, which is diagnosed as obesity.

  16. The Minicomputer System for Seat Reservations (MSRM),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-13

    MSRM minicomputer seat reservation system, which will be presented in this article . This conception is based on a completely dif- * ferent principle...results of an analysis of work carried out by the POLRES reservation office are presented in this article ; the analysis was carried out on the basis...at the end of the article . The Concept of the MSRM System As has already been mentioned, one of the characteristic features of the traditional seat

  17. Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…

  18. The Impact of Juror Characteristics and Victim Health Status on the Perception of Elder Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinstle, Terri L.; Hodell, Emily C.; Golding, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment investigated mock juror perceptions of elder abuse using a community sample from Lexington, Kentucky. Two-hundred six men and women ranging in age from 18 to 88 read a fictional criminal trial summary of a case of elder physical abuse (EPA) in which the accuser was described as healthy, frail, or confused. In addition, the influence…

  19. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher values in upper (+21.2%) and lower (+27.11%) limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421

  20. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLOROPLAST FRAGMENTS. APPLIED RESEARCH CONCERNING ARTIFICIAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloroplasts isolated from spinach leaves were physically fragmented and then fractionated by differential centrifugation. A high-activity fraction...high chlorophyll -to-protein ratio. Plastoquinone was present in high concentration. Extraction of plastoquinone from CF(20-50) inhibited Hill activity

  1. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  2. The Association between Program Characteristics and Enrollment in Postprofessional Doctorate Programs in Physical Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetmore, Stephanie W.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly three decades, there has been a shortage of doctoral-trained faculty and researchers in physical therapy and currently only a small number of programs offer an advanced doctoral degree in the field. Little is known about factors related to program choice for students in these programs. This study examined the following research problem:…

  3. Characteristics of dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 946 dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, were observed on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and surrounding lands in Kern County, California. Of these, 887 were typical subterranean dens located in 65 sections, and 59 were atypical dens in man-made structures located in 24 sections and in two pipe storage yards. Although the number of entrances to dens ranged between 1 and 17, most (90%) had six or fewer entrances and the average, which did not differ between developed and undeveloped habitats, was 3.4. Entrances were significantly higher than wide, and 53% had ramp-shaped dirt berms. Dens had an average slope angle of 16.1/sup 0/ and more were found on slopes than in flats. Fewer dens faced the northwest quadrant and more faced the southern quadrant than expected. Evidence of kit foxes (tracks, scats, or prey remains) was observed at 80% of the dens, but 11% were not associated with kit fox sign (matted vegetation or trails) even though they were occupied. Human disturbances, most frequently roads, were observed in the immediate vicinity of 78% of the dens. Most (93%) atypical dens were in metal pipes, three were in buried wooden culverts, and one was under a concrete slab. 27 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  5. High Energy Moisture Characteristics: Linking Between Soil Physical Processes and Structure Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water storage and flow in soils is usually complicated by the intricate nature of and changes in soil pore size distribution (PSD) due to modifications in soil structure following changes in agricultural management. The paper presents the Soil High Energy Moisture Characteristic (Soil-HEMC) method f...

  6. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Beaulieu, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    During August 2000, responses of biological communities (invertebrates, fish, and algae), physical habitat, and water chemistry to urban intensity were compared among 30 streams within 80 miles of Boston, Massachusetts. Sites chosen for sampling represented a gradient of the intensity of urban development (urban intensity) among drainage basins that had minimal natural variability. In this study, spatial differences were used as surrogates for temporal changes to represent the effects of urbanization over time. The degree of urban intensity for each drainage basin was characterized with a standardized urban index (0-100, lowest to highest) derived from land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. Multivariate and multimetric analyses were used to compare urban index values with biological, physical, and chemical data to determine how the data indicated responses to urbanization. Multivariate ordinations were derived for the invertebrate-, fish-, and algae-community data by use of correspondence analysis, and ordinations were derived for the chemical and physical data by use of principal-component analysis. Site scores from each of the ordinations were plotted in relation to the urban index to test for a response. In all cases, the primary axis scores showed the strongest response to the urban index, indicating that urbanization was a primary factor affecting the data ordination. For the multimetric analyses, each of the biological data sets was used to calculate a series of community metrics. For the sets of chemical and physical data, the individual variables and various combinations of individual variables were used as measured and derived metrics, respectively. Metrics that were generally most responsive to the urban index for each data set included: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) taxa for invertebrates; cyprinid taxa for fish; diatom taxa for algae; bicarbonate, conductivity, and nitrogen for chemistry; and water depth and temperature

  7. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, J.F.; Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Beaulieu, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    During August 2000, responses of biological communities (invertebrates, fish, and algae), physical habitat, and water chemistry to urban intensity were compared among 30 streams within 80 miles of Boston, Massachusetts. Sites chosen for sampling represented a gradient of the intensity of urban development (urban intensity) among drainage basins that had minimal natural variability. In this study, spatial differences were used as surrogates for temporal changes to represent the effects of urbanization over time. The degree of urban intensity for each drainage basin was characterized with a standardized urban index (0?100, lowest to highest) derived from land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. Multivariate and multimetric analyses were used to compare urban index values with biological, physical, and chemical data to determine how the data indicated responses to urbanization. Multivariate ordinations were derived for the invertebrate-, fish-, and algaecommunity data by use of correspondence analysis, and ordinations were derived for the chemical and physical data by use of principal-component analysis. Site scores from each of the ordinations were plotted in relation to the urban index to test for a response. In all cases, the primary axis scores showed the strongest response to the urban index, indicating that urbanization was a primary factor affecting the data ordination. For the multimetric analyses, each of the biological data sets was used to calculate a series of community metrics. For the sets of chemical and physical data, the individual variables and various combinations of individual variables were used as measured and derived metrics, respectively. Metrics that were generally most responsive to the urban index for each data set included: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) taxa for invertebrates; cyprinid taxa for fish; diatom taxa for algae; bicarbonate, conductivity, and nitrogen for chemistry; and water depth and temperature

  8. Psychopathological characteristics of recovered bulimics who have a history of physical or sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, H; Kaye, W H; McConaha, C; Plotnicov, K; Pollice, C; Rao, R; Stein, D

    1999-08-01

    We sought to clarify the influence of a history of sexual or physical abuse on a variety of psychopathologies in subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). To avoid confounding effects, the presence of a history of sexual or physical abuse, lifetime axis I disorders, and personality disorders were assessed through direct structured interviews in 44 subjects recovered from BN for at least 1 year. Twenty abused subjects (45%) were significantly more likely than 24 subjects without abuse to have severe general psychopathology and eating disturbance. Compared with nonabused subjects, abused subjects showed a trend toward more frequent lifetime diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence. These results suggest that abusive experiences may be associated with some psychopathology of BN, particularly related to anxiety, substance abuse, and more severe core eating disorder pathology.

  9. Transmission Efficiency Measurements and Correlations with Physical Characteristics of the Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    Data from helicopter transmission efficiency tests were compared to physical properties of the eleven lubricants used in those tests. The tests were conducted with the OH-58 helicopter main rotor transmission. Efficiencies ranged from 98.3 to 98.8 percent. The data was examined for correlation of physical properties with efficiency. There was a reasonable correlation of efficiency with absolute viscosity if the viscosity was first corrected for temperature and pressure in the lubricated contact. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with viscosity at atmospheric pressure. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with calculated lubricant film forming capacity. Bench type sliding friction and wear measurements could not be correlated to transmission efficiency and component wear.

  10. Mapping Physical Characteristics of the Columbia River Mouth Using Transmittered Diving Waterbirds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    18 2 OBJECTIVES The objectives of this project are to: • Investigate the use of cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) as platforms to measure...conductivity, temperature, and depth across the MCR • Investigate the use of cormorants to collect river/sea bed imagery across the MCR • Collaborate with...bed form, or other physical features for the MCR. APPROACH The spatial distribution of individual foraging cormorants can be precisely mapped

  11. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Lac qui Parle River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Sanocki, C.A.; Winterstein, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Lac qui Parle River basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical charac- teristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length. and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  12. Design of endoscopic micro-robotic end effectors: safety and performance evaluation based on physical intestinal tissue damage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Dae-Eun; Yang, Sungwook; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2014-06-01

    During the last several years, legged locomotive mechanism has been considered as one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for future endoscopic microrobots due to its superior propulsion efficiency of an endoscopic microrobot inside the intestinal track. Nevertheless, its clinical application has been largely limited since the legged locomotive mechanism utilizes an end effector which has a sharp tip to generate sufficient traction by physically penetrating and interlocking with the intestinal tissue. This can cause excessive physical tissue damage or even complete perforation of the intestinal wall that can lead to abdominal inflammation. Hence, in this work two types of new end effectors, penetration-limited end effector (PLEE) and bi-material structured end effector (BMEE) were specially designed to acquire high medical safety as well as effective traction generation performance. The microscopic end effector specimens were fabricated with micro-wire electric discharge machining process. Traction generation performance of the end effectors was evaluated by direct measurement of resistance forces during contact-sliding tests using a custom-built contact-sliding tester. The safety of the end effector design was evaluated by examination of microscopic intestinal tissue damage using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Physical damage characteristics of the intestinal tissue and related contact physics of the end effectors were discussed. From the results, the end effectors were evaluated with respect to their prospects in future medical applications as safe end effectors as well as micro-surgical tools.

  13. Impacts of Discharge Reductions on Physical and Thermal Habitat Characteristics in a Desert Spring, Death Valley National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. R.; Stone, M. C.; Sada, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Desert springs are biodiversity hotspots that are sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Despite their importance, the effects of human disturbance on desert springs are not well known, and scarce information exists describing the biotic or environmental effects of incrementally increasing disturbance. The objective of this research was to quantify the influence of incremental reductions in discharge on the physical and thermal characteristics of a desert springbrook. This objective was accomplished through a combination of field experiments at Travertine Spring in Death Valley National Park, USA, and hydraulic/temperature modeling in order to: (1) quantify changes in physical characteristics of the springbrook channel and aquatic environment; (2) investigate the effects of reduced spring discharge on seasonal spatial temperature patterns; (3) delineate tipping points that exhibit a non-linear response to decreased flow. The study results supported our predictions that decreased discharge would modify physical habitat characteristics of the springbrook, reduce aquatic habitat volume, increase variability in water temperatures along the springbrook, and reduce springbrook suitability for invertebrates that require stable environments. Field observations revealed a significant relationship between water depth and flow velocity with reduced spring discharge. The rate of change of mean water depths, velocities, and habitat volumes were greatest with only a 10% reduction in spring flow. In addition, a non-linear temperature response to flow reductions was present under all modeled conditions. Generally, water temperature gradients increased as flows were decreased, and the sensitivity of reduced discharge increased with distance from the spring source. The degree of sensitivity was a function of season, which reflects the influence of ambient air temperature and wind in the cooling of the springbrook. These results suggest that habitat for species using stable thermal

  14. Using remote sensing to define environmental characteristics related to physical activity and dietary behaviours: a systematic review (the SPOTLIGHT project).

    PubMed

    Charreire, H; Mackenbach, J D; Ouasti, M; Lakerveld, J; Compernolle, S; Ben-Rebah, M; McKee, M; Brug, J; Rutter, H; Oppert, J-M

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review on the use of free geospatial services as potential tools to assess built environmental characteristics related to dietary behaviour and physical activity. We included 13 studies, all published since 2010 and conducted in urban contexts, with Google Earth and Google Street View as the two main free geospatial services used. The agreement between virtual and field audit was higher for items related to objectively verifiable measures (e.g. presence of infrastructure and equipment) and lower for subjectively assessed items (e.g. aesthetics, street atmosphere, etc.). Free geospatial services appear as promising alternatives to field audit for assessment of objective dimensions of the built environment.

  15. Physical and chemical characteristics of fluorinel/sodium calcine generated during 30 cm Pilot-Plant Run 17

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Kessinger, G.F.; Littleton, L.L.; Olson, A.L.

    1993-07-01

    The 30 centimeter (cm) pilot plant calciner Run 17, of March 9, 1987, was performed to study the calcination of fluroinel-sodium blended waste blended at the ratio 3.5:1 fluorinel to sodium, respectively. The product of the run was analyzed by a variety of analytical techniques that included X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to deduce physical and chemical characteristics. The analytical data, as well as data analyses and conclusions drawn from the data, are presented.

  16. Physical Characteristics, Geologic Setting, and Possible Formation Processes of Spring Deposits on Mars Based on Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.

    2003-01-01

    Spring formation is a predicted consequence of the interaction of former Martian aquifers with structures common to Mars, including basin margins, Tharsis structures, and other structural deformation characteristics. The arid environment and high abundance of water soluble compounds in the crust will have likewise encouraged spring deposit formation at spring sites. Such spring deposits may be recognized from morphological criteria if the characteristics of formation and preservation are understood. An important first step in the current Mars exploration strategy [10] is the detection of sites where there is evidence for past or present near-surface water on Mars. This study evaluates the large-scale morphology of spring deposits and the physical processes of their formation, growth, and evolution in terms that relate to (1) their identification in image data, (2) their formation, evolution, and preservation in the environment of Mars, and (3) their potential as sites of long-term or late stage shallow groundwater emergence at the surface of Mars.

  17. Hydrogeologic framework and characterization of the Truxton Aquifer on the Hualapai Reservation, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Macy, Jamie P.

    2016-12-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Interior Federal Indian Water Rights Negotiation Team, the Department of Justice, and the Hualapai Tribe, developed a study to determine the estimated groundwater in storage in the Truxton aquifer on the Hualapai Reservation in northwestern Arizona. This study is part of a water-rights negotiation by the Hualapai Tribe, the Department of the Interior, and the Department of Justice. The physical characteristics of the Truxton aquifer have not been very well characterized in the past. In particular, the depth to impermeable bedrock, thickness of the basin, and its groundwater storage capacity are known in only a few locations where water wells have penetrated to bedrock. Increasing water demands on the Truxton aquifer by both tribal and nontribal water users have led to concern about the long-term sustainability of this water resource. The Hualapai Tribe currently projects an increase of their water needs from about 300 acre-feet (acre-ft) per year to about 780 acre-ft per year by 2050 to support the community of Peach Springs, Arizona, and the southern part of the reservation. This study aims to quantitatively develop better knowledge of aquifer characteristics, including aquifer storage and capacity, using (1) surface resistivity data collected along transects; (2) analysis of existing geologic, borehole, precipitation, water use, and water-level data; and (3) estimated recharge.Results of the surface resistivity surveys indicate that the depth to bedrock along the survey lines varies from less than 100 feet (ft) to over 1,300 ft. This is consistent with the erosional character of the Truxton basin; deep paleochannels characterize the deeper parts of the basin. Borehole data from wells projected into the resistivity profiles verify the geophysical survey results. The estimated average saturated thickness of the Truxton aquifer on the Hualapai Reservation is about 300 ft, based on both resistivity

  18. X-ray and magnetic-field-enhanced change in physical characteristics of silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makara, V. A.; Steblenko, L. P.; Krit, A. N.; Kalinichenko, D. V.; Kurylyuk, A. N.; Naumenko, S. N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of low-energy ( W = 8 keV) low-dose ((0.3-7.3) × 102 Gy) radiation and a dc magnetic field ( B = 0.17 T) on structural, micromechanical, and microplastic characteristics of silicon crystals has been studied. The features in the dynamic behavior of dislocations in silicon crystals, which manifest themselves upon only X-ray exposure and combined (X-ray and magnetic) exposure, have been revealed.

  19. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  20. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P < 0.01) and some physical performance measures in strength and speed (P < 0.05). The lack of significant interaction effects revealed that during the three years of the study the elite players did not improve their physical performance more rapidly than the non-elites. Furthermore, they had a similar anthropometric profile to the non-elites. Elite players performed better on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test (P < 0.01; on average 24.0 in the youngest group and 25.2% in the oldest group over the three years) and on the speed and coordination items (P < 0.05; shuttle run: 3.6 and 5.1%; cross hopping: 11.0 and 14.8%, handball-specific shuttle run: 7.6 and 7.7%; slalom dribble test: 10.7 and 8.9%; sprint 30 m: 4.9 and 3.9%). Additionally, Yo-Yo performance and coordination with and without a ball were the most discriminating factors between the playing levels. In conclusion, youth coaches and scouts within team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  1. Clustering of strength, physical function, muscle and adiposity characteristics and risk of disability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cawthon, Peggy M.; Fox, Kathleen M.; Gandra, Shravanthi. R.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Anthony, Mary S.; Caserotti, Paolo; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Newman, Anne B.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Strength, physical performance, adiposity and lean mass may be independent risk factors for disability in older adults. The aim of this study was to empirically identify groupings of these interrelated measures and test how such groupings may relate to disability risk. Design Prospective Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) Setting Two US clinical centers Participants 1,263 women and 1,221 men Measurements Weight, strength (knee extension, grip); walking speed; chair stands; dual x-ray absorptiometry (fat and lean mass for total body, arm, and leg; percent fat); and thigh computed tomography scans (muscle area, muscle density). Analyses were stratified by sex. Factor analysis reduced these variables into a smaller number of components, and proportional hazards models assessed risk of major disability for the components identified. Results In both sexes, factor analysis reduced the 14 individual variables into three components that explained 76–77% of the data variance: Factor 1, an adiposity component, with strong loading by fat mass, weight and muscle density; Factor 2, a strength/lean body size component with strong loading by lean mass, weight and strength; Factor 3, a physical performance component with positive loading by walking speed and chair stands performance. Factor 1 (adiposity) and Factor 3 (performance), but not Factor 2 (strength/lean body size), were associated with disability over 6.1 (± 2.6 SD) years. Conclusion Adiposity and physical performance constructs, but not the strength/lean body size construct, were associated with disability risk, suggesting that adiposity and performance should be considered as risk factors for disability. PMID:21568948

  2. Laboratory measurements of physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of Lake Chicot sediment waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    Reflectance, chromaticity, diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of lake bottom sediment. Mixture concentrations range from 5 ppm to 700 ppm by weight of total suspended solids in filtered deionized tap water. Upwelled reflectance is a nonlinear function of remote sensing wave lengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are useful for monitoring highly turbid waters with sediment concentrations above 100 ppm. It is found that both visible and near infrared wavelengths, beam attenuation correlates well with total suspended solids ranging over two orders of magnitude.

  3. Locomotion characteristics and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, P; Madsen, K

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full-time players covered 3 945±538 m. The mean speed was 6.40±1.01 km · h - 1. High-intensity running constituted only 1.7±0.9% of TPT per match corresponding to 7.9±4.9% of the total distance covered. An average of 1 482.4±312.6 activity changes per player (n=82) with 53.2±14.1 high-intensity runs were observed per match. Total distance covered was greater in BP (3 765±532 m) and WP (3 641±501 m) than PV (3 295±495 m) (p<0.05), and WP performed more high-intensity running (10.9±5.7% of total distance covered) than PV (8.5±4.3%, p<0.05) and BP (6.2±3.2%, p<0.01). The amount of high-intensity running was lower (p<0.05) in the second (130.4±38.4 m) than in the first half (155.3±47.6 m) corresponding to a decrease of 16.2%.In conclusion, modern male elite TH is a complex team sport that comprises several types of movement categories, which during match-play place moderate-to-high demands on intermittent endurance running capacity and where the amount of high-intensity running may be high during brief periods of the match. Signs of fatigue-related changes were observed in terms of temporary impaired physical performance, since the amount of high-intensity running was reduced in the second half. Notably, physical demands differed between playing positions, with WP demonstrating a more intensive activity pattern than BP and PV, respectively.

  4. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volume CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r{sup 2} = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques.

  5. Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

    2001-11-01

    The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of base oils. Biodegradability decreased with increasing levels of aromatic and/or polar compounds in the tested oils. For most oils, the biodegradation percentage increased with the viscosity index, but was a decreasing function of the kinematic viscosity (KV), the pour point, the flash point (FP) and the refractive index (RI). Linear relationships between biodegradability and FP or RI values were observed. These results show that, beside chemical features such as the contents in polar and aromatic compounds, simple physical magnitudes such as KV and RI, commonly used to characterize lubricant properties, may be useful parameters for predicting the biodegradability of mineral base oils.

  6. Physical and performance characteristics of instruments selected for global change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-09-01

    The following appendix (appendix B) lists the instruments chosen for the Global Change Monitoring program. The instruments are described according to the following categories: (1) Title; (2) Measurement; (3) Contact; (4) Instrument Type; (5) Dimensions; (6) Mass; (7) Average Operational Power; (8) Data Rate; (9) Spectral/Frequency Range; (10) Number of Channels/Frequencies; (11) Viewing Field; (12) Scanning Characteristics; (13) Resolution (Horizontal/Vertical); (14) Swath Width; (15) Satellite Application; and (16) Technology Status. A technical drawing of each instrument is also provided.

  7. Characteristics, physical - geographical and climate of the basin Lumbardhi in Peja, Republic of Kosovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, Lavdim; Zeneli, Vildane; Komoraku, Alket

    2010-05-01

    Territory of the Republic of Kosovo has four river basins; basin "White Drini", "Ibar", "Morava e Binces" and "Lepenci". This paper deals: Orografic, hydro geological, geological and climatic characteristics. River basin of Peja "Lumbardhi" is branch of River basin " White Drini', all surface of the basin until shedding to the " White Drini" is 483.00km2 and extends toward east and west. Lumbardhi source of Peja is branch of Mount Çakorr. As right main branches are: River Bjeluha and lake Milishevci, whereas in the left side of river Boga and Alga. Key works: rainfall, air temperature, snow, air humidity, wind, evaporation.

  8. Physical and fluorescent characteristics of non-functionalized carbon nanoparticles from candle soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradip; Bohidar, H. B.

    2012-07-01

    Candle soot deposited on copper plate was collected, and dispersed in various organic solvents, and in water. These non-functionalized samples were probed with an array of experimental techniques. Results of energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the absence of metallic elements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed the presence of amorphous as well as graphitized carbon in these nanostructures with minimum grain size ≈2 nm. TEM data revealed the presence of 30 nm diameter spherical carbon nanoparticles and dynamic light scattering determined the average hydrodynamic diameter ≈120 nm in water, implying the packing of these nanoparticles into clusters. Raman spectroscopy showed characteristic peaks located at 1324 and 1591 cm-1 corresponding to the D (diamond) and G (graphite) phase of carbon with the characteristic ratio I D /I G ≈ 1.77, yielding 2.4 nm grain size consistent with XRD data. The electrophoresis measurements yielded mean zeta potential values ≈-22 mV in water. The UV-Vis absorption and photoluminiscence (PL) spectra were found to be independent of the solvent nature and polarity, with absorption bands located around 430, 405, 385, and 335 nm, and PL emission peaks lying in the region 390 to 465 nm. Average emission lifetime measured by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was observed to decrease with increase in solvent polarity for a particular excitation, and with increasing excitation wavelength in all solvents. It is shown that these nanoparticles have the potential to be used as green fluorescence probes.

  9. Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of surface sediments in the formation of shallow lake algae-induced black bloom.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng; Zhou, Qilin; Shang, Jingge; Zhang, Lei; Fan, ChengXin

    2013-12-01

    Surface sediments are closely related to lake black blooms. The dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution and its penetration depth in surface sediments as well as the migration and transformation of redox sensitive elements such as Fe and S at the sediment-water interface are important factors that could influence the formation of the black bloom. In this study, dredged and undredged sediment cores with different surface properties were used to simulate black blooms in the laboratory. The Micro Profiling System was employed to explore features of the DO and sigmaH2S distribution at the sediment-water interface. Physical and chemical characteristics in sediments and pore waters were also analyzed. The results showed that sediment dredging effectively suppressed the black blooms. In the undredged treatment, DO penetration depth was only 50 microm. Fe(2+) concentrations, sigmaH2S concentrations, and sigmaH2S production rates were remarkably higher in surface sediments and pore waters compared to control and dredged treatments. Furthermore, depletion of DO and accumulation of Fe(2+) and sigmaH2S in surface sediments and pore waters provided favorable redox environments and necessary material sources for the blooms. The study results proved that physical and chemical characteristics in surface sediments are important factors in the formation of the black bloom, and could provide scientific guidance for emergency treatment and long-term pre-control of black blooms.

  10. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2016-10-27

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH)2, KCl and SiO2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  11. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical performance of under-19 soccer players by competitive level and field position.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Maia, J; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; Figueiredo, A J; Bangsbo, J; Malina, R M; Seabra, A

    2013-04-01

    Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills of under-19 (U19) soccer players were compared by competitive level (elite, n=95; non-elite, n=85) and playing position (goalkeeper, central defender, fullback, midfield, forward). Fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, agility, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), strength and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2). Soccer-specific skills included ball control and dribbling. Independent of position, elite players presented more hours of training per year than non-elite players (d>1.2). Stature and body mass discriminated elite from non-elite players among goalkeepers and central defenders (d>0.6). Major differences were noted between elite and non-elite goalkeepers for SJ, CMJ, Yo-Yo IE2, and ball control (d>1.2). Elite central defenders performed better than their non-elite counterparts in SJ and ball control tests (d>1.2). Elite players presented better agility and Yo-Yo IE2 performances than non-elite players within all positional roles (d>0.6). In conclusion, U19 players differed in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills by competitive level within field positions.

  12. Odour sampling. 2. Comparison of physical and aerodynamic characteristics of sampling devices: a review.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N; Ayoko, G A

    2008-07-01

    Sampling devices differing greatly in shape, size and operating condition have been used to collect air samples to determine rates of emission of volatile substances, including odour. However, physical chemistry principles, in particular the partitioning of volatile substances between two phases as explained by Henrys Law and the relationship between wind velocity and emission rate, suggests that different devices cannot be expected to provide equivalent emission rate estimates. Thus several problems are associated with the use of static and dynamic emission chambers, but the more turbulent devices such as wind tunnels do not appear to be subject to these problems. In general, the ability to relate emission rate estimates obtained from wind tunnel measurements to those derived from device-independent techniques supports the use of wind tunnels to determine emission rates that can be used as input data for dispersion models.

  13. Present state of the Aral Sea: diverging physical and biological characteristics of the residual basins

    PubMed Central

    Izhitskiy, A. S.; Zavialov, P. O.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Kirillin, G. B.; Grossart, H. P.; Kalinina, O. Y.; Zalota, A. K.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Kurbaniyazov, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Latest data on the hydrophysical and biological state of the residual basins of the Aral Sea are presented and compared. Direct, quasi-simultaneous observations were carried out in the central part of the Western Large Aral Sea, the northern extremity of the Large Aral known as Chernyshev Bay, Lake Tshchebas, and the Small Aral Sea in October 2014. The Large Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas transformed into hyperhaline water bodies with highly special taxocene structure. The Small Aral Sea was a relatively diverse brackish ecosystem, which was rather similar to the pre-desiccation environment. The Small Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas exhibited a fully-mixed vertical structure, whereas the Western Large Aral Sea was strongly stratified. Our data show that during desiccation, different parts of the Aral Sea experienced different environmental conditions, resulting in qualitative and quantitative differences in the physical and biological regimes among the different residual basins. PMID:27032513

  14. Gamma radiation shielding and health physics characteristics of diaspore-flyash concretes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaldeep; Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, S P; Mudahar, Gurmel S; Dhaliwal, A S

    2015-06-01

    Different gamma radiation interaction parameters has been measured experimentally for the prepared diaspore-flyash concretes at 59.54, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow-beam transmission geometry and results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical values computed with a computer programme, WinXCom. The radiation exposure rate and absorbed dose rate for the gamma radiation with and without shielding of diaspore-flyash concretes have been determined using linear attenuation results. The results show that on average, there is reduction of 95%, 53% and 40% in dose rate for gamma sources (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, respectively with diaspore-flyash concretes as shielding material. Other health physics parameters namely equivalent dose, effective dose, gamma flux and energy fluence rate have also been determined.

  15. Testosterone levels in healthy men and the relation to behavioural and physical characteristics: facts and constructs.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, M; Nieschlag, E

    2001-03-01

    This review summarises the correlations between testosterone levels and male physical appearance and behaviour. Methodological shortcomings concerning the measurement of testosterone could limit the value of these findings. In addition, testosterone measured in body fluids represents only one step in the cascade of action from production to biological effect, and could therefore provide only a limited view of the complexity of physiological events. Testosterone levels are influenced by conditions that are partly controlled or initiated by the hormone itself, but also by circumstances beyond hormonal or individual control. Different kinds of behaviour are not only subject to influence by environment, but also androgens can reinforce the particular kind of conduct and the behavioural impact can wield negative or positive feedback on testosterone secretion. Therefore, both generalisation and individualisation of study results will lead to doubtful conclusions and prejudices. Results of such studies must be viewed with caution, and over-simplification as well as over-interpretation should be avoided.

  16. Multi walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and their physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hong, M K; Ko, S W; Park, J H; Choi, H J; Kim, J H

    2011-06-01

    In order to examine the influence of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on physical properties of its biodegradable polymer nanocomposite, biodegradable poly(buthylene succinate) (PBS), which was synthesized from diols and dicarboxylic acids, and MWNT nanocomposites were prepared via a melt-mixing method using a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder. Microstructure of the PBS/MWNT nanocomposites and MWNT were investigated via both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Their rheological properties were also characterized via rotation and oscillation tests using a rotational rheometer with parallel-plate geometry. It was found that shear viscosity, storage modulus and loss modulus of the nanocomposites examined by a rotational rheometer increased with the MWNT content. Especially their sharp increase for MWNT content of ca. 2.0 wt% was observed, indicating its percolation threshold from the rheological viewpoint which was higher than its electrical percolation threshold (1.0 wt%).

  17. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.

    2015-04-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 - +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 - 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 - 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM.

  18. Present state of the Aral Sea: diverging physical and biological characteristics of the residual basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhitskiy, A. S.; Zavialov, P. O.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Kirillin, G. B.; Grossart, H. P.; Kalinina, O. Y.; Zalota, A. K.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Kurbaniyazov, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Latest data on the hydrophysical and biological state of the residual basins of the Aral Sea are presented and compared. Direct, quasi-simultaneous observations were carried out in the central part of the Western Large Aral Sea, the northern extremity of the Large Aral known as Chernyshev Bay, Lake Tshchebas, and the Small Aral Sea in October 2014. The Large Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas transformed into hyperhaline water bodies with highly special taxocene structure. The Small Aral Sea was a relatively diverse brackish ecosystem, which was rather similar to the pre-desiccation environment. The Small Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas exhibited a fully-mixed vertical structure, whereas the Western Large Aral Sea was strongly stratified. Our data show that during desiccation, different parts of the Aral Sea experienced different environmental conditions, resulting in qualitative and quantitative differences in the physical and biological regimes among the different residual basins.

  19. Physical and chemical characteristics of lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.

    1985-05-01

    Experimental determinations of the properties of lead-iron phosphate glasses pertinent to their application to the problem of permanently disposing of high-level nuclear wastes have been carried out. These investigations included studies of the composition and physical properties of nuclear waste glasses (NWG), as well as the effect of preparation conditions. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses were prepared by dissolving simulated US defense wastes or simulated commercial power reactor wastes in molten lead-iron phosphate melts at temperatures between 900 and 1050/sup 0/C. The measured physical and chemical properties of the nuclear waste glasses formed by cooling these melts and annealing included the following: (1) aqueous corrosion resistance as a function of the solution pH, solution temperature, and glass composition, (2) glass density, (3) thermal expansion coefficient, (4) glass transition temperature and softening point, (5) heat capacity, (6) critical cooling rate, (7) temperature for the maximum crystallization rate, (8) relative solubility of waste oxides in the glass melt, (9) reactions between the molten glass and the melting crucible (Pt, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), and (10 studies of possible metal cannister materials. Experimental results for the lead-iron phosphate NWG are compared to available data for borosilicate NWG. Relative to borosilicate NWG, the lead-iron phosphate glasses have several distinct advantages which include a much lower aqueous corrosion rate, a lower preparation temperature, and the ability to immobilize many types of commercial and defense-related high-level radioactive wastes. 34 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Fitness profiling in soccer: physical and physiologic characteristics of elite players.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Milanovic, Dragan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have a different physical and physiologic profile. For the purpose of this study, physiologic measurements were taken of 270 soccer players during the precompetitive period of 2005/06 and the precompetitive period of 2006/07. According to the positional roles, players were categorized as defenders (n = 80), midfielders (n = 80), attackers (n = 80), and goalkeepers (n = 30). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to determinate differences between team positions. Goalkeepers are the tallest and the heaviest players in the team. They are also the slowest players in the team when sprinting ability over 10 and 20 meters is required. Attackers were the quickest players in the team when looking at sprint values over 5, 10, and 20 meters. There were statistically significant differences between attacker and defenders when measuring vertical jump height by squat jump. Goalkeepers were able to perform better on explosive power tests (squat jump and countermovement jump) than players in the field. Midfielders had statistically significant superior values of relative oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, maximal running speed, and blood lactate than defenders and attackers. Defenders had more body fat than attackers and midfielders (p < 0.05). Coaches are able to use this information to determine which type of profile is needed for a specific position. It is obvious that players in different positions have different physical and physiologic profiles. Experienced coaches can use this information in the process of designing a training program to maximize the fitness development of soccer players with one purpose only, to achieve success in soccer.

  1. Characteristics of the formation and physical properties of thin semiconducting layers of zinc germanium diphosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatakov, S. B.; Tychina, I. I.

    The structure and composition of vapors that are in dynamic equilibrium with the condensed phase ZnGeP2 at high temperatures (1260-2300 K) are investigated experimentally using mass spectrometry. The chemical composition, structure, and morphology of ZnGeP2 films are also investigated using electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis. It is shown that the vaporization of ZnGeP2 involves dissociation and that the component ratio of the vapor is stable at a given temperature but changes with temperature. Condensation of the films in the temperature range 300-500 C is shown to be based on the vapor-amorphous phase mechanism. The effect of condensation variables on the absorption characteristics, optical constants, and photoconductivity spectra of the deposited layers is discussed.

  2. Physical Characteristics and Sintering Behavior of MgO-Doped ZrO2nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccillo, E. N. S.; Tadokoro, S. K.; Muccillo, R.

    2004-06-01

    Nanosized particles of 13mol% MgO-doped ZrO2 with a narrow distribution of pore sizes were prepared by the coprecipitation technique using optimized parameters of synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the calcined powder reveals that the majority of the particles have grain sizes in the 10-20nm range. From nitrogen adsorption analysis an average particle size of 13nm was estimated, which is similar to the average pore size diameter (12nm). Besides the unimodal distribution of pore sizes, the linear shrinkage curve of a powder compact exhibits several inflexions indicating different rates of densification up to 1600°C. After sintering at 1600°C for 2h, the microstructure features of a compact are characteristics of the intermediate stage with interconnected porosity preferentially observed at grain boundaries. These results are explained as a size effect of nanoparticles of magnesia-doped zirconia during sintering.

  3. Tissue repair strength using chitosan adhesives with different physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Mahns, David A; Mawad, Damia; Wuhrer, Richard; Fania, David; Frost, Samuel J; Loebbe, Christian; Lauto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A range of chitosan-based biomaterials have recently been used to perform sutureless, laser-activated tissue repair. Laser-activation has the advantage of bonding to tissue through a non-contact, aseptic mechanism. Chitosan adhesive films have also been shown to adhere to sheep intestine strongly without any chemical modification to chitosan. In this study, we continue to investigate chitosan adhesive films and explore the impact on the tissue repair strength and tensile strength characteristics of four types of adhesive film based on chitosan with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Results showed that adhesives based on chitosan with medium molecular weight achieved the highest bonding strength, tensile strength and E-modulus when compared to the other adhesives.

  4. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  5. Electronic Reserves, Copyright, and CMS Integration--Six Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Jodi; McAbee, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Jacksonville State University's (JSU) Houston Cole (HCL) Library has always provided access to required course readings through a reserve circulation system. Prior to 2002, this services was "print based," requiring students to photocopy materials held physically at the reserve desk in the library. In 2002, the library integrated the…

  6. Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of HA-Subtyping in the Level of Physic-Chemical Characteristics of Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  7. Exploring the impact of forcing error characteristics on physically based snow simulations within a global sensitivity analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Lundquist, J. D.; Clark, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    Physically based models provide insights into key hydrologic processes but are associated with uncertainties due to deficiencies in forcing data, model parameters, and model structure. Forcing uncertainty is enhanced in snow-affected catchments, where weather stations are scarce and prone to measurement errors, and meteorological variables exhibit high variability. Hence, there is limited understanding of how forcing error characteristics affect simulations of cold region hydrology and which error characteristics are most important. Here we employ global sensitivity analysis to explore how (1) different error types (i.e., bias, random errors), (2) different error probability distributions, and (3) different error magnitudes influence physically based simulations of four snow variables (snow water equivalent, ablation rates, snow disappearance, and sublimation). We use the Sobol' global sensitivity analysis, which is typically used for model parameters but adapted here for testing model sensitivity to coexisting errors in all forcings. We quantify the Utah Energy Balance model's sensitivity to forcing errors with 1 840 000 Monte Carlo simulations across four sites and five different scenarios. Model outputs were (1) consistently more sensitive to forcing biases than random errors, (2) generally less sensitive to forcing error distributions, and (3) critically sensitive to different forcings depending on the relative magnitude of errors. For typical error magnitudes found in areas with drifting snow, precipitation bias was the most important factor for snow water equivalent, ablation rates, and snow disappearance timing, but other forcings had a more dominant impact when precipitation uncertainty was due solely to gauge undercatch. Additionally, the relative importance of forcing errors depended on the model output of interest. Sensitivity analysis can reveal which forcing error characteristics matter most for hydrologic modeling.

  8. Understanding the undelaying mechanism of HA-subtyping in the level of physic-chemical characteristics of protein.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  9. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  10. Thermo Physical Characteristics of Vitrified Tile Polishing Waste for Use in Traditional Ceramics-An Initiative of Cgcri, Naroda Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S. N.; Machhoya, B. B.; Savsani, R. M.

    This paper reports the thermo physical characteristics of Vitrified tile polishing waste materials. As such growing production of vitrified tiles in the country generate large volume of this waste obtained during processing, polishing and cutting of the vitrified tiles to the tune of nearly 10-15 tonnes per day from each plant. The characteristic features of these materials are being studied and investigated to develop suitable technology for finding its gainful use especially in the traditional ceramics. It is known that ceramic as such building materials industry could be a large raw materials consumer and being heterogeneous and thus could utilize this vast quantity as the raw materials. However, the main problem would be it's firing nature as it showed thermal deformation after a particular temperature. Interestingly, the production process of most of the traditional ceramics follows a similar pattern starting from the raw materials processing up to a level of firing. Hence, to suggest suitable utility in the traditional ceramics as raw materials, it was the prime requisite that these waste must be thoroughly studied w. r. t various thermo physical characteristics to make use in this sectors. Hence, the present paper interestingly gone up to various study such as raw materials nature, particle size distribution, chemistry, XRD and DTA study for understanding typical physico chemical properties, and finally thermal properties to make it suitable for use in traditional ceramic industries. The higher fineness of the waste materials indicates its usefulness without extra grinding. The chemistry of typical sludge shows contamination from abrasive particles, sorrel cement bonding materials etc. originated from the polishing wheel and needs special precaution while suggesting use in the ceramic sectors. The firing characteristics of the sludge materials produces a foamy and spongy shapes and this could be the main guiding parameters in selecting the end use of the

  11. Monitoring of chemical and physical characteristics of stone surfaces by a portable spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilar; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Garfagnoli, Francesca; Lombardi, Luca; Moretti, Sandro; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    A portable radiometer (ASD-FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously and rapidly acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the 350-2500 nm spectral range, has been recently proposed as non-destructive and non-invasive technology for detecting gypsum and other materials (inorganic as well as organic) on surfaces of historical buildings [1,2,3]. The instrument, which is also capable to quantitatively assess physical changes of the surfaces (i. e. color changes), has the potentialities to be used for monitoring the state of conservation of stone surfaces through the monitoring of the relative abundance of some components considered precursor symptoms of decay. The increase of gypsum or the decrease of the relative abundance of organic materials used as protective materials allows, in fact, to control and detect the chemical attack of carbonate surfaces, as well as the efficacy and durability of protective treatments. Although the relative abundance of any compound is theoretically related to the signal intensities of its spectral signature, a quantitative analysis is often compromised by some factors such as the grain dimension of crystals [2 4]. However the monitoring of critical areas may give useful information on the progression of decay provided that the same areas are investigated. The spectroradiometer can operate both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe with fixed illumination and geometry of shot; in this study the second condition was preferred since the same operative conditions can be maintained for all the measurements during the monitoring. Aim of this work was to find an easy to use and accurate system for repositioning the spectroradiometer probe in the same small areas of interest during the long-term monitoring. Two systems (theodolite and distance measuring laser) have been tested and their accuracy has been evaluated on some Florentine historical buildings (Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore and Basilica of San Miniato

  12. Injectable PLGA microsphere/calcium phosphate cements: physical properties and degradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Habraken, W J E M; Wolke, J G C; Mikos, A G; Jansen, J A

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) cements show an excellent biocompatibility and often have a high mechanical strength, but in general degrade relatively slow. To increase degradation rates, macropores can be introduced into the cement, e.g., by the inclusion of biodegradable microspheres into the cement. The aim of this research is to develop an injectable PLGA microsphere/CaP cement with sufficient setting/cohesive properties and good mechanical and physical properties. PLGA microspheres were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion technique. The CaP-cement used was Calcibon, a commercially available hydroxyapatite-based cement. 10:90 and 20:80 dry wt% PLGA microsphere/CaP cylindrical scaffolds were prepared as well as microporous cement (reference material). Injectability, setting time, cohesive properties and porosity were determined. Also, a 12-week degradation study in PBS (37 degree C) was performed. Results showed that injectability decreased with an increase in PLGA microsphere content. Initial and final setting time of the PLGA/CaP samples was higher than the microporous sample. Porosity of the different formulations was 40.8% (microporous), 60.2% (10:90) and 69.3% (20:80). The degradation study showed distinct mass loss and a pH decrease of the surrounding medium starting from week 6 with the 10:90 and 20:80 formulations, indicating PLGA erosion. Compression strength of the PLGA microsphere/CaP samples decreased siginificantly in time, the microporous sample remained constant. After 12 weeks both PLGA/CaP samples showed a structure of spherical micropores and had a compressive strength of 12.2 MPa (10:90) and 4.3 MPa (20:80). Signs of cement degradation were also found with the 20:80 formulation. In conclusion, all physical parameters were well within workable ranges with both 10:90 and 20:80 PLGA microsphere/CaP cements. After 12 weeks the PLGA was totally degraded and a highly porous, but strong scaffold remained.

  13. Evolution of physical and biological characteristics of mesoscale eddy in north-central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Eddies appear to be important to both the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of the Red Sea. Numerical simulations of physical dynamics and remote sensing studies of chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height in the Red Sea indicate their importance to the upper portions of the sea (Raitsos et al., 2013; Yao et al., 2014; Zhan et al., 2014). Despite their apparent importance, process studies of these eddies have been lacking. In March 2013 we began an extended observational study of the north-central Red Sea (NCRS) where anticyclonic eddies have been observed. The study began with a ship-based characterization of the eddy and was followed by a three-month observational time series using an autonomous glider equipped with a CTD, oxygen sensor, and optical sensors for chlorophyll, CDOM and optical backscatter. The ship-based study captured an initial snapshot of an anticyclonic eddy and it's associated biological and bio-optical distributions. Initially, chlorophyll distributions tended to mirror the density distribution, with deeper isopycnals and chlorophyll maximum depth in the anticyclonic eddy center. The anticyclone eddy in March had an along basin diameter of 150 km, penetrated vertically less than 150 m and elevated near surface chlorophyll concentrations appeared along its outer boundary. The shallowing of the pycnocline of the outer boundaries of the anticyclone eddy on March may elevate nutrients into the lower euphotic zone, contributing to phytoplankton productivity and biomass within the eddy. This eddy contains most of the kinetic energy of the region with the maximum velocities up to 30 - 35 cm/s. The eddy appeared to interact with the coastal reefs where exchange particulate and dissolved matter may occur. The autonomous glider provided the spring-to-summer progression of the system with increasing stratification, shallowing of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, and fluctuations in the position and intensity of the eddy. Our glider effort

  14. Subtypes of physical frailty: Latent class analysis and associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Guo, Chao-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung; Liang, Kung-Yee

    2017-01-01

    Frailty is a well-recognized geriatric syndrome with various definitions and conceptual frameworks. This study aimed to use latent class analysis to discover potential subtypes of pre-frail and frail older people. Data from the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS), a community-based cohort study was used for analysis. Latent class analysis was applied to characterize classes or subgroups with different frailty phenotypes among ILAS participants targeting older adults aged 65 and above, capable of completing a 6-meter walk, without severe major or life threatening diseases, and not institutionalized. Latent class analysis identified three distinct subgroups with different frailty phenotypes: non-mobility-type (weight loss and exhaustion), mobility-type frailty (slowness and weakness), and low physical activity. Comparing these groups with the robust group, people with mobility-type frailty had poorer body composition, worse bone health, poorer cognitive function, lower survival (hazard ratio: 6.82, p = 0.019), and poorer overall health outcomes (hazard ratio: 1.67, p = 0.040). People in the non-mobility-type group had poorer bone health and more metabolic serum abnormalities. In conclusion, mobility-type frailty was a better predictor of adverse outcomes. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate how these phenotypic subgroups may help in predicting prognosis or in developing interventions.

  15. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens virtual and physical wedges for ONCOR linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Attalla, Ehab M; Abo-Elenein, H S; Ammar, H; El-Desoky, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW) and physical wedge (PW) in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs) and PW factors (PWFs) have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.

  16. Physical and chemical characteristics and development of the Changuinola peat deposit of northwestern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.; Ramirez, A.

    1987-08-01

    A peat deposit occupying over 80 square kilometers, and averaging 8 meters in thickness, was discovered on the Caribbean coast of northwestern Panama near the town of Changuinola. This deposit occurs inland (behind) the present beach-barrier shoreline. It is thickest in the center and thins toward all edges (as if domed). The surface vegetation in the central regions consists primarily of ombrotrophic plants (especially sedges, grasses, Sphagnum, Sagittaria, and various scattered shrubs). Toward the edges, the deposit has a surface cover of more minerotrophic plants (such as swamp-forest trees, ferns, and palms). Petrographic/botanical analysis of the deposit with depth reveals the presence of five peat types (swamp-forest, sedge-grass-fern, Sagittaria et al., Nymphaea et al., and Rhizophora). Typically peats of the thick, central portions of the deposit are very low in ash and sulfur (less than 2% ash and 0.3% sulfur). Ash contents tend to increase abruptly at the base and more gradually toward the edges of the deposit and sulfur contents increasing gradually toward the ocean and bay. Vertical and lateral variations in botanical, chemical, and physical properties of this deposit can be related to factors that have controlled: (1) the surrounding rocks and water chemistry; (2) the source vegetation; and (3) the environments in which these source ingredients were deposited. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E L

    2002-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels were chemically, physically and morphologically characterized. Crude oil (49.0%) and crude protein (32.4%) were the two major constituents of the kernels. Phytic acid content was relatively high compared to other legumes. In contrast, antitryptic activities of the kernel flours were very low. Sapogenin contents of the full fat, defatted and testa flours were 1.5, 2.7 and 3.0%, respectively. The hardness of the kernel was found to be about 10.4 x 10(5) N/m2, which was somewhat high. The morphological structure of the kernel using a scanning electron microscope revealed that the protein matrix was embedded in a lake of oil droplets. Oil recovery, as a function of pressing time, pressure, temperature and particle size was investigated. With increasing temperature up to 70 degrees C at 400 bar, for 120 min, an oil recovery of 79.4% was obtained. Using an expeller at 115 degrees C, about 85% of the kernel oil was recovered. The reduction of particle size had a negative effect on oil recovery under the same conditions. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the pressing temperature up to 115 degrees C. The total amount of the unsaturated fatty acids was found to be up to 74.8% (50 degrees C) and 75.1% (115 degrees C) of the total fatty acids content.

  18. Physical and biological characteristics of the main biomaterials used in pelvic surgery.

    PubMed

    Brun, J L; Bordenave, L; Lefebvre, F; Bareille, R; Barbié, C; Rouais, F; Baquey, C H

    1992-01-01

    Our study compared mechanical and biological properties of four materials classically used in surgery: polyethylene terephtalate (Mersilene), polypropylene (Marlex), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and expanded one (Gore-Tex) and polyaramide (Kevlar). No deterioration for polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene under irradiation was observed when materials were treated by physical means. Mechanical tests showed that all these materials could bear more than 50 N. Such a high tensile strength is never reached in visceral physiology. Results of graft elongation during tensile strength test shows two classes: a first one that includes high elongation grafts (Gore-Tex and Marlex) and a second one that includes low elongation grafts (Mersilene and Kevlar). As these materials have many potential uses in surgery, we have performed cytotoxicity tests. Material extracts were obtained under standardized conditions, and we have looked at a potentially toxic effect of substances eventually leached from the materials towards cells cultured in vitro. None of the material extracts listed above were cytotoxic except for untreated Kevlar. Toxicity disappeared when Kevlar was treated with methanol. As suspected, untreated Kevlar contains toxic additives introduced during the manufacture of this textile. Thus, in spite of good mechanical properties, Kevlar should not be used in pelvic surgery on account of its lower bicompatibility. These results shows that the choice of the grafts by surgeons must be relevant in a given application.

  19. Physical characteristics of feathers play a role in feather eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Feise, U

    2009-09-01

    Feather pecking is positively associated with feather eating in laying hens; however the criteria of the birds for pecking, plucking, and eating feathers has not yet been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigated if laying hens show preferences for feathers of different lengths and regions. Twenty Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens with a high feather pecking activity were used in the present experiment. Ten birds were individually given access to 4 plastic elements, each perforated with 4 feathers 2, 4, 6, or 8 cm in length (i.e., 1 flat piece of plastic for each feather length). Another 10 hens were given access to 3 identical plastic elements, each perforated with 4 pieces of feather 2 cm in length from the calamus (part of the shaft closest to the bird body), middle (shaft with outer and inner vane), or tip (part of the shaft with vane furthest from bird body) of the feathers, respectively. The number of feathers of different lengths and regions plucked and eaten from each plastic element was recorded. Birds were tested over a period of 10 d on a daily basis. Laying hens preferred shorter feathers over longer ones. A rank ordering of preferred feather regions from the most to the least important using the number of pieces eaten gives a sequence of the tip, middle, and calamus of the feathers. The results clearly show that physical texture or appearance, or both, of feathers plays a role in feather pecking-eating behavior in laying hens.

  20. Effects of physical, chemical, and botanical characteristics of peat on carbon gas fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, A.; Dinel, H.; Levesque, P.E.M.

    1994-12-31

    Peatland ecosystems may contribute about 65% of all natural methane emission to the atmosphere. During May-June 1988, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with the static chamber method at the surface of a basin swamp and at three depths. The daily average fluxes of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} at the surface of the swamp ranged from 1.146 to 2.178 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and from 1.966 to 7.242 mmol m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, respectively. These amounts of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} corresponded to 0.02-0.03% of what was released from the 45 to 60-cm depth when exposed to atmospheric pressure. Statistically significant correlations between physical and botanical peat properties and trapped CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} and water flow suggest that outgassing of trapped CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are closely associated with the peat matrix, peat properties, hydraulic potential, temperature, and concentration gradients. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Reserve Compensation System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-30

    Project Readiness coinci- dental with the development of the RCSS data reports. The Army Guard, the Army Reserve, and the Marine Corps Reserve provided...Management Analysis, and Dental . iary. Both authorized and actual strengths of the tir National Guard have risen since FY 70. Actual ANG accession...Information, and Dental . AIR FORCE RESERVE EKLIS7ED STRENGTH SNORTAGES* SELECTED CAREER MNAGEflENT FIELDS CAREER NANAGEflENT FIELD REO INV SHORTAGES

  2. Physical model of fluid flow characteristics in RH-TOP vacuum refining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lu; Bao, Yan-ping; Yue, Feng; Zhang, Li-qiang; Ou, Hong-lin

    2012-06-01

    To understand the characteristic of circulation flow rate in 250-t RH-TOP vacuum refining process, the l:4 water model test was established through the bubble behavior and gas holdup in the up-leg to investigate the effects of different processes and equipment parameters on the RH circulation flow rate. With the increases of lifting gas flow rate, lifting bubble travel, and the internal diameter of the up-leg, and the decrease of nozzle diameter, the work done by bubble floatage and the circulation flow rate increase. The expression of circulation flow rate was derived from the regression analysis of experiment data. Meanwhile, the influences of vacuum chamber pressure and nozzle blockage situation on the circulation flow rate were discussed in detail by the bubble behavior and gas holdup in the up-leg. It is necessary to maintain a certain vacuum chamber liquid level in the molten steel circulation flow. Compared with a nozzle with symmetrical blockage in the up-leg, when a nozzle with non-symmetrical blockage is applied, the lifting gas distribution is non-uniform, causing a great effect on the molten steel circulation flow and making the circulation flow drop largely.

  3. Climatological Aspects of Aerosol Physical Characteristics in Tunisia Deduced from Sun Photometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chaâbane, Mabrouk; Azri, Chafai; Medhioub, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic data measured at Thala site (Tunisia) for a long-time period (1977–2001) are used to analyse the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations of the aerosol optical depth at 1 μm wavelength. We have shown that aerosol and microphysical properties and the dominating aerosol types depend on seasons. A comparison of the seasonal cycle of aerosol optical characteristics at Thala site showed that the contribution of long-range transported particles is expected to be larger in summer as a consequence of the weather stability typical of this season. Also, the winter decrease in atmospheric turbidity may result from increases in relative humidity and decreases in temperature, leading to increased particle size and mass and increased fall and deposition velocities. The spring and autumn weather patterns usually carry fine dust and sand particles for the desert area to Thala region. The annual behaviour of the aerosol optical depth recorded a period of stead increase started in 1986 until 2001. Trends in atmospheric turbidity after 1988 could be explained other ways by the contribution of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and by local or regional changes in climate or in aerosol emissions. PMID:22629150

  4. Physical characteristics of dungeness crab and halibut habitats in Whidbey Passage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Boyle, Michael E.; Gabel, Gregory L.; Hooge, Philip N.

    2000-01-01

    In Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska there are ongoing studies of Dungeness Crab (Cancer magister) and Pacific Halibut (Hippoglosus stenolepis). Scientists of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are attempting to ascertain life history, distribution, and abundance, and to determine the effects of commercial fishing in the park (Carlson et al., 1998). Statistical sampling studies suggest that seafloor characteristics and bathymetry affect the distribution, abundance and behavior of benthic species. Examples include the distribution of Dungeness crab which varies from 78 to 2012 crabs/ha in nearshore areas to depths of 18 m (O'Clair et al., 1995), and changes in halibut foraging behavior according to bottom type (Chilton et al., 1995). This report discusses geophysical data collected within the park in 1998. The geophysical surveying done in this and previous studies will be combined with existing population and sonic-tracking data sets as well as future sediment sampling, scuba, submersible, and bottom video camera observations to better understand Dungeness crab and Pacific halibut habitat relationships.

  5. Physical characteristics of dungeness crab and halibut habitats in Glacier Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Denny, Jane F.; Boyle, Michael E.; Taggart, S. James; Hooge, Philip N.

    1998-01-01

    In Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska there are ongoing studies of Dungeness Crab (Cancer magister) and Pacific Halibut (Hippoglosus stenolepis). Scientists of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are attempting to ascertain life history, distribution, and abundance, and to determine the effects of commercial fishing in the park (Carlson et al., 1998). Statistical sampling studies suggest that seafloor characteristics and bathymetry affect the distribution, abundance and behavior of benthic species. Examples include the distribution of Dungeness crab which varies from 78 to 2012 crabs/ha in nearshore areas to depths of 18 m (O'Clair et al., 1995), and changes in halibut foraging behavior according to bottom type (Chilton et al., 1995). This report discusses geophysical data collected in six areas within the park in 1998. The geophysical surveying done in this and previous studies will be combined with existing population and sonic-tracking data sets as well as future sediment sampling, scuba, submersible, and bottom video camera observations to better understand Dungeness crab and Pacific halibut habitat relationships.

  6. Physical and hydraulic characteristics of bentonite-amended soil from Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, W.

    1995-08-01

    Radioactive waste requires significant isolation from the biosphere. Shallow land burial using low-permeability covers are often used to prevent the release of impounded material. This report details the characterization of a soil mixture intended for use as the low-permeability component of a radioactive waste disposal site. The addition of 6.5 percent bentonite to the sandy soils of the site reduced the value of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub s}) by more than two orders of magnitude to 7.6 {times} 10{minus}{sup 8} cm/sec. Characterization of the soil mixture included measurements of grain density, grain size distribution, compaction, porosity, dry bulk density, shear strength, desiccation shrinkage, K{sub s}, vapor conductivity, air permeability, the characteristic water retention function, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by both experimental and numerical estimation methods. The ability of the soil layer to limit infiltration in a simulated application was estimated in a one-dimensional model of a landfill cover.

  7. Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Two Bovine Enterovirus Plaque Variants

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, H.; Parsons, J. A.; Addison, Judith; York, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Large plaque (4LP) and small plaque (4SP) variants were derived from a parent bovine virus strain by serial plaque passage. Both 4LP and 4SP were resistant to chloroform and stabilized at 50°C for one hour by 1.0 M magnesium chloride. Both 4LP and 4SP had buoyant densities in cesium chloride of 1.36 gm/ml. Antigenically, 4LP and 4SP were reciprocally cross neutralizable. The nucleic acid of 4LP was shown to be ribonucleic acid (RNA) by resistance of its infectivity to deoxynuclease (DNase) but not ribonuclease (RNase) and by increased incorporation of [3H]-uridine into cytoplasmic RNA in cells of virus infected cultures. In growth characteristics, both 4LP and 4SP had maximum adsorption times of 75 to 90 minutes but 4LP had more rapid replication and release rates and yielded nearly twice as many infectious units per cell as 4SP. The differences in growth properties correlated directly with the differential in plaque diameter which was 40-50%. PMID:4340347

  8. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  9. Effects of heat treatment on physical, microstructural and optical characteristics of PbS luminescent nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Vashaee, Dayoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2012-04-01

    The oxidation of lead sulfide (PbS) luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) considerably changes their luminescence characteristics. Hence, an understanding of the oxidation mechanism, the structure and properties of oxidized moieties is important. In this research, well-defined spherical PbS NCs were synthesized via a simple, effective and surfactant-free method and characterized. Then, the effects of heat treatment (at 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C) on the PbS NCs were investigated. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the synthesized PbS NCs revealed that they had a well-defined spherical morphology. In addition, the average crystallite size using Scherrer's formula was about 13 nm and the calculated lattice constant using Bragg's equation was 0.5950 nm, which was very close to the value in the standard card (JCPDS No. 5-592). Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the heat treatment of samples at temperatures of 250, 350,450 and 550 °C in air results in the formation of oxide sulfate phase of the compositions PbSO4 and PbO·PbSO4. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress, micro-strain and optical properties of PbS NCs were calculated and correlated with the heat-treatment temperature.

  10. Surface and physical characteristics of ZnO:Al nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Kang, Shao-Hui

    2009-06-01

    Structural and surface characterizations of the ZnO:Al nanostructured films were achieved by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and nanoindentation measurements. The films exhibited hydrophobic behavior with contact angles of about 133.2°-142.7°, and a decrease in the hardness and Young's modulus with decreasing indentation depths. Buckling behavior took place during the indentation process, and the fracture strength of the films was also investigated. The results show that the phase transformation from zinc blende to wurtzite structure. Also, it should be correlated with belongs to chairtype Peierls distortion with up to 38° tilting (001) rock-salt structure along the (1¯21¯0) plane and followed tilting along the (101¯0) plane by about 32° for a fair match with (101¯0) Zn. A nanogenerator with ZnO nanorods was then fabricated to define its piezoelectric characteristics. The power density per unit substrate area is about 18.3 μW/mm2.

  11. Race, Hunger, and Poverty on Montana Indian Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brod, Rodney L.; Miller, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a quantitative analytic procedure, logistic regression, to search for and identify critical attributes of race, highlighting the characteristics of American Indians that underlie poverty on Montana's seven reservations, with their varied tribal affiliations. Implications are drawn for the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations,…

  12. Physical and anti-microbial characteristics of carbon nanoparticles prepared from lamp soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B.; Verma, Anita K.; Claesson, P.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2007-11-01

    Soot originating from the burning of butter and mustard oil in a lamp with a cotton wick was collected on a brass plate and dispersed in water and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) as naked, and as Gum Arabic (GA, a anionic polyelectrolyte)-coated nanoparticles in water. They were physically characterized, and their anti-bacterial activities were probed on gram positive and negative bacterial colonies. TEM data revealed the presence of 35-55 nm diameter spherical carbon nanoparticles in water and CCl4. The dynamic light scattering determined the average hydrodynamic diameter for the same samples, which was found to be ≈100 nm (in CCl4) and ≈240 nm (in water), implying the packing of these nanoparticles into clusters. GA-coated particles yielded stable suspensions in water, but the clusters were almost the same in size (≈250 nm). The zeta potential distributions of the naked and the GA-coated nanoparticles were found to be unimodal and bimodal, respectively, with both yielding mean zeta potential values nearly equal to zero. Results of energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) confirmed the absence of toxic metallic elements inside the specimen. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the presence of amorphous as well as graphitized carbon in these nanostructures. The anti-microbial activities in terms of growth inhibition for the carbon nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 13709 (native strain) and Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 29655 (native strain) were assayed in agar gel. In vitro testing revealed significant anti-microbial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, but carbon nanoparticles were unable to kill Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Physical Characteristics of Faint Meteors by Light Curve and High-resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The physical structure of a meteoroid may be inferred from optical observations, particularly the light curve, of a meteor. For example: a classically shaped (late peaked) light curve is seen as evidence of a solid single body, whereas a symmetric light curve may indicate a dustball structure. High-resolution optical observations show how the meteoroid fragments: continuously, leaving a long wake, or discretely, leaving several distinct pieces. Calculating the orbit of the meteoroid using two station data then allows the object to be associated with asteroidal or cometary parent bodies. Optical observations thus provide simultaneous information on meteoroid structure, fragmentation mode, and origin.CAMO (the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory) has been continuously collecting faint (masses < 10-4 kg) two station optical meteors with image-intensified narrow field (with a resolution of up to 3 meters per pixel) and wide field (26 by 19 degrees) cameras since 2010. The narrow field, telescopic cameras allow the meteor fragmentation to be studied using a pair of mirrors to track the meteor. The wide-field cameras provide the light curve and trajectory solution.We present preliminary results from classifying light curves and high-resolution optical observations for 3000 faint meteors recorded since 2010. We find that most meteors (both asteroidal and cometary) show long trails, while meteors with short trails are the second most common morphology. It is expected that meteoroids that experience negligible fragmentation have the shortest trails, so our results imply that the majority of small meteoroids fragment during ablation. A surprising observation is that almost equal fractions of asteroidal and cometary meteors fragment (showing long trails), implying a similar structure for both types of meteoroids.

  14. Soil Physical Characteristics and Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Biodegradable Mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Flury, M.; Sintim, H.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Ghimire, S.; Bary, A.; DeBruyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Application of conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch in crop production offers benefits of increased water use efficiency, weed control, management of certain plant diseases, and maintenance of a micro-climate conducive for plant growth. These factors improve crop yield and quality, but PE must be retrieved and safely disposed of after usage. Substituting PE with biodegradable plastic mulches (BDM) would alleviate disposal needs, and is potentially a more sustainable practice. However, knowledge of potential impacts of BDMs on agricultural soil ecosystems is needed to evaluate sustainability. We (a) monitored soil moisture and temperature dynamics, and (b) assessed soil quality upon usage of different mulches, with pie pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) as the test crop. Experimental field trials are ongoing at two sites, one at Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center, Mount Vernon, WA, and the other at East Tennessee Research and Education Center, Knoxville, TN. The treatments constitute four different commercial BDM products, one experimental BDM; no mulch and PE served as the controls. Soil quality parameters being examined include: organic matter content, aggregate stability, water infiltration rate, CO2 flux, pH, and extracellular enzyme activity. In addition, lysimeters were installed to examine the soil water and heat flow dynamics. We present baseline and the first field season results from this study. Mulch cover appeared to moderate soil temperatures, but biodegradable mulches also appeared to lose water more quickly than PE. All mulch types, with the exception of cellulose, reduced the diurnal fluctuations in soil temperature at 10cm depth from 1 to 4ºC. However, volumetric water content ranged from 0.10 to 0.22 m3 m-3 under the five biodegradable mulches compared to 0.22 to 0.28 m3 m-3 under conventional PE. Results from the study will be useful for management practices by providing knowledge on how different mulches impact soil physical and

  15. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L−1 suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L−1) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  16. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil

  17. Relationship between performance test and body composition/physical strength characteristic in sprint canoe and kayak paddlers

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Saki; Ochi, Eisuke; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Muramatsu, Erina; Suzukawa, Kazuhiro; Igawa, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canoe sprint is divided into canoe and kayak. The difference between the two competitions is in physical performance. The aim of the present study was to compare and investigate the relationship between physical characteristics and fitness between the two canoe sprint competitors. Methods Subjects were 11 canoe paddlers (C) and 12 kayak paddlers (K). They underwent anthropometric characteristics, body composition and fitness tests, and 120 s all-out tests using a canoe and kayak ergometer. The unpaired t-test was used to test for significant differences between disciplines, while Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to examine the association between each measurement item and the performance test. Results The age, height, body mass, body mass index, and total body fat were, C: 20.6±0.9 yr, 172.8±5.2 cm, 70.8±7.8 kg, 23.7±1.9, 14.4%±3.5%; and K: 19.7±1.2 yr, 172.8±5.3 cm, 69.5±7.8 kg, 23.2±2.1, 12.1%±3.6%, respectively. No significant differences were seen in any of the items for physical characteristics or fitness between C and K. A correlation analysis of performance tests and each measurement item revealed a positive correlation with low-speed isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength for C only (extension: r=0.761; flexion: r=0.784; P<0.01). In addition, performance tests were positively correlated with the circumference of arm (upper arm: r=0.876; forearm: r=0.820; P<0.01) and lower limb (thigh: r=0.781; calf: r=0.753; P<0.01) in C and with height (r=0.549, P<0.05), arm span (r=0.639, P<0.05), and leg length (r=0.621, P<0.01) in K. Conclusion We suggest that the factors correlating with the performance test differ depending on the competitions. PMID:26150737

  18. Effect of bead milling on chemical and physical characteristics of activated carbons pulverized to superfine sizes.

    PubMed

    Partlan, Erin; Davis, Kathleen; Ren, Yiran; Apul, Onur Guven; Mefford, O Thompson; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2016-02-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) is an adsorbent material with particle size between roughly 0.1-1 μm. This is about an order of magnitude smaller than conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), typically 10-50 μm. S-PAC has been shown to outperform PAC for adsorption of various drinking water contaminants. However, variation in S-PAC production methods and limited material characterization in prior studies lead to questions of how S-PAC characteristics deviate from that of its parent PAC. In this study, a wet mill filled with 0.3-0.5 mm yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide grinding beads was used to produce S-PAC from seven commercially available activated carbons of various source materials, including two coal types, coconut shell, and wood. Particle sizes were varied by changing the milling time, keeping mill power, batch volume, and recirculation rate constant. As expected, mean particle size decreased with longer milling. A lignite coal-based carbon had the smallest mean particle diameter at 169 nm, while the wood-based carbon had the largest at 440 nm. The wood and coconut-shell based carbons had the highest resistance to milling. Specific surface area and pore volume distributions were generally unchanged with increased milling time. Changes in the point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) and oxygen content of the milled carbons were found to correlate with an increasing specific external surface area. However, the isoelectric point (pH(IEP)), which measures only external surfaces, was unchanged with milling and also much lower in value than pH(PZC). It is likely that the outer surface is easily oxidized while internal surfaces remain largely unchanged, which results in a lower average pH as measured by pH(PZC).

  19. Physical characteristics of a low-dose gas microstrip detector for orthopedic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Despres, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gilles; Gravel, Pierre; Guise, Jacques A. de

    2005-04-01

    A new scanning slit gas detector dedicated to orthopedic x-ray imaging is presented and evaluated in terms of its fundamental imaging characteristics. The system is based on the micromesh gaseous structure detector and achieves primary signal amplification through electronic avalanche in the gas. This feature, together with high quantum detection efficiency and fan-beam geometry, allows for imaging at low radiation levels. The system is composed of 1764 channels spanning a width of 44.8 cm and is capable of imaging an entire patient at speeds of up to 15 cm/s. The resolution was found to be anisotropic and significantly affected by the beam quality in the horizontal direction, but otherwise sufficient for orthopedic studies. As a consequence of line-by-line acquisition, the images contain some ripple components due to mechanical vibrations combined with variations in the x-ray tube output power. The reported detective quantum efficiency (DQE) values are relatively low (0.14 to 0.20 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}) as a consequence of a suboptimal collimation geometry. The DQE values were found to be unaffected by the exposure down to 7 {mu}Gy, suggesting that the system is quantum limited even for low radiation levels. A system composed of two orthogonal detectors is already in use and can produce dual-view full body scans at low doses. This device could contribute to reduce the risk of radiation induced cancer in sensitive clientele undergoing intensive x-ray procedures, like young scoliotic women.

  20. Physical characteristics of a low-dose gas microstrip detector for orthopedic x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Després, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gilles; Gravel, Pierre; de Guise, Jacques A

    2005-04-01

    A new scanning slit gas detector dedicated to orthopedic x-ray imaging is presented and evaluated in terms of its fundamental imaging characteristics. The system is based on the micromesh gaseous structure detector and achieves primary signal amplification through electronic avalanche in the gas. This feature, together with high quantum detection efficiency and fan-beam geometry, allows for imaging at low radiation levels. The system is composed of 1764 channels spanning a width of 44.8 cm and is capable of imaging an entire patient at speeds of up to 15 cm/s. The resolution was found to be anisotropic and significantly affected by the beam quality in the horizontal direction, but otherwise sufficient for orthopedic studies. As a consequence of line-by-line acquisition, the images contain some ripple components due to mechanical vibrations combined with variations in the x-ray tube output power. The reported detective quantum efficiency (DQE) values are relatively low (0.14 to 0.20 at 0.5 mm(-1)) as a consequence of a suboptimal collimation geometry. The DQE values were found to be unaffected by the exposure down to 7 microGy, suggesting that the system is quantum limited even for low radiation levels. A system composed of two orthogonal detectors is already in use and can produce dual-view full body scans at low doses. This device could contribute to reduce the risk of radiation induced cancer in sensitive clientele undergoing intensive x-ray procedures, like young scoliotic women.

  1. Chemical and physical characteristics of corn silages and their effects on in vitro disappearance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G; Mertens, D R

    2005-12-01

    Estimating the available energy in corn silage provides a unique challenge because the silage contains variable proportions of grain and stover, each of which can differ in availability due to chemical composition and physical form. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships among chemical components and their relationships with in vitro disappearance of ground and unground dried silages, and to quantify minimally fragmented starch in corn silage and investigate its impact and that of mean particle size (MPS) on in vitro disappearance of unground silages. Thirty-two corn silages were selected to provide diversity in dry matter, protein, fiber, and MPS. Detergent fibers were highly correlated with each other and with nonfiber carbohydrates, and were used to develop prediction equations between these constituents. Sieves with apertures > or =4.75 mm were used to isolate intact kernels and large kernel fragments, which were collected and analyzed to measure minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75). Dividing Starch>4.75 by total starch defined the proportion of minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75/Total), which ranged from 9 to 100% with a mean of 52%. Starch>4.75/Total was positively correlated with MPS (r = 0.46). The inverse of Starch>4.75/Total is an index of kernel fragmentation. Silages were prepared as whole material or ground to pass through a 4- or 1-mm screen of a cutter mill. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) was greater for ground than for whole samples (71.7 and 61.2%, respectively). Increased IVDMD for ground samples was attributed to greater in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and neutral detergent solubles (NDS) disappearances. The IVDMD of ground samples was related to NDF and acid detergent lignin (R2 = 0.80). The IVDMD of whole corn silage was related to acid detergent lignin, Starch>4.75, MPS, and dry matter. When IVDMD was partitioned into in vitro digestible NDS (IVdNDS) and in vitro digestible NDF, the IVd

  2. Biological/biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry targets. 2. Physical, morphological, and structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2008-10-15

    The number of biological/biomedical applications that require AMS to achieve their goals is increasing, and so is the need for a better understanding of the physical, morphological, and structural traits of high quality of AMS targets. The metrics of quality included color, hardness/texture, and appearance (photo and SEM), along with FT-IR, Raman, and powder X-ray diffraction spectra that correlate positively with reliable and intense ion currents and accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of fraction modern ( F m). Our previous method produced AMS targets of gray-colored iron-carbon materials (ICM) 20% of the time and of graphite-coated iron (GCI) 80% of the time. The ICM was hard, its FT-IR spectra lacked the sp (2) bond, its Raman spectra had no detectable G' band at 2700 cm (-1), and it had more iron carbide (Fe 3C) crystal than nanocrystalline graphite or graphitizable carbon (g-C). ICM produced low and variable ion current whereas the opposite was true for the graphitic GCI. Our optimized method produced AMS targets of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP) 100% of the time. The GCIP shared some of the same properties as GCI in that both were black in color, both produced robust ion current consistently, their FT-IR spectra had the sp (2) bond, their Raman spectra had matching D, G, G', D +G, and D '' bands, and their XRD spectra showed matching crystal size. GCIP was a powder that was easy to tamp into AMS target holders that also facilitated high throughput. We concluded that AMS targets of GCIP were a mix of graphitizable carbon and Fe 3C crystal, because none of their spectra, FT-IR, Raman, or XRD, matched exactly those of the graphite standard. Nevertheless, AMS targets of GCIP consistently produced the strong, reliable, and reproducible ion currents for high-throughput AMS analysis (270 targets per skilled analyst/day) along with accurate and precise F m values.

  3. Physical and chemical characteristics of L1689-SMM16, an oscillating prestellar core in Ophiuchus

    SciTech Connect

    Chitsazzadeh, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schnee, S.; Friesen, R. K.; Shimajiri, Y.; Bourke, T. L.; Keto, E. R.; Pineda, J. E.; Takakuwa, S.; Tatematsu, K.

    2014-08-01

    We present single-dish observations of the L1689-SMM16 core in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud in NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and (2, 2) emission using the Green Bank Telescope, in N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) emission using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, and in NH{sub 2}D (1{sub 1,1}{sup a}(--)1{sub 0,1}{sup s}), HCN (1-0), HNC (1-0), H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (1-0), and HCO{sup +} (1-0) emission using the Mopra telescope. The morphologies of the integrated NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) emission well match that of 250 μm continuum emission. Line widths of NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) show the presence of transonic turbulence across the core. Jeans and virial analyses made using updated measurements of core mass and size confirm that L1689-SMM16 is prestellar, i.e., gravitationally bound. It also has accumulated more mass compared to its corresponding Jeans mass in the absence of magnetic fields and therefore is a 'super-Jeans' core. The high levels of X(NH{sub 3})/X(N{sub 2}H{sup +}) and deuterium fractionation reinforce the idea that the core has not yet formed a protostar. Comparing the physical parameters of the core with those of a Bonnor-Ebert sphere reveals the advanced evolutionary stage of L1689-SMM16 and shows that it might be unstable to collapse. We do not detect any evidence of infall motions toward the core. Instead, red asymmetry in the line profiles of HCN (1-0) and HNC (1-0) indicates the expansion of the outer layers of the core at a speed of ∼0.2 km s{sup –1} to 0.3 km s{sup –1}. For a gravitationally bound core, expansion in the outer layers might indicate that the core is experiencing oscillations.

  4. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  5. Structure and physical characteristics of pumice from the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klug, C.; Cashman, K.; Bacon, C.

    2002-01-01

    The vesicularity, permeability, and structure of pumice clasts provide insight into conditions of vesiculation and fragmentation during Plinian fall and pyroclastic flow-producing phases of the ???7,700 cal. year B.P. climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon. We show that bulk properties (vesicularity and permeability) can be correlated with internal textures and that the clast structure can be related to inferred changes in eruption conditions. The vesicularity of all pumice clasts is 75-88%, with >90% interconnected pore volume. However, pumice clasts from the Plinian fall deposits exhibit a wider vesicularity range and higher volume percentage of interconnected vesicles than do clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits. Pumice permeabilities also differ between the two clast types, with pumice from the fall deposit having higher minimum permeabilities (???5??10-13 m2) and a narrower permeability range (5-50??10-13 m2) than clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits (0.2-330??10-13 m2). The observed permeability can be modeled to estimate average vesicle aperture radii of 1-5 ??m for the fall deposit clasts and 0.25-1 ??m for clasts from the pyroclastic flows. High vesicle number densities (???109 cm-3) in all clasts suggest that bubble nucleation occured rapidly and at high supersaturations. Post-nucleation modifications to bubble populations include both bubble growth and coalescence. A single stage of bubble nucleation and growth can account for 35-60% of the vesicle population in clasts from the fall deposits, and 65-80% in pumice from pyroclastic flows. Large vesicles form a separate population which defines a power law distribution with fractal dimension D=3.3 (range 3.0-3.5). The large D.value, coupled with textural evidence, suggests that the large vesicles formed primarily by coalescence. When viewed together, the bulk properties (vesicularity, permeability) and textural characteristics of all clasts indicate rapid bubble nucleation followed by

  6. The Characteristics of an Antibacterial TiAgN Thin Film Coated by Physical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Park, Gye-Choon; Yoon, Dong-Joo; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lim, Yeong-Seog

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we found the characteristics of an antibacterial TiAgN thin film coated on the pure titanium specimen via the physical vapor deposition process (PVD). TiAgN thin films were coated using TiAg alloy targets by arc ion plating method. Changing the process parameters, the surface analysis of TiAgN thin film was observed by FE-SEM and the force of adhesion was measured with Scratch Tester. The proliferation of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells was examined by XTT test assay and the antibacterial properties were investigated by culturing Streptococus Mutans (KCTC 3065) using paper disk techniques. At the result of experiment, cytotoxic effects were not found and the antibacterial effects against Streptococus Mutans were appeared over 5 wt% TiAgN specimens.

  7. Crystal chemical characteristics and physical properties of ferrous minerals as the basis for the formation of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakova, A.; Kanev, B.; Gömze, A. L.; Kotova, O.

    2017-02-01

    Crystal chemical characteristics and physical properties of ferrous minerals can be criteria for search and evaluation of mineral (natural) raw for the production of functional materials. Special attention will be given to new experimental methods of transformation of minerals at different methods of influence. As a probe to identify the relationship between the actual crystalline structure of the mineral and its technological properties we used the oxidation - reduction reactions of iron ore-forming minerals. We will show that the inexpensive and affordable methods of influence at ore and technological products result in the observed Fe2+— Fe3+ charge transfer, which result in the increase of the conversion degree of the structure and change of magnetic properties of the substance.

  8. Integrating physical and chemical characteristics of lakes into the glacially influenced landscape of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Lomnicky, G.A.; Liss, W.J.; Deimling, E.

    1999-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of lakes is needed by management to make informed decisions to protect water resources. In this study we investigated some of the physical and chemical characteristics of 58 lakes in alpine, subalpine, and forest vegetation zones in a natural area (North Cascades National Park Service Complex) between 1989 and 1993. The objectives of the study were to: (1) document the time of ice-out relative to lake elevation; (2) determine how a sharp climate gradient west and east of the hydrologic divide affected the time of ice-out for subalpine lakes; and (3) assess how lake water quality was associated with lake elevation, lake depth, and basin geology. As expected, lake ice-out times occurred earlier with decreasing elevation. East-slope subalpine lakes iced-out earlier than did west-slope subalpine lakes because the east slope of the study area was drier and warmer than the west slope. On average, the lakes were relatively cold, neutral in pH, and low in dissolved substances and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although some shallow lakes (depth ,10 m) exhibited the highest alkalinities, conductivities, and concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen, most shallow lakes exhibited low values for these variables that were comparable to values observed in deep lakes. Geology did not play a major role in segregating the lakes based on water quality. Overall, lake temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and concentrations of total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl N increased with decreasing elevation. These changes in water quality with decreasing elevation in this temperate mountainous region corresponded with warmer air temperatures and increased vegetation biomass, soil depth and maturity, and dissolved substances and nutrients.

  9. Physical activity referrals in Swedish primary health care – prescriber and patient characteristics, reasons for prescriptions, and prescribed activities

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, ME; Bendtsen, P; Nilsen, P; Ekberg, K; Ståhle, A

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, practitioners in primary health care (PHC) settings in many countries have issued written prescriptions to patients to promote increased physical activity or exercise. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse a comprehensive physical activity referral (PAR) scheme implemented in a routine PHC setting in Östergötland County. The study examines characteristics of the PARs recipients and referral practitioners, identifies reasons why practitioners opted to use PARs with their clients, and discusses prescribed activities and prescriptions in relation to PHC registries. Methods Prospective prescription data were obtained for 90% of the primary health care centres in Östergötland County, Sweden, in 2004 and 2005. The study population consisted of patients who were issued PARs after they were deemed likely to benefit from increased physical activity, as assessed by PHC staff. Results During the two-year period, a total of 6,300 patients received PARs. Two-thirds of the patients were female and half of the patients were 45–64 years. Half of the patients (50.8%) who received PARs were recommended a home-based activity, such as walking. One third (33%) of the patients issued PARs were totally inactive, reporting no days of physical activity that lasted for 30 minutes, and 29% stated that they reached this level 1–2 days per week. The number of PARs prescribed per year in relation to the number of unique individuals that visited primary health care during one year was 1.4% in 2004 and 1.2% in 2005. Two-thirds of the combined prescriptions were issued by physicians (38%) and nurses (31%). Physiotherapists and behavioural scientists issued the highest relative number of prescriptions. The most common reasons for issuing PARs were musculoskeletal disorders (39.1%) and overweight (35.4%), followed by high blood pressure (23.3%) and diabetes (23.2%). Conclusion Östergötland County's PAR scheme reached a relatively high proportion

  10. [Chemical and physical characteristics and toxicology of man-made mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Basilico, S

    1999-01-01

    occurrence of adverse effects following exposure to MMMFs arises mainly from some similarities of MMMFs with asbestos (fibrous aspects, inhalability, chemical composition, free radical formation). The fibre characteristics that have been identified as crucial in influencing the pathogenesis of fibre-related adverse respiratory effects can be mainly divided into two groups: fibre dimension, and chemical composition and structure. Fibre dimension plays a determining role in conditioning penetration in the lung. In a broad sense, the term "respirable" means "capable of being carried by breath into the respiratory system". For regulatory purposes, "respirable fibres" (i.e. RFP) are defined in most countries following WHO criteria: length > 5 microns, diameter < 3 microns, length/diameter > 3. MMMFs are generally produced as fibres of diameter higher than asbestos, and too large in diameter to be respirable. Moreover, due to the production process, they are structurally amorphous. Since MMMFs have no crystalline domains, they also have no clearly defined structural faults and they fracture transversely, and randomly. Fragments that are too large to be taken up by macrophages can be resolved in the lung by a leaching--or dissolution--process which leads to a progressive reduction of particle length. In contrast, when abraded, asbestos tends to split longitudinally into new, fine, straight fibres: these fibrils are of much smaller diameter, more respirable, and consequently more hazardous than parent fibres. Fibre chemical composition plays a determining role in conditioning the higher or lower biological activity, durability, biopersistence, and biodegradability. The term "biological activity" means reactivity or ability to interact (possibly due to formation of active oxygen species, identified as a crucial step in the mechanism of action) with biological structures and tissues. Fibre "durability" is strictly related to its solubility. It can be defined as the ability to resist

  11. Characteristics of Moho transition zone: MCS reflection records and petrological aspects and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, J.; Tsuruga, K.; Ike, T.; Unou, S.; Koda, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Moho is defined as the seismological discontinuity at the crust and mantle boundary. Its global depth, thickness of transition zone, and velocity structure has not been studied well. It is also poorly known whether the Moho has the same petrological and seismological properties in the continent and in the ocean, or not. Previous studies propose several petrological models for the Moho: 1) phase transition boundary from basalt to eclogite, and 2) material boundary of mafic and ultramafic rocks. By the petrological observation in the Oman ophiolite, the oceanic crust is modeled as 3) diabase-homogeneous gabbro - layered gabbro - Moho transition layer - harzburgite. The thickness of Moho transition zone (MTZ), at the boundary between Earth's crust and the subjacent mantle, has significant effect on the seismic responses from the Moho. We examined seismic characteristics of Moho reflection (hereafter PmP) using MCS (Multi Channel Seismic) reflection records obtained by high quality seismic experiments in the western Pacific by JOGMEC (Japan Oil, Gas and MEtals national Corporation). The MCS records show clear reflections at ~ 6-10 km in depth from the ocean bottom in the north and south of Ogasawara Plateau. However, considering horizontal variation in the PmP intensity, the nature of the MTZ varies from place to place. In the seismic profile D00-D, across Ogasawara Plateau in the N-S direction, the PmP abruptly disappears far from the nearby seamount where the overlain sedimentary section has less change. In another case, shown in D00-C that is located 130km west of D00-D, the PmP clearly shows high-amplitude continuous reflection near the seamount's flank. Data acquisition is relatively constant for the Ogasawara MCS reflection lines; therefore, the difference in the PmP intensity between D00- D and D00-C may relate to the nature of the Moho. The comparison of reflection records and synthetic waveforms calculated by Tsuruga et al.(this meeting) shows that if the

  12. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2013-12-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in ash (3.48-2.92%), protein (21.63-17.62%) and fat (55.21-50.40%) content of the beans while carbohydrate content increased from 15.47% to 24.93% with both treatments. As well, increasing pod storage and fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the copper content of the beans from while reductions in Mg and K occurred. Amongst the minerals studied, potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by magnesium, phosphorus and calcium in the fermented cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted.

  13. Cultivars effect on the physical characteristics of rice (rough and milled) (Oryza Sativa L.) of temperate region of Kashmir (India).

    PubMed

    Bhat, Farhan M; Riar, Charanjit S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of present research was to evaluate physical and engineering properties of traditional paddy and rice cultivars native to temperate region of India. Length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, surface area, aspect ratio, volume, bulk density, true density, porosity, thousand kernels weight, angle of repose and coefficient of friction were evaluated, which are required in designing of various post harvest operations and storage structures. The low bulk density of cultivars, Mushki budgi, Mushki tujan and Kaw kareed may be due to the presence of long awns possessed by these cultivars which were bulky and occupied more space. The wide variations were found in rice kernels with respect to colour, which determined the functional properties and energy requirement during polishing of these cultivars. Results indicated significant differences in the physical properties among various paddy and brown rice cultivars when compared with earlier reported results. Thousand kernel weight, width, arithmetic mean diameter and equivalent diameter showed significant positive correlations with spherecity, surface area, volume, true density, and angle of repose; but negatively correlated with bulk density. These desirable characteristics exploit agriculturists/institutions to preserve these races and encourage farmers to cultivate these cherished rice cultivars.

  14. Differences in Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of Italian Burrata Cheeses Made in Artisanal and Industrial Plants of Apulia Region

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Stefano; Marino, Leonardo; Stocchi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Loschi, Anna Rita; Miraglia, Dino; Ranucci, David

    2016-01-01

    The burrata cheese is a traditional product from Southern Italy, consisting of an envelope of pasta filata (stretched curd) filled with cream and pasta filata strips (usually leftovers from mozzarella production). Physical [water activity (aw), pH], chemical (moisture, NaCl content) and microbiological [total viable count (TVC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci] characteristics of burrata cheeses manufactured in artisanal and industrial plants were evaluated. The artisanal burrata showed lower aw values in the filling and the final product. The same was recorded in the filling for the moisture, probably due to differences between the types of cream used in the artisanal and the industrial cheesemaking. The pH value of the filling differed between the two groups but no difference was recorded in the final product. Microbiological differences were also recorded, with higher values for TVC and E. coli in artisanal than industrial burrata. All samples were negative for the other microbial determinations, with the exception of coagulase-positive staphylococci and Y. enterocolitica, which were detected in artisanal burrata. Differences in cheesemaking process were probably responsible for the strong variability of the physical and chemical data between the two cheeses; furthermore, differences in the hygienic features were also recorded. Even though artisanal products showed lower aw and pH values and higher NaCl concentration, the higher E. coli loads highlighted the need for a more accurate compliance with hygienic procedures along the artisanal cheesemaking process. PMID:27853715

  15. Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Verma, Jai; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    This work investigates the physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well (QW) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The physics analysis shows that the use of the AlN-delta-GaN QW structure can ensure dominant conduction band (C) to heavy-hole (HH) subband transition and significantly improve the electron and top HH subband wave function overlap. As a result, up to 30-times enhancement in the transverse-electric (TE)-polarized spontaneous emission rate of the proposed structure can be obtained as compared to a conventional AlGaN QW structure. The polarization properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown AlN/GaN QW-like UV LEDs, which consist of 3-4 monolayer (QW-like) delta-GaN layers sandwiched by 2.5-nm AlN sub-QW layers, are investigated in this study. The polarization-dependent electroluminescence measurement results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. Specifically, the TE-polarized emission intensity is measured to be much larger than the transverse-magnetic emission, indicating significant potential for our proposed QW structure for high-efficiency TE-polarized mid-UV LEDs.

  16. Group structure and physical characteristics of Simakobu monkeys (Simias concolor) on the Mentawai Island of Siberut, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Susilo; Ziegler, Thomas; Hodges, J Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present data on group structure and physical characteristics from free-ranging Simias concolor. Mean group size (n = 3) was 8.7 +/- 1.1 individuals with an average adult male:female sex ratio of 1:3. All individuals were sexed and allocated into three categories (infants, juveniles plus subadults and adults) on the basis of their physical development. Within age categories, head-body lengths ranged from 19.6 to 25, 34 to 44 and 42 to 53 cm. Corresponding body weights ranged from 0.5 to 0.9, 2.35 to 4.4 and 5.2 to 7.85 kg, respectively; on average adult males were 13% larger and 23% heavier than adult females. Results indicate that for S. concolor living in undisturbed habitat (i) group sizes are larger than previously reported and (ii) polygyny is the most likely mating system. Both results support an earlier proposal that group size and social organization in Simakobu monkey are related to the degree of habitat disturbance.

  17. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF.

  18. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  19. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  20. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated 10 m sprints were similar between playing standards (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  1. Investigation of coal deposits in the Fairview and Coal City basins, Coosa Field, St. Clair County, Ala.: reserves, petrography, and chemical properties of coals: washability characteristics of coal from Fairview bed: geology of area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toenges, Albert L.; Turnbull, Louis A.; Jolley, Theodore R.; Shields, Joseph J.; Smith, H.L.; O'Donnell, H. J.; Cooper, H.M.; Abernethy, R.F.; Gandrud, B.W.; Riley, H.L.; Rothrock, Howard E.

    1949-01-01

    Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the coal deposits in Saint Clair County, Alabama. Investigations of the estimated reserves and analyses of the coal fields in this area are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.

  2. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  3. Effects of an off-season conditioning program on the physical characteristics of adolescent rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Smart, Daniel J; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-03-01

    The aims of the study were to determine if a supervised off-season conditioning program enhanced gains in physical characteristics compared with the same program performed in an unsupervised manner and to establish the persistence of the physical changes after a 6-month unsupervised competition period. Forty-four provincial representative adolescent rugby union players (age, mean ± SD, 15.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in a 15-week off-season conditioning program either under supervision from an experienced strength and conditioning coach or unsupervised. Measures of body composition, strength, vertical jump, speed, and anaerobic and aerobic running performance were taken, before, immediately after, and 6 months after the conditioning. Post conditioning program the supervised group had greater improvements in all strength measures than the unsupervised group, with small, moderate and large differences between the groups\\x{2019} changes for chin-ups (9.1%; ± 11.6%), bench-press (16.9%; ± 11.7%) and box-squat (50.4%; ± 20.9%) estimated 1RM respectively. Both groups showed trivial increases in mass; however increases in fat free mass were small and trivial for supervised and unsupervised players respectively. Strength declined in the supervised group while the unsupervised group had small increases during the competition phase, resulting in only a small difference between the long-term changes in box-squat 1RM (15.9%; ± 13.2%). The supervised group had further small increases in fat free mass resulting in a small difference (2.4%; ± 2.7%) in the long-term changes. The postconditioning differences between the 2 groups may have been a result of increased adherence and the attainment of higher training loads during supervised training. The lack of differences in strength after the competition period indicates that supervision should be maintained to reduce substantial decrements in performance.

  4. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  5. Attenuation characteristics in eastern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau: An understanding of the physical state of the medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sagar; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Sahu, Himanshu

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation characteristics of the crust in the eastern Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau are investigated using high quality data recorded by Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) during 2001-2003. The present study aims to provide an attenuation model that can address the physical mechanism governing the attenuation characteristics in the underlying medium. We have studied the Coda wave attenuation (Qc) in the single isotropic scattering model hypothesis, S wave attenuation (Qs) by using the coda normalization method and intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qsc-1) quality factors by the multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering in a 3-D half space within the frequency range 2-12 Hz. All the values of Q exhibit frequency dependent nature for a seismically active area. At all the frequencies intrinsic absorption is predominant compared to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo (B0) are found to be lower than 0.5. The observed discrepancies between the observed and theoretical models can be corroborated by the depth-dependent velocity and attenuation structure as well as the assumption of a uniform distribution of scatterers. Our results correlate well with the existing geo-tectonic model of the area, which may suggest the possible existence of trapped fluids in the crust or its thermal nature. Surprisingly the underlying cause of high attenuation in the crust of eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet makes this region distinct from its adjacent western Himalayan segment. The results are comparable with the other regions reported globally.

  6. Physical Characteristics of a Citrullinated Pro-Filaggrin Epitope Recognized by Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis Sera

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Slot, Ole; Locht, Henning; Lindegaard, Hanne; Svendsen, Anders; Houen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of complex etiology. A characteristic feature of a subset of RA is the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), which correlate with a progressive disease course. In this study, we employed streptavidin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze ACPA reactivity. Using the pro-filaggrin peptide HQCHQEST-Cit-GRSRGRCGRSGS, as template, we analyzed the reactivity of RA sera and healthy donor sera to various peptides in order to determine the physical characteristics of the citrullinated pro-filaggrin epitope and to examine whether biotin labelling influence antibody recognition. The full-length cyclic pro-filaggrin peptide and a linear form with a N-terminal biotin, was recognized to the same level, whereas, a notable difference in ACPA reactivity to the linear peptides with a C-terminal biotin was found, probably due to steric hindrance. Screening of linear and cyclic truncated peptides, revealed that small cyclic peptides containing 10–12 amino acids are favored over the linear. Moreover, the charged amino acids C-terminal to citrulline were found to be essential for antibody reactivity, most important was the charged amino acid in position 4 C-terminal to citrulline. Collectively, peptide structure, length, the presence of charged amino acids and biotin labelling markedly influence antibody reactivity. In relation to the clinical diagnostics of ACPA, these findings may reflect the differences in diagnostic assays used for detection of ACPA, which relates to differences in sensitivity and specificity dependent on the assay applied. PMID:28002483

  7. The role of individual characteristics and physical frailty on health related quality of life (HRQOL): a cross sectional study of Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and HRQOL, and to identify which components of physical frailty measured according to Fried's criteria provided a better explanation of HRQOL. Two hundred and fifty-nine older adults (age 74±6 years; 69% were women) living in Piemonte Region were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were captured by self-reported questionnaires. Physical frailty was assessed using the five criteria of Fried: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level. HRQOL was measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), using both the mental (MCS) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS). Among individual characteristics, gender was the best predictor for SF-36, the MCS, and the PCS, with values of R(2) of 12.7%, 12.1%, and 8.8%, respectively. Among the five Fried's criteria, poor endurance and energy had the largest effect on HRQOL with values of ΔR(2) of 13.9% for SF-36, 13.4% for the MCS, and 9.4% for the PCS. Results highlighted the role of the individual characteristics and the single weight of the five components of physical frailty on HRQOL. This knowledge may give new insights about the relations between individual functioning and self-rated health, allowing the development of individualized and more effective preventive interventions for a healthy aging.

  8. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  9. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (P<0.0001) boar aroma and flavor scores among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for boar aroma or flavor. Intact males had the least (P<0.0001) desirable cured bacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (P<0.01) than bacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows

  10. Physical and chemical characteristics of water in coal-mine ponds, eastern Oklahoma, June to November 1977-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.; Blumer, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Water at 102 sites in 59 coal-mine ponds in eastern Oklahoma was sampled at lease twice during June to November 1977-81 to determine temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and dissolved sulfate, chloride, iron, and manganese--as part of a study of the hydrology of the Oklahoma coalfield. These determinations show that during June to October water in ponds deeper than ~10 ft was stratified; ponds which had little or not change of temperature with depth generally were shallow or were sampled in early November. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH usually decreased with depth, whereas specific conductance usually increased with depth. Concentrations of dissolved sulfate, chloride, iron, and manganese varied from site to site. Specific conductance, which is a measure of dissolved solids in the water, ranged from 93 to 4,800 mmho/cm at 25oC. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the mine-pond water are related to the coal bed adjacent to the pond. Mean specific-conductance values and dissolved-sulfate concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of Dawson, Weir-Pittsburg, and Secor coals. Mean dissolved-iron concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of the Dawson, Secor, and Hartshorne coals. Mean dissolved-manganese concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of the Dawson, Weir-Pittsburg, and Secor coals, but greatly exceeded secondary drinking-water limits regardless of coal bed mined.

  11. Biosynthetic hydrogels--studies on chemical and physical characteristics on long-term cellular response for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-07-01

    Biosynthetic hydrogels can meet the drawbacks caused by natural and synthetic ones for biomedical applications. In the current article we present a novel biosynthetic alginate-poly(propylene fumarate) copolymer based chemically crosslinked hydrogel scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Partially crosslinked PA hydrogel and fully cross linked PA-A hydrogel scaffolds were prepared. The influence of chemical and physical (morphology and architecture of hydrogel) characteristics on the long term cellular response was studied. Both these hydrogels were cytocompatible and showed no genotoxicity upon contact with fibroblast cells. Both PA and PA-A were able to resist deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and sustain the viability of L929 cells. The hydrogel incubated oxidative stress induced cells were capable of maintaining the intra cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) expression to the normal level confirmed their protective effect. Relatively the PA hydrogel was found to be unstable in the cell culture medium. The PA-A hydrogel was able to withstand appreciable cyclic stretching. The cyclic stretching introduced complex macro and microarchitectural features with interconnected pores and more structured bound water which would provide long-term viability of around 250% after the 24th day of culture. All these qualities make PA-A hydrogel form a potent candidate for cardiac tissue engineering.

  12. [Full-field digital mammography with amorphous silicon-based flat- panel detector: physical imaging characteristics and signal detection].

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Tadamitsu; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Ohki, Masafumi; Nakamura, Satoru; Yoshida, Akira; Takagi, Rie; Hatano, Hirohide; Kuwahara, Rie; Toyonaga, Makiko; Tanaka, Isamu; Toyofuku, Fukai

    2004-03-01

    The physical characteristics of a clinical amorphous silicon-based flat-panel imager for full-field digital mammography were investigated. Pre-sampled modulation transfer functions (MTF) were measured by using a slit method. Noise power spectra were determined for different input exposures by fast Fourier transform. The MTFs of full-field digital mammography systems showed significantly higher values than those of the computed radiography (CR) system. The full-field digital mammography system showed a lower noise level than that of the CR system under the same exposure conditions. Contrast detail analysis has been performed to compare the detectability of the full-field digital mammography system with that of the screen-film (Min-R 2000/Min-R 2000) system. The average contrast-detail curves of digital and film images were obtained from the results of observation. Image quality figures (IQF) were also calculated from the individual observer performance tests. The results indicated that the digital contrast-detail curves and IQF, on average, are superior to those of the screen-film system.

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Feathered Dinosaur Measured Using Physical Models. Effects of Form on Static Stability and Control Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While M. gui lived after Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  14. [Dependence of the genotypic characteristics of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans on the physical, chemical, and electrophysical properties of pyrites].

    PubMed

    Tupikina, O V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Karavaĭko, G I

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of physical, chemical, and electrophysical properties of two pyrites, pyrite 1, which had hole-type (p-type) conductivity, and pyrite 2, with electron-type (n-type) conductivity, on the genotypic characteristics of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains TFV-1 and TFBk, which were isolated from different substrates. After the adaptation of the strains to the pyrites at a pulp density of 1%, pulsed-field electrophoresis revealed changes in the chromosomal DNA of strain TFV-1 adapted to pyrite 1 and strain TFBk adapted to either of the pyrite types. In pyrite-adapted strain TFBk, the plasmid composition was the same as after growth on a medium containing ferrous iron, whereas, in strain TFV-1, changes in plasmid sizes or both in plasmid sizes and plasmid number occurred. After an increase in the density of the pyrite 2 pulp from 1 to 10%, the plasmid number increased from three to four, and, after an increase in the density of the pyrite 1 pulp from 1 to 7%, the plasmid number increased from two to six.

  15. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Desiyana, Lydia Septa

    2016-03-01

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  16. Mammographic imaging with a small format CCD-based digital cassette: Physical characteristics of a clinical systema

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Levis, Ilias; Sayag, Michel; Kleehammer, Robert; Heidsieck, Robert; D’Orsi, Carl J.

    2008-01-01

    The physical characteristics of a clinical charge coupled device (CCD)-based imager (Senovision, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) for small-field digital mammography have been investigated. The imager employs a MinR 2000™ (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY) scintillator coupled by a 1:1 optical fiber to a front-illuminated 61×61 mm CCD operating at a pixel pitch of 30 microns. Objective criteria such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were employed for this evaluation. The results demonstrated a limiting spatial resolution (10% MTF) of 10 cy/mm. The measured DQE of the current prototype utilizing a 28 kVp, Mo–Mo spectrum beam hardened with 4.5 cm Lucite is ~40% at close to zero spatial frequency at an exposure of 8.2 mR, and decreases to ~28% at a low exposure of 1.1 mR. Detector element nonuniformity and electronic gain variations were not significant after appropriate calibration and software corrections. The response of the imager was linear and did not exhibit signal saturation under tested exposure conditions. PMID:10984230

  17. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  18. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  19. Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Steven D.; White, Crow; Carr, Mark H.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) that exclude fishing have been shown repeatedly to enhance the abundance, size, and diversity of species. These benefits, however, mean little to most marine species, because individual protected areas typically are small. To meet the larger-scale conservation challenges facing ocean ecosystems, several nations are expanding the benefits of individual protected areas by building networks of protected areas. Doing so successfully requires a detailed understanding of the ecological and physical characteristics of ocean ecosystems and the responses of humans to spatial closures. There has been enormous scientific interest in these topics, and frameworks for the design of MPA networks for meeting conservation and fishery management goals are emerging. Persistent in the literature is the perception of an inherent tradeoff between achieving conservation and fishery goals. Through a synthetic analysis across these conservation and bioeconomic studies, we construct guidelines for MPA network design that reduce or eliminate this tradeoff. We present size, spacing, location, and configuration guidelines for designing networks that simultaneously can enhance biological conservation and reduce fishery costs or even increase fishery yields and profits. Indeed, in some settings, a well-designed MPA network is critical to the optimal harvest strategy. When reserves benefit fisheries, the optimal area in reserves is moderately large (mode ≈30%). Assessing network design principals is limited currently by the absence of empirical data from large-scale networks. Emerging networks will soon rectify this constraint. PMID:20200311

  20. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  1. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  2. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  3. Case, Teacher and School Characteristics Influencing Teachers' Detection and Reporting of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: Results from an Australian Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Farrell, Ann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Schweitzer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the influence of multiple case, teacher and school characteristics on Australian primary school teachers' propensity to detect and report child physical abuse and neglect using vignettes as short hypothetical cases. Methods: A sample of 254 teachers completed a self-report questionnaire. They responded to a series of 32…

  4. Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 4. Physical characteristics of craters from near-surface nuclear detonations. Report for April-October 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Patteson, A.W.

    1984-10-31

    The objective of this project was to measure and correlate with existing data the physical characteristics of craters (radius, depth, lip height and width, throwout, and permanent vertical ground-surface displacement surrounding the crater) resulting from near-surface nuclear detonations.

  5. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

  6. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  7. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics and direct radiative forcing during a "Shamal" dust storm, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, T. M.; Al-Dashti, H.; Spyrou, C.

    2013-09-01

    Dust aerosols are analyzed for their optical and physical properties during an episode of dust storm that hit Kuwait on 26 March 2003 when "Iraqi Freedom" military operation was in full swing. The intensity of the dust storm was such that it left a thick suspension of dust throughout the following day, 27 March, resulting in a considerable cooling effect at the surface on both days. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical thickness reached 3.617 and 4.17 on 26-27 March respectively while Ångstrom coefficient, α870/440, dropped to -0.0234 and -0.0318. Particulate matter concentration of diameter 10 μm or less, PM10, peaked at 4800 μg m-3 during dust storm hours of 26 March. Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) retrieved optical and physical characteristics that exhibited extreme values as well. The synoptic of the dust storm is presented and source regions are identified using total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index retrieved images. The vertical profile of the dust layer was simulated using SKIRON atmospheric model. Instantaneous net direct radiative forcing is calculated at top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface level. The thick dust layer of 26 March resulted in cooling the TOA by -60 Wm-2 and surface level by -175 Wm-2 for a surface albedo of 0.35. Slightly higher values were obtained for 27 March due to the increase in aerosol optical thickness. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level had caused a drop in surface temperature by approximately 6 °C below its average value. Radiative heating/cooling rates in the shortwave and longwave bands were also examined. Shortwave heating rate reached a maximum value of 2 °K day-1 between 3 and 5 km, dropped to 1.5 °K day-1 at 6 km and diminished at 8 km. Longwave radiation initially heated the lower atmosphere by a maximum value of 0.2 °K day-1 at surface level, declined sharply at increasing altitude and diminished at 4 km. Above 4 km longwave radiation started to

  8. Caribbean and Filipino adolescents' and parents' perceptions of parental authority, physical punishment, and cultural values and their relation to migratory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Measham, Toby; Lashley, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the perceptions of parents and adolescents of physical punishment in relation to family and migratory characteristics. Adolescents and their parents of Caribbean (n=118) and of Filipino (n=136) heritage responded to questions on their attitude toward physical discipline, their family relations, and their socio-demographic and migratory characteristics. Data analyses show that many Caribbean (78%) and Filipino (41.9%) parents perceive that they should have the right to physically punish their children, while youth disagree with this. The dissonance between parents' and their children's attitudes is related to acculturation factors due to the earlier and more intense exposure of youth to their host society. Further studies should be conducted on the impact of the divergence between parents and their youth's opinions on the actual shifts in power in the parent-child relationship, as well as on immigrant parents' discipline strategies and on the family's adaptation to the challenges of migration.

  9. The 3-dimentional Distribution through Physical-Chemical-Mineralogical Characteristics of Subsurface Heterogeneity in Tailings of Guryoung Mine, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y.; Park, E.; Song, Y.; Moon, H.

    2005-12-01

    To build an efficient way of handling potential risk associated with a closed mining site with abandoned waste rock and finely crushed mill tailing, detailed characterization on the site is crucial. Among the items to be characterized, mineral characteristics, particle distribution and surface/groundwater flow relationship, shape existence of heavy metal and discriminating the sulfide mineral oxidation and second minerals formation due to the rain or surface water environment may reveal very important aspects of the contaminated site such as kinds and level of contamination, contaminant generation in the event of precipitations, contaminant reaction/transport in the vadose zone, etc. Guryoung mine site in Korea, which is consistent with the purpose of this research, was selected as a research area. In order to illustrate and describe a geological heterogeneity, three-dimensional Coupled Markov chain (CMC) was used. The sampling site was constructed as elemental data using GPS. The sample's analytic data of physical-chemical-mineralogical aspects and cation exchange capacity were built as the database. The result is following: In oxidation zone (0.43 to 1.00 m), the particle contained more than 10 percent of clayey due to the weathering, and the pH was below 3 by oxidation of pyrite. The presence of jarosite, gypsum and goethite was confirmed. The cation exchange capacity was analyzed greater than 10 meq per 100 mg. In transition zone, sandy contained greater percentage, and its pH was 3 to 5. Metals and heavy metals extracted using 0.1 N HCl had the highest concentration, and pyrite took the greatest percentage. In primary zone, sandy contained the greatest percentage at the top but silt took over as going down. The pH was neutral, 5 to 8. Also calcite was identified as second mineral due to the reduction of primary zone. These results were built as database, and applying CMC, the three-dimensional distribution of tailing was confirmed.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of a feathered dinosaur measured using physical models. Effects of form on static stability and control effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, [Formula: see text]Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While [Formula: see text]M. gui lived after [Formula: see text]Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver.

  11. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  12. Meteorological and physical characteristics of dust transport events in the Eastern Great Basin of Utah, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnenberger, M.; Nicoll, K.; Perry, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    Although the Great Basin physiographic province in North America is a known source area of atmospheric dust, the ascendant controls on its dust events have not been well documented to date. We assess the climatology of these dust events back to the 1930s, and find clear seasonal and diurnal patterns, indicating that dust events are, commonly, an afternoon phenomenon during the spring months. Since 1930, Salt Lake City, UT has had 379 dust event days, or 4.7 per year. Air quality station data from the more populated regions of Utah, available since 1993, indicate that dust events have produced elevated PM10, exceeding NAAQS, on 16 days over the past 18 years, or 0.9 per year. This study identifies deepening cyclonic systems over the northern Great Basin as the primary producer of these dust events affecting the eastern Great Basin; this region is located in the lee of the Sierra Nevada, and is a known region of cyclogenesis. Strengthening synoptic scale weather systems interact at the mesoscale with local topography and dust source regions to cause significant dust storms events that have affected the metropolitan area of Salt Lake City, Utah. Upwind of Salt Lake City, these cyclonic systems produce strong southwesterly winds that exceed threshold friction velocities and entrain sediment at the surface of such dust sources as the Sevier Lake, Tule Lake, and Milford Flat, an area disturbed in 2007 by Utah's largest wildfire in recorded history. Case studies of two significant dust events, occurring on 19 April, 2008 and 4 March, 2009, and producing elevated PM10 levels in this region, highlight the key meteorological features and land surface attributes of "hotspot" source areas, identifiable in satellite imagery, of the dust that affected SLC. BSNE dust samplers at the Sevier Lake source region characterize the source type and magnitude and reveal the composition of dust that is being transported. Understanding the meteorological and physical characteristics of

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal

  14. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  16. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  17. Do Cognitive and Physical Functions Age in Concert from Age 70 to 76? Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-05

    The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses. Support for both concepts was mixed: although levels of physical functions and cognitive functions were correlated with one another, physical functions did not decline together, and there was little evidence for shared declines in physical and mental functions. Early-life intelligence, a potential marker of system integrity, made a significant prediction of the levels, but not the slopes, of later life physical functions. These data suggest that common causes, which are likely present within cognitive functions, are not as far-reaching beyond the cognitive arena as has previously been suggested. They also imply that bodily reserve may be similar to cognitive reserve in that it affects the level, but not the slope, of ageing-related declines.

  18. Modelling the effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials used as casing layers on the production parameters of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Arturo; Emilio Pardo, J; de Juan, J Arturo; Zied, Diego Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was to show the mathematical data obtained through the correlations found between the physical and chemical characteristics of casing layers and the final mushrooms' properties. For this purpose, 8 casing layers were used: soil, soil + peat moss, soil + black peat, soil + composted pine bark, soil + coconut fibre pith, soil + wood fibre, soil + composted vine shoots and, finally, the casing of La Rioja subjected to the ruffling practice. The conclusion that interplays in the fructification process with only the physical and chemical characteristics of casing are complicated was drawn. The mathematical data obtained in earliness could be explained in non-ruffled cultivation. The variability observed for the mushroom weight and the mushroom diameter variables could be explained in both ruffled and non-ruffled cultivations. Finally, the properties of the final quality of mushrooms were established by regression analysis.

  19. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the upper Minnesota River basin, west-central Minnesota, northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Upper Minnesota River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, north-eastern South Dakota, and southeastern North Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both laker and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, highflow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  2. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  3. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  4. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  5. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  6. A regression approach to the mapping of bio-physical characteristics of surface sediment using in situ and airborne hyperspectral acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Elsy; Kim, Wonkook; Crawford, Melba; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2017-02-01

    Remote sensing has been successfully utilized to distinguish and quantify sediment properties in the intertidal environment. Classification approaches of imagery are popular and powerful yet can lead to site- and case-specific results. Such specificity creates challenges for temporal studies. Thus, this paper investigates the use of regression models to quantify sediment properties instead of classifying them. Two regression approaches, namely multiple regression (MR) and support vector regression (SVR), are used in this study for the retrieval of bio-physical variables of intertidal surface sediment of the IJzermonding, a Belgian nature reserve. In the regression analysis, mud content, chlorophyll a concentration, organic matter content, and soil moisture are estimated using radiometric variables of two airborne sensors, namely airborne hyperspectral sensor (AHS) and airborne prism experiment (APEX) and and using field hyperspectral acquisitions by analytical spectral device (ASD). The performance of the two regression approaches is best for the estimation of moisture content. SVR attains the highest accuracy without feature reduction while MR achieves good results when feature reduction is carried out. Sediment property maps are successfully obtained using the models and hyperspectral imagery where SVR used with all bands achieves the best performance. The study also involves the extraction of weights identifying the contribution of each band of the images in the quantification of each sediment property when MR and principal component analysis are used.

  7. A regression approach to the mapping of bio-physical characteristics of surface sediment using in situ and airborne hyperspectral acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Elsy; Kim, Wonkook; Crawford, Melba; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing has been successfully utilized to distinguish and quantify sediment properties in the intertidal environment. Classification approaches of imagery are popular and powerful yet can lead to site- and case-specific results. Such specificity creates challenges for temporal studies. Thus, this paper investigates the use of regression models to quantify sediment properties instead of classifying them. Two regression approaches, namely multiple regression (MR) and support vector regression (SVR), are used in this study for the retrieval of bio-physical variables of intertidal surface sediment of the IJzermonding, a Belgian nature reserve. In the regression analysis, mud content, chlorophyll a concentration, organic matter content, and soil moisture are estimated using radiometric variables of two airborne sensors, namely airborne hyperspectral sensor (AHS) and airborne prism experiment (APEX) and and using field hyperspectral acquisitions by analytical spectral device (ASD). The performance of the two regression approaches is best for the estimation of moisture content. SVR attains the highest accuracy without feature reduction while MR achieves good results when feature reduction is carried out. Sediment property maps are successfully obtained using the models and hyperspectral imagery where SVR used with all bands achieves the best performance. The study also involves the extraction of weights identifying the contribution of each band of the images in the quantification of each sediment property when MR and principal component analysis are used.

  8. Army Reserve Transformation: An Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Federal Reserve Restructuring Initiative (FRRI). Critics say these changes have been attempted before, but were unsuccessful. This paper describes the history and current situation of the USAR. It then reviews possible transformational lessons that the USAR can learn from another branch of the Armed Forces, the U.S. Navy Reserve, (USNR) in terms of Naval Reserve recruiting, Naval Reserve advancement, and Naval Reserve culture. Finally, changes for future transformation efforts in the USAR are recommended, foremost among them being a change in organizational culture. (21

  9. Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Wang, Mu-Chia; Liao, Wei-Tsen; Lu, Jui-Heng; Sun, Pi-hung; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1) Internal Medicine; 2) Surgery; 3) Ophthalmology; 4) Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5) Chinese Medicine; 6) Otolaryngology; 7) Orthopedics; 8) Family Medicine; and 9) Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the physical environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1) visual environment; 2) hearing environment; 3) body contact environment; and 4) cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the physical environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness), multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal characteristics when

  10. Chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol particles at a remote coastal location, Mace Head, Ireland, during NAMBLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Bower, K. N.; Flynn, M. J.; McFiggans, G. B.; Topping, D. O.; Williams, P. I.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.

    2006-08-01

    A suite of aerosol physical and chemical measurements were made at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, Co. Galway, Ireland, a coastal site on the eastern seaboard of the north Atlantic Ocean during NAMBLEX. The data have been used in this paper to show that over a wide range of aerosol sizes there is no impact of the inter-tidal zone or the surf zone on measurements made at 7 m above ground level or higher. During the measurement period a range of air mass types were observed. During anticyclonic periods and conditions of continental outflow Aitken and accumulation mode were enhanced by a factor of 5 compared to the marine sector, whilst coarse mode particles were enhanced during westerly conditions. Baseline marine conditions were rarely met at Mace Head during NAMBLEX and high wind speeds were observed for brief periods only. The NAMBLEX experiment focussed on a detailed assessment of photochemistry in the marine environment, investigating the linkage between the HOx and the halogen radical cycles. Heterogeneous losses are important in both these cycles. In this paper loss rates of gaseous species to aerosol surfaces were calculated for a range of uptake coefficients. Even when the accommodation coefficient is unity, lifetimes due to heterogeneous loss of less than 10 s were never observed and rarely were they less than 500 s. Diffusional limitation to mass transfer is important in most conditions as the coarse mode is always significant. We calculate a minimum overestimate of 50% in the loss rate if this is neglected and so it should always be considered when calculating loss rates of gaseous species to particle surfaces. HO2 and HOI have accommodation coefficients of around 0.03 and hence we calculate lifetimes due to loss to particle surfaces of 2000 s or greater under the conditions experienced during NAMBLEX. Aerosol composition data collected during this experiment provide representative information on the input aerosol characteristics to western

  11. Spectroscopic characteristics of soil organic matter as a tool to assess soil physical quality in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Knicker, Heike; López-Martín, María; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean areas, the loss of soil physical quality is of particular concern due to the vulnerability of these ecosystems in relation to unfavourable climatic conditions, which usually lead to soil degradation processes and severe decline of its functionality. As a result, increasing scientific attention is being paid on the exploration of soil properties which could be readily used as quality indicators, including organic matter which, in fact, represents a key factor in the maintenance of soil physical status. In this line, the present research tackles the assessment of the quality of several soils from central Spain with the purpose of identifying the physical properties most closely correlated with the organic matter, considering not only the quantity but also the quality of the different C-forms. The studied attributes consist of a series of physical properties determined in field and laboratory conditions-total porosity, aggregate stability, available water capacity, air provision, water infiltration rate and soil hydric saturation-.The bulk organic matter was characterised by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and the major organic fractions (lipids, free particulate organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids and humin) were quantified using standard procedures. The humic acids were also analysed by visible and infrared spectroscopies. The use of multidimensional scaling to classify physical properties in conjunction with molecular descriptors of soil organic matter, suggested significant correlations between the two set of variables, which were confirmed with simple and canonical regression models. The results pointed to two well-defined groups of physical attributes in the studied soils: (i) those associated with organic matter of predominantly aromatic character (water infiltration descriptors), and (ii) soil physical variables related to organic matter with marked aliphatic character, high preservation of the lignin signature and comparatively low

  12. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  13. Association of Environment and Policy Characteristics on Children’s Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Time Spent Sedentary in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Clennin, Morgan N.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Afterschool programs (ASPs) are an important setting in which to promote children’s physical activity. This study examines the association of environmental and policy characteristics on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior of children attending ASPs. Methods A total of 1,302 children attending 20 ASPs across South Carolina wore accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) for up to 4 non-consecutive days. Policy-level characteristics were evaluated using the Healthy Afterschool Program Index-Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) scale. Physical activity space was measured using a measuring wheel (indoor, ft2) and GIS (outdoor, acres). The structure (free-play or organized) of activity opportunities, was evaluated via direct observation. Time spent in MVPA and sedentary, both indoors and outdoors, was estimated using accelerometry. Results For every 5000ft2 of utilized indoor activity space an additional 2.4 and 3.3 minutes/day of sedentary behavior was observed among boys and girls, respectively. A higher ratio of free-play to organized play was associated with higher indoor sedentary behavior among boys and girls (3.9 minutes/day and 10.0 minutes/day, respectively). For every one acre of outdoor activity space used, an additional 2.7 minutes/day of MVPA was observed for boys. A higher free-play to organized play ratio was associated with higher outdoor MVPA for boys and girls (4.4 and 3.4 minutes/day increase, respectively). Policy characteristics were unrelated to MVPA levels and time spent sedentary. Conclusion Findings indicate that policies and the size of activity space had limited influence on MVPA and sedentary behavior, suggesting that programmatic structure may be a more effective option to improve MVPA levels of children attending ASPs. PMID:25251100

  14. The chemical and physical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube film impact on osteoblastic cell response.

    PubMed

    Tutak, Wojtek; Chhowalla, Manish; Sesti, Federico

    2010-08-06

    Carbon-nanotube-based substrates have been shown to support the growth of different cell types and, as such, have raised considerable interest in view of their possible use in biomedical applications. Nanotube matrices are embedded in polymers which cause inherent changes in nanotube chemical and physical film properties. Thus, it is critical to understand how the physical properties of the film affect the biology of the host tissue. Here, we investigated how the physical and chemical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) films impact the response of MC3T3-E1 bone osteoblasts. We found that two fundamental steps in cell growth-initial attachment to the substrate and proliferation-are strongly dependent on, respectively, the energy and roughness of the surface. Thus, fine-tuning the properties of the film may represent a valid strategy to optimize the response of the biological host.

  15. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  16. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  17. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  18. Seasonal variations of chemical and physical characteristics of dissolved organic matter and trihalomethane precursors in a reservoir: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qun-shan; Feng, Cheng-hong; Wang, Dong-sheng; Shi, Bao-you; Zhang, Li-tian; Wei, Qia; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2008-01-31

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its potential to form disinfection by-products (DBPs) during water treatment are of great public health concern. Understanding the seasonal changes in DOM composition and their reactivity in DBP formation could lead to a better treatment of drinking water and a more consistent water quality. DOM from the East-Lake, a reservoir in the south-China, was fractionated and characterized by XAD resin adsorption (RA) and ultrafiltration (UF) techniques during different seasons within a year. The properties of chemical fractions (isolated by RA) appeared more stable than those of physical fractions (separated by UF) throughout the sampling period. The relative contribution of each chemical fraction to the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV(254) absorbance and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) remained relatively constant across the sampling period. However, the physical (molecular weight) fractions of the DOM exhibited large seasonal changes in UV(254) and THMFP. Compared to the parameter of DOC, the THMFP and specific THMFP (STHMFP) of either chemical or physical fractions were more variable. In terms of DOC concentration, the hydrophobic acids (HoA) and hydrophilic matter (HiM) dominated in the DOM in most of the seasons; while the components with molecular weight of 10-30 kDa and less than 1 kDa were the predominant physical fractions.

  19. Healthy Immigrant Families: Participatory Development and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Hanza, Marcelo M.K.; Meiers, Sonja J.; Patten, Christi A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Njeru, Jane W.; Abbenyi, Adeline; Levine, James A.; Goodson, Miriam; Capetillo, Maria Graciela D. Porraz; Osman, Ahmed; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2015-01-01

    Background US immigrants often have escalating cardiovascular risk. Barriers to optimal physical activity and diet have a significant role in this risk accumulation. Methods We developed a physical activity and nutrition intervention with immigrant and refugee families through a community-based participatory research approach. Work groups of community members and health scientists developed an intervention manual with 12 content modules that were based on social-learning theory. Family health promoters from the participating communities (Hispanic, Somali, Sudanese) were trained to deliver the intervention through 12 home visits during the first 6 months and up to 12 phone calls during the second 6 months. The intervention was tested through a randomized community-based trial with a delayed-intervention control group, with measurements at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Primary measurements included accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and 24-hour dietary recall. Secondary measures included biometrics and theory-based instruments. Results One hundred fifty-one individuals (81 adolescents, 70 adults; 44 families) were randomized. At baseline, mean (SD) time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 64.7 (30.2) minutes/day for adolescents and 43.1 (35.4) minutes/day for adults. Moderate dietary quality was observed in both age groups. Biometric measures showed that 45.7% of adolescents and 80.0% of adults were overweight or obese. Moderate levels of self-efficacy and social support were reported for physical activity and nutrition. Discussion Processes and products from this program are relevant to other communities aiming to reduce cardiovascular risk and negative health behaviors among immigrants and refugees. Trial Registration This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01952808). PMID:26655431

  20. Risk for Intimate Partner Violence and Child Physical Abuse: Psychosocial Characteristics of Multirisk Male and Female Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    consisted of 775 female and 592 male Navy recruits. The psychosocial variables assessed included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...Munroe et al., 1995). The psychosocial characteristics examined in the present study included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...the present study, all psychosocial functioning variables (i.e., dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self- dysfunction, alcohol abuse, and drug use

  1. Coupling of physical characteristics of non-ionizing irradiation to specific mechanisms of cell death: are we there yet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon

    2015-03-01

    The recent discovery of the various specific" triggers" and mechanisms of cell life and death responses suggests that certain non-ionizing irradiation spectra and other physical signals could be coupled with specific cellular "triggers" to improve diagnostic or treatment effects. Genetic, chemical and/or physical modifications of specific extrinsic cellular "triggers" have centered on chemical binding of specific molecules to specific receptors, i.e. chemical " triggers" thus allowing development of specific drugs to counteract the initiating function of the "triggers" in single cells. Investigations of non-ionizing irradiation effects on cells and tissues indicate that their "triggers" involve intimate interactions of linked components of the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton in tissues. Therefore, the search for single "triggers" that may work well for chemical "triggers" in single cells in culture may not be effective for discovery of the mechanisms that initiate sensing of the stimulations of non-ionizing irradiation and mechanical force.

  2. Characteristics of coping strategies and the relationships between coping strategies and stress reactions in physical therapy students during clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Daisuke, Higuchi; Ayumi, Echigo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to understand the coping strategies used during physical therapy clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight of 77 physical therapy students (88.3%) responded to questionnaires, including a tri-axial coping scale and a scale of stress reactions after clinical practice (median age=22 years; 45 were male, 23 were female; 37 third-year students, 31 fourth-year students). The scores of males and females were compared via descriptive statistics. In addition, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. Dummy variables were created based on the median scores of stress reactions (0=slight reactions; 1=severe reactions), and were used as the dependent variables. [Results] The stress reaction scores of female (median score=7 points) were significantly higher than those of male students (5 points). The following significant logistic regression equation was obtained: log (p / (1−p))=1.78 + 1.96 [gender (0=male; 1=female)] + 0.30 (buck passing strategy). The odds ratios for gender and buck passing were 7.12 and 1.34, respectively. [Conclusion] Clinical practice educators should be aware that female students and those that use buck passing are more likely to suffer from severe stress reactions during physical therapy clinical practice. PMID:27821952

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic chromium (picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Avishek; Divya, Sharma; Mandal, A B; Majumdar, S; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-30

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary chromium (Cr as picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of adult male turkey. Seventy-two (72) male turkeys (16 weeks old) were randomly distributed into four dietary treatment groups (4×3×6) for a period of 24 weeks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 250, 500 and 750μg Cr/kg (T2, T3 and T4 respectively) in basal diet (T1 considered as control). Semen physical characteristics viz. sperm concentration, progressive motility, live and dead count of spermatozoa and fertility differed significantly (P<0.05). Sperm concentration, progressive motility and fertility were higher and dead count was lower in T4 (750μg) group than control (T1) or other dietary treatments (T2 or T3) group. Semen biochemical parameters like creatinine, acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration did not differ significantly among the dietary treatment groups, whereas, total protein, glucose, malondialdehyde (MAD) and cholesterol concentration differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the treatment groups. Protein and MAD were higher while glucose and cholesterol concentrations were lower in T3 and T4 group than control or T1 group. The shrinkage loss, eviscerated yield, relative weight (as percent of body weight) of breast, thigh and liver improved on supplementation of Cr leading to significantly higher in T4 group in comparison to control. From this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate, at 750μg/kg level in diet was beneficial for improving physical characteristics of semen, carcass yield and breast yield of adult male turkeys. However, Cr levels of 500 or 750μg/kg in diet were beneficial for semen biochemical parameters of adult male turkeys.

  4. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  5. Variability of soil organic carbon reservation capability between coastal salt marsh and riverside freshwater wetland in Chongming Dongtan and its microbial mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Li, Yanli; Wang, Lei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan; Wu, Jihua

    2012-01-01

    Two representative zones in Chongming Dongtan which faced the Yangtze River and East China Sea respectively were selected to study the variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) reservation capability between coastal wetland and riverside wetland in the Chongming Dongtan wetland as well as its mechanism by analyzing soil characteristics and plant biomass. The results showed the SOC content of riverside wetland was only 48.61% (P = 0.000 < 0.05) that of coastal wetland. As the organic matter inputs from plant litter of the coastal wetland and riverside wetland were approximately the same, the higher soil microbial respiration (SMR) of riverside wetland led to its lower SOC reservation capability. In the riverside wetland, the high soil microbial biomass, higher proportion of beta-Proteobacteria, which have strong carbon metabolism activity and the existence of some specific aerobic heterotrophic bacteria such as Bacilli and uncultured Lactococcus, were the important reasons for the higher SMR compared to the coastal wetland. There were additional differences in soil physical and chemical characteristics between the coastal wetland and riverside wetlands. Path analysis of predominant bacteria and microbial biomass showed that soil salinity influenced beta-Proteobacteria and microbial biomass most negatively among these physical and chemical factors. Therefore the low salinity of the riverside area was suitable for the growth of microorganisms, especially beta-Proteobacteria and some specific bacteria, which led to the high SMR and low SOC reservation capability when compared to the coastal area.

  6. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population: recommendations from the EACPR (Part I).

    PubMed

    Vanhees, L; De Sutter, J; GeladaS, N; Doyle, F; Prescott, E; Cornelissen, V; Kouidi, E; Dugmore, D; Vanuzzo, D; Börjesson, M; Doherty, P

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, more and more evidence is accumulated that physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are essential components in primary and secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit in achieving cardiovascular health. The present paper, as the first of a series of three, will make specific recommendations on the importance of these characteristics for cardiovascular health in the population at large. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and the individual member of the public. Based on previous and the current literature, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and exercise.

  7. Evaluation Physical Characteristics and Comparison Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammation Potentials of Dental Root Canal Sealers Containing Hinokitiol In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yin-Hua; Lin, Dan-Jae; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Hsia, Shih-Min; Ko, Shun-Yao; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Hsue, Shui-Sang; Wang, Tong-Hong; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hinokitiol displays potent antimicrobial activity. It has been used in toothpaste and oral-care gel to improve the oral lichen planus and reduce halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 3 different dental root canal sealers with hinokitiol (sealers+H) and their physical and biological effects. AH Plus (epoxy amine resin-based, AH), Apexit Plus (calcium-hydroxide-based, AP), and Canals (zinc-oxide-eugenol-based, CA), were used in this study. The original AH and CA exhibited strong anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity, but AP did not. The setting time, working time, flowability, film thickness, and solubility of each sealer+0.2%H complied with ISO 6876:2001. CA+0.2%H exhibited high cytotoxicity, but the others sealers+0.2%H did not. Because hinokitiol combined with Zn2+ in CA creates a synergistic effect. The physical tests of AP+0.5%–1%H complied with ISO 6876:2001, improved antimicrobial activity, inhibited inflammation genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA in MG-63 cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), and down-regulated lysyl oxidase (LOX) mRNA of HGF. In summary, AH and CA demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity, but AP did not. Application of hinokitiol increases AH anti-MRSA activity should less than 0.2% for keep well flowability. AP+0.5%–1% hinokitiol exhibited strong physical, antibacterial, and anti-inflammation potentials, and inhibited S. aureus abscess formation. Applying an appreciable proportion of hinokitiol to epoxy-amine-resin-based and calcium-hydroxide-based root canal sealers is warranted, but the enhanced cytotoxicity and synergistic effect must be considered. PMID:24915566

  8. Importance of physical and hydraulic characteristics to unionid mussels: A retrospective analysis in a reach of large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.; Steuer, J.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Sauer, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in understanding physical and hydraulic factors that might drive distribution and abundance of freshwater mussels has been increasing due to their decline throughout North America. We assessed whether the spatial distribution of unionid mussels could be predicted from physical and hydraulic variables in a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were constructed using mussel data compiled from various sources and explanatory variables derived from GIS coverages. Prediction success of CART models for presence-absence of mussels ranged from 71 to 76% across three gears (brail, sled-dredge, and dive-quadrat) and 51% of the deviance in abundance. Models were largely driven by shear stress and substrate stability variables, but interactions with simple physical variables, especially slope, were also important. Geospatial models, which were based on tree model results, predicted few mussels in poorly connected backwater areas (e.g., floodplain lakes) and the navigation channel, whereas main channel border areas with high geomorphic complexity (e.g., river bends, islands, side channel entrances) and small side channels were typically favorable to mussels. Moreover, bootstrap aggregation of discharge-specific regression tree models of dive-quadrat data indicated that variables measured at low discharge were about 25% more predictive (PMSE = 14.8) than variables measured at median discharge (PMSE = 20.4) with high discharge (PMSE = 17.1) variables intermediate. This result suggests that episodic events such as droughts and floods were important in structuring mussel distributions. Although the substantial mussel and ancillary data in our study reach is unusual, our approach to develop exploratory statistical and geospatial models should be useful even when data are more limited. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all...

  10. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  11. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  12. Light-load maximal lifting velocity full squat training program improves important physical and skill characteristics in futsal players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Torrelo, Julio; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training or combined resistance training and change of direction exercises on physical performance and motor skills in futsal players. Thirty-four futsal players were divided into full squat group (SG, n = 12), combined full squat and change of direction exercises group (S+CDG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 10). The resistance training for SG consisted of full squat with low load (~45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-6 repetitions), whereas the S+CDG performed the same resistance training program combined with loaded change of direction. Sprint time in 10 and 20 m, change of direction test, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) height, maximal strength and force-velocity relationship in full squat exercise, kicking speed ball (BSmean) and repeated sprint ability (RSAmean) were selected as testing variables. Both experimental groups showed significant improvements for CMJ, BSmean and all strength parameters. Only SG resulted in significant sprint gains, whereas S+CDG also achieved significant improvements in RSAmean. The CG remained unchanged after training period. No significant differences were found between both experimental groups. These findings suggest that only 12 sessions of either lightweight resistance training alone, lifting the load at maximal intended velocity or combined with change of direction exercises is enough to improve several physical and skills capacities critical to futsal performance in adult players.

  13. Comparing patient characteristics and treatment processes in patients receiving physical therapy in the United States, Israel and the Netherlands: Cross sectional analyses of data from three clinical databases

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, Ilse CS; Hart, Dennis L; Deutscher, Daniel; van den Bosch, Wil JH; Dekker, Joost; de Bakker, Dinny H; van den Ende, Cornelia HM

    2008-01-01

    Background Many assume that outcomes from physical therapy research in one country can be generalized to other countries. However, no well designed studies comparing outcomes among countries have been conducted. In this exploratory study, our goal was to compare patient demographics and treatment processes in outpatient physical therapy practice in the United States, Israel and the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data from three different clinical databases were examined. Data were selected for patients aged 18 years and older and started an episode of outpatient therapy between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2005. Results are based on data from approximately 63,000 patients from the United States, 100,000 from Israel and 12,000 from the Netherlands. Results Age, gender and the body part treated were similar in the three countries. Differences existed in episode duration of the health problem, with more patients with chronic complaints treated in the United States and Israel compared to the Netherlands. In the United States and Israel, physical agents and mechanical modalities were applied more often than in the Netherlands. The mean number of visits per treatment episode, adjusted for age, gender, and episode duration, varied from 8 in Israel to 11 in the United States and the Netherlands. Conclusion The current study showed that clinical databases can be used for comparing patient demographic characteristics and for identifying similarities and differences among countries in physical therapy practice. However, terminology used to describe treatment processes and classify patients was different among databases. More standardisation is required to enable more detailed comparisons. Nevertheless the differences found in number of treatment visits per episode imply that one has to be careful to generalize outcomes from physical therapy research from one country to another. PMID:18667062

  14. The characteristics of healthy adults with hardly palpable vein--Relations between easy venous palpation and physical factors.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Mika; Matsumura, Yuko; Sasaki, Shinsuke; Murakami, Naoki; Mori, Masaharu; Ogino, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate relations between ease of venous palpation and various venous factors, and to elucidate characteristics of hardly palpable veins. Healthy adult volunteers (n = 110) were enrolled. The ease of venous palpation was scored from 0: impalpable to 3: well palpable. Venous factors, namely venous depth, elevation, area and minimal pressure that starts to collapse vein, were measured using an ultrasonography before and after tourniquet inflation at 60 mmHg for 60 s. Tourniquet inflation significantly increased the venous area and venous palpation score. The four venous factors correlated significantly with venous palpation score with the following correlation coefficient: Depth (r = -0.542), Elevation (0.486), area (0.258) and start-to-collapse pressure (-0.220). The characteristics of hardly palpable veins were small size, deep location and little elevation. Although vasodilatation facilitated venous palpation, venous depth and elevation were also important and should be included in future studies in which vasodilatation methods are evaluated.

  15. Influence of chemical and physical characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) on their hydration behavior and potential suitability for soil stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peethamparan, Sulapha Olek, Jan Lovell, Janet

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of CKDs with a given soil depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the CKDs. Hence, the characterization of CKDs and their hydration products may lead to better understanding of their suitability as soil stabilizers. In the present article, four different CKD powders are characterized and their hydration products are evaluated. A detailed chemical (X-ray diffraction), thermogravimetric and morphological (scanning electron microscope) analyses of both the CKD powders and the hydrated CKD pastes are presented. In general, high free-lime content ({approx} 14-29%) CKDs, when reacted with water produced significant amounts of calcium hydroxide, ettringite and syngenite. These CKDs also developed higher unconfined compressive strength and higher temperature of hydration compared to CKDs with lower amounts of free-lime. An attempt was made to qualitatively correlate the performance of CKD pastes with the chemical and physical characteristics of the original CKD powders and to determine their potential suitability as soil stabilizers. To that effect a limited unconfined compressive strength testing of CKD-treated kaolinite clays was performed. The results of this study suggest that both the compressive strength and the temperature of hydration of the CKD paste can give early indications of the suitability of particular CKD for soil stabilization.

  16. Emotional, physical, and social needs among 0-5-year-old children displaced by the 2010 Chilean earthquake: associated characteristics and exposures.

    PubMed

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Angel Cordero

    2017-04-01

    An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010, displacing nearly 2,000 children aged less than five years to emergency housing camps. Nine months later, this study assessed the needs of 140 displaced 0-5-year-old children in six domains: caregiver stability and protection; health; housing; nutrition; psychosocial situation; and stimulation. Multivariate regression was applied to examine the degree to which emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with baseline characteristics and exposure to the earthquake, to stressful events, and to ongoing risks in the proximal post-earthquake context. In each domain, 20 per cent or fewer children had unmet needs. Of all children in the sample, 20 per cent had unmet needs in multiple domains. Children's emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with ongoing exposures amenable to intervention, more than with baseline characteristics or epicentre proximity. Relief efforts should address multiple interrelated domains of child well-being and ongoing risks in post-disaster settings.

  17. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  18. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  19. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  20. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North and South Forks of the Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Data collected with the GeoXT Trimble GPS unit using ArcPad 6.1. (summer 2006-2007). Files were created within a geodatabase to create a data dictionary for use in ArcPad during data collection. Drop down lists for habitat type, substrate, depth, width, length, and descriptions were included. Data files produced on the GeoXT were point shapefiles that could be checked back into the geodatabase and viewable as a layer. Points were gathered while canoeing along the South Fork Shenandoah River. Each location marked a change in meso-scale habitat type. GPS points were supplemented with GIS-derived points in areas where manual measurements were made. The points were used to generate a line coverage. This coverage represents physical habitat at a meso-scale (width of stream).

  1. [Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of ischemic heart disease in a group of physically handicapped individuals (blind and mute)].

    PubMed

    Stanić, R

    1993-01-01

    Our long clinical experience, with observations of some authors as well, indicate that the epidemic data of the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.) is significantly reduced in some physically handicapped people (the blind and the deaf-mute) if we compare them with the similar ones who have not such anomalies. With no regard to patho-physiologic mechanism of such condition, 233 examinees of both sex, chosen by the method of accidental choice, were examined by clinical, ECG, and laboratory (non- invasive) methods and divided into three groups: the blind 81 (34.76%), the deaf-mute 76 (32.61%), and industrial workers 76 (32.61%) who were taken a as control group. The obtained results show that the incidence of I.H.D. (4,56%), and the control group 11 (8,36%), which, from the point of statistics, offer a significant piece of information.

  2. Investigation of planarization characteristics and novel defects in metal CMP affected by physical, chemical and mechanical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheemalapati, Krishnayya

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has emerged as a widely used technology in the present day fabrication of Integrated Circuit (IC) chips in microelectronics. With the device size shrinking every year, the need for smaller and faster chips is also increasing. The use of novel materials and methods of fabrication are becoming inevitable. The replacement of aluminum with copper, low-k dielectrics in place of SiO2 in the Back End Of the Line processing (BEOL), multi-level metallization are some of the recent developments which the industry has witnessed. The patterning of features with smaller critical dimensions requires the Depth Of Focus (DOF) to be as low as possible. The requirement on the DOF hence increases with the reduction in the critical dimensions hence increasing the planarity requirements. Three different factors that impact the planarity in metal CMP have been investigated in detail in the thesis. The first topic of the thesis deals with a novel defect in Cu patterned wafer polishing where the feature experiences extra erosion at the edge of the feature in comparison to the center. Various first-step Cu slurries with different passivation chemistries were employed in the study supported by CFD modeling of slurry flow over patterned features. The relative roles of slurry passivation and fluid flow on the inception of the defect were investigated. The second topic deals with the impact of process temperature in CMP. Different factors such as process variables, slurry components and its effect on process temperature were investigated. The effect of process temperature on slurry physical properties in turn affecting the slurry performance was investigated in detail with different first-step Cu slurries. The final topic of the thesis deals with some important factors that determine the planarization efficiency in metal CMP. The impact of slurry physical properties, pad and wafer specifications and slurry abrasive content were studied in detail.

  3. Physical and dynamical characteristics of a 300 m-deep anticyclonic eddy in the Ligurian Sea (Northwest Mediterranean Sea): Evidence from a multi-platform sampling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Alvarez, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    We describe the physical and dynamical characteristics of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy observed in August 2013 over the shelf-break region of the northeastern sector of the Ligurian Sea, between the northeastern edge of the Northern Current (NC) and the coast. Results derive from a dense dataset of temperature, salinity and current measurements obtained from a multi-platform sampling strategy as well as from a diagnostic simulation with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at a horizontal resolution of 1.8 km. Model results are obtained from a strong nudging to observations and, as they are physically balanced, they allow a three-dimensional diagnosis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the eddy. The eddy is centered around 9.5°E, 43.94°N, about 20 km from the coast, and has a radius of 16 km. It is characterized by low-density waters and penetrates the thermocline down to at least 300 m reflecting the main features of the NC. Horizontal velocities near the surface are around 0.4 m s-1, while at 150 m are still significantly high and close to 0.2 m s-1. Vertical velocities were estimated from model results; absolute values are below 4 m day-1 until depths shallower than 150 m and increase with depth to 15 m day-1. The eddy's presence inverts the northwestwards flow traditionally portrayed in the region determining a southeastwards coastal circulation that replenishes coastal waters with those originating from the NC. We discuss several possible eddy formation mechanisms and suggest that its formation depends on the directionality of the NC when it enters the Ligurian Sea, as a result of the adjustment of the shear and orbital components of the current's relative vorticity.

  4. Developing a geomorphic approach for ranking watersheds for rehabilitation, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Cheama, A.; Lalio, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of past erosion problems on the Zuni Indian Reservation in western New Mexico, the US Congress in 1990 authorized the Zuni Tribe to begin a program for watershed rehabilitation. This paper describes an approach to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation for the Zuni Reservation. The approach was based on data collected during a 3-year study on geomorphic and anthropogenic characteristics of the Rio Nutria Watershed, including data on (i) arroyo cross-sectional changes, (ii) erosion-control structures, and (iii) sheetwash erosion. Results of this 3-year study indicated that 61 of 85 channel cross-sections aggraded and channels with lower width-to-depth ratios eroded. Results on assessment of erosion-control structures, some dating back to the 1930's, indicated that 60% of earthen dams and 22% of rock-and-brush structures were breached or flanked in the Rio Nutria Watershed. Sheetwash erosion measured on five land-cover sites (sagebrush, pasture, chained pin??on and juniper, unchained pin??on and juniper, and ponderosa pine) indicated chained pin??on and juniper sites and pasture sites had the highest volume-weighted sediment concentrations of 13,000 and 9970 ppm, respectively. Based on interpretations of the 3-year study in the Rio Nutria Watershed, a two-stage approach was developed to rank the most appropriate watersheds for rehabilitation on the Zuni Reservation. In the first stage, the reservation was divided into eight major watersheds, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. In the second stage, the watershed with the most potential for erosion was divided into sub-basins, which were ranked according to the most potential for erosion. Quantitative and qualitative information on physical and anthropogenic factors were used at each stage to rank the watersheds. Quantitative physical data included headcut density, percentage of bare ground, percentage of chained area, channel width-to-depth ratio, change in

  5. Advances in physical study of high enthalpy plasma jets of technological interest: emission spectra and plasma characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belevtsev, A. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Markin, A. V.; Tazikova, T. F.; Tereshkin, S. A.

    1998-10-01

    Offers a comprehensive study of the emission spectra and plasma characteristics of high enthalpy atmospheric pressure argon and nitrogen jets produced by a high- current industrially important arc plasmatron with a vortex stabilized channel-anode (I<=3D500A, G=3D1-4g/s, jet diameter at a minimum-6mm). The spectra are taken at different distances from the cathode in the 200-950nm region with a spectral resolution=3D0.01nm allowing a fine structure of vibronic bands to be essentially resolved except that due to the dublet (spin) splitting and Λ-doubling. Also derived (through the Abel inversion) are radial distributions of plasma components. The spectra obtained have been used for determining plasma composition, the electron component parameters (by atomic/ionic Stark half-widths and intensities) and the assessment of rotational and vibrational temperatures by simulating molecular bands.

  6. Chemical and physical characteristics of lamb meat related to crossbreeding of Romanov ewes with Suffolk and Charollais sires.

    PubMed

    Kuchtík, Jan; Zapletal, David; Šustová, Květoslava

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of crossbreeding Romanov (RO) ewes with Suffolk (SF) and Charollais (CH) sires on the chemicophysical characteristics and FA profile of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) in lambs fattened under organic conditions. The experimental animals were male lamb twins of two different crossbreds; CH 50 RO 50 and SF 50 RO 50. Lambs were slaughtered at an average live weight of 31kg. CH 50 RO 50 displayed higher contents of dry matter and intramuscular fat of the QFM. A lower pH value of CH 50 RO 50 was reflected in an increase of WHC. Meat of SF 50 RO 50 lambs had more lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). The CH 50 RO 50 genotype showed a significantly higher proportion of C18:3n-3cis and n-3 PUFA than the SF 50 RO 50 genotype. The genotype also affected the Δ(9)-desaturase (16) index.

  7. Fruit physical characteristics, proximate, mineral and starch characterization of FHIA 19 and FHIA 20 plantain and FHIA 03 cooking banana hybrids.

    PubMed

    Annor, George Amponsah; Asamoah-Bonti, Prudence; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cooking banana and plantain (Musa spp. AAB and ABB groups), have over the years been affected by pest and diseases, resulting in various organizations developing disease resistant hybrids with superior agronomic potential. The characteristics of these improved varieties needs to be studied to ascertain their suitability for use in various food systems. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics, proximate and minerals composition, and characterizing the starch of plantain and a cooking banana hybrid release by Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola (FHIA), and comparing them to a local landrace in Ghana. FHIA 19 and FHIA 20 plantain, Apentu pa (a local landrace) and FHIA 03 cooking banana hybrid were used for the study. Their physical characteristics, proximate and mineral composition were determined at the proximal, midsection and distal hand positions. Starch granules and cells were then examined under light microscope. Ranges obtained for protein content for FHIA 20, FHIA 03 and FHIA 19 were 3.01-3.40, 2.66-2.91 and 2.81-2.91 %. Potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral in all the cultivars. The highest mean value of 982.5-1013.76 mg/100 g was obtained for FHIA 19. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the proximate and mineral composition of the varieties, however no significant difference exited between the hand positions. The largest starch granule size was found in FHIA 19 hybrid. FHIA 03 was also composed predominantly of two types: longitudinal and rounded granules with each type grouped together. The new plantain hybrids compared very well with the local landrace hence making them suitable to be incorporated into local food systems.

  8. Effects of low pressure radio frequency discharge on the physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical composition of diffusion coating on a surface of complex configuration details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladianov, V. I.; Gilmutdinov, F. Z.; Nikonova, R. M.; Kashapov, N. F.; Shaekhov, M. F.; Khristoliubova, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The work deals with the influence of low-pressure radio frequency (RF) discharge on the surface properties of metals and their alloys. As objects of research to study the interaction of the jet low pressure RF discharge into the surface of the material the following materials were chosen: tungsten cobalt alloy, high speed steel, structural steel. In the presence of the materials energy parameters of low pressure RF discharge flows in the discharge chamber and the electrode gap were studied. A quantitative assessment of the gas composition inside the chamber to determine the characteristics of the plasma flow, making the major contribution to the modification of the surface was carried out. The influence of the input parameters of the plasma unit on the discharge characteristics was held. Identification of the main processes responsible for the modification of the surface of metals and alloys with the metal sample in the plasma jet and the effect of samples of products complex configuration on its properties is determined. The results of studies of physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical composition of the surface layers of high-speed steels, alloys and steel before and after treatment by low pressure radio frequency discharges with the instrumental indentation methods and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. With the help of the quality control system of the inner surfaces tubular products were studied.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of {sup 3}He ion physical characteristics in a water phantom and evaluation of radiobiological effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Taleei, Reza; Guan, Fada; Peeler, Chris; Patel, Darshana; Mirkovic, Dragan; Mohan, Radhe E-mail: utitt@mdanderson.org; Titt, Uwe E-mail: utitt@mdanderson.org; Bronk, Lawrence; Grosshans, David R.

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: {sup 3}He ions may hold great potential for clinical therapy because of both their physical and biological properties. In this study, the authors investigated the physical properties, i.e., the depth-dose curves from primary and secondary particles, and the energy distributions of helium ({sup 3}He) ions. A relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model was applied to assess the biological effectiveness on survival of multiple cell lines. Methods: In light of the lack of experimental measurements and cross sections, the authors used Monte Carlo methods to study the energy deposition of {sup 3}He ions. The transport of {sup 3}He ions in water was simulated by using three Monte Carlo codes—FLUKA, GEANT4, and MCNPX—for incident beams with Gaussian energy distributions with average energies of 527 and 699 MeV and a full width at half maximum of 3.3 MeV in both cases. The RBE of each was evaluated by using the repair-misrepair-fixation model. In all of the simulations with each of the three Monte Carlo codes, the same geometry and primary beam parameters were used. Results: Energy deposition as a function of depth and energy spectra with high resolution was calculated on the central axis of the beam. Secondary proton dose from the primary {sup 3}He beams was predicted quite differently by the three Monte Carlo systems. The predictions differed by as much as a factor of 2. Microdosimetric parameters such as dose mean lineal energy (y{sub D}), frequency mean lineal energy (y{sub F}), and frequency mean specific energy (z{sub F}) were used to characterize the radiation beam quality at four depths of the Bragg curve. Calculated RBE values were close to 1 at the entrance, reached on average 1.8 and 1.6 for prostate and head and neck cancer cell lines at the Bragg peak for both energies, but showed some variations between the different Monte Carlo codes. Conclusions: Although the Monte Carlo codes provided different results in energy deposition and especially in

  10. Prebiotic Low Sugar Chocolate Dairy Desserts: Physical and Optical Characteristics and Performance of PARAFAC and PCA Preference Map.

    PubMed

    Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods.

  11. Storage stability and physical characteristics of tea-polyphenol-bearing nanoliposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Gülseren, Ibrahim; Corredig, Milena

    2013-04-03

    The objective of this work was to better understand the functional properties of milk phospholipids when used as ingredients to prepare liposomes. Liposomal dispersions (10%) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization, and their physical properties as well as their ability to encapsulate tea polyphenols were investigated. The extent of encapsulation, measured by HPLC, increased with tea polyphenol concentration up to about 4 mg·mL(-1). At polyphenol concentrations ≥ 6 mg·mL(-1), the liposome dispersions were no longer stable. The influence of pH (3-7), storage temperature (room temperature or refrigeration), and addition of sugars (0-15%) were studied for liposomes containing 4 mg·mL(-1) polyphenols. The liposomal dispersions were also stable in the presence of peptides. The storage stability of the systems prepared with milk phospholipids was compared to that of liposomes made with soy phospholipids. Soy liposomes were smaller in size than milk phospholipid liposomes, the encapsulation efficiency was higher, and the extent of release of tea polyphenols during storage was lower for milk phospholipid liposomes compared to soy liposomes. The results suggest that milk phospholipids could be employed to prepare tea-polyphenol-bearing liposomes and that the tea catechins may be incorporated in the milk phospholipid bilayer more efficiently than in the case of a soy phospholipid bilayer.

  12. Physical and Optical Characteristics of the October 2010 Haze Event Over Singapore: A Photometric and Lidar Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Chew, Boon Ning; Miettinen, Jukka; Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Yu, Liya E.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2013-01-01

    Trans-boundary biomass burning smoke episodes have increased dramatically during the past 20-30 years and have become an annual phenomenon in the South-East-Asia region. On 15th October 2010, elevated levels of fire activity were detected by remote sensing satellites (e.g. MODIS). On the same date, measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at Singapore and Malaysia found high levels of fine mode particles in the local environment. All these observations were indicative of the initial onset of a smoke episode that lasted for several days. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of this smoke episode by analyzing the physical and optical properties of smoke particles with the aid of an AERONET Sun photometer, an MPLNet micropulse lidar, and surface PM2.5 measurements. Elevated levels of fire activity coupled with high aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 were observed over a period of nine days. Increased variability of parameters such as aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent number and its fine mode equivalents all indicated high levels of fine particulate presence in the atmosphere. Smoke particle growth due to aging, coagulation and condensation mechanisms was detected during the afternoons and over several days. Retrieved lidar ratios were compatible with the presence of fine particulate within the boundary/aerosol layer. Moreover, retrieved particle size distribution as well as single scattering albedo indicated the prevalence of the fine mode particulate regime as well as particles showing enhanced levels of absorption respectively.

  13. Influence of maturity and storage period on physical and biochemical characteristics of pear during post cold storage at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W S

    2015-08-01

    The fruits of semi-soft pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Punjab Beauty harvested at three different harvest dates were stored at 0-1(0) C temperature with 90-95 % Relative Humidity for 30, 45, 60 and 75 days to assess the physical and chemical changes during storage. After every storage interval, the fruits were removed and kept at room temperature for 3 and 6 days to study the shelf life of fruits. Immature fruits always had the highest values of flesh firmness; optimum-mature fruits had the next and over-mature fruits the lowest at each corresponding sampling period during storage. The fruits harvested at optimum stage of maturity exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower incidence of fruit softening and physiological loss in weight. These fruits retained excellent quality up to 60 days of storage in cool chamber with 3 days shelf life at ambient temperature. The fruits of first harvest date were incapable of developing acceptable flavor and quality upon ripening throughout the storage period. However, the fruits harvested at post-optimum stage recorded maximum physiological loss in weight and lesser firmness thus making them suitable for immediate consumption with no shelf life at ambient temperature storage.

  14. Exploring the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of a New Potentially Insensitive High Explosive: RX-55-AE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C; Tran, T D

    2006-06-05

    Current work at the Energetic Materials Center, EMC, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones [1]. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g{center_dot} C and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.475 W/m{center_dot} C. The LLNL kinetics modeling code Kinetics05 and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code Thermokinetics were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m{center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction are also reported.

  15. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  16. [Spatial distribution characteristics of the physical and chemical properties of water in the Kunes River after the supply of snowmelt during spring].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Guo, Ling-Peng; Zhang, Fei-Yun; Ma, Jie; Mu, Shu-Yong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lan-Hai

    2015-02-01

    Eight physical and chemical indicators related to water quality were monitored from nineteen sampling sites along the Kunes River at the end of snowmelt season in spring. To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of water physical and chemical properties, cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are employed. The result of cluster analysis showed that the Kunes River could be divided into three reaches according to the similarities of water physical and chemical properties among sampling sites, representing the upstream, midstream and downstream of the river, respectively; The result of discriminant analysis demonstrated that the reliability of such a classification was high, and DO, Cl- and BOD5 were the significant indexes leading to this classification; Three principal components were extracted on the basis of the principal component analysis, in which accumulative variance contribution could reach 86.90%. The result of principal component analysis also indicated that water physical and chemical properties were mostly affected by EC, ORP, NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N, Cl- and BOD5. The sorted results of principal component scores in each sampling sites showed that the water quality was mainly influenced by DO in upstream, by pH in midstream, and by the rest of indicators in downstream. The order of comprehensive scores for principal components revealed that the water quality degraded from the upstream to downstream, i.e., the upstream had the best water quality, followed by the midstream, while the water quality at downstream was the worst. This result corresponded exactly to the three reaches classified using cluster analysis. Anthropogenic activity and the accumulation of pollutants along the river were probably the main reasons leading to this spatial difference.

  17. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Characteristics of alternating current hopping conductivity in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Song-Shan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Huan-You; Guo, Rui

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a model to describe alternating current (AC) conductivity of DNA sequences, in which DNA is considered as a one-dimensional (1D) disordered system, and electrons transport via hopping between localized states. It finds that AC conductivity in DNA sequences increases as the frequency of the external electric field rises, and it takes the form of øac(ω) ~ ω2 ln2(1/ω). Also AC conductivity of DNA sequences increases with the increase of temperature, this phenomenon presents characteristics of weak temperature-dependence. Meanwhile, the AC conductivity in an off-diagonally correlated case is much larger than that in the uncorrelated case of the Anderson limit in low temperatures, which indicates that the off-diagonal correlations in DNA sequences have a great effect on the AC conductivity, while at high temperature the off-diagonal correlations no longer play a vital role in electric transport. In addition, the proportion of nucleotide pairs p also plays an important role in AC electron transport of DNA sequences. For p < 0.5, the conductivity of DNA sequence decreases with the increase of p, while for p >= 0.5, the conductivity increases with the increase of p.

  18. Changes in the physical characteristics of the water column at the mouth of a torrent during an extreme rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferretti, Gabriele; Gallino, Stefano; Canepa, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    The city of Genoa (Italy) was hit by a severe flash flood on the 4th November, 2011. The effects of this event on the water column at the mouth of the Polcevera Torrent, the main water course flowing into the Port of Genoa, are presented in this paper. The hydrological characteristics were measured with two conductivity-temperature-depth probes equipped with a turbidimeter, one fixed on the port breakwater and one used at mobile stations around the mouth of the torrent. The dynamics were measured with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP) fixed on the breakwater. Data collected before, during and after the flash flood were analysed to quantify the changes due to the event. The weather conditions during the event showed extremely heavy rain associated with strong weather instability, the convergence of a low-level southerly flow and the persistence of a squall line over a restricted area. The temperature, salinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen measurements taken during the event showed the strong influence of the weather conditions and the fresh water input of the torrent itself on the water column at its mouth, an influence that dissipated during the following days. Instead, the dynamics measured at the mouth of the torrent were affected more by the strong south-easterly wind and the sea than the flow of fresh water.

  19. Assessment of Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Water and Sediments from a Brazilian Tropical Estuary: Status and Environmental Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Madson de G.; de Andrade, Marta V. A. S.; Ornelas, Vanessa C.; de Almeida, Raimunda A. N.; Fontes, Maurício P. F.; Ribeiro, Joselito N.; Ribeiro, Araceli V. F. N.; dos Santos, Arnaud V.; Souza, Adriana N.; de Araújo, Claudiane B.; de Araújo, Ana C. B.; Onofre, Cássia R. E.; Korn, Maria das G. A.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental quality of the Jacuípe River's estuary (very important in northeastern Brazil) was assessed during 2007 and 2008. In water, concentrations (mg L−1) of NO2− (<0.004 to 0.016), NO3− (0.01 to 0.33), soluble PO43− (<0.02 to 0.22), dissolved oxygen (3.9 to 9.6), total contents (mg L−1) of Cd (<0.001), Cu (<0.01), Pb (<0.01), and Zn (<0.1), pH (5.60 to 8.00), and electrical conductivity (0.12 to 48.60 mS cm−1) agreed with environmental standards. In sediments, clay and total organic matter (%, m/m) varied, respectively, from 8.8 to 12.0 and from 1.1 to 8.8, while infrared, thermogravimetric profile, electronic micrograph, as well as X-Ray analyses showed desirable adsorptive characteristics. However, maximum exchangeable levels (mg kg−1) of Cd (1.3), Cu (44.6), Pb (35.7), and Zn (43.7) and their respective maximum pseudototal concentrations (mg kg−1): 19.4, 95.1, 68.2, and 30.3 were below the recommended limits. In this sense, it was possible to demonstrate good environmental preservation even with the growing number of industries and touristic activities in the evaluated estuarine area. PMID:22489197

  20. Influences of Learning Environment Characteristics on Student Learning During Authentic Science Inquiry in an Introductory Physical Geology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. R.; Sell, K. S.; Herbert, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    Shifts in learning goals in introductory earth science courses to greater emphasis on critical thinking and the nature of science has led to the adoption of new pedagogical techniques, including inquiry-based learning (IBL). IBL is thought to support understanding of the nature of science and foster development of scientific reasoning and critical thinking skills by modeling authentic science inquiry. Implementation of new pedagogical techniques do not occur without influence, instruction and learning occurs in a complex learning environment, referring to the social, physical, mental, and pedagogical contexts. This study characterized the impact of an IBL module verses a traditionally structured laboratory exercise in an introductory physical geology class at Texas A&M University. Student activities in this study included manipulation of large-scale data sets, use of multiple representations, and exposure to ill-constrained problems common to the Texas Gulf Coast system. Formative assessment data collected included an initial survey of self efficacy, student demographics, content knowledge and a pre-mental model expression. Summative data collected included a post-test, post-mental model expression, final laboratory report, and a post-survey on student attitudes toward the module. Mental model expressions and final reports were scored according to a validated rubric instrument (Cronbrach alpha: 0.84-0.98). Nine lab sections were randomized into experimental and control groups. Experimental groups were taught using IBL pedagogical techniques, while the control groups were taught using traditional laboratory "workbook" techniques. Preliminary assessment based on rubric scores for pre-tests using Student's t-test (N ˜ 140) indicated that the experimental and control groups were not significantly different (ρ > 0.05), therefore, the learning environment likely impacted student's ability to succeed. A non-supportive learning environment, including student attitudes

  1. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of depression in patients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Miniati, M; Rucci, P; Benvenuti, A; Frank, E; Buttenfield, J; Giorgi, G; Cassano, G B

    2010-04-01

    Clinical features and treatment outcome were compared in depressed outpatients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse (EPA), including childhood maltreatment. Patients were initially randomized to IPT or SSRI and then augmented with the second treatment if they did not remit with monotherapy. Assessments included the SCID-I, the SCID-II for DSM-IV diagnoses, the HRSD, the QIDS and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR). Seventy-eight (25%) patients reported a history of EPA; 60 (76.9%) were women. Patients with a history of EPA did not differ from those without on HRSD scores at baseline, but showed an earlier age at onset of depression and a longer duration of illness. The two groups differed on several mood spectrum factors, namely: 'depressivemood' (15.6+/-4.9 vs. 13.5+/-5.4; p<0.004), 'psychomotorretardation' (11.7+/-4.5 vs. 9.6+/-4.7; p<0.001), 'drugandillness-relateddepression' (1.3+/-1.3 vs. 0.6+/-1.0; p<0.0001), and 'neurovegetativesymptoms' (8.3+/-2.6 vs. 6.9+/-2.9; p<0.0001). Patients with EPA had also a significantly longer time to remission (89 vs. 67days, log-rank test, p=0.035). The need for augmentation treatment was significantly more frequent among patients with EPA than in those without. The present study suggests that patients with a history of EPA show a subtype of depression characterized by poor treatment response and more severe neurovegetative and psychomotor symptoms.

  2. Comparative studies on physical characteristics and resting metabolism between young male highlanders of Papua New Guinea and young male Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Tsujita, J.; Mayuzumi, M.; Tanaka, N.

    1980-09-01

    Anthropometric measurements and measurements of resting metabolism were made on 15 young male highlanders in Beha village at altitudes between 1,500 m and 1,800 m in the Eastern Highland of Papua New Guinea in August in 1978 and 10 young male Japanese in Nishinomiya in September. New Guineans showed significantly lower height, considerably lower body weight than Japanese but heavier body weight for height and significantly greater mean values of Rohrer's index and Brugsch's index than Japanese. Skinfold thicknesses for New Guineans were significantly smaller than those for Japanese. Thus, physically, New Guineans were more muscular and athletic when compared with Japanese. The mean value of resting metabolic rate for New Guineans, 46.35 W/m2, at 25°C was considerably lower than that for Japanese, 51.01 W/m2. New Guineans showed significantly lower mean value of resting metabolism 47.57 W/m2 at 30°C than Japanese 55.16 W/m2. The mean values of respiratory quotient for New Guineans (RQ = 0.950 at 25°C and 0.971 at 30°C) were significantly greater than those for Japanese (0.81 at 25°C and 0.81 at 30°C). New Guineans showed considerably lower mean value of heart rate at 30°C (71.1 beats/min) than Japanese (79.2 beats/min). The smaller physique of New Guineans might be the result of lower caloric intake and protein intake as well as of living in a tropical climate.

  3. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint.

  4. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  6. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  7. METAL ABUNDANCES, RADIAL VELOCITIES, AND OTHER PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE RR LYRAE STARS IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Sesar, Branimir; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans E-mail: jmn@isr.bc.ca E-mail: bsesar@astro.caltech.edu E-mail: derekas@konkoly.hu E-mail: chadid@marseille.fr

    2013-08-20

    Spectroscopic iron-to-hydrogen ratios, radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and new photometric analyses are presented for 41 RR Lyrae stars (and one probable high-amplitude {delta} Sct star) located in the field-of-view of the Kepler space telescope. Thirty-seven of the RR Lyrae stars are fundamental-mode pulsators (i.e., RRab stars) of which sixteen exhibit the Blazhko effect. Four of the stars are multiperiodic RRc pulsators oscillating primarily in the first-overtone mode. Spectroscopic [Fe/H] values for the 34 stars for which we were able to derive estimates range from -2.54 {+-} 0.13 (NR Lyr) to -0.05 {+-} 0.13 dex (V784 Cyg), and for the 19 Kepler-field non-Blazhko stars studied by Nemec et al. the abundances agree will with their photometric [Fe/H] values. Four non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars that they identified as metal-rich (KIC 6100702, V2470 Cyg, V782 Cyg and V784 Cyg) are confirmed as such, and four additional stars (V839 Cyg, KIC 5520878, KIC 8832417, KIC 3868420) are also shown here to be metal-rich. Five of the non-Blazhko RRab stars are found to be more metal-rich than [Fe/H] {approx}-0.9 dex while all of the 16 Blazhko stars are more metal-poor than this value. New P-{phi}{sub 31}{sup s}-[Fe/H] relationships are derived based on {approx}970 days of quasi-continuous high-precision Q0-Q11 long- and short-cadence Kepler photometry. With the exception of some Blazhko stars, the spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] values are in good agreement. Several stars with unique photometric characteristics are identified, including a Blazhko variable with the smallest known amplitude and frequency modulations (V838 Cyg)

  8. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P < 0.05). HHP at 350 and 500 MPa at 0 °C could achieve more than 4 log10 reduction of GII.4 and GI.1 HuNoV in oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P < 0.05). Elevated pressure levels at 450 and 500 MPa did not significantly affect scores compared to 300 MPa at 0 °C, indicating increasing pressure level did not affect sensory acceptability of oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P < 0.05), but after 1 wk storage, no significant difference in sensory attributes and consumer desirability was observed (P > 0.05).

  9. Physical and isotopic characteristics in peri-urban landscapes: a case study at the lower Volta River Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.; Sarfo, M. A.; Salifu, M.; Aidoo, F.; Fuseini, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the application of selected multivariate techniques: display methods (principal component analysis) and unsupervised pattern recognition (cluster analysis) in an attempt to discriminate sources of variation of water quality. PCA has allowed the identification of a reduced number of latent factors with a hydrochemical meaning: natural and anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural activities) factors, which also agrees with the R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Q-mode HCA also corroborates the results of the correlation analysis in relation to sampling sites established on hydrochemical parameters, indicating that there are no spatial and temporal characteristics among the sampling sites in the study area. The suitability of river water for irrigation use was assessed in the study area. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity data on a semilog axis suggests that river water provides good irrigation quality in the area. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, 100 % of the river water samples fall in C1-S1 (low salinity-low sodium type) group, which provides good irrigation quality to river water from this area. Also, all the data points showed permeability index values in Class II category which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Recorded magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio showed that <50 % of the river water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes. Stable isotope data of water (δ18O and δ2H) obtained revealed that stream waters joining the Volta River were depleted and possibly recharged by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains (located at the western part of the Volta River) than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. These results would therefore be useful for water balance studies in the study area.

  10. A novel approach to decoy set generation: designing a physical energy function having local minima with native structure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keasar, Chen; Levitt, Michael

    2003-05-23

    We suggest a new approach to the generation of candidate structures (decoys) for ab initio prediction of protein structures. Our method is based on random sampling of conformation space and subsequent local energy minimization. At the core of this approach lies the design of a novel type of energy function. This energy function has local minima with native structure characteristics and wide basins of attraction. The current work presents our motivation for deriving such an energy function and also tests the derived energy function. Our approach is novel in that it takes advantage of the inherently rough energy landscape of proteins, which is generally considered a major obstacle for protein structure prediction. When local minima have wide basins of attraction, the protein's conformation space can be greatly reduced by the convergence of large regions of the space into single points, namely the local minima corresponding to these funnels. We have implemented this concept by an iterative process. The potential is first used to generate decoy sets and then we study these sets of decoys to guide further development of the potential. A key feature of our potential is the use of cooperative multi-body interactions that mimic the role of the entropic and solvent contributions to the free energy. The validity and value of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to 14 diverse, small proteins. We show that, for these proteins, the size of conformation space is considerably reduced by the new energy function. In fact, the reduction is so substantial as to allow efficient conformational sampling. As a result we are able to find a significant number of near-native conformations in random searches performed with limited computational resources.

  11. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Sediments from Prevalent Dust Sources in the Central Chihuahuan Desert, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez Acosta, M.; Gill, T. E.; Peinado, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Chihuahuan Desert has been recognized as an important contributor of mineral aerosols emplaced into the atmosphere in the Western Hemisphere. Along with the production of these aerosols, growing concern has been stated relating the downwind transport of atmospheric dust particles to increases in human health related impacts such as asthma and bronchitis in the Binational Paso Del Norte, the largest urban area in the region. Efforts have been made to describe the source types (land use/cover) and frequency of emission from the "dust hotspots" or prevalent sources within the region. These studies have outlined specific areas and their related sedimentological environments responsible for the regular dust production. Ephemeral lakes, fluvial and alluvial related environments form the main natural dust producing landforms in the region, modulated by short-term climatic variability and anthropogenic disturbance. Analysis of remote sensing imagery shows that the margins between natural areas and agricultural lands form the main anthropogenic related source areas. Most of the previously published studies focus on these remotely sensed descriptions of the dust sources, while only a few deal with in situ or field characteristics of these sources. A formal and detailed description of the physicochemical properties of many of these areas is presented, providing key data on this component of the overall dust production cycle. Elemental and mineralogical compositions of dust source sediments, soil textural compositions (grain size distributions) and field sedimentological descriptions are presented as an effort to attain a detailed in situ description of the prevalent dust sources in the central part of the Chihuahuan Desert.

  12. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  13. Variation in ruminal in situ degradation of crude protein and starch from maize grains compared to in vitro gas production kinetics and physical and chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Natascha; Steingaß, Herbert; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate in situ ruminal dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch degradation characteristics and in vitro gas production (GP) kinetics using a set of 20 different maize grain genotypes and (2) to predict the effective degradation (ED) of CP and starch from chemical and physical characteristics alone or in combination with in vitro GP measurements. Maize grains were characterised by different chemical and physical characteristics. Ruminal in situ degradation was measured in three lactating Jersey cows. Ground grains (sieve size: 2 mm) were incubated in bags for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h. Bag residues were analysed for CP and starch content. Degradation kinetics was determined and the ED of DM, CP and starch calculated using a ruminal passage rate of 5%/h and 8%/h. The GP of the grains (sieve size: 1 mm) was recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h incubation in buffered rumen fluid and fitted to an exponential equation to determine GP kinetics. Correlations and stepwise multiple linear regressions were evaluated for the prediction of ED calculated for a passage rate of 5%/h (ED5) for CP (EDCP5) and starch (EDST5). The in situ parameters and ED5 varied widely between genotypes with average values (±SD) of 64% ± 4.2, 62% ± 4.1 and 65% ± 5.2 for ED5 of DM, EDCP5 and EDST5 and were on average 10 percentage points lower for a passage rate of 8%/h. Degradation rates varied between 4.8%/h and 7.4%/h, 4.1%/h and 6.5%/h and 5.3%/h and 8.9%/h for DM, CP and starch, respectively. These rates were in the same range as GP rates (6.0-8.3%/h). The EDCP5 and EDST5 were related to CP concentration and could be evaluated in detail using CP fractions and specific amino acids. In vitro GP measurements and GP rates correlated well with EDCP5 and EDST5 and predicted EDCP5 and EDST5 in combination with the chemical characteristics of the samples. Equations can be used to obtain quick and cost effective information

  14. Examination of the physical characteristics in a diverse group of dwarf White Leghorn pullets before and after first oviposition.

    PubMed

    Renden, J A; Benoff, F H; Williams, J C; Bushong, R D

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to measure changes in physical variables with sexual maturity (SM), the oviposition of first egg, in sex-linked dwarf pullets when SM was delayed by the photoschedule. Offspring were produced from matings of dwarf Single Comb White Leghorn chickens divergently selected for high (H) or low (L) 20-wk BW. At 15 wk of age, pullets from half-sibling sets were randomly assigned to a diet either of low energy (LE: 2,500 kcal/kg of ME, 15% CP) or high energy (HE: 3,000 kcal/kg of ME, 15% CP) and were placed in cages. When a pullet reached SM, the mature (M) pullet and an immature (I, absence of oviposition), half-sibling pullet on the same diet were sampled for BW as well as for the weights of abdominal fat, liver, ovary, oviduct, whole egg (M pullets), yolk, and shell and for the number of rapidly developing follicles. Proximate measurements (wet weight) were made for defeathered carcasses and livers as well as for ovaries and oviducts. There were significant (P less than or equal to .01) line effects for BW at SM (H greater than L); age at SM (L greater than H); weights for the liver, abdominal fat, egg, albumen, shell (H greater than L), and yolk (L greater than H); number of developing follicles (H greater than L); percentage of carcass protein (L greater than H) and of fat (H greater than L); as well as for liver protein (L greater than H), fat (H greater than L), and ash (L greater than H). There were significant (P less than .01) diet effects for abdominal fat (HE greater than LE) and shell weight (LE greater than HE). There was a line-by-diet interaction for total feed intake and for total energy intake from 15 wk to oviposition of the first egg. There were significant (P less than .01) SM effects (M greater than I) for BW at SM, number of developing follicles, oviduct weight, and fat content of the reproductive organs; also, reproductive organ weights accounted for differences in BW at SM. There was an interaction for line

  15. Aerosol's optical and physical characteristics and direct radiative forcing during a shamal dust storm, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, T. M.; Al-Dashti, H.; Spyrou, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dust aerosols are analyzed for their optical and physical properties during an episode of a dust storm that blew over Kuwait on 26 March 2003 when the military Operation Iraqi Freedom was in full swing. The intensity of the dust storm was such that it left a thick suspension of dust throughout the following day, 27 March. The synoptic sequence leading to the dust storm and the associated wind fields are discussed. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical thickness reached 3.617 and 4.17 on 26 and 27 March respectively while the Ångstrom coefficient, α870/440, dropped to -0.0234 and -0.0318. Particulate matter concentration of 10 μm diameter or less, PM10, peaked at 4800 μg m-3 during dust storm hours of 26 March. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) by Deep Blue algorithm and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI) exhibited high values. Latitude-longitude maps of AOD and AI were used to deduce source regions of dust transport over Kuwait. The vertical profile of the dust layer was simulated using the SKIRON atmospheric model. Instantaneous net direct radiative forcing is calculated at top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface level. The thick dust layer of 26 March resulted in cooling the TOA by -60 Wm-2 and surface level by -175 Wm-2 for a surface albedo of 0.35. Slightly higher values were obtained for 27 March due to the increase in aerosol optical thickness. Radiative heating/cooling rates in the shortwave and longwave bands were also examined. Shortwave heating rate reached a maximum value of 2 K day-1 between 3 and 5 km, dropped to 1.5 K day-1 at 6 km and diminished at 8 km. Longwave radiation initially heated the lower atmosphere by a maximum value of 0.2 K day-1 at surface level, declined sharply at increasing altitude and diminished at 4 km. Above 4 km longwave radiation started to cool the atmosphere slightly reaching a maximum rate of -0.1 K day-1 at 6 km.

  16. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions.

    PubMed

    Graves, K J

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

  17. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  18. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  19. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve fund. 915.142 Section 915.142 Agriculture... and Regulations § 915.142 Reserve fund. (a) The establishment of a reserve fund at an amount not to... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried...

  20. Metal Abundances, Radial Velocities, and Other Physical Characteristics for the RR Lyrae Stars in The Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Sesar, Branimir; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans

    2013-08-01

    Spectroscopic iron-to-hydrogen ratios, radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and new photometric analyses are presented for 41 RR Lyrae stars (and one probable high-amplitude δ Sct star) located in the field-of-view of the Kepler space telescope. Thirty-seven of the RR Lyrae stars are fundamental-mode pulsators (i.e., RRab stars) of which sixteen exhibit the Blazhko effect. Four of the stars are multiperiodic RRc pulsators oscillating primarily in the first-overtone mode. Spectroscopic [Fe/H] values for the 34 stars for which we were able to derive estimates range from -2.54 ± 0.13 (NR Lyr) to -0.05 ± 0.13 dex (V784 Cyg), and for the 19 Kepler-field non-Blazhko stars studied by Nemec et al. the abundances agree will with their photometric [Fe/H] values. Four non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars that they identified as metal-rich (KIC 6100702, V2470 Cyg, V782 Cyg and V784 Cyg) are confirmed as such, and four additional stars (V839 Cyg, KIC 5520878, KIC 8832417, KIC 3868420) are also shown here to be metal-rich. Five of the non-Blazhko RRab stars are found to be more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~-0.9 dex while all of the 16 Blazhko stars are more metal-poor than this value. New P-\\phi _31^s-[Fe/H] relationships are derived based on ~970 days of quasi-continuous high-precision Q0-Q11 long- and short-cadence Kepler photometry. With the exception of some Blazhko stars, the spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] values are in good agreement. Several stars with unique photometric characteristics are identified, including a Blazhko variable with the smallest known amplitude and frequency modulations (V838 Cyg). Based in part on observations made at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Also, based in part on

  1. Aerosol characteristics at a rural station in southern peninsular India during CAIPEEX-IGOC: physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Bisht, D S; Srivastava, A K; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, M K; Pandey, A K; Tiwari, S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the boundary layer characteristics and pathways of aerosol-cloud interaction, an Integrated Ground Observational Campaign, concurrent with Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment, was conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, under Ministry of Earth Sciences at Mahabubnagar (a rural environment, which is ~100 km away from an urban city Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh), during the period of July-November 2011. Collected samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were analyzed for water-soluble ionic species along with organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). During study period, the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were about 50(±10) and 69(±14) μg m(-3), respectively, which are significantly higher than the prescribed Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards values. The chemical species such as sum of anions and cations from measured chemical constituents were contributed to be 31.27 and 38.49% in PM2.5 and 6.35 and 5.65% to the PM10, whereas carbonaceous species contributed ~17.3 and 20.47% for OC and ~3.0 and 3.10% for EC, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 during study period was ~0.73(±0.2), indicating that the dominance of fine size particles. Carbonaceous analysis results showed that the average concentration of OC was 14 and 8.7 μg m(-3), while EC was 2.1 and 1.5 μg m(-3) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The ratios between OC and EC were estimated, which were 6.6 and 5.7 for PM10 and PM2.5, suggesting the presence of secondary organic aerosol. Total carbonaceous aerosol accounts 23% of PM10 in which the contribution of OC is 20% and EC is 3%, while 20% of PM2.5 mass in which the contribution of OC is 17% and EC is 3%. Out of the total aerosols mass, water-soluble constituents contributed an average of 45% in PM10 and 38% in PM2.5 including about 39% anions and 6% cations in PM10, while 31% anions and 7% cations in PM2.5 aerosol mass collectively at study site.

  2. Water Retention Characteristics and State-Dependent Mechanical and Petro-Physical Properties of a Clay Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Katrin M.; Wymann, Linda P.; Zimmer, Sebastian; Thoeny, Reto; Amann, Florian

    2015-03-01

    A series of clay shale specimens in equilibrium with various humidity conditions were used to establish the water retention characteristics, the influence of suction on ultrasonic p-wave velocity and rock mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, onset of dilatancy, unconfined compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength. Opalinus Clay, a clay shale considered as host rock for the disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland was utilized. The results showed that the p-wave velocity normal to bedding ( v p,n) dropped sharply upon desaturation until suction approached the air-entry value. The sharp decrease was associated with desiccation cracks solely oriented parallel to bedding. For suction in excess of the air-entry value, v p,n was constant, indicating no further desiccation damage. The suction at the shrinkage limit and at the air-entry point is similar in magnitude. The p-wave velocity parallel to bedding ( v p,p) remained constant in the entire range of suction investigated in this study. The constant v p,p with increasing suction might be associated with the disproportional decrease in the Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus and its opposing effect on p-wave velocity. An almost linear increase in unconfined compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, stress at the onset of dilatancy and Young's modulus with increasing suction was observed up to a suction of 56.6 MPa. For suction larger than 56.6 MPa, relatively constant strength and stiffness was observed. The increase is associated with the net contribution of suction to strength/stiffness, which decreases nonlinearly with decreasing volumetric water content. The rate of increase in tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength with increasing suction is different depending on the rock anisotropy. Compared to the strength values (Brazilian tensile and uniaxial compressive strength) obtained from specimens loaded parallel to bedding, the tensile strength parallel to

  3. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  4. Identification by means of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance of the chemical-physical characteristics of multidose artificial tear solutions in interaction with hydrogel model contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Casciani, Lorena

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical-physical interactions between two commercially available ophthalmic solutions and hydrogel contact lenses classified according to the four Food and Drug Administration groups were studied by measuring transversal relaxation times (T(2)) of water molecules by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The aim was to evaluate possible modifications to the contact lens structure, with particular emphasis on their hydration mechanism. No significant variations in the T(2) values were observed when the T(2) values of the first component of samples swollen with saline solution as the reference were compared with samples of the same set of lenses swollen in the two commercially available ophthalmic solutions. We can, therefore, assume that the hydration characteristics remained unchanged in all the samples studied, and that the experimental ophthalmic solutions ensured an adequate hydration of the sample hydrogel contact lenses without any negative effects on the structure of their polymer chains.

  5. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  6. Effects of removing Good Hope Mill Dam on selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Conodoguinet Creek, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The implications of dam removal on channel characteris-tics, water quality, benthic invertebrates, and fish are not well understood because of the small number of removals that have been studied. Comprehensive studies that document the effects of dam removal are just beginning to be published, but most research has focused on larger dams or on the response of a sin-gle variable (such as benthic invertebrates). This report, pre-pared in cooperation with the Conodoguinet Creek Watershed Association, provides an evaluation of how channel morphol-ogy, bed-particle-size distribution, water quality, benthic inver-tebrates, fish, and aquatic habitat responded after removal of Good Hope Mill Dam (a small 'run of the river' dam) from Conodoguinet Creek in Cumberland County, Pa. Good Hope Mill Dam was a 6-foot high, 220-foot wide concrete structure demolished and removed over a 3-day period beginning with the initial breach on November 2, 2001, at 10:00 a.m. eastern standard time. To isolate the effects of dam removal, data were collected before and after dam removal at five monitoring stations and over selected reaches upstream, within, and downstream of the impoundment. Stations 1, 2, and 5 were at free-flowing control locations 4.9 miles upstream, 2.5 miles upstream, and 5 miles downstream of the dam, respec-tively. Stations 3 and 4 were located where the largest responses were anticipated, 115 feet upstream and 126 feet downstream of the dam, respectively Good Hope Mill Dam was not an effective barrier to sedi-ment transport. Less than 3 inches of sediment in the silt/clay-size range (less than 0.062 millimeters) coated bedrock within the 7,160-foot (1.4-mile) impoundment. The bedrock within the impoundment was not incised during or after dam removal, and the limited sediment supply resulted in no measurable change in the thalweg elevation downstream of the dam. The cross-sec-tional areas at stations 3 and 4, measured 17 days and 23 months after dam removal, were within

  7. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics and estimates of annual constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fossum, Kenneth D.; O'Day, Christie M.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Monical, Jim E.

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in Maricopa County were monitored to (1) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of stormwater from areas having different land uses, (2) describe the physical, chemical, and toxicity characteristics of streamflow from areas that receive urban stormwater, and (3) estimate constituent loads in stormwater. Urban stormwater and streamflow had similar ranges in most constituent concentrations. The mean concentration of dissolved solids in urban stormwater was lower than in streamflow from the Salt River and Indian Bend Wash. Urban stormwater, however, had a greater chemical oxygen demand and higher concentrations of most nutrients. Mean seasonal loads and mean annual loads of 11 constituents and volumes of runoff were estimated for municipalities in the metropolitan Phoenix area, Arizona, by adjusting regional regression equations of loads. This adjustment procedure uses the original regional regression equation and additional explanatory variables that were not included in the original equation. The adjusted equations had standard errors that ranged from 161 to 196 percent. The large standard errors of the prediction result from the large variability of the constituent concentration data used in the regression analysis. Adjustment procedures produced unsatisfactory results for nine of the regressions?suspended solids, dissolved solids, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable cadmium, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, total recoverable zinc, and storm runoff. These equations had no consistent direction of bias and no other additional explanatory variables correlated with the observed loads. A stepwise-multiple regression or a three-variable regression (total storm rainfall, drainage area, and impervious area) and local data were used to develop local regression equations for these nine constituents. These equations had standard errors from 15 to 183 percent.

  8. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: a multivariate statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, M; Li, H; Banner, C; Rafter, J; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U

    1996-01-01

    The emission of diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects, e.g., cancer. The aim of the present study was to apply multivariate statistical methods to identify factors that affect the biological potency of these exhausts. Ten diesel fuels were analyzed regarding physical and chemical characteristics. Particulate exhaust emissions were sampled after combustion of these fuels on two makes of heavy duty diesel engines. Particle extracts were chemically analyzed and tested for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Also, the potency of the extracts to competitively inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the Ah receptor was assessed. Relationships between fuel characteristics and biological effects of the extracts were studied, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The most influential chemical fuel parameters included the contents of sulfur, certain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and naphthenes. Density and flash point were positively correlated with genotoxic potency. Cetane number and upper distillation curve points were negatively correlated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity. Between 61% and 70% of the biological response data could be explained by the measured chemical and physical factors of the fuels. By PLS modeling of extract data versus the biological response data, 66% of the genotoxicity could be explained, by 41% of the chemical variation. The most important variables, associated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity, included 1-nitropyrene, particle bound nitrate, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and emitted mass of particles. S9-requiring mutagenicity was highly correlated with certain PAC, whereas S9-independent mutagenicity was better correlated with nitrates and 1-nitropyrene. The emission of sulfates also showed a correlation both with the emission of particles and with the biological effects. The results indicate that fuels with biologically less hazardous

  9. The reservation wages of Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    persons who have shifted to the Old-Age program and those who are still under the DI program have median reservation wage to the last wage ratios of 0.69 and 0.93, respectively. A significantly lower reservation wage for persons who have moved to the Old-Age program was also found in a regression framework. This heterogeneity between the two groups may result in part from the different program characteristics both groups face, for instance, in terms of benefit termination and Medicare eligibility rules. *Subjective reservation wage data can be useful to study populations that are out of the labor force. This article is innovative in that it focuses on a group of persons who are typically considered as being out of the labor force, and therefore are not asked reservation wages in general household surveys such as the Current Population Survey. It would be of great interest to collect more reservation wage data for DI beneficiaries in a longitudinal data set to expand this analysis, for instance, to assess conclusively the effects of changing program characteristics on reservation wages and return-to-work outcomes as beneficiaries transition to the Old-Age program or as new return-to-work programs are put in place.

  10. An Efficient Method for Calculating the Characteristics of the Integrated Lens Antennas on the Basis of the Geometrical and Physical Optics Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharovskiy, A. V.; Artemenko, A. A.; Mal'tsev, A. A.; Maslennikov, R. O.; Sevast'yanov, A. G.; Ssorin, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    We develop a combined method for calculating the characteristics of the integrated lens antennas for millimeter-wave wireless local radio-communication systems on the basis of the geometrical and physical optics approximations. The method is based on the concepts of geometrical optics for calculating the electromagnetic-field distribution on the lens surface (with allowance for multiple internal re-reflections) and physical optics for determining the antenna-radiated fields in the Fraunhofer zone. Using the developed combined method, we study various integrated lens antennas on the basis of the data on the used-lens shape and material and the primary-feed radiation model, which is specified analytically or by computer simulation. Optimal values of the cylindrical-extension length, which ensure the maximum antenna directivity equal to 19.1 and 23.8 dBi for the greater and smaller lenses, respectively, are obtained for the hemispherical quartz-glass lenses having the cylindrical extensions with radii of 7.5 and 12.5 mm. In this case, the scanning-angle range of the considered antennas is greater than ±20° for an admissible 2-dB decrease in the directivity of the deflected beam. The calculation results obtained using the developed method are confirmed by the experimental studies performed for the prototypes of the integrated quartz-glass lens antennas within the framework of this research.

  11. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Farfán, Mariel; Álvarez, Alfredo; Gárate, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterification of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40) were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose- -type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3) content and with zero trans-fatty acids. PMID:27904370

  12. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  13. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  14. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  15. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  18. The roles of physical mixing and biochemical composition on the depositional characteristics of flocculated suspended sediment in the Eden estuary, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, J. A.; Manning, A. J.; Aspden, R.; Baas, J.; Paterson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment load in estuarine waters is generally composed of a mixture of sand, clay and biological matter and it is recognised that there is strong mediation of the physical behaviour of flocs by biological components of the system. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by benthic and pelagic bacteria and algae are a key variable influencing flocculation processes. Variation in the nature and concentration of polymers can alter sediment stability and transport in mixed sediment beds but these substances can also significantly enhance inter-particle cohesion in the water column and therefore deposition and transport. This study examined the variation in naturally occurring EPS concentration and its influence on several physical variables of flocs within the Eden Estuary, Scotland. Samples were collected for total suspended sediment and colormetric analysis of polymer concentration. Subsamples were transferred to the settling column of the LabSFLOC-2 - Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics -high resolution video floc camera system (Manning, 2006) where settling flocs were viewed (resolution~10mm) to determine floc size (D) and settling velocity (Ws) characteristics. Preliminary results indicate a wide range of microfloc (D< 160mm) and Macrofloc (D>160mm) fractions present, with the latter approaching 1 mm during flocculation conducive conditions. Correspondingly, when considering all floc samples, floc settling velocities generally spanned three orders of magnitude with floc size and settling velocities correlating with polymer concentrations. These typically ranged from slow settling (Ws of 0.01-0.05 mm.s-1) predominantly organically based microflocs to faster settling, significantly larger and more porous Macroflocs settling at ~10-15 mm.s-1. The temporal distributions of D and Ws, sediment and polymer concentrations, are examined in the paper with variation also related to physical and microbiological factors in the bed and the phase of the