This article presents a synthesis of what is known about the educational experiences of youth living in residential group care based on a literature review that highlights both the experiences of the youth themselves and the operational context of residential group care in Ontario as it pertains to educational performance. The author argues that…
This article presents a synthesis of what is known about the educational experiences of youth living in residential group care based on a literature review that highlights both the experiences of the youth themselves and the operational context of residential group care in Ontario as it pertains to educational performance. The author argues that there is little emphasis on education within the residential group care sector in Ontario that could translate into more productive educational experiences for youth. The article then provides a framework for developing a culture of education for residential group care that can be acted upon expeditiously. Enhancing the educational performance of young people living in group care will require a cultural approach that provides for daily and pervasive education supports and encouragement, and aims to enhance the lived experience of young people pursuant to their education.
... Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care Medical ... communicate with staff Staffing Medical care is provided Personal care and assistance is provided Staff recognize persons ...
Harder, Annemiek T.; Huyghen, Anne-Marie N.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Köngeter, Stefan; Zeller, Maren; Knorth, Erik J.
Background: Despite poor school performance by adolescents in secure residential care and the potential importance of education during care, little is known about how to achieve academic success with these adolescents. Objective: Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess adolescents' academic achievement during secure residential…
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007
This practical staff development guide aims to help senior managers, practitioners and others, including placing authorities, to evaluate the quality of provision made for children and young people in residential special schools and secure care accommodation services. It highlights effective ways in which services can fully support some of…
Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron
This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…
Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.
Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)
Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…
Houle, Cyril O.
The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…
Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.
There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…
The effects of residential location at age 16 and current residential location on measures of educational attainment are estimated. Particular attention is given to the effects of migration and family background on educational outcomes. It is shown that central cities and suburbs of large metropolitan areas in the United States have significantly…
Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.
About 167 residential facilities in Ohio serve approximately 7,000 youth on any given day. Youth are placed in residential facilities because they have committed a crime or have behavioral problems. An "education provider" operates an on-grounds school in most facilities. Because of ongoing concerns about education funding for youth in…
... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO62 Community Residential Care AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... concerning approval of non-VA community residential care facilities to allow VA to waive such facilities... cannot be corrected, and into more restrictive and/or costly care. In addition, we make a technical...
This article maps variations in a standardized way in residential care for elderly people in three Western nations. Measured by the number of available places per person aged sixty-five and over and by the number of staff members per bed in nursing homes, the United Kingdom has the most highly developed standards. The United States ranks second, with Germany lagging considerably behind. The variations are explained by four variables: the pressure of the problem, as defined by the percentage of the population aged sixty-five and over; the caretaker potential in the family system, which alleviates this pressure; the structure and financing of the supply of residential care; and decision-making procedures in health care policy-making. My analysis emphasizes the last two variables. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the public and private providers who supply care have either political or market incentives to expand their services. Germany's mix of public and private, by contrast, is dominated by voluntary associations that are neither responsible to an electorate nor allowed to make profits. Thus, their clients do not have opportunities to articulate their needs. Health care decision making in Germany takes place through a collective bargaining process between the sickness funds and the providers. In such a system, the interests of groups who are not represented at the negotiation table--such as the elderly--tend to be neglected. A national health system of the British type links political decision makers via the election mechanism more closely to the concerns of the public. As older people represent growing proportions of the electorate, their needs find more adequate consideration in the policy process. In the United States, political officeholders also have to pay attention to the needs of increasingly organized older people, since the tax-financed and federally regulated Medicaid system is largely responsible for financing long-term care for the elderly.
Kafka, James J.; Griffith, William S.
This study was conducted to investigate the aspects of residential adult education that might account for differences among the participants in residential programs. An analysis of the claims advanced by advocates of residential adult education led to the identification of three factors that appeared to account for the alleged superiority of this…
Giegerich & Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.
One part of a three-part investigation prepared for the Montgomery County Planning Board in Silver Spring, Maryland, this study addresses planning and site planning issues arising from the location of child care facilities in residential settings. The study, which emphasizes homes and centers which care for 7 to 20 children, provides a detailed…
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Kroes, Gert; Nijhof, Karin S.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Veerman, Jan Willem
Background: By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective: In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention Checklist was developed. Method: Group care workers…
This study examined differences in two residential care giving models (houseparent vs. child care worker) in providing continuity of care for youth in residential placement, and the effect that a care giving model had on selected program outcomes. Data for this research were collected in a residential facility that used both models. Youth with…
Falk, Hanna; Wijk, Helle; Persson, Lars-Olof; Falk, Kristin
Moving into a residential care facility requires a great deal of adjustment to an environment and lifestyle entirely different from that of one's previous life. Attachment to place is believed to help create a sense of home and maintain self-identity, supporting successful adjustment to contingencies of ageing. The purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of processes and strategies by which older people create a sense of home in residential care. Our findings show that a sense of home in residential care involves strategies related to three dimensions of the environment - attachment to place, to space and attachment beyond the institution - and that the circumstances under which older people manage or fail in creating attachment, consist of psychosocial processes involving both individual and shared attitudes and beliefs. Assuming that attachment is important to human existence regardless of age, attention must be paid to optimize the circumstances under which attachment is created in residential care, and how nursing interventions can help speed up this process due to the frail and vulnerable state of most older residents.
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "CWLA's Position on Residential Care"; (2) "The View of Adolescent Life: Perceptions and Realities" ( Lisa Moore Willis); (3) "Assessing Youth Preferences for Adult Behavior in Residential Care: A Replication" (Jack T. Bowers, III, Robert J. Jones, Gary D.…
D'Haene, I.; Pasman, H. R. W.; Deliens, L.; Bilsen, J.; Mortier, F.; Stichele, R. Vander
Objective: This article aims to describe the presence, content and implementation strategies of written policies on end-of-life decisions in Flemish residential care facilities (RCFs) accommodating persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to describe training, education and quality assessments of end-of-life care. Methods: A…
Kafka, James J.
Advocates of residential education have isolated three determinants of residential adult education effectiveness: isolation from the outside environment; concentration on content; and group support. This study investigated the independent and collective relationships of different levels of these determinants with cognitive gain and posttest…
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…
Schleiffer, Roland; Müller, Susanne
In this investigation the attachment representations of adolescents in residential care were examined for the first time. 72 adolescents were interviewed by using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). At the same time the degree of adolescent psychopathology was recorded. For this purpose the caregivers completed Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the adolescents themselves answered Achenbach's Youth Self Report (YSR). The adolescents in this sample proved to be severely burdened in psychopathological terms. They had access to only an insecure and, in many cases, an extremely insecure attachment representation. For a sub-group of adolescent mothers the early infant-mother attachment was examined using Ainsworth's Strange Situation. The findings show an intergenerational transmission of insecure attachment relationships. The implications of these results for the practice of residential care inspired by attachment theory are discussed.
Swedish and international research points to serious problems for the education of students with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in the care of social welfare, for example, in residential care. The aim of this article is to elucidate how documentation, care plans (CPs) and individual educational plans (IEPs) outline the…
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
"Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Strengthening the Culture of Care in Child Care Agencies (Vonda I. Wallace and Jean Carpenter-Williams); (2) Improving Restraint Monitoring with Pulse…
This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…
Jones, Loring P.
This study examines factors that contributed to successful outcomes (graduated high school, remained in school, went to a lower level of care, or reunified with parents) for the first 246 residents of a residential education placement. Residential education placements' primary purpose is to provide an educational program rather than mental health…
Background: To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. Objective: By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in "Int J Adolesc Med Health" 24(1):63-68, 2012), this research examined the…
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
"Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Building Bridges between Service Delivery Providers, Families, and Youth (Lloyd Bullard); (2) The Promise of Professionalism Arrives in Practice:…
Affronti, Melissa L.; Levison-Johnson, Jody
Residential programs for children and youth are increasingly implementing engagement strategies to promote family-centered and family-driven models of care (Leichtman, 2008). The practice of engagement is a fairly new area of research, especially in residential care. Driven by their goal to increase the use of state-of-the-art family engagement…
Ruby, Kathy, Ed.
"Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Whatever Happened to Sound Clinical Reasoning? (Elizabeth Kohlstaedt); (2) Minorities as Majority Disproportionality in Child…
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" includes the following articles: (1) "Residential Treatment: Finding the Appropriate Level of Care" (Shay Bilchik); (2) "Family-Centered Practices" (Rodger McDaniel and Brenden McKinney); and (3) "Can the Community Serve Sex Offenders?" (Point/Counterpoint--Daniel Wallach and Wayne D. Parks).…
Experiential Education, Outdoor Adventure As a Modality in Youth Care and Residential Treatment. A Survey of Programs, Principles, Research and Practice on the European Continent, Especially the Netherlands.
Orthopedagogisch Centrum Michiel is a multifunctional institution in the eastern Netherlands for youth with emotional problems. The staff of the institution's residential treatment center has gradually become involved with outdoor experiential education through training programs, conferences, special projects, and supervised programs. Activities…
Martín, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Teresa; Torbay, Angela
In this study, the results achieved by residential care programs for minors were evaluated. Two measurements were taken, nine months apart, from a total of 175 minors using a monthly observation scale of goals from an Individualised Educational Project. It was found that, in the majority of the dimensions analysed, there were improvements, although they were not the same for all the minors or of the same magnitude. The differential analyses show that variables such as reason for admission and duration of stay modify the results obtained. There was no significant relationship with age or sex. These results are discussed in the light of existing literature.
... multiple chronic conditions better manage their health care. Definitions Residential care communities : Includes assisted-living facilities and ... a unit or wing that met the above definition and residents could be enumerated separately. The 2010 ...
Kalke, Thomas; Glanton, Ann; Cristalli, Maria
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports model, first introduced into public schools, has been extended to alternative settings. This article highlights applying PBIS to day treatment and residential treatment education programs increasingly challenged to serve seriously emotionally disturbed youth whose risk factors have become more complex. The results demonstrate a more positive environment enhancing children's treatment and education along with decreasing numbers of safety holds and need for out-of-classroom supports.
Pelton, Arthur Elwood
Using a mailed questionnaire survey of administrators, this dissertation examined sources of income, proposed expenditures, and financial practices in publicly supported college and university residential continuing education centers. Data were gathered, organized, and interpreted in terms of well established principles of educational finance as…
Kurre, Paula A
The role of the nurse as care coordinator is important in all patient populations, including orthopaedic settings, and is essential in promoting safe patient care for the intellectually and developmentally disabled (I/DD) person living in the residential setting. Care coordination for this population is challenging. Most healthcare providers, as well as nurses, are not familiar with the residential group home setting or with the special needs of this population, especially when presented with orthopaedic challenges. These factors, as well as funding issues, make for a "perfect storm" for care coordination. Educating nurses can help open the door to communication, smoother transitions, and collaboration among care coordinators in all settings.
Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon
Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting.
Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald
Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…
Wood, Diane, Comp.
A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon…
Southern Wisconsin Colony and Training School, Union Grove.
Organized so that each teacher may use some latitude in planning teaching approaches, the guide describes the sequential curriculum used with educable mentally retarded children in a residential setting. Arithmetic, language arts, science, and social studies are outlined separately for preprimary, primary, and intermediate levels. Vocational units…
Reymond, Liz; Israel, Fiona J; Charles, Margaret A
The objective of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate an end-of-life (terminal) care pathway and associated infrastructure suitable for Australian residential aged care facilities that improves resident and health system outcomes. The residential aged care end-of-life care pathway was developed by a multidisciplinary collaboration of government and non-government professionals and incorporated best clinical management for dying residents to guide care and increase palliative care capacity of generalist staff. Implementation included identifying and up-skilling Link Nurses to champion the pathway, networking facilities with specialist palliative care services, delivering education to generalists and commencing a Palliative Care Medication Imprest System in each facility. The primary outcome measure for evaluation was transfer to hospital; secondary measures included staff perceived changes in quality of palliative care provided and family satisfaction with care. Results indicated that the pathway, delivered within a care framework that guides provision of palliative care, resulted in improved resident outcomes and decreased inappropriate transfers to acute care settings.
... of and changes in the residential care industry. Definitions Length of stay : Derived from the month and ... had a unit or wing meeting the above definition and their residents could be separately enumerated. The ...
Hang, Jo-Aine; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Burro, Bianca; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie
Falls are a serious problem in residential aged care settings. The aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of surveying care staff regarding falls prevention, and describe care staff levels of knowledge and awareness of residents' risk of falls, knowledge about falls prevention, motivation and confidence to implement falls prevention strategies. A custom designed questionnaire was administered to care staff at one site of a large residential aged care organization in Australia. The survey response was 58.8%. Feedback from staff was used to inform the administration of the survey to the wider organization. Seven (29.2%) care staff reported they were unsure or thought residents were at low risk of falls. Only five (20.8%) care staff were able to suggest more than three preventive strategies. These preliminary findings suggest that education to change care staff behavior regarding falls prevention should target improving care staff knowledge and awareness of falls.
Stark, Lindsay; Rubenstein, Beth L; Pak, Kimchoeun; Kosal, Sok
Objectives The primary objective of this study was to collect baseline data on the number of children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The secondary objective was to describe the characteristics of the children (eg, age, sex, duration of stay, education and health). The data were intended to guide recent efforts by the Government of Cambodia to reduce the number of children living in residential care institutions and increase the number of children growing up in supportive family environments. Setting Data were collected in Cambodia across 24 sites at the commune level. Communes—administrative divisions roughly equivalent to counties—were selected by the National Institute of Statistics using a two-stage sampling method. Design Government lists and key informant interviews were used to construct a complete roster of institutions across the 24 communes. All identified institutions were visited to count the number of children and gather data on their basic characteristics. The rate of children in residential care in the selected communes was calculated as a percentage of total population using a Poisson model. This rate was applied to all districts in Cambodia with at least one reported residential care institution. Participants A total of 3588 children were counted across 122 institutions. A child living in a residential care institution was defined as anyone under the age of 18 years who was sleeping in the institution for at least four nights per week during the data collection period. Results There are an estimated 48 775 children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The vast majority of children have a living parent and are school-aged. More than half are between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusions Nearly 1 of every 100 children in Cambodia is living in residential care. This raises substantial concerns for child health, protection and national development. PMID:28093439
Spellman, Douglas F.; Griffith, Annette K.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Wise, Neil, III; McElderry, Ellen; Leslie, Laurel K.
This article presents a psychotropic medication management approach that is used within a residential care program. The approach is used to assess medications at youths' times of entry and to facilitate decision making during care. Data from a typical case study have indicated that by making medication management decisions slowly, systematically,…
Owens, Larry W.
This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…
Holden, Martha J.; Izzo, Charles; Nunno, Michael; Smith, Elliott G.; Endres, Thomas; Holden, Jack C.; Kuhn, Frank
This paper describes an effort to bridge research and practice in residential care through implementing a program model titled Children and Residential Experiences (CARE). The strategy involves consulting at all levels of the organization to guide personnel to incorporate CARE evidence-based principles into daily practice, and fostering an…
Talbot, Rebecca; Brewer, Gayle
Care assistants have a unique insight into the lives of service users and those factors which may impede or enhance the delivery of high quality dementia oriented care. To address the paucity of research in this area, the present study examined care assistant experiences of dementia care in British long-term residential and nursing environments. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight care assistants and transcripts were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Super-ordinate themes emerging from the data were psychological wellbeing of the care assistant, barriers to effective dementia care, the dementia reality and organisational issues within the care environment. The study revealed important deficiencies in understanding and varying levels of dementia training. Whilst person centred strategies were being implemented, task orientated care remained dominant. Furthermore, care assistants reported taking the perspectives of those with dementia into account, and actively using these to develop relationship centred care.
Kirkwood, Scott, Ed.
This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Achieving Better Outcomes for Children and Families: Reducing the Use of Restraint and Seclusion" (Katherine Johnson); (2) "STAR Project Outcomes" (Nancy Campbell); (3) "The Devereux Glenholme School" (Mary Guilfoile); (4) "Lessons Learned in the Reduction of…
Shenk, Emily, Ed.
"Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue contains the following articles: (1) Building a Lasting Agency: The Leadership Institute (Letitia Howland); (2) For Our Safety: Examining High-Risk Interventions for Children and Youth (Michael A. Nunno, Lloyd Bullard, and…
Dunn, Leslie T.
Charles Hall Youth Services (CHYS), a residential foster-care provider in Bismarck, North Dakota, desired to move from an adult-centered, punitive program model to a strength-based model with an emphasis on teaching critical life skills and behaviors to young clients. Through a partnership with the Teel Institute of Kansas City, Missouri, the…
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.
This food manual for small Idaho residential child care institutions with 10-15 students and no full-time cook, is designed to help directors serve meals that promote healthy eating behavior in their residents, serve meals that meet the USDA's Healthy School Meals Initiative, and manage the food service to assure the fiscal integrity of the…
Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…
... residential care establishments under section 7(j). 778.601 Section 778.601 Labor Regulations Relating to... provisions available for hospital and residential care establishments under section 7(j). (a) The statutory provision. Section 7(j) of the Act provides, for hospital and residential care establishment...
Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald
This study evaluated the characteristics related to a successful reintegration among youth from a residential facility. Specifically, this study describes the transition skills of youth at departure in five areas: (a) education and employment goals, (b) self-determination skills, (c) social support, (d) life skills, and (e) hopefulness. Further,…
Lakin, K C; Hall, M J
Two sources of Medicaid support for persons with mental retardation and related conditions (MR/RC) are examined, the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (ICF/MR) program and the home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver. Results indicate that Medicaid support through the ICF/MR program has shown little recent growth in terms of number of persons served, although expenditures continue to increase. Medicaid's HCBS waiver is being used increasingly by States to support residential placement because of its greater flexibility and more individualized approach relative to ICF/MR care. Use of Medicaid to finance care for persons with MR/RC varies considerably across States.
A requirement for most people working in residential child care in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is a qualification in social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is not narrowly concerned with a child's schooling but relates to the whole child - body, mind and spirit. This article describes the first social pedagogy course to be introduced and professionally recognized in the UK: the BA in Curative Education Programme. This 4-year programme blurs the line between 'classroom learning' and 'learning in practice'. A unique feature of the programme is that most students 'live the course' in residential care communities for children or adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The life-sharing aspect of the programme ensures that the principles of dignity, value and mutual respect can be meaningfully translated into practice. The social pedagogic model presents a timely challenge to current care philosophy and practice.
Background: This study examined parental involvement in relocation and post-placement care of offspring in residential facilities for adults with intellectual disability, as well as the characteristics of residents, parents, and residential institutions and the effect of those variables on parental perceptions of their offspring's life…
Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie
Long-term care for older people is provided in both residential and non-residential settings, with residential settings tending to cater for individuals with higher care needs. Evidence relating to the costs and effectiveness of different workforce structures and care processes is important to facilitate the future planning of residential aged care services to promote high quality care and to enhance the quality of life of individuals living in residential care. A systematic review conducted up to December 2015 identified 19 studies containing an economic component; seven included a complete economic evaluation and 12 contained a cost analysis only. Key findings include the potential to create cost savings from a societal perspective through enhanced staffing levels and quality improvement interventions within residential aged care facilities, while integrated care models, including the integration of health disciplines and the integration between residents and care staff, were shown to have limited cost-saving potential. Six of the 19 identified studies examined dementia-specific structures and processes, in which person-centred interventions demonstrated the potential to reduce agitation and improve residents' quality of life. Importantly, this review highlights methodological limitations in the existing evidence and an urgent need for future research to identify appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level.
... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...
... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...
... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...
Increasing numbers of elderly people are entering private residential homes in the UK. Results of surveys show poor oral health in this group. A survey was therefore conducted of 50 residential homes (housing 1337 residents) to determine assessment on entry and continuing care provision. In 38 per cent of homes no written notes were made of the initial assessment. Topics of dental interests were infrequently assessed on entry (only 16 per cent of carers examined the oral cavity, 52 per cent assessed the subject's ability to care for their dentures). Medical topics (mobility, incontinence, eyesight, etc) were all assessed in more than 80 per cent of subjects. Suggestions are made for utilization of an easy assessment questionnaire and improved denture naming arrangements. The importance of regular check-ups, education and publicity for this group is stressed.
Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.
Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief…
Schacht, Robert H.
The University of Wisconsin has offered summer residential seminars for adults in North America and Europe--in Ireland, England, and Scotland; in The Netherlands, Scandinavia, and West Germany; and in Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia. (EB)
Bediako Asare, Kwame
The value of education is widely acknowledged. Evidence from literature indicates that some perceptions or rather misconceptions are expressed about distance education visà- vis traditional, residential education particularly in higher education institutions (HEIs). In this article, the author offers some reflections on traditional education and…
Lum, Hillary D.; Ginde, Adit A.; Betz, Marian E.
Residential care facilities (RCF) provide assistance to older adults who cannot live independently, but it is unclear whether these residents have retired from driving. Here, we characterize older adults living in RCFs who still drive from a national cross-sectional survey of residents (2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities), representing ~733,000 adults living in RCFs such as assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Key resident characteristics were health, function, mobility and community activity indicators, which could be associated with increased driving risk. Of 8,087 residents, 4.5% (95%CI=3.9-5.1) were current drivers. Many drivers were older than 80 years (74%, 95%CI=67-79), in very good health (31%, 95%CI=25-38) or good health (35%, 95%CI=29-42), and had a median of two medical conditions. Most were independent with activities of daily living, though some needed assistance with walking and used gait devices. Given these results, RCF staff and healthcare providers need a heightened awareness of factors associated with driving risk to promote safety of older drivers and provide resources for likely transition to other transportation. PMID:26366125
Tan, Jennifer Poh Sim
Research has consistently shown that children in residential care fall behind at school. This proves a great challenge for educators who have to cater to the students' needs to ensure no one is left behind. Studies investigating family literacy practices of different social classes show a positive implication if the home literacy practices are…
Chappell, Neena L.; Havens, Betty; Honorary, Dlitt; Hollander, Marcus J.; Miller, Jo Ann; McWilliam, Carol
Purpose: This paper reports on Canadian research that examined the cost effectiveness of home care for seniors as a substitute for long-term institutional services. Design and Methods: Two Canadian cities were included in the research: Victoria, British Columbia, and Winnipeg, Manitoba. The research computes the costs of formal care and informal…
Boorsma, Marijke; Frijters, Dinnus H.M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Ribbe, Miel E.; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein P.J.
Background: Sophisticated approaches are needed to improve the quality of care for elderly people living in residential care facilities. We determined the effects of multidisciplinary integrated care on the quality of care and quality of life for elderly people in residential care facilities. Methods: We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 10 residential care facilities in the Netherlands that included 340 participating residents with physical or cognitive disabilities. Five of the facilities applied multidisciplinary integrated care, and five provided usual care. The intervention, inspired by the disease management model, consisted of a geriatric assessment of functional health every three months. The assessment included use of the Long-term Care Facility version of the Resident Assessment Instrument by trained nurse-assistants to guide the design of an individualized care plan; discussion of outcomes and care priorities with the family physician, the resident and his or her family; and monthly multidisciplinary meetings with the nurse-assistant, family physician, psychologist and geriatrician to discuss residents with complex needs. The primary outcome was the sum score of 32 risk-adjusted quality-of-care indicators. Results: Compared with the facilities that provided usual care, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher sum score of the 32 quality-of-care indicators (mean difference − 6.7, p = 0.009; a medium effect size of 0.72). They also had significantly higher scores for 11 of the 32 indicators of good care in the areas of communication, delirium, behaviour, continence, pain and use of antipsychotic agents. Interpretation: Multidisciplinary integrated care resulted in improved quality of care for elderly people in residential care facilities compared with usual care. Trial registration: www.controlled-trials.com trial register no. ISRCTN11076857. PMID:21708967
Wilson, S; Barrett, C
A verbally aggressive, 32-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury was admitted to a unit in an aged care facility for residential care. The homeostasis of the unit was disrupted by the resident's verbal aggression and other inappropriate behaviours. With the guidance of a neuropsychologist, nursing staff were able to use behaviour modification to successfully replace the disruptive behaviours with more socially appropriate ones. A series of positive rewards was implemented in response to socially appropriate behaviour, whilst inappropriate behaviours received a negative reward. Several disruptive behaviours were affected by the single treatment implemented. This interdependence of targeted behaviours was viewed as a clinical advantage, as it served to provide a more rapid restoration of homeostasis to the unit. The use of a single-subject, multiple baseline design in this case study demonstrates that disruptive behaviours may be reversible.
Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.
Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…
Godley, Mark D.; Funk, Rodney R.; Lee, Margaret T.; Garnick, Deborah W.
The current study examined the predictive validity of the Washington Circle (WC) continuity of care after long-term residential treatment performance measure, as well as the impact of assertive continuing care interventions on achieving continuity of care. This measure is a process measure that focuses on timely delivery of a minimal floor of services that are necessary to provide sufficient quality of treatment but should not be construed to be the optimal continuity of care after residential treatment for any specific adolescent. Participants included 342 adolescents who were admitted to long-term residential treatment and randomly assigned to either standard continuing care or an assertive continuing care condition. Overall, results provide initial support for the WC continuity of care after residential treatment performance measure as a useful predictor of 3-month recovery status. Additionally, assignment to an assertive continuing care condition was found to significantly increase the likelihood of achieving continuity of care. PMID:19553067
A pioneering residential child care project in inner city Dublin began operations in July 1981. The project was designed to function as a resource for seriously deprived or at-risk children and their families. The community served is one characterized by exceptionally high unemployment, a 10 percent rate of heroin addiction among local 15- to…
Strijbosch, E. L. L.; van der Helm, G. H. P.; van Brandenburg, M. E. T.; Mecking, M.; Wissink, I. B.; Stams, G. J. J. M.
Purpose: This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch residential youth care. Reliability analysis was…
Gibson, Johnnie; Leonard, Marcella; Wilson, Mena
In this article, the authors describe and illustrate their approach to consultancy, development and training in residential child care. When working together the authors form the MOSAIC Consortium and provide training and consultancy to residential child care services. The article draws on systems theory, systems thinking and the politics of child…
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…
Clare, Linda; Rowlands, Julia; Bruce, Errollyn; Surr, Claire; Downs, Murna
Purpose: The subjective psychological experience of people with moderate to severe dementia living in residential care is insufficiently understood. In the present study we aimed to explore the subjective experience of life with dementia in residential care from the perspective of the person with dementia, and to understand the psychological…
James, Sigrid S.; Zhang, Jin Jin; Landsverk, John
This study provides national estimates for length of stay in residential care and examines within-group variability along salient predictors. Using data from the National Study on Child and Adolescent Well-Being, the sample included 254 youth with episodes in residential care. Descriptive analyses provided estimates for length of stay over the…
Mortenson, W. Ben; Oliffe, John L.; Miller, William C.; Backman, Catherine L.
Many individuals living in residential care use a wheelchair as their primary means of mobility. Although studies have documented challenges encountered by residents in these facilities, few have addressed the role that wheelchairs, as potential enablers and barriers to mobility and participation, play in their lives. To better understand residents’ experiences, an ethnographic study was conducted drawing on Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of capital, field, and habitus. Participant observations were conducted at two facilities and residents, family members and staff took part in in-depth individual interviews. Our analysis revealed three themes. Ready to roll detailed how residents used wheelchairs as a source of comfort and means for expanding their social space, while staff could use them as a means to move and control some residents. Squeaky wheels described how residents solicited assistance from staff and family amid having to wait to perform activities of daily living. In, out and about revealed diversity in the places residents went, spaces they shared and the social activities in which they engaged inside and outside their residential facilities. The study findings emphasize how wheelchairs constitute capital that govern many fields of practice for residents and staff and suggest how practice and policy might be adjusted. PMID:21707660
Steinlin, Célia; Dölitzsch, Claudia; Fischer, Sophia; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc
Working in residential care is associated with high demands and high stress. As a result, employees may develop symptoms of burnout. These symptoms lead to absence from work and have a negative effect on the continuity and quality of the residential care. Until now, little is known about burnout risks in child welfare workers, although children and adolescents are especially dependent on continuous relationships and healthy caregivers. A better understanding of the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction may help to identify starting points for prevention and intervention. The present study assessed symptoms of burnout in a sample of 319 social education workers in residential care in Switzerland using the burnout-screening-scales (BOSS). Work satisfaction was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire based on concepts of trauma-sensitive care. The questionnaire was tested for reliability and factorial validity in the present study. In order to estimate the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction, correlations and relative risks were calculated. Almost one fifth (18 %) of the sample showed a risk of burnout. The principal component analysis of the questionnaire on work satisfaction revealed four factors: support by superiors, participation and transparency; communication and support within the team; gratification in the work; and institutional structures and resources. All four factors as well as the total score showed significant correlations with burnout symptoms. Among employees with a comparably lower work satisfaction, the risk of burnout was 5.4 times higher than among employees with a comparably higher work satisfaction. It is discussed how work satisfaction could be promoted and how, as a result, the quality and continuity of care for the children and adolescents could be improved.
Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Benbenishty, Rami; Roziner, Ilan
This study examined change trajectories of aggressive behaviors among children in long-term residential care in Israel and identified various child-, family-, and placement-related predictors of the change trajectories. Records of 799 children (average age at the beginning of the four years=10.4, 33.1% female) in their first four consecutive years in care were analyzed using the TRF aggressive behavior subscale (Achenbach, 1991) to measure the outcome variable. Children's and parents' characteristics and placement-related factors were used to explain variance in change trajectories. Latent Class Growth Analyses identified four aggressive behavior trajectories: 'stable-low' levels of aggressiveness over time (45% of the children), 'stable-high' levels (13%), 'improvement' (20%), and 'deterioration' (22%). Predictors of less resilient trajectories (i.e., stable-high or increasing aggressiveness) included mothers' difficulties and disabilities, children's attendance of special education classes, more intensive type of care, and non-immigrant status. The Attachment Theory, Life Course Perspective theories, and the General Strain Theory are used to interpret some of the findings of the study. Identifying the factors that predispose children to certain patterns of change may help direct resources to children at risk of having high or increasing levels of aggression while in residential care.
Field, John, Ed.; Normie, Gerald, Ed.
These papers on the role of residential adult education were first presented at a July 1991 conference at Somerville College, Oxford University, England. After an introduction (Field), the first paper, "Residential Adult Education: History, Concept, and Evaluation" (Bron), offers an historical perspective and recommends defining…
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…
Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof
This paper explores the impact of residential mobility on educational outcomes. By considering a large Dutch city with substantial internal residential mobility, we examine how residential mobility influences the decision of students to drop out of school. The paper exploits a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on educational, individual, family, housing and moving characteristics of students. It combines a matching design with a multivariate regression analysis, such that the evaluation draws on a well-comparable control group for the treated students. Accounting for individual, family, educational, neighborhood and housing characteristics, as well as for school and year fixed effects, we observe that residential mobility increases the probability of school dropout in the first few years after moving. The estimated effect changes, however, to a lower risk of early school leaving after an initial period, and then changes again to a higher risk after 6years. This effect remains, regardless the level of education the students attended, or whether the student moves to a better or a worse neighborhood.
Bourke, Nicholas; Buskist, Connie; Herron, Julie
Residential environmental education centers (REECs) have been criticized for their lack of quality program evaluation. However, the last national study done on the practices of REECs was Chenery and Hammerman's (1985) research. This article presents the results of a national survey of directors of REECs (n = 114) that gives insight into the…
Barnes, Craig S.
Education is the key to staying alive now and in the future and the most potent creative force of civilization. If we really cared about it, education could mark a turning point in man's history. (RA)
Squires, Janet E.; Hoben, Matthias; Linklater, Stefanie; Carleton, Heather L.; Graham, Nicole; Estabrooks, Carole A.
Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care. PMID:26345545
Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Powell, M Paige; Kim, Jungyoon; Shiyanbola, Olayinka; Zhu, He; Shiyanbola, Oyewale
The effectiveness of information technology in resolving medication problems has been well documented. Long-term care settings such as residential care facilities (RCFs) may see the benefits of using such technologies in addressing the problem of medication errors among their resident population, who are usually older and have numerous chronic conditions. The aim of this study was two-fold: to examine the extent of use of Electronic Medication Management (EMM) in RCFs and to analyze the organizational factors associated with the use of EMM functionalities in RCFs. Data on RCFs were obtained from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The association between facility, director and staff, and resident characteristics of RCFs and adoption of four EMM functionalities was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The four EMM functionalities included were maintaining lists of medications, ordering for prescriptions, maintaining active medication allergy lists, and warning of drug interactions or contraindications. About 12% of the RCFs adopted all four EMM functionalities. Additionally, maintaining lists of medications had the highest adoption rate (34.5%), followed by maintaining active medication allergy lists (31.6%), ordering for prescriptions (19.7%), and warning of drug interactions or contraindications (17.9%). Facility size and ownership status were significantly associated with adoption of all four EMM functionalities. Medicaid certification status, facility director's age, education and license status, and the use of personal care aides in the RCF were significantly associated with the adoption of some of the EMM functionalities. EMM is expected to improve the quality of care and patient safety in long-term care facilities including RCFs. The extent of adoption of the four EMM functionalities is relatively low in RCFs. Some RCFs may strategize to use these functionalities to cater to the increasing demands from the market and also to
Koffel, W E
The fire protection requirements contained in the model building codes and the Life Safety Code are constantly being scrutinized and revised. The American Health Care Association is actively participating in the code development and revision processes of the model code organizations and NFPA to ensure that the interests of the residential care community can be considered. While the effort is being coordinated by AHCA's Residential Care Committee, all interested parties are invited to participate and have their opinions and concerns heard.
Rodgers, Vivien; Neville, Stephen
Autonomy has significance for everyone, including those in long-term residential care. This article looks at the concept of autonomy particularly in relation to the population of older persons living in residential care settings. It examines the values underpinning the exercise of personal autonomy and notes how an individual's autonomy may be enhanced or restricted. The implications for gerontological nursing practice are outlined and suggestions offered as to how personal autonomy for older persons living in residential care may be preserved and promoted.
This paper presents an ethnographic study of the out of school literacy practices of children living in residential care in Malaysia. Although residential homes generate much publicity, especially during the festive seasons, not much is known about the children living within the confines of these homes. Even more lacking is research on their…
Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn
Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…
Serbati, Sara; Gioga, Gianmaria
Qualitative methods (i.e. semi-structured interviews) were used in this micro-research to explore the different ways in which young people and social and residential workers perceive the outcomes of the residential care experience. By comparing the participants' points of view, it was possible to investigate different ways of thinking about…
Hillen, Jodie B; Vitry, Agnes; Caughey, Gillian E
Given the growing aged care population, the complexity of their medication-related needs and increased risk of adverse drug events, there is a necessity to systematically monitor and manage medication-related quality of care. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise medication-related quality of care indicators with respect to application to residential aged care. MEDLINE (Ovid), Psychinfo, CINAHL, Embase and Google® were searched from 2001 to 2013 for studies that were in English, focused on older people aged 65+ years and discussed the development, application or validation of original medication-related quality of care indicators. The quality of selected articles was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and psychometric qualities extracted and synthesised using content analysis. Indicators were mapped to six medication-related quality of care attributes and a minimum indicator set derived. Thirty three articles describing 25 indicator sets met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen (52%) contained prescribing quality indicators only. Eight (32%) were developed specifically for aged care. Twenty three (92%) were validated and seven (28%) assessed for reliability. The most common attribute addressed was medication appropriateness (n = 24). There were no indicators for evaluating medication use in those with limited life expectancy, which resulted in only five of the six attributes being addressed. The developed minimum indicator set contains 28 indicators representing 22 of 25 identified indicator sets. Whilst a wide variety of validated indicator sets exist, none addressed all aspects of medication-related quality of care pertinent to residential aged care. The minimum indicator set is intended as a foundation for comprehensively evaluating medication-related quality of care in this setting. Future work should focus on bridging identified gaps.
Lambert, Matthew C; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Gross, Thomas J; Epstein, Michael H; Stevens, Amy L
Tests that measure the emotional and behavioral problems of children and youth are typically not normed and standardized on youth diagnosed with disruptive behavior, particularly those youth in residential care. Yet professional standards mandate that before instruments are used with a specific population the psychometric properties need to be studied and re-established: specifically, psychometric properties, including validity, need to be evaluated (AERA, APA, and NCME, The standards for educational and psychological testing. AERA, Washington, DC, 1999). The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity characteristics of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al., Manual of the Peabody Treatment Progress Battery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2010), a widely used test developed for use in outpatient clinics, with youth in a residential care program. The convergent validity of the SFSS was established with the large correlations (0.78-0.86) with the CBCL. Several binary classification analyses including specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden Index supported the validity of the SFSS. However, the sensitivity index was somewhat low indicating the test may produce a high level of false negatives. Limitations, future research and implications are discussed.
Paice, Elisabeth; Hasan, Samia
In September 2012 the North West London Integrated Care Plot held a conference for clinical educators. The aim was to reach a consensus about what learning clinical staff needed in order to contribute to an integrated care system. The conference was attended by 81 clinical educators from a range of backgrounds. The participants decided that competence in the following three domains was essential: 1. Patient and user engagement and empowerment. 2. Collaboration with other health and social care professionals. 3. Leading improvement in the system of care. Educational interventions to facilitate learning should wherever possible be interprofessional, team based and experiential. The views of patients, carers and users should inform the education. Assessment should take into account real-life performance through multi-source feedback and observed practice. Evaluation of the educational intervention should take into account any impact on the patient and user experience as well as clinical outcome measures.
... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...
... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...
... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...
Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463
Swan, James; Newcomer, Robert
Simulation analyses quantify admission and continuing physical and cognitive impairment patient case-mix changes under two scenarios: with increases in residential care supply and with all nursing homes licensed only as skilled care facilities. Findings raise caution about the assumed interplay between residential care supply and nursing home use. The proportion of nursing home patients with only physical and cognitive impairment likely to be affected by current and emerging long-term care (LTC) policy was well under 25 percent of the nursing home population in each of the four study States. States varied in LTC supply and utilization controls. PMID:11481756
Lea, Emma; Marlow, Annette; Bramble, Marguerite; Andrews, Sharon; Crisp, Elaine; Eccleston, Claire; Mason, Ron; Robinson, Andrew
The residential aged care sector is reportedly a less attractive career choice for nursing students than other sectors. Research shows that students are often fearful of working with residents with dementia when they are inadequately supported on clinical placements by aged care staff. Thirty first-year nursing students attended a 2-week placement in one of two Tasmanian aged care facilities as part of the Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre Teaching Aged Care Facilities Program, which aims to provide students with a quality aged care placement focusing on dementia palliation. Placement experience and dementia knowledge were evaluated through preplacement and postplacement questionnaires and weekly feedback meetings with mentors and students. Students had more positive attitudes related to aged care and higher dementia knowledge at the end of placement. Students described their interactions with residents with dementia and thought that the placement had increased their capacity to provide quality care to these residents. The findings indicate that residential aged care placements can be productive learning environments for novice nursing students.
Rawson, Richard A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Mooney, Larissa; Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Dickerson, Daniel; Penate, Jose; Salem, Bilal A.; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B.
Background We examined the efficacy of an 8-week exercise intervention on posttreatment methamphetamine (MA) use among MA-dependent individuals following residential treatment. Methods 135 individuals newly enrolled in treatment were randomly assigned to a structured 8-week exercise intervention or health education control group. Approximately 1 week after completion of the intervention, participants were discharged to the community. Interview data and urine samples were collected at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-residential care. Of the sample, 54.8% were classified as higher severity users (using MA more than 18 days in the month before admission) and 45.2% as lower severity users (using MA for up to 18 days in the month before admission). Group differences in MA use outcomes were examined over the 3 timepoints using mixed-multivariate modeling. Results While fewer exercise participants returned to MA use compared to education participants at 1-, 3- and 6-months post-discharge, differences were not statistically significant. A significant interaction for self-reported MA use and MA urine drug test results by condition and MA severity was found: lower severity users in the exercise group reported using MA significantly fewer days at the three post-discharge timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. Lower severity users in the exercise group also had a lower percentage of positive urine results at the three timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. These relationships were not present in the comparison of the higher severity conditions. Conclusion Results support the value of exercise as a treatment component for individuals using MA 18 or fewer days/month. PMID:26371404
Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.
Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.
Walker, Hollie; And Others
Stress and burnout are common in the caregiving professions. Stress negatively affects both the caregivers and patients. In order to help caregivers deal with stress effectively and to improve the care in residential care facilities, it is essential to learn more about the particular stressors that managers of such facilities experience. In this…
Roest, Jesse; van der Helm, Peer; Strijbosch, Eefje; van Brandenburg, Mariëtte; Stams, Geert Jan
Purpose: This study examined the construct validity and reliability of a therapeutic alliance measure (Children's Alliance Questionnaire [CAQ]) for children with psychosocial and/or behavioral problems, receiving therapeutic residential care or day care in the Netherlands. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor model ''therapeutic…
Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.
The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…
Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin
Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…
Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai
The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…
Objective: This study, using an ecological approach, examines the relationships between problems in school functioning (including academic and behavior problems) of children in residential care with a number of variables describing the child and the care setting. Methods: The study reports on 4,061 children and youth (ages 6-20) in 54 Israeli…
Portwood, Sharon G.; Boyd, A. Suzanne; Murdock, Tamera B.
Background: There is a need to examine behavioral and mental health outcomes for children in out-of-home care across settings. Objective: Using a participatory research approach, researchers and agency personnel aimed to implement a program of scientific outcomes research in residential care settings. Data were used to examine children's…
Kelba, Nestor N.
The study's purpose was to develop a valid instrument for evaluating residential outdoor education centres in Canada. Using published and unpublished literature, a preliminary instrument consisting of 206 criteria was constructed. Twenty-five recognized Canadian experts in residential outdoor education were randomly selected from 3 subsample areas…
Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.
Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…
Caffrey, Christine; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren; Rome, Vincent; Sengupta, Manisha
In 2012, the majority of residential care communities had 4–25 beds, yet 71% of residents lived in communities with more than 50 beds. A lower percentage of communities with 4–25 beds were chain-affiliated, nonprofit, and in operation 10 years or more, compared with communities with 26–50 and more than 50 beds. Dementia-exclusive care or dementia care units were more common as community size increased. A higher percentage of communities with more than 50 beds screened for cognitive impairment and offered dementia-specific programming compared with communities with 4–25 and 26–50 beds. A higher percentage of communities with more than 50 beds screened for depression compared with communities with 4–25 beds. Compared with communities with 4–25 beds, a higher percentage of communities with 26–50 beds and more than 50 beds provided therapeutic, hospice, mental health, and dental services; but a lower percentage of communities with more than 50 beds provided skilled nursing services than did smaller communities. This report presents national estimates of residential care communities, using data from the first wave of NSLTCP. This brief profile of residential care communities provides useful information to policymakers, providers, researchers, and consumer advocates as they plan to meet the needs of an aging population. The findings also highlight the diversity of residential care communities across different sizes. Corresponding state estimates and their standard errors for the national figures in this data brief can be found on the NSLTCP website at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsltcp/ nsltcp_products.htm. These national and state estimates establish a baseline for monitoring trends among residents living in residential care.
Bigby, C.; Webber, R.; Bowers, B.; McKenzie-Green, B.
Background: Australia's national ageing policy recognises that people ageing with intellectual disability (ID) require particular attention, yet there is no policy framework concerning this population. This study describes the distribution and characteristics of people with ID in residential aged care in Victoria, provides insights into the…
Sluyter, Gary V.; Mukherjee, Ajit K.
A new job satisfaction instrument for employees of a residential care facility for mentally retarded persons effectively measures the employees' satisfaction with 12 work related variables: salary, company policies, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, security, advancement, recognition, achievement, work responsibility, and…
Gallant, Jason; Snyder, Gregory S.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
This study examined characteristics and biopsychosocial predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury in a sample (N = 753) of youth in residential care admitted between 2005 and 2010. To model the data, the authors used t-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regressions stratified by gender. Results suggested that 12% of youth engaged in…
Friman, Patrick C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Freeman, Kurt A.; Gilman, Rich; Short, Mary; McGrath, Ann M.; Handwerk, Michael L.
Little research has been published on tattling, even less on its social impact, and we found none directly investigating tattling by adolescents. This study assessed the extent to which tattling, as perceived by peers and caregivers of adolescents in a residential care program, was associated with various dimensions of social status and other…
Monshouwer, Karin; Kepper, Annelies; van den Eijnden, Regina; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma
Background: Several studies have shown that substance use levels among adolescents living in residential youth care are high. However, it is not clear to what extent adolescents initiate (heavy) substance during their stay and to what extent these rates are higher than would be expected based on their risk profile. Objective: The aim of the…
This paper seeks to examine a number of issues which relate to the provision of appropriate and high-quality residential and community care for people with an intellectual disability. A number of key themes emerging from this Special Issue of the "Journal of Intellectual Disability Research" are identified and explored: (1) normalisation; (2)…
Cimmarusti, Rocco A.
Youths in residential care have likely experienced trauma as they have had atypical and disruptive events occur in their lives that has contributed to their out-of-home placement. For people who have been traumatized, the regulation of emotions is an important feature of their recovery. This article presents a model that traces phases from…
Witbrodt, Jane; Bond, Jason; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Weisner, Constance; Jaeger, Gary; Pating, David; Moore, Charles
Male and female managed care clients randomized to day hospital (n=154) or community residential treatment (n=139) were compared on substance use outcomes at 6 and 12 months. To address possible bias in naturalistic studies, outcomes were also examined for clients who self-selected day hospital (n=321) and for clients excluded from randomization…
Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Coleman, Kim; Milne, Lise; Sell, Jody; Daigneault, Isabelle
The aim of this paper was to provide a description of the trauma experiences, trauma-related sequels, and resilience features of a sample of Canadian youth in residential care facilities, as well as to explore the impact of gender and of the number of different traumas experienced on trauma-related sequels and resilience features. A convenience…
Stewart, Shannon L.; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura; den Dunnen, Wendy
Background: Few studies have examined deliberate self-harm (DSH) among children in residential treatment in Canada. Most of the existing studies examined adolescent students or children from pediatric emergency departments. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of DSH among children in tertiary care residential…
Moreau, Vincent; Belanger, Lynda; Begin, Gilles; Morin, Charles M.
The main objective of this study was to document sleep patterns and disturbances reported by youths temporarily living in residential care facilities. A secondary objective was to examine the relationships between sleep disturbances and mood and daytime sleepiness. A self-reported questionnaire on sleep patterns and habits assessing duration,…
A thematic teaching program and portfolio assessment were used to maintain basic academic language arts and mathematics skills during the summer for 21 elementary students placed in residential foster care settings as victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. All activities were designed around the selected theme of a safari. Students listened to…
Csorba, Janos; Radvanyi, Katalin; Regenyi, Eniko; Dinya, Elek
The authors investigated the behavioural dimensions of 269 intellectually disabled (ID) people in residential care in specialized institutions in Tolna county (South-West Hungary) with the aim of screening the frequency and severity of the relevant behavioural symptoms associated with intellectual disability and depending on the level of…
Martín, Eduardo; Muñoz de Bustillo, María del Carmen
School adjustment is one the greatest challenges in residential child care programs. This study has two aims: to analyze school adjustment compared to a normative population, and to carry out a multi-source analysis (child, classmates, and teacher) of this adjustment. A total of 50 classrooms containing 60 children from residential care units were studied. The "Método de asignación de atributos perceptivos" (Allocation of perceptive attributes; Díaz-Aguado, 2006), the "Test Autoevaluativo Multifactorial de Adaptación Infantil" (TAMAI [Multifactor Self-assessment Test of Child Adjustment]; Hernández, 1996) and the "Protocolo de valoración para el profesorado (Evaluation Protocol for Teachers; Fernández del Valle, 1998) were applied. The main results indicate that, compared with their classmates, children in residential care are perceived as more controversial and less integrated at school, although no differences were observed in problems of isolation. The multi-source analysis shows that there is agreement among the different sources when the externalized and visible aspects are evaluated. These results are discussed in connection with the practices that are being developed in residential child care programs.
Lemke, Sonne; Moo, Rudolf H.
Explored hypothesis that the quality of care received by the elderly in a residential facility is related to the ownership of the facility. Evaluated 300 facilities using the Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure (MEAP). Results indicated that nonprofit facilities (n=44) provided a more comfortable setting, higher resident control and…
Developed as part of a 104-hour course on adult residential care homes (ARCHs), this 50-minute lesson is designed to enable a student to: (1) define a bedsore; (2) list and describe three major causes of bedsores; (3) identify potential bedsore sites in the back-lying, side-lying, and sitting positions; and (4) calculate the risk for developing…
Dobbs, Debra; Eckert, J. Kevin; Rubinstein, Bob; Keimig, Lynn; Clark, Leanne; Frankowski, Ann Christine; Zimmerman, Sheryl
Purpose: This study explored aspects of stigmatization for older adults who live in residential care or assisted living (RC-AL) communities and what these settings have done to address stigma. Design and Methods: We used ethnography and other qualitative data-gathering and analytic techniques to gather data from 309 participants (residents, family…
Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Morad, Mohammed; Janicki, Matthew P.; Wexler, Orren; Henderson, C. Michael
To determine their health status, we studied 2,282 Israeli adults with intellectual disability who were at least 40 years of age and lived in residential care. Results showed that age is a significant factor in health status. The frequency of different disease categories (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sensory impairments) increased…
Merrick, Joav; Kandel, Isack; Raskas, Mordechai; Caplan, Lee; Morad, Mohammed
In Israel, the Office of the Medical Director of the Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for the medical service in residential-care centers for persons with intellectual disability (ID). A standard annual questionnaire was developed during 1997-1998, and the first national survey study was conducted in 1998. This present paper presents the findings of the seventh national survey in 2004, for which the following information was gathered via questionnaires: age, gender, and level of intellectual disability of persons served at the residential care center in question, status of the population served, functional profile, nursing, medical, and allied professional staff, number of annual examinations, preventive medicine aspects, medications, number of annual cases of infectious disease, annual unintentional injuries, number of deaths, number of hospitalizations, internal residential center hospitalization, ambulatory out-patient use, use of outside laboratory examinations, and dental care. In 2004, 6,610 persons were served in nine government, 37 private, and 12 public centers. The average number of persons served per center was 113.97 (range 23 to 372). The survey in 2004 showed that 79.2% of the population with ID in residential care in Israel was between 20 and 60 years of age; 48.8% had severe or profound ID, 41% had moderate ID, and 10% had mild ID; 23% were nursing patients; 19% were confined to a wheelchair; 31% had epilepsy; 83% were receiving medication daily for chronic illness; and 52.5% were receiving psychotropic medication for psychiatric illness.
Knorth, Erik J.; Klomp, Martin; Van den Bergh, Peter M.; Noom, Marc J.
This article presents a selective inventory of treatment methods of aggressive behavior. Special attention is paid to types of intervention that, according to research, are frequently used in Dutch residential youth care. These methods are based on (1) principles of (cognitive) behavior management and control, (2) the social competence model, and…
Macias, Ron J.
The Problem: The problem in this study was to determine whether there is a difference between technology-based and instructor-led RCFE administrator training. Method: A quasi-experimental research design study was conducted, and 70 students enrolled in the Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) Administration Licensing renewal course…
Gaugler, Joseph E.
The objective of this review is to critically synthesize the existing literature on family involvement in residential long-term care. Studies that examined family involvement in various long-term care venues were identified through extensive searches of the literature. Future research and practice must consider the complexity of family structure, adopt longitudinal designs, provide direct empirical links between family involvement and resident outcomes, and offer rigorous evaluation of interventions in order to refine the literature. PMID:15804627
Siefert, K; Pimlott, S
The female prison population has increased dramatically in recent years. Most women prisoners are involved with drugs, and as many as 25 percent are pregnant or have delivered within the past year. Reproductive health and drug treatment services for women in prison are inadequate, if they are available at all, and although illicit drugs are readily available in prison, drug-involved pregnant women often are incarcerated to protect fetal health. Studies of pregnancy outcome among women prisoners have demonstrated high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. This article examines issues related to pregnancy among women prisoners and describes an innovative residential program designed for pregnant, drug-dependent women in a state adult corrections system. Social workers can play an important role in promoting policy reform and improved services for this underserved population.
Nourian, Manijeh; Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar
ABSTRACT Background: Resilience is a quality that affects an individual’s ability to cope with tension. The present study was conducted to determine resilience and its contributing factors in high-risk adolescents living in residential care facilities affiliated to Tehran Welfare Organization in order to help develop effective preventive measures for them. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 223 adolescents living in 15 different governmental residential care centers in 2014. Participants were selected through convenience sampling. The data required were collected via the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale with content validity (S-CVI=0.92) and a reliability of α=0.77 and r=0.83 (P<0.001). The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS-20 using descriptive and inferential statistics including Chi-square test, independent t-test and ANOVA. Results: The adolescents’ mean score of resilience was 84.41±11.01. The level of resilience was moderate in 46.2% of the participants and was significantly higher in the female than in the male adolescents (P=0.006); moreover, the score obtained was lower in primary school children as compared to middle school and high school students (P<0.001). Conclusion: Directors of care facilities and residential care personnel should adopt preventive resilience-based strategies in order to optimize resilience among adolescents, particularly the male. It is important to provide a basis to prevent adolescents’ academic failure and place a stronger value on education than the past. PMID:27713901
Residential, challenging, learning experiences can provide a powerful and essential education in environmental values and interpersonal relationships. Presents a basic-needs planning guide for residential adventure programs that considers the need for water, air, food, clothing, accommodation, waste disposal, health, energy, resources, love of…
Kirby, James B.; Kaneda, Toshiko
Many Americans do not have access to adequate medical care. Previous research on this problem focuses primarily on individual-level determinants of access such as income and insurance coverage. The role of community-level factors in helping or hindering individuals in obtaining needed medical care, however, has not received much attention. We…
Seaman, Karla; Saunders, Rosemary; Williams, Elly; Harrup-Gregory, Jane; Loffler, Helen; Lake, Fiona
It is essential that health professionals are trained to provide optimal care for our ageing population. Key to this is a positive attitude to older adults along with the ability to work in teams and provide interprofessional care. There is limited evidence on the impact an interprofessional education (IPE) placement in a residential aged care facility (RACF) has on students. In 2015 in Western Australia, 51 students (30% male, median age 23 years), from seven professions, undertook a placement between 2 and 13 weeks in length at 1 RACF. Pre- and post-placement measurements of attitudes to the elderly were collected using the Ageing Semantic Differential (ASD) questionnaire and level of readiness for interprofessional learning with the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). A total of 47 students completed matched ASD and RIPLS surveys. The mean total score on the ASD survey decreased significantly from pre- to post-placement from 116.0 to 108.9 (p = 0.033), indicating attitudes became increasingly positive towards older adults. Significant differences post-placement were seen indicating better readiness for interprofessional learning, for two out of four subscales on the RIPLS, namely "teamwork & collaboration" (42.1-44.0; (p = 0.000)) and "positive professional identity" (18.2-19.3 (p = 0.001)). The degree of change is similar to findings from other settings. The results support IPE-focussed student placements within RACF positively influence student's attitudes towards the older adult as well as increase student's readiness for interprofessional learning, confirming RACF are valuable places for training health professionals.
Hallett, Ronald Edward
Homeless youth face many barriers that limit their ability to complete a high school diploma and transition to postsecondary education. The federal government passed the McKinney-Vento Act over 20 years ago to address issues of access to public education for homeless youth. The most recent reauthorization of the law expanded the definition of…
Miegel, Karen; Wachtel, Tracey
Background. Unrefutable evidence now links poor oral health with the development of preventable systemic illnesses and debilitating conditions that threaten quality of life and life itself. This is especially significant for an increasing older population who are dependent on others for care. Aims and objectives. The majority of studies analysing the oral health of older dependent people in long-term residential care have been undertaken by dental professionals. This critical literature review examines the issue from a nursing perspective because nursing care providers have a fundamental role in daily oral health provision for dependent residents. Conclusions. Multiple barriers were found to negatively impact on daily oral healthcare provision, including lack of care provider education, oral health values, availability of resources, implementation of supportive policies, documentation and oral health assessment tools. Relevance to clinical practice. The nursing profession, at all levels, must become pro-active in removing financial, political and workforce barriers that impact negatively on oral health outcomes. A multi-faceted approach is required to address these barriers, including development and implementation of oral health education programmes, assessment screening tools, care plans, documentation, supply of oral hygiene aids and the appointment of oral care 'champions'.
The monograph examines the way in which the Netherlands' three-part system of residential care and independent living (IL) for people with physical disabilities interacts with the country's health and social welfare systems. The three-part system comprises: the residential center model, the clustered housing model, and the independent housing…
Norberg, Astrid; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Lundman, Berit
This study concerns moments of homecoming among people with advanced dementia disease living in a residential care facility. Our main finding from participant observations with nine residents was that the residents showed moments of homecoming, i.e. they alternated between verbal and/or nonverbal expressions of feeling at home and of not feeling at home. If care providers understand that they can help people with advanced dementia disease experience moments of homecoming, they can focus on aspects of care that can promote these experiences.
Daly, Tamara; Szebehely, Marta
This article aims to contribute to comparative welfare state research by analysing the everyday work life of long-term care facility workers in Canada and Sweden. The study’s empirical base was a survey of fixed and open-ended questions; this article presents results from a subset of respondents (Care Aides and Assistant Nurses) working in facilities in three Canadian provinces (n=557) and across Sweden (n=292). The workers’ experiences were linked to the broader economic and organisational contexts of residential care in the two jurisdictions. We found a high degree of country-specific differentiation of work organisation: Canada follows a model of highly differentiated task–oriented work, whereas Sweden represents an integrated relational care work model. Reflecting differences in the vertical division of labour, the Canadian Care Aides had more demanding working conditions than their Swedish colleagues. The consequences of these models for care workers, for elderly people and for their families are discussed. PMID:24999303
Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol
The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.
Hutchison, Andrew; Kroese, Biza Stenfert
Research evidence reveals that adults with learning disabilities who live in residential care facilities are being exposed to considerable variation in the standards of care they receive. High profile cases of substandard care have also raised concerns regarding the appropriateness of existing care provisions and practices. While attempts have…
Wilson, Joy DeMarino
The paper focuses on coordination of an educational program for non-ambulatory cerebral palsied and profoundly retarded clients (21 years old and younger) in a residential setting not being served by the Texas Education Department. Covered in outline form are the school's requirements governing educational programs, program development,…
Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
We investigated the 2010 year prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in residential and foster care and compared it with prevalence rates in the general population. We used two approaches to estimate the prevalence of CSA. First, 264 professionals working in residential or foster care (sentinels) reported CSA for the children they worked with (N = 6,281). Second, 329 adolescents staying in residential or foster care reported on their own experiences with CSA. Sentinels and adolescents were randomly selected from 82 Dutch out-of-home care facilities. We found that 3.5 per 1,000 children had been victims of CSA based on sentinel reports. In addition, 58 per 1,000 adolescents reported having experienced CSA. Results based on both sentinel report and self-report revealed higher prevalence rates in out-of-home care than in the general population, with the highest prevalence in residential care. Prevalence rates in foster care did not differ from the general population. According to our findings, children and adolescents in residential care are at increased risk of CSA compared to children in foster care. Unfortunately, foster care does not fully protect children against sexual abuse either, and thus its quality needs to be further improved.
Carreon, Daisy C; Baumeister, Sebastian E
Few studies have examined differences in health care access across Asian American ethnicities and none have considered the effects of residential segregation. The segregation of Asians by neighborhood has been steadily increasing over the past few decades due in part to the settlement patterns of immigrants. Data from the 2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 746) were used. We examined differences in yearly medical checkups between Asian subgroups as well as among foreign-born and US-born Asians. Results showed that immigrant Filipinos and Vietnamese were less likely to get a checkup compared with foreign-born Chinese. The effect of Asian subgroup was modified by the percentage of Asians in a census tract (p < 0.01). Koreans and other Asians had a higher probability of getting a checkup when living in a predominately Asian neighborhood. For Chinese and Vietnamese residential concentration of Asians had a stronger inverse association with having a yearly checkup.
Hall, Keith A.
CARE (Computer Assisted Renewal Education) is a mobile computer assisted instruction (CAI) program designed to train educators and inservice teachers in the education and handling of handicapped children. The program, developed by Pennsylvania State University and offering college credit, is carried in an expandable trailer with 16 individual…
Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda; Tarzia, Laura; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Wellman, David; Beattie, Elizabeth
This paper reports on a study which explored the views and attitudes of family members towards the sexual expression of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities in two states in Australia. Recruitment was challenging and only seven family members agreed to an interview on this topic. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Family were generally supportive of residents' rights to sexual expression, but only some types of behaviours were approved of. There was an acknowledgement that responding to residents' sexuality was difficult for staff and many families believed that they should be kept informed of their relative's sexual behaviours and moreover be involved in decision making about it. Findings suggest the need for family education and a larger study to better understand the views and motivations of family carers and how these might impact on the sexual expression of the older person with dementia living in residential aged care.
Banerjee, Albert; Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat; Szebehely, Marta; Armstrong, Hugh; Lafrance, Stirling
Canadian frontline careworkers are six times more likely to experience daily physical violence than their Scandinavian counterparts. This paper draws on a comparative survey of residential careworkers serving older people across three Canadian provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario) and four countries that follow a Scandinavian model of social care (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) conducted between 2005 and 2006. Ninety percent of Canadian frontline careworkers experienced physical violence from residents or their relatives and 43 percent reported physical violence on a daily basis. Canadian focus groups conducted in 2007 reveal violence was often normalized as an inevitable part of elder-care. We use the concept of "structural violence" (Galtung, 1969) to raise questions about the role that systemic and organizational factors play in setting the context for violence. Structural violence refers to indirect forms of violence that are built into social structures and that prevent people from meeting their basic needs or fulfilling their potential. We applied the concept to long-term residential care and found that the poor quality of the working conditions and inadequate levels of support experienced by Canadian careworkers constitute a form of structural violence. Working conditions are detrimental to careworker's physical and mental health, and prevent careworkers from providing the quality of care they are capable of providing and understand to be part of their job. These conditions may also contribute to the physical violence workers experience, and further investigation is warranted.
Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc
Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.
Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth
There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care.
Brown, W. Rex
General information is presented concerning residential continuing education centers affiliated with public institutions of higher education. Attention was directed to those universities considered self-contained with full-service facilities, including conference facilities, housing accommodations, and food services. Based on the latest documents…
Hallett, Ronald E.
Homeless youth face many barriers that limit success in the educational process. Subgroups of homeless youth frequently experience the educational process differently depending upon their residential context. Recent years witness the federal government's expanding the definition of homelessness to include youth living doubled-up. This residential…
Jönson, Håkan; Harnett, Tove
This article reconceptualizes residential care for older persons by introducing a framework developed from a rights-based principle of disability policies: the normalization principle. This principle is part of the social model and states that society should make available for people who have impairments living conditions that are as close as possible to those of “others.” Using the framework on the case of eldercare in Sweden shows that although disability policies have used people without impairments as a comparative (external) reference group for claiming rights, eldercare policies use internal reference groups, basing comparisons on other care users. The article highlights the need for external comparisons in eldercare and suggests that the third age, which so far has been a normative reference group for older people, could be a comparative reference group when older persons in need of care claim rights to equal conditions. PMID:26035884
Wright, Olivia R. L.; Connelly, Luke B.; Capra, Sandra; Hendrikz, Joan
Abstract Background Poor satisfaction with institutional food is a significant moderator of food intake in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Purpose To quantify the relationship between foodservice satisfaction, foodservice characteristics, demographic and contextual variables in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Methods The Resident Foodservice Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to 103 patients of 2 geriatrics/rehabilitation units and 210 residents of nine residential aged care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. Ordered probit regression analysis measured the association of age, gender, ethnicity and appetite, timing and amount of meal choice, menu selectivity, menu cycle, production system, meal delivery system and therapeutic diets with foodservice satisfaction. Results Patient and resident appetite (P < 0.01), the amount and timing of meal choice (P < 0.01), self‐rated health (P < 0.01), accommodation style (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.10) significantly moderated foodservice satisfaction. High protein/high energy therapeutic diets (P < 0.01), foodservice production (P < 0.01) and delivery systems (P > 0.01) were significant moderators for those with ‘fair’ self‐rated health. Conclusions Patient and resident characteristics and structural and systems‐related foodservice variables were more important for influencing foodservice satisfaction than characteristics of food quality. The results suggest modifications to current menu planning and foodservice delivery methods: reducing the time‐lapse between meal choice and consumption, augmenting the number of meals at which choice is offered, and revising food production and delivery systems.It is important that residents in poorer health who are a high risk of under‐nutrition are provided with sufficient high protein/high energy therapeutic diets. Diets that restrict macro‐ and micro‐nutrients should be
Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David
The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health.
Pollard, Gerald; Oakland, Thomas
Relationships between 15 family, psychological and demographic variables and reading and math achievement are reported for more than 500 hearing impaired children (8 to 15 years old) in a residential state school. The data are also examined for subgroups of children (i.e., hereditary and nonhereditary deafness, rubella, nonrubella, and those with…
Barnes, Sarah; Wasielewska, Anna; Raiswell, Christine; Drummond, Barbara
Improving the mealtime experience in residential care can be a major facilitator in improving care, well-being and QoL. Evidence suggests that, despite guidance on the subject of food, nutrition and hydration, there are still concerns. Although there is a range of methods to research and assess the quality of food provision, there is a challenge in capturing the experiences of those residents who are unable or unwilling to describe their feelings and experiences because of frailty, impaired communication or other vulnerability. The aim of this exploratory study was to capture and describe individual residents' mealtime experience. In spring 2011, a small-scale, observational study was carried out in seven dining settings in four residential care homes in Manchester. An adapted dementia care mapping tool was used alongside field notes. Observations showed two major differences in the way the mealtimes were organised: 'pre-plated' and 'family-style' (where either bowls of food are placed in the centre of the table or food is served directly from a hotplate by a chef). These two styles of service are discussed in relation to the emerging themes of 'task versus resident-centred mealtimes', 'fostering resident independence' and 'levels of interaction'. Although improving mealtimes alone is not enough to improve quality of life in care homes, findings showed that relatively small changes to mealtime delivery can potentially have an impact on resident well-being in these homes. Observation is a useful method of engaging residents in care settings for older people who may not otherwise be able to take part in research.
Students who are in foster care need principals who are informed about policy, aware of their needs, and willing to be advocates for them. Multiple school placements often result in significant gaps in the education of students in foster care. If they also have disabilities, they may lose special programs and services when they change placements.…
van Geen, V. M. C.
Presents an intervention, used in the Netherlands, that empowers clients in residential care homes. The intervention comprises a standardized survey-feedback procedure in which residents' opinions on life and care in their particular home are gauged, discussed, and reported. Explores instrument validity, reliability, and its use in the home. (RJM)
Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana
This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…
Purpose: The study describes Oregon state policy and supply developments for licensed long-term-care settings, particularly apartment-style assisted living facilities and more traditional residential care facilities. Design and Methods: Data came from a variety of sources, including state agency administrative records, other secondary data…
Banerjee, Albert; Armstrong, Pat; Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Hugh; Braedley, Susan
Drawing on feminist epistemologies, this paper attends to the way the reductionist assumptions have shaped the organization of nursing home carework in manners that are insufficient to the needs of relational care. This paper is informed by a study involving nine focus groups and a survey of Canadian residential care workers (141 RNs, 139 LPNs and 415 frontline careworkers). Four major themes were identified. Reductionist assumptions contributed to routinized, task-based approaches to care, resulting in what careworkers termed "assembly line care." Insufficient time and emphasis on the relational dimensions of care made it difficult to "treat residents as human beings." Accountability, enacted as counting and documenting, led to an "avalanche of paperwork" that took time away from care. Finally, hierarchies of knowledge contributed to systemic exclusions and the perception that "careworkers' don't have a voice." Careworkers reported distress as a result of the tensions between the organization of work and the needs of relational care. We theorize these findings as examples of "epistemological violence," a concept coined by Vandana Shiva (1988) to name the harm that results from the hegemony of reductionist assumptions. While not acting alone, we argue that reductionism has played an important role in shaping the context of care both at a policy and organizational level, and it continues to shape the solutions to problems in nursing home care in ways that pose challenges for careworkers. We conclude by suggesting that improving the quality of both work and care will require respecting the specificities of care and its unique epistemological and ontological nature.
Dobbs, Debra; Eckert, J. Kevin; Rubinstein, Bob; Keimig, Lynn; Clark, Leanne; Frankowski, Ann Christine; Zimmerman, Sheryl
Purpose This study explored aspects of stigmatization for older adults who live in residential care or assisted living (RC–AL) communities and what these settings have done to address stigma. Design and recognition of resident preferences and strengths, rather than their limitations. Methods We used ethnography and other qualitative data-gathering and analytic techniques to gather data from 309 participants (residents, family and staff) from six RC–AL settings in Maryland. We entered the transcript data into Atlas.ti 5.0. We analyzed the data by using grounded theory techniques for emergent themes. Results Four themes emerged that relate to stigma in RC–AL: (a) ageism in long-term care; (b) stigma as related to disease and illness; (c) sociocultural aspects of stigma; and (d) RC–AL as a stigmatizing setting. Some strategies used in RC–AL settings to combat stigma include family member advocacy on behalf of stigmatized residents, assertion of resident autonomy, and administrator awareness of potential stigmatization. Implications: Findings suggest that changes could be made to the structure as well as the process of care delivery to minimize the occurrence of stigma in RC–AL settings. Structural changes include an examination of how best, given the resident case mix, to accommodate care for persons with dementia (e.g., separate units or integrated care); processes of care include staff PMID:18728301
Forder, J; Netten, A
A variety of contract types are used in the placement of elderly people in residential and nursing care homes in the UK. Contracts vary according to how and when providers are paid. Among other things, prices can be made contingent on the total quantity of service to be purchased and on production cost characteristics. They can be determined at the time of placement or in advance. The primary objective of this paper is to assess the impact of contract choices on the price of placements. Regression analysis was conducted on a final sample of 1780 publicly funded placements made in 18 local authorities in the UK over a 6-month period ending in early 1996. Controlling factors included in the price analysis were production cost indicators and those measuring market competitiveness. Choices of both quantity and cost contingent contracts were found to be significantly associated with placement prices. The findings support the hypothesis that contract payment arrangements have different risk, insurance and information properties, and so have implications for the performance of residential care providers.
Spruit, Anouk; Wissink, Inge B; Stams, Geert Jan J M
According to the risk-need-responsivity model of offender, assessment and rehabilitation treatment should target specific factors that are related to re-offending. This study evaluates the residential care of Filipino juvenile offenders using the risk-need-responsivity model. Risk analyses and criminogenic needs assessments (parenting style, aggression, relationships with peers, empathy, and moral reasoning) have been conducted using data of 55 juvenile offenders in four residential facilities. The psychological care has been assessed using a checklist. Statistical analyses showed that juvenile offenders had a high risk of re-offending, high aggression, difficulties in making pro-social friends, and a delayed socio-moral development. The psychological programs in the residential facilities were evaluated to be poor. The availability of the psychological care in the facilities fitted poorly with the characteristics of the juvenile offenders and did not comply with the risk-need-responsivity model. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Fisher, Philip A.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.
This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960’s and 70’s. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC. PMID:28250708
Duffy, Francis; Healy, John Paul
This article is a social work practice reflection on issues arising for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) older people interfacing with health and residential care in Australia; focusing on clients, families, and carers in relation to rights, decision making, and end-of-life care. The article explores relevant case examples from social work practice in a health and residential care setting that highlight some specific complexities of working with this client group. This article brings greater attention to issues arising for older LBGTI when interfacing with health and residential care and has the potential to improve practice for social workers and other health professionals and improve outcomes for LGBTI older people.
Hunt, Kathryn Frances
This paper is an account of, and reflection on, the author's six-month ethnographic study of a residential care home for severely traumatised and abused children in Australia. During the stay she designed and offered a short six-day course for the care staff and foster carers in the use of play for emotional and therapeutic support. Prior to this,…
Kulich, Jindra, Ed.; And Others
Designed especially for relative novices in residential adult education conference and institute work, this annotated bibliography covers 29 books, periodical articles, and book chapters. These items have been chosen for practical application or theoretical significance to the evaluation of program design and content and of learning within…
Three years of outcome data for foster youth (n = 106) discharged from a one-of-kind residential education service are presented. Findings were that 50% of respondents attended college at some point. Youth reported having 2 or 3 jobs a year with at least one bout of unemployment. Most of the non-college bound youth reported working in low-wage…
ANDERSON, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EDUCATION OF MENTALLY RETARDED DEAF (MRD) CHILDREN IN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF, THE STUDY AIMED TO DESCRIBE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR ADMISSION, SPECIAL ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL PROVISIONS, AND QUALIFICATIONS OF CLASSROOM TEACHERS. ADDITIONAL PURPOSES WERE TO ESTIMATE PREVALENCE AND TO ASSESS ADMINISTRATIVE…
Bunyan, Peter S.; Boniface, Margaret R.
A study evaluated changes in an outdoor leader's anxiety during an 8-day residential adventure program for physical education majors in England. Analysis of variations in the leader's self-confidence found higher cognitive and somatic anxiety before group activities in the morning and last thing at night. Anxiety increased and self-confidence…
Stern, Marc J.; Powell, Robert B.; Ardoin, Nicole M.
The authors explored the influences of 3- and 5-day residential environmental education programs at the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont (TN) on participants' connections with nature, environmental stewardship, interest in learning and discovery, and awareness of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and biodiversity. The authors found…
Residential adventure education is a surprisingly powerful developmental experience. This paper reports on a mixed-methods study focused on English primary school pupils aged 9-11, which used complexity theory to throw light on the synergistic inter-relationships between the different aspects of that experience. Broadly expressed, the research…
Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biedenweg, Kelly; O'Connor, Kathleen
Residential environmental education aims to enhance proenvironmental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, as well as attain outcomes related to personal and interpersonal skills. Although these outcomes may not be evident for months or even years afterward, few program evaluations investigate how the experience and context affect intended outcomes…
Street, Maryann; Ottmann, Goetz; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Considine, Julie; Livingston, Patricia M
The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of advance care planning (ACP) among older people presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) from the community or a residential aged care facility. The study sample comprised 300 older people (aged 65+ years) presenting to three Victorian EDs in 2011. A total of 150 patients transferred from residential aged care to ED were randomly selected and then matched to 150 people who lived in the community and attended the ED by age, gender, reason for ED attendance and triage category on arrival. Overall prevalence of ACP was 13.3% (n = 40/300); over one-quarter (26.6%, n = 40/150) of those presenting to the ED from residential aged care had a documented Advance Care Plan, compared to none (0%, n = 0/150) of the people from the community. There were no significant differences in the median ED length of stay, number of investigations and interventions undertaken in ED, time seen by a doctor or rate of hospital admission for those with an Advance Care Plan compared to those without. Those with a comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease or dementia and those assessed with impaired brain function were more likely to have a documented Advance Care Plan on arrival at ED. Length of hospital stay was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan [median (IQR) = 3 days (2-6) vs. 6 days (2-10), P = 0.027] and readmission lower (0% vs. 13.7%). In conclusion, older people from the community transferred to ED were unlikely to have a documented Advance Care Plan. Those from residential aged care who were cognitively impaired more frequently had an Advance Care Plan. In the ED, decisions of care did not appear to be influenced by the presence or absence of Advance Care Plans, but length of hospital admission was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan.
Thompson, Ronald W.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Trout, Alexandra L.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Daly, Daniel L.
Residential care has been criticized for its high cost and limited research evidence. While recent studies and reviews of the literature suggest that a number of evidence-based practices are being implemented in residential care settings, more research is needed to develop and test empirically based practices that can be successfully implemented…
Miller, Jody C.; MacDonell, Sue O.; Gray, Andrew R.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Barr, David J.; Thomson, Christine D.; Houghton, Lisa A.
In response to the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, in 2009 the government mandated that all commercially made breads be fortified with iodized salt. There has been no evaluation of the impact of the program on iodine status of the elderly, despite this population group being vulnerable to iodine deficiency or excess. The aim of this study was to describe the iodine status of elderly New Zealanders in residential aged-care homes following the implementation of the bread fortification program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, involving 309 residents (median age 85 years) from 16 aged-care homes throughout NZ. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics were collected. Casual spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, and other biochemical indices. The median UIC (MUIC) of the residents was 72 μg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency, and 29% had a UIC < 50 μg/L. Median thyroglobulin concentration was 18 ng/mL and 26% had elevated thyroglobulin concentration (>40 ng/mL), suggesting iodine insufficiency. Diuretic use was associated with lower MUIC (p = 0.043). Synthetic thyroxine use was associated with lower odds of having a UIC < 50 μg/L (OR 0.32, p = 0.030)) and lower median thyroglobulin (−15.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), compared with untreated participants. Frailty was associated with elevated thyroglobulin (p = 0.029), whereas anemia was associated with lower thyroglobulin (p = 0.016). Iodine insufficiency persists in New Zealanders residing in residential aged-care homes despite increasing iodine intake from fortified bread. Research is required to establish optimal iodine intake and status in the elderly. PMID:27455319
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008
Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…
Keogh, Justin W L; Power, Nicola; Wooller, Leslie; Lucas, Patricia; Whatman, Chris
This mixed-methods, quasi-experimental pilot study examined whether the Nintendo Wii Sports (NWS) active video game (exergame) system could significantly improve the functional ability, physical activity levels, and quality of life of 34 older adults (4 men and 30 women, 83 ± 8 yr) living in 2 residential aged-care (RAC) centers. Change score analyses indicated the intervention group had significantly greater increases in bicep curl muscular endurance, physical activity levels, and psychological quality of life than the control group (p < .05). Analysis of the quotes underlying the 3 themes (feeling silly, feeling good; having fun; and something to look forward to) suggested that intervention group participants developed a sense of empowerment and achievement after some initial reluctance and anxiousness. They felt that the games were fun and provided an avenue for greater socialization. These results add some further support to the utilization of NWS exergames in the RAC context.
O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary; Considine, Julie; Au, Catherine
This research aimed to describe the number and type of residents admitted to emergency departments (EDs) over 2 years; and to explore nurses' perceptions of the reasons why residential aged care facility (RACF) residents are referred to EDs. The research objective was addressed in a retrospective exploratory study using data on admissions to EDs from RACFs (N = 3,094) at the participating organisation over a 2-year period, and interview data on seven RACF and four ED nurses' perceptions of the issues involved. Most residents presenting at EDs required urgent medical attention. Major themes identified by RACF and ED nurses included issues related to staff competency, availability of general practitioners, lack of equipment in RACFs, residents and family members requesting referrals, communication difficulties, and poor attitudes towards RACF staff. There is a need to use strategies to detect residents whose conditions are deteriorating and treat them promptly in RACFs.
Field, Clinton E; Nash, Heather M; Handwerk, Michael L; Friman, Patrick C
Out-of-home treatment for youth with conduct problems is increasing rapidly in this country. Most programs for these youth deliver treatment in a group format and commonly employ some version of a token economy. Despite widespread evidence of effectiveness, a substantial minority of treated youth fail to respond. Participants for this study were 3 youth who were nonresponsive to treatment provided in a family-style residential care program with a comprehensive token economy. Our approach to the "nonresponse" of these youth involved modifications of the frequency and immediacy of their access to the backup rewards earned with tokens. We evaluated the effects of the modifications with a treatment-withdrawal experimental design. Dependent measures included two indices of youth response to treatment: intense behavioral episodes and backup rewards earned. Results showed substantial improvement among these indices during treatment conditions.
Zhang, Yue; Puterman, Martin L; Atkins, Derek
This paper uses observations from two British Columbia studies to illustrate the shortcomings of widely used ratio-based approaches for residential long-term care capacity planning. It shows that capacity plans based on a fixed ratio of beds per population over age 75 may result in either excess capacity or long wait times for admission. It then investigates the use of linear regression models to obtain a "best" ratio by relating optimal plans derived by rigorous analytical methods to population characteristics and shows that no single ratio applies broadly. While the use of regression is promising, finding these "best" ratios is too analytically complex for general practice. The paper concludes by providing and evaluating an easy-to-use planning method, which we call the average flow model (AFM). The AFM combines demand forecasts with length-of-stay estimates to produce enhanced capacity plans. The AFM is transparent, easily implemented in a spreadsheet and well suited for "what if?" analyses.
Byrne, Andrew M.; Sias, Shari M.
This article applies the tenets of Bernard's in "Counselor Edu Supervision" 19:60-68, (1979) discrimination model of clinical supervision to the supervision needs of those who provide direct care to adolescents in residential treatment due to abuse, neglect, behavioral, or emotional problems. The article focuses on three areas…
Stearns, Sally C.; Park, Jeongyoung; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Konrad, Thomas R.; Sloane, Philip D.
Purpose: Residential care/assisted living facilities have become an alternative to nursing homes for many individuals, yet little information exists about staffing in these settings and the effect of staffing. This study analyzed the intensity and skill mix of nursing staff using data from a four-state study, and their relationship to outcomes.…
Joos, E.; Mehuys, E.; Van Bocxlaer, J.; Remon, J. P.; Van Winckel, M.; Boussery, K.
Background: Guidelines for the safe administration of drugs through enteral feeding tube (EFT) are an important tool to minimise the risk of errors. This study aimed to investigate knowledge of these guidelines among staff of residential care facilities (RCF) for people with ID. Method: Knowledge was assessed using a 13-item self-administered…
Jacobs, Paula; MacMahon, Ken
Background: Siblings often play significant roles in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to give voice to young adults whose siblings have an intellectual disability and are in residential care. Materials and Methods: Six participants were interviewed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology…
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav; Morad, Mohammed
The objective of the study was to study differences in aging phenomena among adults with intellectual disability (ID), who live in community residence versus their peers in residential care centers and to determine the contribution of health status, age, gender, etiology and level of ID to the decline in ADL function with age. Our study was based…
Hargraves, Neil Kevin
Newbattle Abbey College, Scotland's only adult residential college, was founded in the 1930s by Philip Kerr, 11th Marquis of Lothian. This paper traces the debates concerning the college and the rationale for adult residential education until the 1950s, focusing on the difficulties that Newbattle faced in establishing itself as a central part of…
... and less likely to be in the West. Definitions Dementia special care units: A distinct unit, wing, ... have a unit or wing meeting the above definition and residents can be separately enumerated. The 2010 ...
Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD) daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8) minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2) at one month post discharge, p < 0.001; mean (SD) Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at admission = 11.3 (5.7) reduced to 6.78 (4.44), at one month, p < 0.001) which were sustained at six months. Participant satisfaction with the program was high; 58 (88%) found the support of the nurses and 50 (75%) the social support of other mothers very helpful. Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early
Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael
A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference.
Megahead, Hamido A.; Cesario, Sandra
While infant abandonment has occurred in all segments of society, on all continents, and across all generations, the motivations for this practice are varied and depend upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Western approaches addressing the care of abandoned infants focus on terminating parental rights and…
This document updates the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulations concerning the Community Residential Care Program and the Contract Program for Veterans with Alcohol and Drug Dependence Disorders by incorporating by reference relevant portions of the latest editions of the National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code entitled "NFPA 101, Life Safety Code" and "NFPA 101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to life Safety." This is intended to ensure that buildings used for treatment and residential services for veterans meet appropriate fire and safety standards. Also, this document amends the regulations for such programs by delegating authority to each of the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) Directors of the Veterans Health Administration to grant certain equivalencies or variances to building standards of the Life Safety Code. Further, this final rule does not adopt the portion of the proposed rule concerning the Adult Day Health Care Program since the Adult Day Health Care Program and the corresponding regulations are no longer in existence.
Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João
The use of participatory approaches in designing services is still relatively uncommon. In this study, we helped design a service to support the transition of youth from residential care to independent living by exploring the perspectives of staff and of youth regarding: (a) the concept and development of autonomy; and (b) key factors in developing this type of service. We gathered the data through 10 interviews with staff (n=10) and 4 focus groups with youth (n=21), and subjected the data to a thematic content analysis. Staff defined autonomy as self-regulation and self-care, and identified three paths to foster autonomy--a sense of normality, meaningful relationships, and planning for emancipation. The staff and youth identified the following important aspects in designing the service: achieving normality (e.g. limited number of residents), promoting youth capacity (e.g. skill-building activities), providing social support (e.g. trust and respect between residents), and assuring guidance and boundaries (e.g. supervision of youth).
Segura, Anna; Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of poly-victimization on symptom severity among adolescents being cared for by the child welfare system in a southwestern European country. The sample consisted of 127 youths (62 males and 65 females) aged 12-17 years (M=14.60, SD=1.61) who were recruited from short- and long-term residential centers. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) and the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were used to assess interpersonal victimization experiences and psychopathology, respectively. Victim (n=68), low poly-victim (n=48), and high poly-victim (n=18) groups had comparable rates of psychopathology severity, with the exception of rule-breaking behavior, which was more severe among those with more victimization experiences (Cramer's V=.342). Poly-victimization was shown to be a significant predictor of clinically severe rule-breaking behavior, thought problems, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Among victimization types, sexual and electronic victimization significantly predicted withdrawn/depressed and aggressive behavior, and attention problems, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing a wide range of victimization experiences among adolescents in care, since poly-victimization seems to underlie the serious psychological problems these youth present.
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet
Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.
McMahon, James; Wanke, Christine; Terrin, Norma; Skinner, Sally; Knox, Tamsin
Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infected people have higher mortality than non-infected. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) predicts higher mortality in many chronic illnesses but data in people with HIV is limited. We evaluated 878 HIV infected individuals followed from 1995 to 2005. Cox proportional hazards for all-cause mortality were estimated for SES measures and other factors. Mixed effects analyses examined how SES impacts factors predicting death. The 200 who died were older, had lower CD4 counts, and higher viral loads (VL). Age, transmission category, education, albumin, CD4 counts, VL, hunger, and poverty predicted death in univariate analyses; age, CD4 counts, albumin, VL, and poverty in the multivariable model. Mixed models showed associations between (1) CD4 counts with education and hunger; (2) albumin with education, homelessness, and poverty; and (3) VL with education and hunger. SES contributes to mortality in HIV infected persons directly and indirectly, and should be a target of health policy in this population.
An alternative to character education is care ethics. The ethics of care can be seen as fundamentally relational, not individual-agent-based in the way of virtue ethics, and the ethics of care is more indirect than character education. After an introductory chapter that outlines the similarities and differences between character education and care…
Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen
Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.
The initiation, development, and dissemination of family-oriented programs are a unifying thread that highlights family therapy's contribution to the fields of mental/physical health and social services. These demanding tasks require an ecosystemic vision, a supportive larger context, and a range of skills. This article delineates the evolution of community and day residential care in Israel by examining processes at different ecological levels: the formulation and implementation of national social policy, the follow-up of two family-oriented facilities, one of which thrived while the other eventually closed, and the residential care provided to 1 family with 3 children. The analysis of this multilevel data highlights 4 facilitating/obstructing factors that have had major impact on family-oriented programs: support by both national and local sociopolitical-professional administration, program's management autonomy, staff training, support and development, and effective facility leadership that establishes and nurtures family-oriented organizational structure and culture.
Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Bulsara, Caroline; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie
Objective This study evaluates whether a community of practice (CoP) could conduct a falls prevention clinical audit and identify gaps in falls prevention practice requiring action.Methods Cross-sectional falls prevention clinical audits were conducted in 13 residential aged care (RAC) sites of a not-for-profit organisation providing care to a total of 779 residents. The audits were led by an operationalised CoP assisted by site clinical staff. A CoP is a group of people with a shared interest who get together to innovate for change. The CoP was made up of self-nominated staff representing all RAC sites and comprised of staff from various disciplines with a shared interest in falls prevention.Results All 13 (100%) sites completed the audit. CoP conduct of the audit met identified criteria for an effective clinical audit. The priorities for improvement were identified as increasing the proportion of residents receiving vitamin D supplementation (mean 41.5%, s.d. 23.7) and development of mandatory falls prevention education for staff and a falls prevention policy, as neither was in place at any site. CoP actions undertaken included a letter to visiting GPs requesting support for vitamin D prescription, surveys of care staff and residents to inform falls education development, defining falls and writing a falls prevention policy.Conclusion A CoP was able to effectively conduct an evidence-based falls prevention activity audit and identify gaps in practice. CoP members were well positioned, as site staff, to overcome barriers and facilitate action in falls prevention practice.What is known about the topic? Audit and feedback is an effective way of measuring clinical quality and safety. CoPs have been established in healthcare using workplace staff to address clinical problems but little is known about their ability to audit and influence practice change.What does this paper add? This study contributes to the body of knowledge on CoPs in healthcare by evaluating the
Lyons, John S.; Woltman, Heather; Martinovich, Zoran; Hancock, Brian
A variety of factors are putting great pressure on residential treatment centers to justify their role in the child serving system through evidence of impact on the lives of children, youth, and families. The present study describes the role of residential treatment from an outcomes perspective in a midsized state over the course of a 5 year…
Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Veerman, Jan W.; van Dam, Coleta; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Background: In 2005 a new compulsory residential treatment program was developed for adolescents in need for protection against themselves or their environment. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of structural treatment characteristics of this new residential treatment program (i.e., duration of treatment,…
Duque, Gustavo; Close, Jacqueline J; de Jager, Julien P; Ebeling, Peter R; Inderjeeth, Charles; Lord, Stephen; McLachlan, Andrew J; Reid, Ian R; Troen, Bruce R; Sambrook, Philip N
Older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are at considerably higher risk of suffering fractures than older people living in the community. When admitted to RACFs, patients should be assessed for fracture risk to ensure early implementation of effective fracture prevention measures. Routine or regular determination of calcium and phosphate serum levels in institutionalised older people is not indicated. Opinion is divided about the value of routine measurements of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. The non-pharmacological approach to fracture prevention includes multifactorial programs of falls prevention and the use of hip protectors. Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for all patients in RACFs. Dietary calcium intake should be optimised (1200-1500 mg per day is recommended) and supplementation offered to those with inadequate intake. The decision to prescribe calcium supplements should be guided by patients' tolerance, whether or not they have a history of kidney stones, and emerging data about its cardiovascular safety. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in older persons at high risk. Intravenous administration is as efficient as oral and has the significant advantage of better adherence. Use of strontium ranelate has not been tested on people in RACFs, but evidence in the "old-old" (those aged 75 years and older) suggests it could be a therapeutic option for fracture prevention in this setting. In general, teriparatide should not be considered as a first-line treatment for fracture prevention, particularly for people in RACFs.
Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Amiano, Nora; Caldentey, Miguel A
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) on the psychosocial adaptation of a group of adolescents in residential care who had suffered traumatic childhood experiences and who presented with mental health problems. This study recruited 63 youths (mean age=15.27, SD=1.63) who were divided into two groups: a treatment group of 39 youths (19 female and 20 male; mean age=15.03, SD=0.51) and a control group of 24 (five female and 19 male; mean age=15.67, SD=1.63). The youths who underwent the AAP program had higher school adjustment in comparison to their peers who did not receive treatment. Their hyperactive behavior decreased, and they showed better social skills, more leadership, and fewer attention problems. They also showed a more positive attitude toward their teachers in comparison to controls. No differences were observed in other variables associated with clinical symptoms or personal adjustment. These results suggest that AAP can be effective with teenagers who have suffered childhood traumas and who present with problems of psychosocial adaptation.
Holman, Rebecca; Lindeboom, Robert; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J
Background Currently there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes, including functional status. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. Method This paper examines the psychometric properties of the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS) project item bank using an item response theory model and full information factor analysis. Data were collected from 555 respondents on a total of 160 items. Results Following the analysis, 79 items remained in the item bank. The remaining 81 items were excluded because of: difficulties in presentation (1 item); low levels of variation in response pattern (28 items); significant differences in measurement characteristics for males and females or for respondents under or over 85 years old (26 items); or lack of model fit to the data at item level (26 items). Conclusions It is conceivable that the item bank will have different measurement characteristics for other patient or demographic populations. However, these results indicate that the ALDS item bank has sound psychometric properties for respondents in residential care settings and could form a stable base for measuring functional status in a range of situations, including the implementation of computerised adaptive testing of functional status. PMID:15291958
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Gottfried, Ruth; Eisikovits, Zvi; First, Maya
Disclosure of child abuse may enable initiating interventions to end maltreatment and mediate its negative physical and psychological consequences. The present study reviews the field of disclosure and examines factors affecting disclosure among a service population of abused children who were placed in residential care due to various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional, neglect and witnessing domestic violence). The sample consisted of 286 Israeli (Hebrew and Arabic speaking) children aged 12-17 (mean=14±1). Following approval of the Ethics committee of the University and parents' written consent, participants were administered a self-report questionnaire that included the following measures: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Results indicated that the three key factors enhancing the likelihood of disclosure were: moral factors, external initiatives and intolerable physical pain. The three key factors inhibiting disclosure were feelings of shame, fear of losing social support and uncertainty as to how and to whom to disclose. Results also showed that children preferred to disclose to their nuclear family members (parents and siblings) in comparison with professionals.
Csorba, Janos; Radvanyi, Katalin; Regenyi, Eniko; Dinya, Elek
The authors investigated the behavioural dimensions of 269 intellectually disabled (ID) people in residential care in specialized institutions in Tolna county (South-West Hungary) with the aim of screening the frequency and severity of the relevant behavioural symptoms associated with intellectual disability and depending on the level of intellectual impairment. Only 120 residents had an International Classification of Disease (ICD) diagnosis of "mental retardation (MR)" and a valid IQ grading either by means of the Hungarian standard version of the HAWIK or by the coloured Raven test. 4 IQ groups were created: borderline (B), mild (MID), moderate (MOD) and profound (PID) intellectual disability subgroups. The Hungarian pilot version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI) was used. seventy-two percent of the residents displayed behavioural problems. All scale score means exhibited an enhancing tendency with IQ loss, as both frequency and Seventy increased linearly towards the more severe groups, but significantly only in the category of stereotyped behaviour. The authors focussed on problems of patient recruitment and discussed the measurement of behavioural and other psychiatric symptoms when researchers reported on the increased occurrence of behaviour and psychiatric symptoms in ID populations.
Polsky, Colin; Grove, J. Morgan; Knudson, Chris; Groffman, Peter M.; Bettez, Neil; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Hall, Sharon J.; Heffernan, James B.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Larson, Kelli L.; Morse, Jennifer L.; Neill, Christopher; Nelson, Kristen C.; Ogden, Laura A.; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Pataki, Diane E.; Roy Chowdhury, Rinku; Steele, Meredith K.
Changes in land use, land cover, and land management present some of the greatest potential global environmental challenges of the 21st century. Urbanization, one of the principal drivers of these transformations, is commonly thought to be generating land changes that are increasingly similar. An implication of this multiscale homogenization hypothesis is that the ecosystem structure and function and human behaviors associated with urbanization should be more similar in certain kinds of urbanized locations across biogeophysical gradients than across urbanization gradients in places with similar biogeophysical characteristics. This paper introduces an analytical framework for testing this hypothesis, and applies the framework to the case of residential lawn care. This set of land management behaviors are often assumed—not demonstrated—to exhibit homogeneity. Multivariate analyses are conducted on telephone survey responses from a geographically stratified random sample of homeowners (n = 9,480), equally distributed across six US metropolitan areas. Two behaviors are examined: lawn fertilizing and irrigating. Limited support for strong homogenization is found at two scales (i.e., multi- and single-city; 2 of 36 cases), but significant support is found for homogenization at only one scale (22 cases) or at neither scale (12 cases). These results suggest that US lawn care behaviors are more differentiated in practice than in theory. Thus, even if the biophysical outcomes of urbanization are homogenizing, managing the associated sustainability implications may require a multiscale, differentiated approach because the underlying social practices appear relatively varied. The analytical approach introduced here should also be productive for other facets of urban-ecological homogenization. PMID:24616515
Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona
Verbal and indirect violence among peers in residential care settings (RCSs) are understudied social problems. This study, based on a sample of 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents aged 11-19 in 32 RCSs, examines the prevalence and multilevel correlates of verbal (such as cursing) and indirect (such as social exclusion) forms of victimization by peers in RCSs. Adolescents completed a self-report anonymous questionnaire in their facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) is used to examine the links between adolescents' victimization, individual-level characteristics (gender, age, adjustment difficulties, self-efficacy, staff maltreatment experiences and perceived institutional social climate), and RCS-level characteristics (setting type of care, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). Most adolescents reported having been verbally (73%) and indirectly (62%) victimized by their peers at least once in the month prior to filling out the questionnaire. Vulnerability to indirect violence is higher among girls and those with low perception of their social self-efficacy. Younger adolescents, adolescents with higher levels of overall adjustment difficulties, those experiencing high levels of physical maltreatment by RCS staff and those perceiving levels of child friendliness in their RCS as poor, were all more vulnerable to verbal and indirect victimization by peers. Verbal victimization is positively associated with residence in Jewish RCSs and indirect victimization is positively associated with residence in therapeutic settings which contain higher concentrations of vulnerable youth compared with rehabilitative settings. The findings can assist in designing anti-bullying intervention and prevention programs tailored for the at-risk children and institutions identified in the study.
Alqahtani, Bader A; Ferchak, Mary Ann; Huppert, Theodore J; Sejdic, Ervin; Perera, Subashan; Greenspan, Susan L; Sparto, Patrick J
Research on balance and mobility in older adults has been conducted primarily in lab-based settings in individuals who live in the community. Although they are at greater risk of falls, residents of long-term care facilities, specifically residential care communities (RCCs), have been investigated much less frequently. We sought to determine the feasibility of using portable technology-based measures of balance and muscle strength (i.e., an accelerometer and a load cell) that can be used in any RCC facility. Twenty-nine subjects (age 87 ± 6 years) living in RCCs participated. An accelerometer placed on the back of the subjects measured body sway during different standing conditions. Sway in antero-posterior and mediolateral directions was calculated. Lower extremity strength was measured with a portable load cell and the within-visit reliability was determined. Assessments of grip strength, gait speed, frailty, and comorbidity were also examined. A significant increase in postural sway in both the AP and ML directions occurred as the balance conditions became more difficult due to alteration of sensory feedback (p < 0.001) or reducing the base of support (p < 0.001). There was an association between increased sway and increased frailty, more comorbidities and slower gait speed. All strength measurements were highly reliable (ICC = 0.93-0.99). An increase in lower extremity strength was associated with increased grip strength and gait speed. The portable instruments provide inexpensive ways for measuring balance and strength in the understudied RCC population, but additional studies are needed to examine their relationship with functional outcomes.
Son, Sungmin; Jeon, Byoungjin; Kim, Heejung
The purpose of this study was to confirm the critical importance of active obesity management through a fitness program, and to provide foundational data required for effective obesity management of disabled persons residing in residential carse facilities. [Subjects and Methods] The study period lasted 16 weeks, from August 1 to November 30, 2014. The study participants comprised 9 individuals and they participated in a walking exercise program. An occupational therapist assessed each participant’s body weight, body composition (body mass index [BMI], body fat, and abdominal fat), basic fitness (muscle strength and flexibility), and waist circumference. Collected data were encoded by items and analyzed with SPSS ver.18.0. [Results] It was found that the body weight, body composition (BMI, body fat, and abdominal fat), and waist circumference decreased significantly, while baseline fitness (muscle strength and flexibility) improved significantly. [Conclusion] Obesity management is critically important for intellectually disabled persons residing in residential care facilities. Active care through continuous program implementation is needed. Accordingly, walking exercise programs should be offered to obese intellectually disabled persons residing in residential care facilities. PMID:27134359
Peisah, C; Lawrence, G; Reutens, S
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, distressing and compromise care. Their diverse etiology necessitates targeted, individualized treatment. We present a case of an 82-year-old with severe dementia and BPSD, and with limited response to a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Individualized art therapy was developed in an inpatient setting using felt material cut into shapes and coloring with stencils and pre-drawn line drawings utilizing preserved skills of coloring, while supporting frontal-executive and language deficits. The activity was replicable and carried over to the residential care setting and supported by family and professional carers.
Young, Brenda B
Women currently are 30% of the substance abuse recovery population in North America and have gender specific treatment needs as they enter the difficult work of recovery. Important among women's specific needs as they enter recovery is the need for a focus on primary health care. Few models designed to guide the provision of health care for this population are available in the literature. The Tidal Model of Mental Health Recovery and Reclamation is based on the concept of nursing as "caring with" persons in the experience of distress. Given the emphasis in this model on developing a partnership between caregiver and client, it is especially appropriate for women in recovery for substance abuse. The Tidal Model, integrated with the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services' CSAT model for comprehensive alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse treatment, is used to guide planning for delivery of primary health care in a residential women's substance abuse recovery center in the Midwest. This article describes the Tidal Model, and identifies how the model can improve the delivery of primary care to women in residential substance abuse treatment. Strategies for implementation of the model are proposed. Evaluation and outcome criteria are identified.
Poudel, Arjun; Peel, Nancye M; Mitchell, Charles A; Gray, Leonard C; Nissen, Lisa M; Hubbard, Ruth E
Objective In Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs), the use of certain classes of high-risk medication such as antipsychotics, potent analgesics, and sedatives is high. Here, we examined the prescribed medications and subsequent changes recommended by geriatricians during comprehensive geriatric consultations provided to residents of RACFs via videoconference. Design This is a prospective observational study. Setting Four RACFs in Queensland, Australia, are included. Participants A total of 153 residents referred by general practitioners for comprehensive assessment by geriatricians delivered by video-consultation. Results Residents’ mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 83.0 (8.1) years and 64.1% were female. They had multiple comorbidities (mean 6), high levels of dependency, and were prescribed a mean (SD) of 9.6 (4.2) regular medications. Ninety-one percent of patients were taking five or more medications daily. Of total medications prescribed (n=1,469), geriatricians recommended withdrawal of 9.8% (n=145) and dose alteration of 3.5% (n=51). New medications were initiated in 47.7% (n=73) patients. Of the 10.3% (n=151) medications considered as high risk, 17.2% were stopped and dose altered in 2.6%. Conclusion There was a moderate prevalence of potentially inappropriate high-risk medications. However, geriatricians made relatively few changes, suggesting either that, on balance, prescription of these medications was appropriate or, because of other factors, there was a reluctance to adjust medications. A structured medication review using an algorithm for withdrawing medications of high disutility might help optimize medications in frail patients. Further research, including a broader survey, is required to understand these dynamics. PMID:26150708
Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Rimehaug, Tormod; Wormdal, Anne Kristine; Brubakk, Ann Mari; Wichstrøm, Lars
Most adolescents are placed in residential youth care (RYC) because of severe psychosocial strains and child maltreatment, which represent risk factors for developing mental disorders. To plan RYC units and ensure that residents receive evidence-based psychiatric interventions, it is necessary to obtain reliable and valid prevalence estimates of mental disorders in this population. However, there is a lacuna of research on diagnoses derived from standardized clinical interviews. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders applying diagnostic interviews in an entire population of adolescents living in RYC in Norway. All young people in RYC were invited to participate in the study. Eighty-six RYC institutions with 601 eligible adolescents were included and 400 adolescents, 12-20 years old, participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 67 %. Anonymous Child Behaviour Checklist scores for 141 (70 %) of the declining residents were also available, allowing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for 541 youths to be estimated. Diagnoses were assessed by trained interviewers with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview (CAPA). Seventy-six point two per cent (71.5-80.8 CI 95 %) of adolescents received at least one 3-month DSM-IV diagnosis. Prevalence rates for internalizing psychiatric disorders were higher than for behavioural disorders. Comorbidity was high between these two groups. Mental disorders were prevalent among children and youth in RYC. Our results create major concerns and challenge the existing organization of the RYC system.
This paper in the field of capacity building and students' affairs used the external survey assessment techniques of the probit model to examine the predicaments of non-resident students of the College of Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba. Considering the very limited residential facilities and the growing demand for tertiary…
Davis, Jullet A; Zakoscielna, Karolina; Jacobs, Lindsey
The use of electronic information systems (EISs) including electronic health records continues to increase in all sectors of the health care industry. Research shows that EISs may be useful for improving care delivery and decreasing medical errors. The purpose of this project is twofold: First, we describe the prevalence of EIS use among residential care facilities (RCFs), and second, we explore utilization differences by ownership status and chain affiliation. We anticipate that RCFs that are non-profit and non-chain will use more EIS than other categories of RCFs. Data for this project come from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The sample consists of 2,300 facilities. Overall use of EIS was greatest among RCFs that are non-profit and chain-affiliated. Conversely, the use was lowest among for-profit RCFs that were also non-chain affiliated. This may suggest that these facilities lack the necessary resources or motivation to invest in information systems.
Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; van der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David
Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14-week modified tai chi or yoga programme is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.
Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; Van Der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David
Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a 3-arm RCT with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14 week modified tai chi or yoga program is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.
Karlsson, Inger; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd
Aim. To describe the expectations of and to illuminate the meaning of the Nurse Assistants' (NA) expectations of Registered Nurses (RN) who are responsible for the care of older people living in residential care homes in Sweden. Background. Older people in Sweden who are provided with residential care are extremely frail and incapable of independent living. Therefore, when providing care, RN and NA encounter older people who require a great deal of care. An important precondition for the provision of satisfactory care is to have adequate collaboration between NAs and RNs and their expectations of each other. In this paper, the focus is on the NAs expectations of the RNs. Method. The study is based on a qualitative approach and a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Ten NAs were interviewed and asked to narrate as freely as possible, about their expectations of RNs. The narratives were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The analytical process includes the following steps; naïve reading, structural analysis, comprehensive understanding and reflection. Results. The RNs were expected to take responsibility for being fellow human beings and experts in providing care as well as always available to participate in caring. The RNs were expected to make stand-alone decisions and create a sense of safety for both older people and the NAs and have the courage to work alone and create a safe environment for both the older people and the NAs. The meaning of these expectations was that the RNs are like a captain in providing care, but at the same time, fellow workers. Conclusion. When the RNs do not meet the NAs expectations, there is a risk of conflict and therefore also a risk that an unsafe environment being created when caring for older people.
Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Larsson, Lise-Lotte Franklin; Norberg, Astrid
Caring for people with dementia and working in dementia care is described as having both rewarding and unpleasant aspects and has been studied to a minor extent. This study aims to explore care providers' narrated experiences of caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD. Nine care providers were interviewed about their experiences, the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that participants were struggling to perform person-centred care, which meant trying to see the person behind the disease, dealing with troublesome situations in the daily care, a two-edged interaction with relatives, feelings of shortcomings and troubled conscience, and the need for improvements in dementia care. The analysis also revealed an ambiguous work situation, which meant a challenging value base, the differently judged work environment, feelings of job satisfaction and the need for a functional leadership and management. The results illuminate participants' positive as well as negative experiences and have identified areas requiring improvements. It seems of great importance to strive for a supportive and attendant leadership, a leadership which aims to empower care providers in their difficult work. Using conscience as a driving force together in the work group may benefit care providers' health.
Caring outcomes in practice depend on a caring teaching-learning process. A transformation in thinking and practice in nursing education, that is congruent with the values of caring is essential to develop the kind of nurses that are needed in today's health care system. A project to implement caring as a nursing therapeutic with associate degree nursing students was initiated in a community college of Western New York in the fall of 1993. Watson's carative factors (1988) and Carper's ways of knowing (1978) were utilized as a framework to develop caring strategies to awaken a caring-consciousness among the students. The goals of the project were to provide a caring space for students to dialogue and share their stories and to experience themselves as caring and cared for; and to value and practice caring by implementing creative, knowledgeable, intentional actions for the ultimate good of the patient.
Davis, Belinda; Degotardi, Sheila
This paper explores the construction of "care" in early childhood curriculum and practice. An increasing number of infants are attending formal early childhood settings in Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011. "Childhood education and care, Australia, June 2011." (4402.0). Retrieved from…
Adams, Gina; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine
This report analyzes data gathered through surveys of state administrators of child care and early childhood programs. The report is in three sections: (1) the state of child care and early education in the mid-1990s; (2) the relative level of commitment of each state in 1994; and (3) the likely impact of 1996 U.S. welfare reform legislation. The…
Younie, William J., Ed.; Goldberg, I. Ignacy, Ed.
Reported are the proceedings of a three-week conference for special education administrators working with educational programs for the institutionalized mentally handicapped. Conference papers included are: The Role of a Residential Facility in Modern Society, by Robert Dentler; The Present Nature of Residential Populations, by Harvey Dingman;…
The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program…
Rodrigues, Leonor; Calheiros, Manuela; Pereira, Cícero
Out-of-home placement decisions in residential care are complex, ambiguous and full of uncertainty, especially in cases of parental neglect. Literature on this topic is so far unable to understand and demonstrate the source of errors involved in those decisions and still fails to focus on professional's decision making process. Therefore, this work intends to test a socio-psychological model of decision-making that is a more integrated, dualistic and ecological version of the Theory of Planned Behavior's model. It describes the process through which the decision maker takes into account personal, contextual and social factors of the Decision-Making Ecology in the definition of his/her decision threshold. One hundred and ninety-five professionals from different Children and Youth Protection Units, throughout the Portuguese territory, participated in this online study. After reading a vignette of a (psychological and physical) neglect case toward a one-year-old child, participants were presented with a group of questions that measured worker's assessment of risk, intention, attitude, subjective norm, behavior control and beliefs toward residential care placement decision, as well as worker's behavior experience, emotions and family/child-related-values involved in that decision. A set of structural equation modeling analyses have proven the good fit of the proposed model. The intention to propose a residential care placement decision was determined by cognitive, social, affective, value-laden and experience variables and the perceived risk. Altogether our model explained 61% of professional's decision toward a parental neglect case. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed, namely the importance of raising awareness about the existence of these biased psychosocial determinants.
Bennett, Michelle K.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Scarinci, Nerina A.
Background: There is a high prevalence of communication difficulty among older people living in residential-aged care. Such functional deficits can have a negative impact on resident quality of life, staff workplace satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Systematic research investigating the nature of communication management in…
Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie
Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities.
Pines, Ayala; Solomon, Trudy
The purpose of this paper is to present the reader with an indepth study of the special plight of children currently confined in our nation's residential treatment centers. Several of the fundamental legal issues involved in the coercive commitment of minors to such institutions will be discussed, especially those concerning due process and…
Chaplin, Eddie; Paschos, Dimitrios; O'Hara, Jean; McCarthy, Jane; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias
The aim of this study was to investigate co-morbid psychopathology and clinical characteristics of adults with ID living across different types of residential settings. All participants were first time referrals to specialist services in South-East London who lived either with their family (N = 375) or in supported residence (N = 280) or…
This paper highlights the various roles and influences of a particular text form: the timetable pasted unassumingly on the wall of a residential home for children. It provides examples of literacy events that take place around the ubiquitous timetable and how through these events, the social dynamics of its residents and those around them are…
Penders, Yolanda WH; Van den Block, Lieve; Donker, Gé A; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje
Background The proportion of older people is increasing, therefore their place of residence and place of care at the end of life are becoming increasingly important. Aim To compare aspects of end-of-life care among older people in residential homes and home settings in the Netherlands. Design and setting Nationwide representative mortality follow-back study among GPs in the Netherlands. Method The study included patients aged ≥65 years who died non-suddenly, whose longest place of residence in their last year of life was at home or in a residential home (n = 498). Differences were analysed using Pearson’s χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Results Controlling for the differences between the populations in home settings and residential homes, no differences were found in treatment goals, communication about end-of-life care, or use of specialised palliative care between the two settings. However, people living in a residential home were more likely to have received palliative care from a GP than people living at home (OR 2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41 to 5.07). In residential homes, people more often experienced no transfer between care settings (OR 2.76, 95% CI = 1.35 to 5.63) and no hospitalisations (OR 2.2, 95% CI = 1.04 to 4.67) in the last 3 months of life, and died in hospital less often (OR 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.97) than those people living at home. Conclusion Despite similar treatment goals, care in residential homes seems more successful in avoiding transfers and hospitalisation at the end of life. Especially since older people are encouraged to stay at home longer, measures should be taken to ensure they are not at higher risk of transfers and hospitalisations in this setting. PMID:26500319
Roberts, Gail; Morley, Catherine; Walters, Wendy; Malta, Sue; Doyle, Colleen
Person-centered models of dementia care commonly merge aspects of existing models with additional influences from published and unpublished evidence and existing government policy. This study reports on the development and evaluation of one such composite model of person-centered dementia care, the ABLE model. The model was based on building the capacity and ability of residents living with dementia, using environmental changes, staff education and organizational and community engagement. Montessori principles were also used. The evaluation of the model employed mixed methods. Significant behavior changes were evident among residents of the dementia care Unit after the model was introduced, as were reductions in anti-psychotic and sedative medication. Staff reported increased knowledge about meeting the needs of people with dementia, and experienced organizational culture change that supported the ABLE model of care. Families were very satisfied with the changes.
Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen
Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637
Rigby, Mary E.; Woodcock, Charles C.
To design a residential school program for multiply handicapped blind children and to develop identifying procedures for prospects for this type of program, 15 children (ages 5 to 13, legally blind, educationally retarded, multiply handicapped) of both sexes were enrolled in a 12 month program. The curriculum was based on a systematic presentation…
Huefner, Dixie Snow
Two 1990 Ninth Circuit appellate court cases ("Clovis Unified School District v. California Office of Administrative Hearings" and "Taylor v. Honig") help redefine residential placements for students with severe emotional disturbances under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education act (IDEA). This article explores…
Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Walker, Lisa M.
The authors present the findings of a study that explored student perceptions of the residential environmental education (EE) program at the New Jersey School of Conservation. The authors administered a 3-item instrument that was based on the minute paper/muddiest point techniques to 2,779 students from 31 schools. A qualitative methodology with a…
Hall, Bryan; O'Neal, Tom
This paper examines a pilot residential learning community (RLC) project at Indiana University Southeast. The RLC targeted first-generation students who were academically at-risk. The purpose of the project was to see whether the combination of several high-impact educational practices within the context of an RLC would improve 1) student…
Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping
This study aims to identify the benefits of using electronic health records (EHR) for client safety in residential aged care (RAC) homes. The aged care accreditation reports published between 27 April 2011 and 3 December 2013 were downloaded and analysed. It could be seen from these reports that only 1,031(37.45%) RAC homes in Australia had adopted an EHR system by 2013. 13 RAC homes failed one or more accreditation standards. Only one of these was using an EHR system and this one met the accreditation standards on information systems. Our study provides empirical evidence to suggest that adopting and using EHR can be one of the effective organisational mechanisms to meeting accreditation standards in RAC homes.
Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F
The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.
Pain, Tilley; Stainkey, Lesley; Chapman, Sue
This paper describes a medical model to provide in-house GP services to residents of aged-care facilities. Access to GP services for aged-care residents is decreasing, partially due to the changing demographic of the Australian GP workforce. The model we have developed is an in-house GP (AgedCare+GP) trialled in a publicly funded residential aged-care facility (RACF). The service model was based on the GP cooperative used in our after-hours general practice (AfterHours+GP). Briefly, the service model involves rostering a core group of GPs to provide weekly sessional clinics at the RACF. Financial contributions from appropriate Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) items for aged-care planning (including chronic conditions) provided adequate funds to operate the clinic for RACF residents. Evaluation of the service model used the number of resident transfers to the local emergency department as the primary outcome measure. There were 37 transfers of residents in the 3 months before the commencement of the AgedCare+GP and 11 transfers over a 3-month period at the end of the first year of operation; a reduction of almost 70%. This project demonstrates that AgedCare+GP is a successful model for GP service provision to RACF residents, and it also reduces the number of emergency department transfers.
Prillaman, A. Renee, Ed.; And Others
This collection of eight essays focus on the role of caring and nurturance in elementary, secondary, and higher education. They include: (1) "From Caretaker to Caregiving: Divergent Perspectives Upon Teachers of the Handicapped" (Doris M. Kendrick); (2) "Conceptions of Caring in a Fourth-Grade Classroom" (Dwight L. Rogers); (3)…
McKenzie, Marcia; Blenkinsop, Sean
This article explicates the theoretical framework of an ethic of care and outlines recommendations for applying the framework to practice in adventure education, offering possibilities for re-imagining organizations as centrally concerned with compassion and care. Focusing on the work of Gilligan and Noddings, we suggest an understanding of an…
Lyman, Robert D.; Campbell, Nancy R.
This book examines the various components of hospital, residential, and outpatient treatments for children and adolescents with mental disorders. Options and settings for residential care are presented, including the principles and practical issues, such as providing continuing education, that underlie the decision making for placement of youth in…
Nourian, Manijeh; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar
Background Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience. PMID:26942909
Andrews, Gavin J; Phillips, David R
The population structures of many developed countries are changing and shifts towards much older age distributions are common. One way of meeting the resulting increasing demand for long-term care is through small business private sector provision allocated through market systems. However, the private residential care sector in England and Wales demonstrates some of the potential problems of leaving long-term care to the market. During the 1980s, the private residential sector for older persons enjoyed substantial state financed support. Since the 1990 National Health Service and Care in the Community Act introduced markets in social care in 1993, homes have had to compete amongst each other for a much smaller number of clients funded by limited local authority budgets. This impacted on their business and caring operations. Based on a three-stage quasi-longitudinal survey of over 100 residential care homes in one county, this paper considers changes in the overall size and structure of a local sector, discusses the specific management strategies that have been adopted by proprietors and the development of a purchasing and providing market culture. The paper also highlights the importance of interdisciplinary perspectives on the topic by illustrating how changes in social policy can influence local and national geographies of long-term care provision and how, in turn, an understanding of these geographies can inform the sensitive implementation of future social policy initiatives.
Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie
To obtain indications of the influence of electronic health records (EHR) in managing risks and meeting information system accreditation standard in Australian residential aged care (RAC) homes. The hypothesis to be tested is that the RAC homes using EHR have better performance in meeting information system standards in aged care accreditation than their counterparts only using paper records for information management. Content analysis of aged care accreditation reports from the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency produced between April 2011 and December 2013. Items identified included types of information systems, compliance with accreditation standards, and indicators of failure to meet an expected outcome for information systems. The Chi-square test was used to identify difference between the RAC homes that used EHR systems and those that used paper records in not meeting aged care accreditation standards. 1,031 (37.4%) of 2,754 RAC homes had adopted EHR systems. Although the proportion of homes that met all accreditation standards was significantly higher for those with EHR than for homes with paper records, only 13 RAC homes did not meet one or more expected outcomes. 12 used paper records and nine of these failed the expected outcome for information systems. The overall contribution of EHR to meeting aged care accreditation standard in Australia was very small. Risk indicators for not meeting information system standard were no access to accurate and appropriate information, failure in monitoring mechanisms, not reporting clinical incidents, insufficient recording of residents' clinical changes, not providing accurate care plans, and communication processes failure. The study has provided indications that use of EHR provides small, yet significant advantages for RAC homes in Australia in managing risks for information management and in meeting accreditation requirements. The implication of the study for introducing technology innovation in RAC in
Acquavita, Shauna P.; Stershic, Sandra; Sharma, Rajni; Stitzer, Maxine
Interventions for improving transition from short-term residential to outpatient treatment were examined. Usual care (UC; N = 114) was referral to a preferred outpatient program with advance appointment optional. Client Incentive (CI; N = 97) offered up to $100 in gift cards for intake and attendance during the first 30 days of treatment. Contracting with staff incentives (CSI; N = 49) consisted of meeting with an outpatient counselor prior to residential discharge, signing an attendance contract, receiving an appointment and payment to staff if clients attended. CSI significantly improved rates of successful transition (84%) and admission (74%) compared to UC (64% contact; 49% admitted). CI did not result in significantly improved outcomes (74%; 60%). CSI was likely mediated by the reliability (92% vs 52% in UC) and immediacy (1.0 vs 3.9 days) of appointment scheduling. This study supports use of CSI for improving rates of transition between residential and outpatient continuing care treatment. PMID:23375361
Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David
The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems.
Continuous process of diabetic patient´s education is essential. Educator´s task is to select situationally and individually appropriate form of education and educational tools. Than he becomes capable to motivate patients to participate actively and cooperate. Use of practical and visual educational tools increases the memorability. Studies have shown positive effect on improvement of glycemic control for both individual and group education. When properly educated diabetic patient is able to make independent decisions and manage the disease. Achieving good long-term glycemic control with reduced risk of chronic complications in compliant diabetic patient is the expected target of treatment. Thus the medical care becomes cost-effective.Key words: conversation map tools - diabetes mellitus - educator - group education - individual education.
In this article, the author presents two emerging state-level public policy trends in the United States, one toward universalizing pre-school services, and one toward systems for delivering early education and care. At this point, it is not clear whether the effect of the two trends will be to unite or divide the field of early education and care.…
Reifel, Stuart, Ed.; Brown, Mac H., Ed.
Providing a forum for current thought about the field of early education and care, this book reviews efforts worldwide to educate young children. The book examines child care quality, presents a cultural feminist perspective on caregiving, discusses curricular issues, and considers the role of play in early childhood practice. The chapters are:…
Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.
Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…
Baker, Amy J. L.; Kurland, David; Curtis, Patrick; Alexander, Gina; Papa-Lentini, Cynthia
This is the first multisite, prospective study of behavioral and mental health disorders of youth in residential treatment centers (RTC) and therapeutic foster care (TFC), and the first study to compare the two. This study addressed two questions in a sample of 22 agencies in 13 states: (1) how prevalent were emotional and behavioral disorders in…
Joos, Elke; Van Tongelen, Inge; Wijnants, Karen; Mehuys, Els; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean Paul; Grypdonck, Maria; Van Winckel, Myriam; Boussery, Koen
People with profound intellectual disabilities often receive medication through enteral feeding tube (EFT). In a previous study, we found that current guidelines concerning medication preparation and administration through EFT are often not followed in residential care facilities (RCFs) for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present…
Sainero, Ana; Bravo, Amaia; del Valle, Jorge F.
The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of mental health disorders in children living in residential care and their use of therapeutic services, including the relationship between these factors and social-family and intervention process variables, as well as the relationship among the disorders identified by professionals and the…
Wong, Chi Wai
The aim of this study was to describe the health status profile and identify the healthcare needs of adults with intellectual disability (ID) residing in 18 of Hong Kong's residential care facilities. The author employed a cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire survey to collect data on 811 persons with ID (432 males, 53.3%, and…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
Significant changes in the diagnosis, study, and treatment of mental retardation are documented, and the long-range trend toward including mental retardation services in programs for all handicapped persons is described. Recommendations are made in three major need areas: residential care for the retarded, manpower for mental retardation programs,…
Andrejewski, Robert G.
A lack of exposure to the natural world has led to a generation of children disconnected from nature. This phenomenon has profound negative implications for the physical and psychological well being of today's youth. Residential environmental education provides one avenue to connect children to nature. One purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Outdoor School, a residential environmental education program, on ecological knowledge, children's connection to nature, school belonging, outdoor play attitude, environmental stewardship attitude, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior, as reported by participants. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized in the study. A total of 228 fifth grade students (156 treatment, 72 control) from central Pennsylvania participated. The results of the program evaluation indicated that Outdoor School was successful in achieving significant, positive gains in the areas of ecological knowledge, connection to nature, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior. No change was found from pretest to post-test in outdoor play attitudes, environmental stewardship attitudes, and school belonging. Additionally, the study addressed gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between connection to nature, environmental stewardship, and outdoor play using two different approaches. An adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to predict outdoor play behavior in children. In this model, favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control lead to intentions to perform a given behavior. Intention to perform the behavior is the best predictor for behavior performance. For this study, participants' feeling of connection to nature was added as an affective independent variable. This model explained 45% of the variance in outdoor play. The hypothesis that a connection to nature would be a significant predictor of both attitudes toward outdoor play was
Popovich, Nicholas G.
Key shortcomings in current mainstream strategies of pharmaceutical education include (1) poor integration of basic sciences and clinical curriculum components; (2) curricular information overload and resulting problems; and (3) emphasis on research over teaching and service. Students need to learn teamwork, accountability, positive practice…
This paper considers some of the spatial challenges of doing arts projects with older people in care homes, including those living with dementia. It reflects on the author's own experience of running a performance project with residents with at a care home in North London. Drawing on Lefebvre's concept of socially produced space, it argues that…
There is little research on care in higher education, and yet for many of those who teach in higher education institutions, care is an important part of their work. Care in the compulsory education sector has traditionally been linked to the feminine, and this paper considers whether this is also the case in higher education. It investigates how…
Early childhood education and care is a multifaceted institution. Based on children's age, a number of different settings operate, which have usually two distinct aims. Kindergartens provide mainly education whereas day care centres provide care. Yet, in recent years, the need to establish programmes which provide both education and care to…
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C
Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects.
Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Elsegood, John; Hall, John; Hamilton, Sheila; Harden, Ronald; Lee, Diana; Stead, Joan
A 2-year study evaluated students' and course organizers' perceptions of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary education (ME) in health care and factors that facilitate or inhibit its development. The study had three phases: a survey of ME provision in the United Kingdom; 42 qualitative interviews and focus groups in 14 sites; and data feedback.…
Norcini, John J.; Mazmanian, Paul E.
Physician migration is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is intimately intertwined with medical education. Imbalances in the production of physicians lead to workforce shortages and surpluses that compromise the ability to deliver adequate and equitable health care to large parts of the world's population. In this overview, we address a…
Morrison, Johnetta Wade
Examines the present state of early care and education in Ghana. Includes historical background related to mission schools and day nurseries prior to independence from Britain. Describes the current registration and supervision of early childhood programs, the types of preschool facilities, and future plans for early childhood development.…
Lyon, Deborah S
The 20th century model of medical education has focused on a network of urban medical centers serving primarily indigent patients in an unspoken contract of medical services in exchange for student and resident education. The improvement in federal and state reimbursement for indigent care services, along with the decline in reimbursement rates from the private sector, has led to competition for these patients from nonacademic providers. As numbers of patients seeking care at urban teaching centers have steadily declined, concerns about adequate teaching volume and revenue generation have led to very creative problem-solving. Bringing marketing concerns into the indigent care environment is not a straightforward undertaking, but the rewards might far exceed the simple goal of "getting our numbers back up."
Nalle, Maureen A.
This article addresses the health and safety risks associated with child care facilities, including injuries and infectious diseases. Related health education needs for child care providers, parents, and children are examined, and recommendations for health educators are provided. (SM)
Henkel, Linda A; Kris, Alison; Birney, Sarah; Krauss, Kaitlyn
For the many older adults living in long-term care facilities, the ability to connect with others, as well as with one's own personal past, may be of particular value. Reflecting on the past and sharing reminiscences with others serves different psychosocial functions in various settings. This study examined the functions of reminiscence for long-term care residents in the United States (Mage = 86.5) by addressing the self-reported frequency of reminiscence, the counterparties involved, the overall purpose and value of reminiscence, and the relation to residents' mental health and well-being. Results demonstrated that although some functions of reminiscence were comparable to those found in community-dwelling older adults, others were unique to the long-term care setting. Residents were most likely to reminisce alone and they found the experience enjoyable. They reported engaging in and enjoying reminiscence with family more than with fellow residents, and a subset desired increased opportunities to share memories with healthcare providers. Residents with lower morale and more depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in unhealthy styles of reminiscence. These findings suggest that interventions shaping reminiscence encounters may have positive outcomes for long-term care residents.
Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.
Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…
Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…
The early childhood education and care industry in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one on child care only. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This research overview describes the…
Blank, Helen; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine
This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care and early education issues during 1999. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Child Care and Early Education Development: Highlights and Updates for 1998" and "State Developments in Child Care and Early Education 1997." The information…
District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy.
This report details the early care and education strategic plan for the District of Columbia. Following an executive summary, the report provides the rationale for developing an early care and education strategic plan and describes the process used to develop the plan. The top 10 early care and education issues in the district are then delineated…
Health professionals need competencies in improvement skills if they are to contribute usefully to improving patient care. Medical education programmes in the USA have not systematically taught improvement skills to residents (registrars in the UK). The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recently developed and begun to deploy a competency based model for accreditation that may encourage the development of improvement skills by the 100 000 residents in accredited programmes. Six competencies have been identified for all physicians, independent of specialty, and measurement tools for these competencies have been described. This model may be applicable to other healthcare professions. This paper explores patterns that inhibit efforts to change practice and proposes an educational model to provide changes in management skills based on trainees' analysis of their own work. Key Words: physician education; improvement skills; accreditation; competency PMID:11700380
Two deterministic models (US EPA’s Ofﬁce of Pesticide Programs Residential Standard Operating Procedures (OPP Residential SOPs) and Draft Protocol for Measuring Children’s Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways (Draft Protocol)) and four probabilistic mo...
Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Bulsara, Caroline; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie
The aims of this study were to evaluate establishing and operating a web-based community of practice (CoP) to lead falls prevention in a residential aged care (RAC) setting. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted in two phases using a survey and transcripts from interactive electronic sources. Nurses and allied health staff (n = 20) with an interest in falls prevention representing 13 sites of an RAC organization participated. In Phase 1, the CoP was developed, and the establishment of its structure and composition was evaluated using determinants of success reported in the literature. In Phase 2, all participants interacted using the web, but frequency of engagement by any participant was low. Participatory barriers, including competing demands from other tasks and low levels of knowledge about information communication technology (ICT) applications, were identified by CoP members. A web-based CoP can be established and operated across multiple RAC sites if RAC management support dedicated time for web-based participation and staff are given web-based training.
Oberst, Mary Claire
Quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilized in a two-phase design approach to describe the impact of a residential environmental education program on student learning and provide a profile of program participants. In phase one, within a nonequivalent pre-posttest control group design, fourth and fifth-grade students (N = 490) were administered learner-outcome-based instruments in terms of ecological knowledge and environmental attitude. The treatment group consisted of students who participated in the 4-6th grade level curriculum of the residential environmental education program at Cuyahoga Valley Environmental Education Center. A teacher survey was implemented to provide a profile of the teachers participating in the residential program with their students. Major findings indicate a statistically significant impact on student ecological knowledge (p ≤.05); no statistically significant impact on environmental attitude was found. Data collected from the teacher survey provided a profile of the contact teachers who participated in the study. Eighty-eight percent of these primarily fourth and fifth grade teachers teach science. The majority have a Master's Degree and all have had some coursework related to environmental education. Ninety-two percent have attended at least one workshop related to environmental education and seventy-five percent have attended up to five environmental education related workshops within the last five years. All of these teachers use environmental education techniques and content in the classroom and all report a high level of environmental concern. In the second phase of the study, a purposeful sample of students, teachers, and parents was interviewed; data were collected through program observation, interviews, and program document collection. Content analysis yielded the following patterns in regard to student, teacher, and parent perceptions of what students learned: (1) natural history; (2) environmental awareness
Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Jindal, Kunaal; Jeschke, Marc G
Education in burn care can be broken down into three main components: surgical education, inter-professional education, e.g. critical care education and mentorship. To date these components have been used in varying degrees in most health institutions and to even lesser extent in burn care. The aim of this paper is to highlight each component and how they have been utilised in other fields to develop teams and foster education, and how they can be translated for burn teams. These ideas are not novel; however, this paper will aim to shed light on how these concepts can be implemented in burn care, thus not only improving education, but also enabling recruitment and retention of health care providers in this field. PMID:22360958
Ozolins, Lise-lotte; Ekebergh, Margaretha
This article describes how caring science can be a helpful foundation for caring practice and what kind of learning support that can enable the transformation of caring science into practice. The lifeworld approach is fundamental for both caring and learning. This will be illustrated in two examples from research that show the potential for promoting health and well-being as well as the learning process. One example is from a caring context and the other is from a learning context. In this article, learning and caring are understood as parallel processes. We emphasize that learning cannot be separated from life and thus caring and education is intertwined with caring science and life. The examples illustrate how an understanding of the intertwining can be fruitful in different contexts. The challenge is to implant a lifeworld-based approach on caring and learning that can lead to strategies that in a more profound way have the potential to strengthen the person's health and learning processes. PMID:22171223
Bertolami, Charles N; Berne, Robert
If it is not a naïve expectation for dentists who have been beneficiaries of public generosity to share their good fortune with the public that made it possible, there may be a rational basis for enhancing the role of dental education in improving access to oral health care by promoting-but not requiring-a voluntary service commitment after graduation commensurate with the magnitude of the subsidy received. Such an approach would be in accordance with the Institute of Medicine's report Improving Access to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable and Underserved Populations, but without the governmental coercion explicit in the report. A sustainable alternative proposal is made here, offering both greater options to students in the financing of their dental education and greater obligations for those students who accept state subsidies: providing tuition discounts for students of state-supported dental schools based not on past residency status but rather on a future commitment to public service. This arrangement could be good public policy that might also help to create a culture in which dental students are given authentic options as part of a profession-wide ideology of public service. The result could well contribute to improved oral health care for the underserved.
Duindam, Ton; Keus, Bart
Outdoor activities in residential programs aim to promote personal growth and to develop a healthy personality in troubled youth for whom other interventions have been unsuccessful. In the Netherlands, experiential outdoor programs consist of activities such as mountain climbing and rapelling, flat and white water canoeing, biking, sailing,…
American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2009
This guide briefly retraces the rise of ideologically charged residential life programming on campuses and shows how such programs, despite their seemingly innocuous goals, in fact undercut the principles of rational inquiry that are foundational to the academic enterprise. In the fall of 2007, one university conducted a program for all 7,000…
Axmann, Mandi; Fourie, Wiida; Papo, William Duncan
Discussion of online learning focuses on course development at a South African residential institution that incorporated online assignments into a face-to-face journalism course to introduce information technology. Describes course structure, activities, assessment methods, student involvement, and problems with students' lack of computer skills…
Hargraves, Neil Kevin
In December 2007 Newbattle Abbey College, Scotland's only Adult Residential College, celebrated its seventieth anniversary. Its survival during this relatively short span has always been contingent. Its greatest crisis occurred in 1987, when the Scottish Office announced its intention to withdraw public funding from the college. This event reveals…
Background The subject site (Ian George Court) caters for clients from a socially disadvantaged background. All clients have been homeless or at risk of homelessness and have a history of alcohol and substance abuse often linked to mental health issues. This project was developed to examine if the site provided best practice in the promotion of smoking cessation. Objectives The first objective of this project was to improve client knowledge to make informed choice about smoking cessation, ensuring that client advice was given in line with best available evidence and assist the client in accessing community programs. The second objective was to fully review the current assessment tool used in relation to gathering baseline data about smoking habits and act on the information provided. Search strategy The search strategy sought to find published studies and papers. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified keywords. Conclusion A smoking assessment tool was developed and is now in use across all Anglicare sites in South Australia. This provides staff with consistent baseline information and offers evidence-based health care in a package format to aid clients in smoking cessation.
Al-Abri, Rashid K; Al-Hashmi, Intisar S
The ‘Learning Organisation’ is a concept first described by Peter Senge as an organisation where people continuously learn and enhance their capabilities to create. It consists of five main disciplines: team learning, shared vision, mental models, personal mastery and systems thinking. These disciplines are dynamic and interact with each other. System thinking is the cornerstone of a true learning organisation and is described as the discipline used to implement the disciplines. In a learning organisation, health care education aims to educate its members with up to date knowledge to produce competent and safe personnel, who can promote quality in health care services. In addition, there are some educational concepts and theoretical models, which are of relevance to the learning organisation, and can provide a framework for managerial decisions. The stages required to achieve the principles of a learning organisation will be described in detail. Moreover, in a proper culture which supports the learning organisation, members continuously learn to improve the environment and never remain passive recipients. PMID:21748105
Al-Abri, Rashid K; Al-Hashmi, Intisar S
The 'Learning Organisation' is a concept first described by Peter Senge as an organisation where people continuously learn and enhance their capabilities to create. It consists of five main disciplines: team learning, shared vision, mental models, personal mastery and systems thinking. These disciplines are dynamic and interact with each other. System thinking is the cornerstone of a true learning organisation and is described as the discipline used to implement the disciplines. In a learning organisation, health care education aims to educate its members with up to date knowledge to produce competent and safe personnel, who can promote quality in health care services. In addition, there are some educational concepts and theoretical models, which are of relevance to the learning organisation, and can provide a framework for managerial decisions. The stages required to achieve the principles of a learning organisation will be described in detail. Moreover, in a proper culture which supports the learning organisation, members continuously learn to improve the environment and never remain passive recipients.
Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.
Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers were…
Lahelma, Elina; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Palmu, Tarja; Pehkonen, Leila
In this article, we discuss teachers' reflections on the relation between teaching and care in the two most gender-segregated sectors of vocational upper secondary education in Finland, namely Health and Social services and Transport and Technology. We first discuss the concepts around education, teaching, taking care for and caring about…
This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…
Kirch, Darrell G.
As major providers and consumers of health care, higher-education institutions have an important role to play in improving health and the nation's health-care system. Health care is a complex issue for colleges and universities. Not only do institutions of higher education provide health insurance to faculty members, staff members, and students,…
California Childcare Health Program, 2004
With proper care, most children with asthma can lead normal, active lives and can enter school with the same abilities as other children. For this purpose, the Asthma Information Packet for Early Care and Education Providers was designed to cover the following topics: (1) Basic information; (2) How to improve early care and education environments…
Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, 2006
Recognizing the critical role that early childhood educators play in the lives of California's children and families, First 5 California commissioned in 2004 a statewide and regional study of the early care and education (ECE) workforce in licensed child care centers and licensed family child care homes. The overall goal of the study was to…
Nowson, Caryl A; Sherwin, Alice J; McPhee, Joan G; Wark, John D; Flicker, Leon
Residents from high level (nursing homes) and low-level care facilities (hostel) being served the three common diet texture modifications (full diet, soft-minced diet and pureed diet) were assessed. Individual plate waste was estimated at three meals on one day. Fifty-six males and 156 females, mean age 82.9+/-9.5 (SD) years, of which 139 lived in nursing homes (NH) and 76 in hostels (H) were included. Mean total energy served from meals was 5.3 MJ/day, 5.1 to 5.6 MJ/day, 95% confidence intervals (CI), in NH which was less than in H, 5.9 MJ/day (CI 5.6 to 6.2 MJ/day) (P=0.007). Protein and calcium intakes were lower in NH, 44.5g (CI 41.5 to 47.5g), 359.0mg (CI 333.2 to 384.8mg), versus 50.5g (CI 46.6 to 54.3g), 480.5mg (CI 444.3 to 516.7mg) in H (P=0.017, P<0.001 respectively). There was no difference in nutrient/energy ratios, except for protein/energy, which was higher in NH 11.7 (CI 11.3 to 12.2) than in H 9.8 (CI 9.4 to 10.3) (P<0.001). Ability to self-feed had no significant effect on nutrient intakes in NH. The self fed group (N=63) had the following nutrient intakes: energy 4.0 MJ (CI 3.6 to 4.3 MJ), protein 44.6g (CI 40.3 to 48.9g), calcium 356.9mg (CI 316.3 to 397.4mg), fibre 14.9g (CI 13.2 to 16.5g). The assisted group (N=64) had the following nutrient intakes: energy 3.9MJ (CI 3.6 to 4.2MJ), protein 46.0g (CI 40.7 to 49.6), calcium 361.9mg (CI 327.8 to 396.1mg), fibre 14.9g (CI 13.2 to 16.1g). Of NH classified as eating impaired, 36% received no assistance with feeding and had lower intakes of protein 37.8g (CI 33.0 to 42.1g) compared to those receiving some assistance 46.1g (CI 41.3 to 50.9g) (P=0.026). Reduced energy intake accounted for the differences in nutrient intakes between nursing homes and hostels, except for protein. Strategies to effectively monitor nutrient intakes and to identify those with eating impairment are required in order to ensure adequate nutrition of residents in nursing homes and hostels.
Cooper, Katherine L; Chang, Esther; Sheehan, Athena; Johnson, Amanda
Spiritual care is an important component of holistic care. In Australia competency statements relating to nursing practice emphasise the need to provide care that addresses the spiritual as well as other aspects of being. However, many nurses feel they are poorly prepared to provide spiritual care. This is attributed largely to lack a of spiritual care education provided in undergraduate nursing programmes. A few higher education providers have responded to this lack of spiritual care education by incorporating specific content related to this area into their undergraduate nursing programme. Minimal international studies have investigated the impact of spiritual care education on undergraduate nursing students and no Australian studies were identified. This review explores spiritual care education in undergraduate nursing programmes and identifies the need for an Australian study.
Syre, Thomas R.; Wilson, Richard W.
This article discusses role delineation in the health education profession, defines and presents principles of health care marketing, describes marketing plan development, and examines major ethical issues associated with health care marketing when utilized by community health educators. A marketing plan format for community health education is…
This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…
Alexander, Lamar; Kline, John
Every year millions of children under the age of 5 participate in federal and state early care and education programs. For fiscal years 2010 to 2015, Congress appropriated almost $48 billion to Head Start and over $31 billion to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), the two largest sources of federal funding for early care and education. To…
In this study, I discuss the benefits of Black feminist caring (BFC) in educational leadership. I suggest that the ethic of care in educational leadership is a manifestation of strength when serving disadvantaged student populations. This article is based on a qualitative, exploratory, multicase study that examines the ethic of care in the…
Ferrell, Betty R; Dahlin, Constance; Campbell, Margaret L; Paice, Judith A; Malloy, Pam; Virani, Rose
The integration of palliative care in critical care settings is essential to improve care of the dying, and critical care nurses are leaders in these efforts. However, lack of education in providing end-of-life (EOL) care is an obstacle to nurses and other healthcare professionals as they strive to deliver palliative care. Education regarding pain and symptom management, communication strategies, care at the end of life, ethics, and other aspects of palliative care are urgently needed. Efforts to increase EOL care education in most undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula are beginning; yet, most critical care nurses have not received formal training in palliative care. Moreover, educational resources such as critical care nursing textbooks often contain inadequate information on palliative care. The ELNEC-Critical Care program provides a comprehensive curriculum that concentrates on the requirements of those nurses who are working in areas of critical care. Extensive support materials include CD-ROM, binder, Web sites, newsletters, textbooks, and other supplemental items. The ultimate goal is to improve EOL care for patients in all critical care settings and enhance the experience of family members witnessing the dying process of their loved ones.
Gompertz, Patrick; Slack, Andrew; Vogel, Mira; Burrows, Sharon; Clark, Philippa
'Stroke units save lives', but organized care requires expert staff and regular training to be effective. However, the quality of inpatient care for stroke remains poor, and stroke education is often fragmented between the health-care professions. This review describes some national and local strategies aimed at ensuring that all patients are cared for by expert staff.
Pruitt, Rosanne H.; Campbell, Becky F.
Proposes that nursing education should focus on less expensive prevention instead of care after the disease has become full blown, involve customers in decision making, and better use the health care delivery system. (JOW)
Edler, A A
Over the last decade, development aid has increasingly used a more collaborative model, with donors and recipients both contributing ideas, methods and goals. Though many examples of collateral aid projects exist in agriculture, business administration and banking, few have found their way into health care and health education, a typically donor-dominated model. The following case report describes a collateral project in health care education. This case report analyzes data-inducing project proposals, personal interviews and project reports obtained through standard archival research methods. The setting for this joint project was the collaboration between international nongovernmental (NGO) aid foundations and the faculty of a major sub-Saharan African Medical School's Department of Anesthesia. The initial goal of this project was to improve record keeping for all anesthetic records, both in the operating theatres and outside. Analysis of the data was performed using ethnographic methods of constant comparative analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to critically evaluate both the goals and their results in the Department of Anesthesiology. The findings of this analysis suggested that results included not only quality assurance and improvement programs in the department but also advances in the use of critical incidents as teaching tools, hospital-wide drug and equipment utilization information and the initiation of an outreach program to district hospitals throughout the country for similar projects.
Elwood, Thomas W
The availability of educational opportunity and health care services has played a fundamental role in U.S. development as a nation of global significance. This review analytically examines the intersections of health care and higher education in the United States as they exist in 2011. Such examination, particularly as it relates to the recent Affordable Care Act, is critical for health and education professionals, legislators, and the public to better understand which interventions, for example, will work most effectively.
Peisah, Carmelle; Weaver, Judith; Wong, Lisa; Strukovski, Julie-Anne
Background Pain is common in older people, particularly those in residential aged care facilities (RACF) and those with dementia. However, despite 20 years of discourse on pain and dementia, pain is still undetected or misinterpreted in people with dementia in residential aged care facilities, particularly those with communication difficulties. Methods A topical survey typology with semistructured interviews was used to gather attitudes and experiences of staff from 15 RACF across Northern Sydney Local Health District. Results While pain is proactively assessed and pain charts are used in RACF, this is more often regulatory-driven than patient-driven (eg, prior to accreditation). Identification of pain and need for pain relief was ill defined and poorly understood. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological regimes were used, but in an ad hoc, variable and unsystematic manner, with patient, staff, and attitudinal obstacles between the experience of pain and its relief. Conclusion A laborious “pain communication chain” exists between the experience of pain and its relief for people with severe dementia within RACF. Given the salience of pain for older people with dementia, we recommend early, proactive consideration and management of pain in the approach to behaviors of concern. Individualized pain measures for such residents; empowerment of nursing staff as “needs interpreters”; collaborative partnerships with common care goals between patients where possible; RACF staff, doctors, and family carers; and more meaningful use of pain charts to map response to stepped pain protocols may be useful strategies to explore in clinical settings. PMID:25342895
Rigothi, Anthony, Ed.
Concept definition and activity description constituted the major focus of implementation proceedings of this outdoor education program designed for a residential school serving secondary students with emotional and drug related problems. Major program objectives were the development of greater academic growth and more positive self-concept for…
Anderson, Newell B.; And Others
One of two supplements which accompany chapter 5 of "Mountain-Plains Handbook: The Design and Operation of a Residential, Family Oriented Career Education Model" (CE 014 630), this document contains specific information concerning the reprographic and personnel components of the administrative services division. Several job descriptions…
Sheldon, Cynthia H.
This practicum report describes a recruitment program to include black residents in a residential program for teenage girls with emotional problems. Recruitment efforts stressed the following four principles: (1) staff preparation for work within a multicultural setting; (2) presentation of the facility to new black referral sources; (3) renewed…
In the main, writing about care seems to contrast the ethics of justice with the ethics of care. Whilst the former deploys objectivity, the latter holds that individuals are connected. Problematically, contemporary primary education seemingly holds a-personal, justice conceptions as its basis and rationale. In turn, primary education, in parts,…
Spielberger, Julie; Zanoni, Wladimir; Barisik, Elizabeth
As a result of policy changes following welfare reform in 1996 and the costs associated with providing high-quality early care and education for children of low-income working families, agency collaboration in the state of Illinois has become an increasingly salient feature of subsidized early care and education programs (SECE). The authors…
Collins, Ray; Ribeiro, Rose
The age distribution and growth of the Latino population have critical implications for the present and future of social and economic policy, with particular emphasis on early care and education. Following a discussion of the demographic trends involving Latino children and families, this paper discusses the child care and early education needs of…
Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)
This book aims to provide a series of starting points which will help readers to understand more about many key topics in early childhood education and care. In the rapidly changing field of early childhood education and care, it is becoming increasingly important for students and practitioners to have an awareness of the many topics that relate…
Cook, Patricia R.; Cullen, Janice A.
An associate nursing degree program threads caring across the curriculum using Watson's framework of interpersonal/transpersonal processes for caring and a taxonomy of affective competencies. Ways of caring are integrated into classroom and clinical experiences. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)
Ferrell, Betty R.; Virani, Rose; Grant, Marcia
As the members of the health care team who spend the most time with patients who are facing death, nurses are aware of the need for improved end-of-life (EOL) care and have identified resources to achieve that goal by improving education. A survey of 725 nursing faculty and state boards indicates an awareness of the need for improved EOL care and…
Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda; Beattie, Elizabeth
Respect for a person's right to make choices and participate in decision making is generally seen as central to quality of life and well-being. When a person moves into a residential aged care facility (RACF), however, decision making becomes more complicated, particularly if the person has a diagnosis of dementia. Little is known about how staff in RACFs perceive that they support decision making for people with dementia within their everyday practice, and this article seeks to address this knowledge gap. The article reports on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the states of Victoria and Queensland, Australia with 80 direct care staff members. Findings revealed that the participants utilized a number of strategies in their intention to support decision making for people with dementia, and had an overall perception that "a little effort goes a long way."
Fleming, Richard; Goodenough, Belinda; Low, Lee-Fay; Chenoweth, Lynn; Brodaty, Henry
While there is considerable evidence on the impact of specific design features on problems associated with dementia, the link between the quality of the built environment and quality of life of people with dementia is largely unexplored. This study explored the environmental and personal characteristics that are associated with quality of life in people with dementia living in residential aged care. Data were obtained from 275 residents of 35 aged care homes and analysed using linear regression. The quality of the built environment was significantly associated with the quality of life of the resident measured by global self-report. Environmental ratings were not associated with proxy or detailed self-report ratings. Higher quality of life is associated with buildings that facilitate engagement with a variety of activities both inside and outside, are familiar, provide a variety of private and community spaces and the amenities and opportunities to take part in domestic activities.
McNamee, Abigail; Mercurio, Mia; Peloso, Jeanne M.
The ability to care for oneself, near and distant others, animals, plants, human-made objects, and even ideas is an antidote for violence in its many forms as experienced in childhood as well as adulthood. This article makes a case for facilitating the development of the ability to care as children develop. The authors emphasize the importance of…
Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Vahl, Cheryl; Eland, Joann
Currently, major deficiencies exist in undergraduate nursing education for end-of-life care. Nursing students report feeling anxious and unprepared to be with patients who are dying. A Palliative Care Companion program that allows undergraduate nursing students to volunteer to spend time with patients at the end of life provides a unique educational opportunity to enhance students' knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care. In addition, the program offers a service to patients and families by providing a nonmedical, caring human presence to patients who may be alone, lonely, or bored. In accordance with tenets of Experiential Learning Theory, a Palliative Care Companion program was developed and revised using feedback from initial participants and facilitators. Data collected during the first two semesters indicated increased knowledge of palliative care, improved attitudes about care at the end of life, and fewer concerns about providing nursing care to dying patients, when participating students were compared to their undergraduate peers.
Nakanishi, Miharu; Imai, Hisato
The aim of the present study is to examine job role quality relating to intention to leave current facility and to leave profession among direct care workers in residential facilities for elderly in Japan. Direct care workers completed a paper questionnaire on October 2009. From 746 facilities in three prefectures (Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Yamagata) 6428 direct care workers with complete data were included in the analyses. The Job Role Quality (JRQ) scale was translated into Japanese language to assess job role quality. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that intention to leave current facility was primarily associated with job role quality: poor skill discretion, high job demand, and poor relationship with supervisor. Intention to leave profession was primarily associated with poor skill discretion. The results of the present study imply the strategies to direct care worker retention for each facility and policy efforts. Each facility can implement specific strategies such as enhanced variety of work and opportunity for use of skills, adequate job allocation, and improvement of supervisor-employee relationship in work place. Policy efforts should enhance broader career opportunities in care working such as advanced specialization and authorized medical practice.
Grace, Aimee M.; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Det. Jeremy; Dotzler, Det. Jennifer; Vanek, Lt John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.
Background The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. Methods The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre–post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). Findings There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the
Sandlow, L. J.; And Others
The educational contribution of medical care evaluation (MCE) has been portrayed as the identification of physicians' educational needs. A study of 13 MCE committees was undertaken to document the learning that occurs in these committees and to discover the conditions affecting their educational value. (Author/MLW)
This report describes an international study of objectives and issues in early childhood care and education (ECCE). The study was carried out by the Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), an organization created by the Council of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to study educational issues of concern to…
This article argues that incorporating theoretical conceptions of care into Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programmes creates a foundation for achieving the effective inclusion of children with disabilities. Critical examinations of the origins of care theory and current conceptions of care are used to consider the differing valuation…
Malloy, Pam; Paice, Judith; Coyle, Nessa; Coyne, Patrick; Smith, Thomas; Ferrell, Betty
Many challenges exist when providing international education to those who care for people at the end of life. Though issues related to culture and language may vary, the one commonality that crosses all nations is that its people die. In general, societies seek to provide the best care they are trained to give. Many have few resources to provide this care well. Traditions of the past influence norms and dictate policies and procedures of the present. Since its inception in 2000, the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium Project has provided palliative care education to nurses and other members of the interdisciplinary team in six of the seven continents. This article describes the efforts of this project to improve education around the globe, with the goal of providing excellent, compassionate palliative care, irrespective of location, financial status, political views, religion, race, and/or ethnicity.
Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V; Enns, Carol L; Ashcroft, Terri J; Davis, Penny L; Harder, B Nicole
Nursing education plays a central role in the ability to practice effectively. It follows that an optimally educated nursing workforce begets optimal patient care. A framework for excellence in nursing education could guide the development of novice educators, establish the basis for evaluating teaching excellence, and provide the impetus for research in this area. However, a review of the social sciences and nursing literature as well as a search for existing models for teaching excellence revealed an apparent dearth of evidence specific to excellence in nursing education. Therefore, we developed the Caring Framework for Excellence in Nursing Education. This framework evolved from a review of the generic constructs that exemplify teaching excellence: excellence in teaching practice, teaching scholarship, and teaching leadership. Nursing is grounded in the ethic of caring. Hence, caring establishes the foundation for this uniquely nursing framework. Because a teaching philosophy is intimately intertwined with one's nursing philosophy and the ethic of caring, it is also fundamental to the caring framework. Ideally, this framework will contribute to excellence in nursing education and as a consequence excellence in nursing practice and optimal patient care.
Interdisciplinary education is an excellent teaching model for nursing and other health care professions students. When one considers that nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals must work together in the same environment, it seems feasible that learning together through allocated learning activities as an interdisciplinary group might enhance educational outcomes. According to the literature, interdisciplinary education fosters collaboration and teamwork among the health care team. In addition, anecdotal comments from nursing students indicate that they feel unprepared to communicate with other health care disciplines. Although there is an abundance of articles related to interdisciplinary education, few studies of student outcomes have been conducted. This article provides an overview of interdisciplinary education studies with nursing and other health professions students.
The aim of this study is to examine how early childhood education teachers recall educational situations concerning caring and power in their childhoods and in their work. The purpose is to study how caring and power are constructed and intertwined in educational practices. The intention is to examine how teachers reflect their work concerning…
Palladino, John; Haar, Jean
Although the literature discusses the deleterious educational outcomes that foster care students endure, little attention has focused on school personnel's responses to the phenomenon. Despite the documented relationship between foster care and special education, a missing contribution is the voice of special education administrators. In turn, the…
Grant, Marcia; Elk, Ronit; Ferrell, Betty; Morrison, R. Sean; von Gunten, Charles F.
Palliative and end-of-life care is changing in the United States. This dynamic field is improving the care for patients with serious and life-threatening cancer through creation of national guidelines for quality care, multidisciplinary educational offerings, research endeavors, and resources made available to clinicians. Barriers to implementing quality palliative care across cancer populations include a rapidly expanding population of older adults who will need cancer care and a decrease in the workforce available to give care. Ways to integrate current palliative care knowledge into care of patients include multidisciplinary national education and research endeavors, and clinician resources. Acceptance of palliative care as a recognized medical specialty provides a valuable resource for improvement of care. While the evidence base for palliative care is only beginning, national research support has assisted in providing support to build the knowledge foundation for appropriate palliative care. Opportunities are available for clinicians to understand and apply appropriate palliative and end-of-life care to patients with serious and life-threatening cancers. PMID:19729681
Background This article examines spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The paper reveals the current extent of available training while defining the target group(s) and teaching aims. In addition to those, we will provide an analysis of delivered competencies, applied teaching and performance assessment methods. Methods In 2013, an anonymous online survey was conducted among the members of the International Society for Health and Spiritual Care. The survey consisted of 10 questions and an open field for best practice advice. SPSS21 was used for statistical data analysis and the MAXQDA2007 for thematic content analysis. Results 33 participants participated in the survey. The main providers of spiritual care training are hospitals (36%, n = 18). 57% (n = 17) of spiritual care training forms part of palliative care education. 43% (n = 13) of spiritual care education is primarily bound to the Christian tradition. 36% (n = 11) of provided trainings have no direct association with any religious conviction. 64% (n = 19) of respondents admitted that they do not use any specific definition for spiritual care. 22% (n = 14) of available spiritual care education leads to some academic degree. 30% (n = 19) of training form part of an education programme leading to a formal qualification. Content analysis revealed that spiritual training for medical students, physicians in paediatrics, and chaplains take place only in the context of palliative care education. Courses provided for multidisciplinary team education may be part of palliative care training. Other themes, such as deep listening, compassionate presence, bedside spirituality or biographical work on the basis of logo-therapy, are discussed within the framework of spiritual care. Conclusions Spiritual care is often approached as an integral part of grief management, communication/interaction training, palliative care, (medical) ethics
Ward, Robert C; Mainiero, Martha B
Medicare is the primary source of funding for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. The growing deficit, a sluggish economy, and rising health care costs have focused attention on cutting spending, and GME reimbursement from Medicare is being considered among the entitlement programs for spending reduction. At the same time, health care reform will place new demands on residency training. The authors review the history of GME financing, the potential impact of GME spending cuts and health care reform on radiology training, and the new skills residents will need to practice in the era of health reform. As health care financing evolves, so must resident education.
Garr, David R; Margalit, Ruth; Jameton, Andrew; Cerra, Frank B
The crisis of the rising cost of health care in the United States is stimulating major changes in the way care is being delivered. New models such as patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations are being developed with the expectation that health care professionals will address and improve the health of populations. Electronic health records and interprofessional teams will be critical to achieving the goal of better health. It is now time to bring together educators and clinicians at academic health centers, public health educators and practitioners, along with researchers, representatives from the health care delivery and financing systems, and community partners to reengineer health professions education to prepare health professions students for the health care system of the future.
Martin, Ruth S; Hayes, Barbara J; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Yates, Paul; Lim, Wen Kwang
Introduction Systematic reviews demonstrate that advance care planning (ACP) has many positive effects for residents of aged care facilities, including decreased hospitalisation. The proposed Residential Aged Care Facility (RACF) ‘Goals of Patient Care’ (GOPC) form incorporates a resident's prior advance care plan into medical treatment orders. Where none exists, it captures residents' preferences. This documentation helps guide healthcare decisions made at times of acute clinical deterioration. Methods and analysis This is a mixed methods study. An unblinded cluster randomised controlled trial is proposed in three pairs of RACFs. In the intervention arm, GOPC forms will be completed by a doctor incorporating advance care plans or wishes. In the control arm, residents will have usual care which may include an advance care plan. The primary hypothesis is that the GOPC form is superior to standard ACP alone and will lead to decreased hospitalisation due to clearer documentation of residents' medical treatment plans. The primary outcome will be an analysis of the effect of the GOPC medical treatment orders on emergency department attendances and hospital admissions at 6 months. Secondary outcome measurements will include change in hospitalisation rates at 3 and 12 months, length of stay and external mortality rates among others. Qualitative interviews, 12 months post GOPC implementation, will be used for process evaluation of the GOPC and to evaluate staff perceptions of the form's usefulness for improving communication and medical decision-making at a time of deterioration. Dissemination The results will be disseminated in peer review journals and research conferences. This robust randomised controlled trial will provide high-quality data about the influence of medical treatment orders that incorporate ACP or preferences adding to the current gap in knowledge and evidence in this area. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000298516, Results. PMID:28283490
Salehian, Maryam; Heydari, Abbas; Aghebati, Nahid; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Mazloom, Seyed Reza
Introduction The aim of this principle-based concept analysis was to analyze caring in nursing education and to explain the current state of the science based on epistemologic, pragmatic, linguistic, and logical philosophical principles. Methods A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze the nursing literature. The dataset included 46 English language studies, published from 2005 to 2014, and they were retrieved through PROQUEST, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, SCOPUS, and SID scientific databases. The key dimensions of the data were collected using a validated data-extraction sheet. The four principles of assessing pragmatic utility were used to analyze the data. The data were managed by using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The scientific literature that deals with caring in nursing education relies on implied meaning. Caring in nursing education refers to student-teacher interactions that are formed on the basis of human values and focused on the unique needs of the students (epistemological principle). The result of student-teacher interactions is the development of both the students and the teachers. Numerous applications of the concept of caring in nursing education are available in the literature (pragmatic principle). There is consistency in the meaning of the concept, as a central value of the faculty-student interaction (linguistic principle). Compared with other related concepts, such as “caring pedagogy,” “value-based education,” and “teaching excellence,” caring in nursing education does not have exact and clear conceptual boundaries (logic principle). Conclusion Caring in nursing education was identified as an approach to teaching and learning, and it is formed based on teacher-student interactions and sustainable human values. A greater understanding of the conceptual basis of caring in nursing education will improve the caring behaviors of teachers, create teaching-learning environments, and help experts in curriculum development
Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle
Purpose Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Patients and methods Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Results Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: β=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2–0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: β=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9–6.4]). Conclusion Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities. PMID:25759596
In Viet Nam, government policy to achieve universal literacy has led to virtual equality in the numbers of girls and boys attending primary schools (50.7% girls) and to a 43.7% and 41.38% enrollment level for girls in junior secondary and high secondary schools, respectively. Women also fill 70% of primary teaching posts, and 37% of the female teachers at all levels have college degrees. In order to achieve further advances, the government has set targets for the year 2000 that include 1) abolition of illiteracy among women aged 15-25; 2) a 50% representation of girls in junior secondary schools; 3) a 45% enrollment of girls at the high secondary level; and 4) an increased number of women trained in professional, managerial, and women-related matters. To achieve this goal, the government will increase its training and education budget by 15%. In the health care field, women account for 60% of the work force and have been instrumental in achieving improvements in public health. However, women's health remains at risk from the after-effects of war and other factors, 4,000,000 people are disabled, 300,000 children have been orphaned, and millions of people face old age without the support of offspring who were killed in the war. Thus, government goals for the year 2000 include 1) reducing maternal and child mortality rates, 2) eliminating anemia among pregnant women, 3) reducing the infant mortality rate, 4) reducing malnutrition in children under age 5 from 42% to 30%, and 5) reducing population growth.
Holt, Stephanie; Kirwan, Gloria
In the absence of mandatory planning and support to assist all young people who leave care in Ireland, after-care provision is a "neglected" area of service provision and has been criticised for being inconsistent and ad hoc. The benefits of keyworker support for young people making the transition out of care is more clearly articulated…
Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M
Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863
Economou, Denice; Ferrell, Betty; Uman, Gwen
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2006 report, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition (In M. Hewitt, S. Greenfield and E. Stovall (Eds.), (pp. 9–186). Washington DC: The National Academies Press, 2006) identifies the key components of care that contribute to quality of life for the cancer survivor. As cancer survivorship care becomes an important part of quality cancer care oncology professionals need education to prepare themselves to provide this care. Survivorship care requires a varied approach depending on the survivor population, treatment regimens and care settings. The goal of this program was to encourage institutional changes that would integrate survivorship care into participating centers. An NCI-funded educational program: Survivorship Education for Quality Cancer Care provided multidiscipline two-person teams an opportunity to gain this important knowledge using a goal-directed, team approach. Educational programs were funded for yearly courses from 2006 to 2009. Survivorship care curriculum was developed using the Quality of Life Model as the core around the IOM recommendations. Baseline data was collected for all participants. Teams were followed-up at 6, 12 and 18 months postcourse for goal achievement and institutional evaluations. Comparison data from baseline to 18 months provided information on the 204 multidiscipline teams that participated over 4 years. Teams attended including administrators, social workers, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, physicians and others. Participating centers included primarily community cancer centers and academic centers followed by pediatric centers, ambulatory/physician offices and free standing cancer centers. Statistically significant changes at p=<0.05 levels were seen by 12 months postcourse related to the effectiveness, receptiveness and comfort of survivorship care in participant settings. Institutional assessments found improvement in seven domains of care that related to
Kusec, Sanja; Jaksić, Zelimir; Vuletić, Gorka; Kovacić, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana
The recent technological developments have found its place in medical education as well. Hypermedia has become very popular through the widespread use of the Internet. In its research project, the Department of Educational Technology of the Andrija Stampar School of Public Health studied and applied the educational methods in continuing training of health professionals using hypermedia and taking into account the specificities of medical and health practices. Potentials of hypermedia in medical education are presented within the topic on quality of health care. The result of this project is an interactive educational disk designed for physicians and other health professionals in primary health care faced with the issue of quality. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained during the work on the project and describes the created educational disk with all its specificities observed in the development of the educational hypermedia materials.
Timmermans, Olaf; De; Klerk-; Jolink, Nicolette; Boitte, Pierre
This paper defends a pragmatist ethical approach in education. Such an approach has fuelled a pedagogical experimentation approach within the scope the "Dignity in care" (www.dignity-in-care.eu) European project, focusing on ethical practice in health and social care. Its key objective was to enhance 'good care', by reinforcing health care workers'ability to conduct an ethical reflection on the way they would deliver care. Nevertheless, 'good care'is a concept that may seem hard to define and to implement. To clarify and validate the characteristics and conditions of such a good care, and to explore the way to educate the concept of what "good care" is in a more concrete way, this paper presents a summary of findings across which we have come during the final conference of this three-year project and through a focus-group organized by the Lille Dignity-in-Care partners. The results show that a self-assessment work regarding pedagogical practices reveals necessary for an adaptation to the evolution of the socio-professional context. It is not just a matter of developing new pedagogical skills, but also of becoming able to understand the care context and situations. Future work on "what is good care" and the need for empowerment will have to leave from daily practices in order to suggest how to prepare/train caregivers to become responsive professionals. Both the matter of finding a way to enhance good care in existing care-settings, and the matter of finding and testing appropriate educational methods to help caregivers handle communication and deliver good care.
Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.
This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…
Evans, Larry D.; Scott, Susan S.; Schulz, Eldon G.
Comprehensive medical and mental health evaluations of children in foster care are recommended within 30 days of entering care. What constitutes a comprehensive evaluation has yet to be established. This study examines the need to include educational assessment as a component of the comprehensive evaluation. Rates of achievement and language…
O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.
Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…
Augustine, Jennifer March; Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crosnoe, Robert
The social and human capital that educational attainment provides women enables them to better navigate their children's passages through school. In this study, we examine a key mechanism in this intergenerational process: mothers' selection of early child care. Analyses of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that…
Mitchell, Anne; And Others
In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…
Teacher-student interactions are at the core of the teaching-learning process. There is research evidence showing that a teacher's caring behavior is strongly related to students' attitudes and engagement in physical education (PE). This article discusses practical strategies that PE teachers can employ to create a caring learning environment,…
Friendly, Martha; Beach, Jane; Turiano, Michelle
Noting that in Canada, regulated child care and most other early childhood services are under provincial jurisdiction, this report is the fifth to provide statistical and other information on early childhood care and education services for each province and territory in Canada. Data were assembled from a variety of sources, including…
Brownlee, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.; Berthelsen, D.
Background: The quality of child care is of social and economic significance worldwide. The beliefs that child care workers hold about knowing and knowledge (epistemological beliefs) influence the quality of their professional work. However, attention to epistemological beliefs is rarely a focus in vocational education programmes. Aim: The aim of…
Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika
The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…
Morgan, Margaret K., Ed.; Filson, Dolores, Ed.
The conference summarized in this monograph grew out of two expressed concerns of health care personnel educators: their desire for more information about future trends in health care delivery, and their desire for better articulation of the various levels of programs preparing health related personnel. Papers presented include these: Future…
Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam
Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254
Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam
Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.
Edwards, Asher; Nam, Samuel
As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for palliative care services will be paramount and yet training for palliative care physicians is currently inadequate to meet the current palliative care needs. Nonspecialty-trained physicians will need to supplement the gap between supply and demand. Yet, no uniform guidelines exist for the training of internal medicine residents in palliative care. To our knowledge, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate how internal medicine residencies currently integrate palliative care into their training. In this study, we surveyed 338 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited internal medicine program directors. We queried how palliative care was integrated into their training programs. The vast majority of respondents felt that palliative care training was "very important" (87.5%) and 75.9% of respondents offered some kind of palliative care rotation, often with a multidisciplinary approach. Moving forward, we are hopeful that the data provided from our survey will act as a launching point for more formal investigations into palliative care education for internal medicine residents. Concurrently, policy makers should aid in palliative care instruction by formalizing required palliative care training for internal medicine residents.
This research explores these questions: (1) How are the forms of media-educational habitus of future educators shaped? (2) What conditions influence whether or not media education is done in day-care centers? The qualitative study consists of six semi-structured interviews with media education teachers in educator training, four focus group…
In response to predictions that population ageing will increase government spending over the coming decades, in 1997-98, the Australian Government introduced means-tested income fees and accommodation charges for those admitted to nursing homes with income and assets above set threshold levels. Immediately prior, all residents paid the same price for their care and were not required to contribute towards the cost of their accommodation. In addition, in relation to those eligible to pay a higher price, the Government reduced its subsidisation of the cost of their care. The Government anticipated that the initiative would more equitably share the cost of age-related services across the public and private sectors, and result in some cost savings for itself. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the policy on the average price paid by residents. The findings suggest that the policy may have contributed to an increase in the average price paid, but statistical evidence is limited due to a number of data issues. Results also indicate that the rate of increase in the price was greater after the Residential Aged Care Structural Reform package was introduced. The study contributes to the economic analysis of the sector by evaluating time series estimates of prices paid by residents since the early 1970s.
Cubic, Barbara; Mance, Janette; Turgesen, Jeri N; Lamanna, Jennifer D
Rapidly occurring changes in the healthcare arena mean time is of the essence for psychology to formalize a strategic plan for training in primary care settings. The current article articulates factors affecting models of integrated care in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and describes ways to identify and utilize resources at AHCs to develop interprofessional educational and clinical integrated care opportunities. The paper asserts that interprofessional educational experiences between psychology and other healthcare providers are vital to insure professionals value one another's disciplines in health care reform endeavors, most notably the patient-centered initiatives. The paper highlights ways to create shared values and common goals between primary care providers and psychologists, which are needed for trainee internalization of integrated care precepts. A developmental perspective to training from pre-doctoral, internship and postdoctoral levels for psychologists in integrated care is described. Lastly, a call to action is given for the field to develop more opportunities for psychology trainees to receive education and training within practica, internships and postdoctoral fellowships in primary care settings to address the reality that most patients seek their mental health treatment in primary care settings.
Background Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in the children who attend. Methods Data for this study came from the American Camp Association 2007 Emerging Issues Survey. This survey assessed camp professionals’ perspectives on a diverse array of issues, including the healthy eating and physical activity of children. Data analysis focused on responses from 247 camp professionals whose camps offered resident camp programs. Results Descriptive and Chi-square statistics were calculated. Ninety-two percent of camp professionals reported that the healthy eating and physical activity of campers was an “important” or “very important” issue for camps. The majority of camps reported offering vegetarian options, healthy snacks and salad bars, and allergen-free options. Additionally, 86% of camp professionals indicated that they had implemented one or more strategies to address concerns related to the unhealthy eating behaviors of children, with top strategies including increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables, increasing the availability of healthy drink options, and improving the nutritional quality of menus. Fewer camp professionals (50%) indicated they had implemented strategies to increase children’s physical activity levels, but many professionals indicated that their camp programs were inherently active and additional strategies to promote physical activity were not necessary. Associations were found between camp affiliation and food options available to
Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra; Dollard, Norín
This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mental health treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mental health assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Koda-Kimble, Mary Anne; Batz, Forrest R.
In a University of California continuing pharmacy education course in diabetes care, practicing pharmacists lived as patients with diabetes for two days and role-played in small groups. One year later, participants reported making changes in their diabetes care-related practice, suggesting its effectiveness in improving practitioners' skill…
Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin
This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…
Blank, Helen; Behr, Andrea; Schulman, Karen
This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care and early education issues during 2000. The information in the report was collected by means of written and telephone surveys with advocates or state child care administrators in each state. The final draft was reviewed for verification by advocates or a state child…
Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.
Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…
The main goal of this study was to gain a better insight into efforts made to provide optimum education to juveniles in young offender institutions and in secure youth care institutions, and into barriers with which educators are confronted in this process. Results show that for a substantial number of juveniles insufficient information is…
Nagayama, Mariko; Gilliard, Jennifer L.
Staff interviews and classroom observations based on predetermined observation criteria and open-ended questions were conducted at early care and education programs in Kakunodate, Akita, Japan; Tazawako, Akita, Japan; Butte, Montana; and Missoula, Montana. Differences in curriculum, classroom structure and educational strategies were found. For…
Norwich, Brahm; Richards, Andrew; Nash, Tricia
The aims of this study were to examine the extent and nature of educational psychologist (EP) work related to children in care in five local authority educational psychology services in the south-west region. The study involved an initial internet-based questionnaire for the 107 EPs in these services (86% response rate), followed up by in-depth…
The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…
Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Adapted for child care and Head Start providers, this educator's kit contains activities and information to improve nutrition experiences for preschool-age children. In addition to the educator's guide, the kit includes a short videotape and audiotape with three segments that teach about trying different types of foods; about the taste, touch, and…
In-service professional development in education began informally in the early nineteenth-century as a means of disseminating classroom management techniques, specifically addressing ways in which corporal punishment could be delivered to a child without inflicting serious injury. This initial effort paralleled a concern regarding children's…
Buskey, John H.
This study was designed to develop and field test a typology of framework providing for the systematic description, definition, and classification of activities in university continuing education centers. Basic questions pertained to whether such a typology could be developed, and whether other investigators and practitioners could use the…
Ford, Phyllis M.; Cloninger, Karl W.
Outdoor education has been defined as a five-step, multi-phasic experience: anticipation, travel-to-site, on-site, travel-from, and recollection. Examined 11 mood factors at each step using grade 6 students (N=31) involved in an outdoor program. Indicates that some attitudes (moods) did not change positively as a result of the outdoor experience.…
Patient care appraisal (PCA) is a type of medical audit specifically designed for educational purposes. It can be instituted in solo or group practices. A subject is selected (preferably a commonly treated condition), criteria for care are established (the most educational element of PCA), records of cases are searched to see if these criteria are met, results are reviewed, and corrective action is planned. A follow up audit is then done. This method of CME is currently under study at Dalhousie University's Division of Continuing Medical Education as a possible alternative to formal courses. PMID:20469392
Huss-Keeler, Rebecca; Peters, Michelle; Moss, Joy Marie
The field of early care and education has been challenged to raise the level of quality for young children by increasing the number of practitioners with college degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of early care and education professionals working in the field and enrolled in community college early childhood classes,…
Chen, Yuanhan; Li, Zhilian; Liang, Xinling; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yusheng; Xu, Lixia; Zhong, Lihong; Shi, Wei
The Hakka are a sub-ethnicity with unique diet customs in South China. This study investigated hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients in relation to the current Hakka dietary customs and explored health education patterns for hyperphosphatemia control. Two continuous cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the local patients on dialysis. After the first survey, the patients with hyperphosphatemia were semi-randomized into regular (group 1) and individual (group 2) education groups. Regular health education was conducted for both groups. In group 2, the awareness of health knowledge and dietary customs was investigated using a self-designed questionnaire. Based on the questionnaire, individual dietary guidance was given. The second survey was performed after 3 months. In the first survey, a high-phosphorus diet was found in all 46 patients with 43 (93.5%) diagnosed with hyperphosphatemia. In group 1 and group 2, 15 patients and 25 patients completed the two surveys, respectively. In group 1, no patient changed their dietary habits; however, in group 2, some patients did. The level of serum inorganic phosphorus in group 1 increased significantly. In group 2, the data remained stable; the awareness rate of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) increased, and six patients with good compliance showed decreased serum inorganic phosphorus (p = 0.046). High-phosphorus dietary customs and low CKD-MBD knowledge awareness are important reasons for the difficulty in hyperphosphatemia control of patients on dialysis in the Hakka region. Individual health education led by medical staff might be helpful in hyperphosphatemia control, but the pattern still needs further exploration.
The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…
Andiric, Linda Reynolds
A study conducted on patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty indicated that participants who were offered preadmission education for their procedure had statistically better outcomes than patients who had not attended an educational class. The study further focused on patients' confidence in their ability to take control of their health…
Explores the need to restore social and relational aspects to education for youth at risk. Anti-youth mass media discourses present negative images of pregnant and parenting teens. Labeled at risk, they are set up for academic and social failure. Describes an alternative public school serving the educational and social support needs of pregnant…
Martins, Paula Alvarenga de Figueiredo; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli
This report is a reflection that marks a change of perspective in the care relation between nurse and client, in the implementation context of the educative process. It emerged a Shared Care Plan as an educational-caring proposal, in the convergence among theorists Paulo Freire and Leininger, regarding the dialogical pedagogy and nursing cultural care. With regard to the elements considered essential to the care, learning together allows the unveiling of a peculiar reality of possibilities for integration and transformation of the reality revealed, by choice of the person. Autonomy planned becomes real, so that customers no longer carry fragmented practices, stemming from traditional pedagogy. The stand-alone client reaches, then, the fullness of the action.
..., including mental health, education, and physical therapy from other sources. (b) Before placement the... OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance...
..., including mental health, education, and physical therapy from other sources. (b) Before placement the... OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance...
..., including mental health, education, and physical therapy from other sources. (b) Before placement the... OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance...
Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda
During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061
Siddharthan, Trishul; North, Crystal M; Attia, Engi F; Christiani, David C; Checkley, William; West, T Eoin
A growing number of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship programs in the United States offer global health training opportunities. Formal, integrated global health programs within pulmonary and critical care fellowships are relatively new but are built on principles and ideals of global health that focus on the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and social justice. Although core competencies consistent with these overarching themes in global health education have not been formalized for pulmonary and critical care trainees, relevant competency areas include clinical knowledge, international research training, cultural competency, and clinical and research capacity building. Existing global health education in U.S. pulmonary and critical care medicine training programs can generally be classified as one of three different models: integrated global health tracks, global health electives, and additional research years. Successful global health education programs foster partnerships and collaborations with international sites that emphasize bidirectional exchange. This bidirectional exchange includes ongoing, equitable commitments to mutual opportunities for training and professional development, including a focus on the particular knowledge and skill sets critical for addressing the unique priorities of individual countries. However, barriers related to the availability of mentorship, funding, and dedicated time exist to expanding global health education in pulmonary and critical care medicine. The implementation of global health training within pulmonary and critical care medicine programs requires continued optimization, but this training is essential to prepare the next generation of physicians to address the global aspects of respiratory disease and critical illness.
Background This protocol presents a systematic residential treatment- and research program aimed at patients who have not responded adequately to previous treatment attempts. Patients included in the program primarily suffer from anxiety and/or depressive disorders and usually from one or more comorbid personality disorders. The treatment program is time-limited (eight weeks) and has its basis in treatment principles specified in intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP). This treatment modality is theoretically well-suited for the handling of various forms of treatment resistance presumably central to these patients’ previous non-response to psychological and psychiatric interventions. Methods/Design The research component of the project entails a naturalistic longitudinal research design which aims at systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of the program. To our knowledge, this is one of the first treatment programs and corresponding research projects that systematically select patients with previous non- or negative response to treatment and subjects them to a broad and comprehensive, but theoretically unified and consistent treatment system. Discussion The present paper introduces the project, describes its theoretical and methodological underpinnings, and discusses possible future implications and contributions of the project. It thereby serves as a comprehensive background reference to future publications from the project. PMID:24438222
Buchanan, J. Robert
Forces acting on medical education and compelling a reexamination of current approaches include cost containment, competition and price sensitivity, new technologies, the physician surplus, and a rapidly expanding, politically assertive aging population. (MSE)
Can caring and standardized testing coincide? Marcuse criticized the misuse of science because it also legitimizes social and economic hierarchy. By the same token, scholars develop standardized testing, claiming these tests are scientific and can measure objectively individuals' learning and intelligence capabilities. However, if inclusive caring…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...
Thomas, Carolyn M.; Thomas, Matthew A. M.
The field of international development has recently been consumed by a shift in contemporary educational discourse, one that moves Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) closer to the forefront of what is considered progressive policy formation. In Zambia, the current educational environment seems to indicate that the creation and continued…
Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva
In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…
Hardee, Sandra G; Osborne, Kim Crickmore; Njuguna, Njeri; Allis, Dustin; Brewington, Daphne; Patil, Shivajirao P; Hofler, Linda; Tanenberg, Robert J
A patient-centered interdisciplinary diabetes care model was implemented at Vidant Medical Center in Greenville, N.C., a 909-bed tertiary care teaching hospital, for the purpose of providing all patients with diabetes clear and concise instructions on diabetes survival skills. Survival skills education during hospitalization is needed for safe transition to community resources for continued and expanded diabetes self-management education. This article describes the process used to develop, implement, and evaluate the model. This initiative achieved substantial cost savings, with no significant changes in length of stay (LOS) or diabetes readmission rates. This patient-centered model demonstrates how a team of interdisciplinary health care professionals can integrate services in providing care for a large population of patients with chronic disease.
Rose, Chrissian; Bonn, Ashley; MacDonald, Kaitlyn; Avila, Secia
The interactions and observations of residents speaking with patients and family members about end-of-life decisions indicated a need for more empathy. Nursing and medical students have been called to learn and work together so they can work more effectively. A review of the evidence on interdisciplinary education of residents concerning end-of-life care and communicating with patients and their family members was the inspiration for this study. This article applies evidence related to interdisciplinary education in critical care settings. This pilot project was a collaboration of medical education between a critical care service in a public hospital and baccalaureate nursing students assisting family members in making end-of-life decisions. As nursing students, we were able to effectively present content on end-of-life decision making to medical residents.
Rep. Spratt, John M., Jr. [D-SC-5
03/30/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-152. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The bill makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act enacted by H.R.3590 and modifies higher education assistance provisions. Read together, H.R.3590 and the health care-related provisions of this bill are commonly... Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Hong, Judith; Nguyen, Tien V; Prose, Neil S
Patient education is a fundamental part of caring for patients. A practice gap exists, where patients want more information, while health care providers are limited by time constraints or difficulty helping patients understand or remember. To provide patient-centered care, it is important to assess the needs and goals, health beliefs, and health literacy of each patient. This allows health care providers to individualize education for patients. The use of techniques, such as gaining attention, providing clear and memorable explanations, and assessing understanding through "teach-back," can improve patient education. Verbal education during the office visit is considered the criterion standard. However, handouts, visual aids, audiovisual media, and Internet websites are examples of teaching aids that can be used as an adjunct to verbal instruction. Part II of this 2-part series on patient-physician interaction reviews the importance and need for patient education along with specific guidelines and techniques that can be used.
This article outlines the conceptual thinking and development of core competencies for a palliative care educator. It is suggested that the process of defining a common core of key skills, personal qualities and attributes that reflect the unique role of a palliative care educator can provide an indicator of the diversity and complexity of this role, which can be used by the educator and employer in job planning, review and professional development. It can also potentially inform pay remuneration that is commensurate with both experience and responsibilities. For employers there is the opportunity to use the core competencies in the appointment of suitably able educators above and beyond the requirements of a standard job description.
This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…
Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik
This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…
Reed, Cynthia; Carroll, Lee; Baccari, Susan; Shermont, Herminia
One of the most challenging aspects for nurses caring for incontinent children in spica casts is maintaining healthy skin integrity. Noting an increase in the number of phone calls from parents of discharged children in spica casts concerning diaper rash and skin breakdown, inpatient orthopedics staff nurses lead an interdisciplinary quality improvement and educational initiative. They standardized pediatric spica cast care and education by creating an intranet narrated PowerPoint presentation for staff and parents of children with spica casts. A take-home DVD of this education module is now produced and given to parents, reinforcing nursing discharge teaching and giving parents the opportunity to review these new skills at home as needed. The purpose of this article is to share this experience of improving patient outcomes and empowering other orthopedics nurses to develop creative educational solutions.
Cahan, Emily D.
This monograph focuses on early forms of preschool care and education, the professions and children in the 1920s and 1930s, the federal role in a series of crisis interventions, and social and intellectual changes affecting early education in the 1960s and 1970s. The rise of a two-tier system for care and education of the preschool child is…
Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W
Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493
Kearney, Kathleen A.; McEwen, Erwin; Bloom-Ellis, Brice; Jordan, Neil
The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services selected Illinois as a demonstration site in 2007 to evaluate performance-based contracting in residential treatment services. This article discusses the first two years of project implementation including developing residential treatment performance indicators,…
Gordon, Paul R
Complicated health care policy decisions are generally made by elected officials. The officials making these complicated decisions are elected by the people, and citizens' participation in the voting process is one of the basic tenets of democracy. Voters in the United States, who are also patients in the health care system, receive enormous amounts of information throughout election cycles. This information is generally delivered in sound bites often intended to elicit an emotional reaction rather than simply inform. From April through July 2016, the author-an academic physician-rode a bicycle across the United States and met with people in small rural towns to ask them their understanding of the Affordable Care Act and the impact it has had on their lives. In this Commentary the author shares some of those stories, which are often informed by sound bites and misinformation. The author argues that it is the role of academic physicians to educate not only students and residents but also patients. In addition to providing information about patients' medical problems, physicians can educate them about the health care policy issues that are decided by elected officials.A doctor can help educate patients about these issues to facilitate their making informed decisions in elections. Physicians have a role and responsibility in society as a knowledgeable person to make the health care system be the best it can be for the most people.
O'Neil, E H; Seifer, S D
The transformation of U.S. health care is driven by underlying principles. The tensions between what exists now and what will emerge over the next 15 years pervade health care delivery and financing, the doctor-patient relationship, the provider-payer relationship, and the atmosphere within educational institutions for the health professions. The institutions that early on develop the capacity to forge and sustain strategic partnerships will be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities of a rapidly changing system, but those that do not will risk being isolated without the diversity of resources needed to make meaningful contributions to health care. The tensions also drive major changes in the way health professionals are educated, trained, and deployed. Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of the medical school in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. These institutions face external pressures to change and internal barriers to change, not the least of which are the lack of sustained leadership and collective vision. Academic medical centers must take active steps now to assess their strengths and weaknesses objectively, look realistically at options, and construct new, mutually beneficial partnerships that will be the keys to success.
Janz, Janice; And Others
This paper discusses issues concerning inclusion of children with special health care needs in the regular classroom. Six categories of health conditions are discussed in terms of their implications for the educational setting. These are: (1) "hidden" conditions (e.g., juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anemia, asthma, and cystic…
Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie
In schools, the notion of "care" is often synonymous with welfare and disciplinary regimes. Drawing on Foucault, and a study of alternative education (AE) across the UK, and looking in depth at two cases of complementary AE, we identify three types of disciplinary regimes at work in schools: (1) dominant performative reward and…
Chang, E-shien; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi
As US populations become increasing diverse, healthcare professionals are facing a heightened challenge to provide cross-cultural care. To date, medical education around the world has developed specific curricula on cultural competence training in acknowledgement of the importance of culturally sensitive and grounded services. This article…
A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…
Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda
Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has become a policy priority in many countries. A growing body of research recognises that it provides a wide range of benefits, including social and economic benefits, better child well-being and learning outcomes as a foundation for lifelong learning, more equitable outcomes and reduction of poverty, and…
Early childhood education and care settings in England and the people who work in them constitute an important sphere of influence, shaping young children's characters and values. But the values and dispositions expected of the early years workforce are missing from statutory policy documentation despite its clear requirement that practitioners…
Cousins, Sarah Bernadette
Love is rarely mentioned in Early Childhood Education and Care and there is no agreed definition for love in this context. In order to explore love in settings practitioner views on the topic should be sought. Unstructured interviews were carried out with senior practitioners in five contrasting settings. A range of qualitative methods were…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series…
Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.
This basic handbook for personnel development through training and continuing education within health care institutions describes the techniques involved in developing programs, from needs determination to evaluation. It covers how to make a skill inventory and a survey of learning needs; how to state learning objectives; how to design a specific…
Arguing that quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) contributes to meeting goals that strengthen Canadians and Canadian society, this paper discusses the support found for ECEC within the nation; maintains that ECEC is a broad issue that bridges socioeconomic, ethnic, and regional divisions; and addresses the main problems and issues in…
Maher, Stacia; Lopez, Patricia; McKee, M. Diane; Deen, Darwin; Fornari, Alice; Fletcher, Jason; Blank, Arthur
Purpose: The paper aims to evaluate a primary care obesity prevention intervention, targeting low-income minority parents in the USA. The first objective is to describe the barriers to behavior change experienced by families. The second objective is to understand the types of strategies that were used by the health educator to empower families to…
In this short essay I express my own deep sympathy with Nel Noddings's ethic of care and applaud her stubborn resistance in "Happiness and Education" to what John Dewey would have called false dualisms, such as those between intelligence and emotion, theory and practice, or vocation and academic studies.However, I question whether…
Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…
Clare, F. Lawrence, Comp.; And Others
A bibliography on education of physicians for primary care is presented, based on a search of the "Index Medicus" primarily for the period 1971-1983. Selected articles from 1984 are also included. The approximately 60 references are listed alphabetically by the lead author's surname. A major feature of the bibliography is the keywording of each…
This paper reports on a study designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of parent choice in relation to early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. It investigates the ways parents make their choices of early childhood services and examines and interprets the meanings they ascribe to those choices. An orthodox grounded theory…
This study utilized a life history approach to describe clients' psychological experiences of the alcohol withdrawal process while voluntarily residing in a specialist alcohol withdrawal facility. Reflection on the past and anticipation of the future frequently occupied the thoughts of participants as they sought insight in to their lives. These insights were associated with a range of emotions that included embarrassment, shame, optimism, feelings of support and a sense of loss of control. The findings provide additional information on the human experience of alcohol withdrawal and, thus, increase empathy, understanding and knowledge. This increased understanding can be utilized to improve the quality of nursing care provided to this complex client group.
Macher, A; Goosby, E; Barker, L; Volberding, P; Goldschmidt, R; Balano, K B; Williams, A; Hoenig, L; Gould, B; Daniels, E
As HIV-related prophylactic and therapeutic research findings continue to evolve, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the Public Health Service has created multidisciplinary mechanisms to disseminate new treatment options and educate primary care providers at rural and urban sites throughout our nation's health care system. HRSA has implemented (a) the International State-of-the-Art HIV Clinical Conference Call Series, (b) the national network of AIDS Education and Training Centers, (c) the nationwide HIV Telephone Consultation Service, and (d) the Clinical Issues Subcommittee of the HRSA AIDS Advisory Committee. These collaborative and comprehensive efforts at HIV information dissemination target physicians, nurses, physician assistants, dentists, clinical pharmacists, mental health care providers, case managers, and allied health professionals. The sites where they provide care include public health clinics; county, State and Federal correctional facilities; private practice offices; community and academic hospitals; military and Veterans Administration facilities; hemophilia centers; schools of medicine, nursing, and dentistry; departments of health; chronic care facilities; visiting nurse and home care agencies; health maintenance organizations; and Indian Health Service clinics and hospitals.
Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann
We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing
Rigby, Mary E.; Woodcock, Charles C.
A continuation of a report (EC 004 818) presents appended case studies of 15 children involved in a residential school program for the multiply handicapped blind. Each study provides information and developmental history, medical data, personal hygiene, eating habits, physical development, psychological adjustment, object recognition, classroom…
Rankhorn, Barney; And Others
An ecological model for service and advocacy for handicapped children through a residential diagnostic center is presented. Such a model is explained to provide a meaningful interrelationship of varied resources and agencies at the local, state, and federal level with a focus on the generic program. Four positive interfacing functions relating to…
This study provides a description of the academic functioning levels and performance gains of adolescents (n = 423) attending a residential school over a seven year period using secondary data. Students ranged in age from 12 to 18 and represented a wide range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The vast majority of the sample were males (68%).…
Cohen, Jordan J
Medical educators are facing a challenge today that is quite analogous to that addressed by Abraham Flexner, namely how to transform a legacy system of education that is no longer preparing future physicians adequately to meet contemporary expectations and responsibilities. In facing up this challenge, however, today's educators not only must equip students to deal effectively with the rapidly changing paradigms in health care and medical practice, they also must adapt their curricula and pedagogical methods to the demanding new paradigms of medical education. Their success in addressing these dual imperatives will determine whether the educational transformations currently underway will have as momentous an effect on the public's health as did those stimulated by Flexner a century ago.
This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal partners in the enterprise of medical education. Discourses of competence tend to be privileged while those discourses of caring are often marginalised. Medical students learn to be physicians, and develop professional identities, in the context of these competing discourses. This paper documents a qualitative study designed to explore how professional identities are developed in the context of competing discourses. The study included a Foucauldian discourse analysis of medical education curriculum documents (67 problem-based learning cases in total), 26 h of observation of a small group learning experience (a problem-based learning tutorial), and in-depth, open-ended interviews with five medical students and nine medical educators at a Canadian medical school. The paper describes how professional identities are developed in relation to discourses of competence, noting that students displayed what they considered to be desirable professional identities of confidence, capability and suitability. Also explored are the professional identities demonstrated in relation to discourses of caring, including those of benevolence and humbleness. Despite current conceptualisations, medical education is ripe with potential. The data indicate Foucauldian "spaces of freedom"-sites at which the complexity of the practice of medicine and the interwoven natures of the discourses of competence and caring might be taken into account as a means of challenging taken for granted cultural norms and broadening the medical gaze.
Händler-Schuster, D; Schulz, M; Behrens, J
In the 20th century, houseparent families represented a significant resource in the long-term care of people with mental illnesses and physical disabilities in diaconical care settings in Germany. In theory, such families could therefore be understood as a type of institutional family: groups which occasionally use familial patterns of reciprocity but are not themselves families. As little empirical material on life in institutional families existed, a qualitative study was undertaken to explore the experiences of contemporary witnesses, particularly those who had experienced the duties and responsibilities of housemothers in the second half of the 20th century. This paper has combined the experiences of residents (n= 8) and biological children of houseparents (n= 5) from a qualitative study (n= 42). The qualitative study took a grounded theory approach, with the phenomena of power and domination forming the central category. The findings show that life in houseparent families of the time was shaped by rules which the family members had to obey. This study explores a highly controversial area which is of great relevance for current mental health nursing practice: the power relations in diaconal families. This demonstrates the importance of integrating autonomy and empowerment into everyday communal life and contributes to professional nursing practice.
Parental leave and early childhood education and care (ECEC) are two policies widely proposed and implemented to support working parents with young children. This article examines entitlement to leave and ECEC in 25 European countries, including 22 EU Member and Accession States, and the relationship between them, in particular to what degree…
Ferrell, Betty; Malloy, Pam; Mazanec, Polly; Virani, Rose
Nurses spend the most time of any health care professional caring for patients and families dealing with the challenges of serious illness. The demand for nursing expertise in palliative care is growing as more people are living with chronic, life-limiting illnesses. Nursing faculty must prepare future nurses to meet this demand. The new American Association of Colleges of Nursing Palliative Competencies And Recommendations for Educating undergraduate nursing Students document, released February 2016, identifies the 17 competencies that all undergraduate nursing students should achieve by the time of graduation. This historic document is a revision of the 1998 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Peaceful Death document and is now the guiding framework for undergraduate nursing education. In an effort to support nursing faculty and prepare nursing students to deliver quality palliative care, an innovative, interactive on-line undergraduate End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) curriculum is under development and will be released in January 2017. This new curriculum will meet the competencies and recommendations for achieving those competencies outlined in the Competencies And Recommendations for Educating undergraduate nursing Students document.
Reifel, Stuart, Ed.; Dunst, Carl J., Ed.; Wolery, Mark, Ed.
Family issues are an abiding concern for members of the profession of early education, and debate regarding government policies about families and child care continues to be timely. This volume provides a foundation for understanding programs, families, and the current social context, as well as particular areas of concern for families and child…
Rask, Mikael; Aberg, Jonas
Nurses (registered nurses, RN, and licensed mental nurses, LMN) working in five Swedish forensic psychiatric units filled in a questionnaire designed for general psychiatric nursing, but modified for forensic use. In this report, data regarding how nursing care could contribute to improved care and the organizational changes needed and what knowledge the nurses need, in order to be able to meet the demands in the future, were analysed by means of content analysis. The salient findings were: (i) an interpersonal patient-nurse relationship based on trust, empathy, respect and responsibility for the patients' personal resources and knowledge seems to be the essence of nursing care and a way to improve care; and (ii) the nurses' educational needs emanate from different treatment modalities, how to perform different treatments, how to establish developing relationships and in-service training adapted to the ward-specific problems.
The report contains a summary of the accomplishments made during the CARE proposal. The overall goal of this proposal was to train graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in the field of radiochemistry. The goal was to expose trainees to the fundamentals of radioisotope production, radiochemistry synthesis, synthetic organic chemistry as well as applications and hands on experience in small animal imaging. In summary approximately 30 trainees were involved including trainees both at the graduate and postdoctoral levels. This funding has to date resulted in publications in high impact journals such as Med Chem Comm, Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging and Biology. Trainees have gone on to further their careers in both academia, industry and the private sector. The funding will result in seven Master’s and six Ph.D dissertations. Without the DOE funding it simply would not have been possible to continue to train the next generation of radiochemists needed to assure a future US-based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise.
Harris, Stewart B.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Van, Daphne M.; O'Neill, Colleen
Introduction: Formal didactic continuing medical education (CME) is relatively ineffective for changing physician behavior. Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent disease, and interventions to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are needed. Methods: A stratified, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design was used to…
Wood, Emily B.; Meekin, Sharon Abele; Fins, Joseph J.; Fleischman, Alan R.
Evaluated a project to catalyze New York State medical schools to develop and implement strategic plans for curricular change to enhance palliative care education. Found that the project's process of self-assessment and curriculum mapping with the Palliative Education Assessment Tool, along with strategic planning for change, appears to have…
Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.
Explanations are provided about Maine's special education, vocational education, vocational rehabilitation, and eye care programs and services, to assist teachers and counselors to understand better the mission, eligibility requirements, and service resources each brings to the planning process for students with handicaps. The guidelines were…
Hope, R; Carter, C A; Rai, I M
Sahar Matha Secondary School and Ghoretar Health Post serve approximately 30,000 people living in scattered communities over the steep foothills of the Himalaya in East Nepal. A pilot health education and sanitation project was implemented with the objectives of giving the secondary school students the knowledge and skills necessary for building domestic pit latrines in their villages. It was hoped that the students could be motivated to create enough awareness of the need for domestic pit latrines so that latrines would continue to be built after the pilot phase of the project. At the end of the 4 week building period there were 150 completed domestic pit latrines and 45 pits or partially complete latrines. Seeing pit latrine in Ghoretar at the school and health post had not been enough to motivate people to build their own domestic pit latrine. It seemed that people could understand the convenience of privacy in an area where there was no jungle cover, but did not appreciate the hygiene reasons for using pit latrines. It is now planned to extend the project into the 19 schools which feed the 2ndarty school, with the 2ndary school boy and girl scouts taking the health messages to the primary schools. Particular attention will be given to the teaching of modes disease transmission. So that the villagers can use their latrines hygienically.
Simmonds, Anne H
The Canadian Nurses' Association Code of Ethics (2008) and the College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia (CRNNS) Standards of Practice for Registered Nurses (CRNNS 2011) identify the provision of safe, compassionate, competent and ethical care as one of nursing's primary values and ethical responsibilities. While compassion has historically been viewed as the essence of nursing, there is concern that this has become an abstract ideal, rather than a true reflection of nursing practice. This paper describes a compassionate care initiative undertaken by the CRNNS and the initial outcomes of these educational workshops. This work is informed by an exploration of the multiplicity of factors that have brought this issue to the fore for nursing regulators, educators, administrators, the public as well as front-line staff. The two most significant areas of learning reported by workshop participants included understanding the connection between mindfulness, non-judgmental care and compassion/self-compassion and recognizing possibilities for action related to compassionate care, even in the face of personal and environmental constraints. Implications for nursing regulators and leaders include consideration of their roles and responsibilities in supporting nurses to meet professional practice standards, such as provision of compassionate care.
Godley, Susan H; Godley, Mark D; Wright, Kelli L; Funk, Rodney R; Petry, Nancy M
Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in improving outcomes of substance-abusing patients, but CM studies are relatively rare in adolescents. CM approaches can reinforce both abstinence and adherence to treatment-related goal areas. This paper describes 1,739 different activities in 10 goal areas (e.g., education, family/friends, and social/recreational) chosen by 86 adolescents who were participating in a multiple week CM study that reinforced both abstinence and adherence with goal-related activities. The mean activities selected was 20, and the mean completed was 13. Overall, 1,114 or 64% of chosen activities were completed. The clinical feasibility of activity incentive programs for adolescents is discussed.
Rugen, Kathryn Wirtz; Watts, Sharon A; Janson, Susan L; Angelo, Laura A; Nash, Melanie; Zapatka, Susan A; Brienza, Rebecca; Gilman, Stuart C; Bowen, Judith L; Saxe, JoAnne M
To integrate health care professional learners into patient-centered primary care delivery models, the Department of Veterans Affairs has funded five Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education (CoEPCEs). The main goal of the CoEPCEs is to develop and test innovative structural and curricular models that foster transformation of health care training from profession-specific "silos" to interprofessional, team-based educational and care delivery models in patient-centered primary care settings. CoEPCE implementation emphasizes four core curricular domains: shared decision making, sustained relationships, interprofessional collaboration, and performance improvement. The structural models allow interprofessional learners to have longitudinal learning experiences and sustained and continuous relationships with patients, faculty mentors, and peer learners. This article presents an overview of the innovative curricular models developed at each site, focusing on nurse practitioner (NP) education. Insights on transforming NP education in the practice setting and its impact on traditional NP educational models are offered. Preliminary outcomes and sustainment examples are also provided.
Rep. Spratt, John M., Jr. [D-SC-5
03/30/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-152. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The bill makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act enacted by H.R.3590 and modifies higher education assistance provisions. Read together, H.R.3590 and the health care-related provisions of this bill are commonly... Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Spratt, John M., Jr. [D-SC-5
03/30/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-152. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The bill makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act enacted by H.R.3590 and modifies higher education assistance provisions. Read together, H.R.3590 and the health care-related provisions of this bill are commonly... Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
California Childcare Health Program, 2011
This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Tarzy, Bruce; Hunt, Lauren; Taitsman, Julie; Budetti, Peter
Program integrity (PI) spans the entire spectrum of improper payments from fraud to abuse, errors, and waste in the health care system. Few physicians will perpetrate fraud or abuse during their careers, but nearly all will contribute to the remaining spectrum of improper payments, making preventive education in this area vital. Despite the enormous impact that PI issues have on government-sponsored and private insurance programs, physicians receive little formal education in this area. Physicians' lack of awareness of PI issues not only makes them more likely to submit inappropriate claims, generate orders that other providers and suppliers will use to submit inappropriate claims, and document improperly in the medical record but also more likely to become victims of fraud schemes themselves.In this article, the authors provide an overview of the current state of PI issues in general, and fraud in particular, as well as a description of the state of formal education for practicing physicians, residents, and fellows. Building on the lessons from pilot programs conducted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and partner organizations, the authors then propose a model PI education curriculum to be implemented nationwide for physicians at all levels. They recommend that various stakeholder organizations take part in the development and implementation process to ensure that all perspectives are included. Educating physicians is an essential step in establishing a broader culture of compliance and improved integrity in the health care system, extending beyond Medicare and Medicaid.
Hopper, Keith B
Among health professions the field of respiratory care (RC) once enjoyed a leadership role in integrating new technologies in teaching, largely because of the excellent match between branching-logic clinical simulations and microcomputer technology. RC can reclaim leadership status by concentrating on effective teaching and the judicious (rather than lavish) deployment of educational technologies. Teleconferencing has been important in RC education, but its role is waning as Internet-based teaching becomes the dominant technology. RC instructors should avoid the media-comparison research pitfall. Research indicates that students who learn at a distance do not learn better or worse than students in traditional classrooms, although student attrition is a serious problem in Internet-based courses. Online courses are time consuming to develop and deploy, effectively serve limited numbers of students per course, and are not suitable for some topics and learners. RC is probably not a good match for courses and programs delivered entirely via the Internet, but RC is an excellent match for Internet-supported courses. Faculty should concentrate on teaching effectiveness, instruction design strategies, and making judicious, conservative used of educational technologies. With or without technology, instructors should develop learner-centered, authentic instruction. In RC education there are abundant opportunities to employ technology, but RC programs will be well served by distilling a detailed vision of effective educational-technology integration, rather than by continuing to pressure programs and faculty to adopt technology without careful consideration of the value added (or subtracted) by each specific technology.
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Children's Action Alliance, 2008
As Arizona strives for a first-rate educational system, the foundation of care and education for our youngest children remains far too weak. This new report, "A Decade of Data: The Compensation and Credentials of Arizona's Early Care and Education Workforce," marks ten years of data on trends in the wages, benefits, and education levels…
A recent "strategic initiative" literature review developed for the Aotearoa/New Zealand Ministry of Education advised that care and education are no longer distinct. This article explores this suggestion in terms of the politics and the philosophy of early childhood education. It argues that the synthesis of care and education reflects…
Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.
This booklet presents the action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care for improving the quality of early care and education (ECE) in southern states. Also included in the booklet are tables that represent data collected from 16 participating states and the District of Columbia on state child care quality standards and…
Through an examination of storytelling in the present context, this study addresses the teaching of moral education from the standpoint of care ethics. Through observations, interviews, and surveys in one school committed to care ethics, this study aims to show how the philosophical perspective of care ethics can inform practice. Teachers engaged…
Philosophical analysis concerning selfhood and care is of fundamental importance for child care and education. Martin Heidegger's analytic of Dasein introduces the concepts of self and care within the ontological domain while structuring the holistic understanding of human existence. Because of the ontological emphasis, Heidegger's concepts of…
Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Kauerz, Kristie; Tarrant, Kathleen C.
In this important new book, Sharon Lynn Kagan and her colleagues focus on the more than 2 million individuals who care for and educate nearly two thirds of the American children under age 5 participating in nonparental care. Providing the most thorough synthesis of current research on the early care and education teaching workforce to date, the…
Pearson, P.; Jones, K.
The trio of recent government white papers heralds a new world for primary care. Many changes in the education of future primary health care professionals and in the research ethos of the discipline will be needed to realise this vision. New skills and attitudes, not least in multidisciplinary working; lifelong learning; and greater understanding of and participation in primary care research will have to emerge from educational efforts in the next few years. PMID:9081008
This is part I of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1925 to 1983. Most of the references are from the 1970's. (RH)
In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…
Matthews, P; Fletcher, J
General practitioners and practice nurses require the clinical skills that will enable them to detect sexually transmitted infections in the context of a shift to having no, or insidious symptoms. They need to be able to confirm the diagnosis and have clear models for management and referral. Primary care and genitourinary medicine need to work more closely together to increase mutual understanding and clarify the issues which surround referral and attendance. Sexual health risk assessment through the investigation of sexual history is a helpful way forward in both differential diagnosis and in targeting sexual health promotion and care. Many aspects of these clinical skills are specific to the primary care context. There is a need for improved undergraduate, postgraduate, and in-service training. Multidisciplinary educational approaches are ideal for the subject of sexual health. Primary care groups offer a potential way forward to help develop quality in primary care and some are developing health improvement programmes that aim to address sexual health issues. PMID:11271875
Margolin, David A.
Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has been the largest source of GME funding. There are two types of costs associated with GME. Direct GME (DME) funding covers costs directly attributed to the training of residents. These costs include residents' stipends, salaries, and benefits; cost of supervising faculty; direct program administration costs; overhead; and malpractice coverage. Indirect GME (IME) costs are payments to hospitals as an additional or add-on payment for the increased cost of care that is generally found in teaching hospitals. In 2010, President Barak Obama signed into law H.R. 3200, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In 2011, the Supreme Court held that the majority of the PPACA is constitutional. Although the true impact of this bill is unknown, it will change the formula for Medicare GME reimbursement as well as shift unused residency positions to primary care. PMID:23997674
Margolin, David A
Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has been the largest source of GME funding. There are two types of costs associated with GME. Direct GME (DME) funding covers costs directly attributed to the training of residents. These costs include residents' stipends, salaries, and benefits; cost of supervising faculty; direct program administration costs; overhead; and malpractice coverage. Indirect GME (IME) costs are payments to hospitals as an additional or add-on payment for the increased cost of care that is generally found in teaching hospitals. In 2010, President Barak Obama signed into law H.R. 3200, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In 2011, the Supreme Court held that the majority of the PPACA is constitutional. Although the true impact of this bill is unknown, it will change the formula for Medicare GME reimbursement as well as shift unused residency positions to primary care.
Oliver, Doug; Emili, Anna; Chan, David; Taniguchi, Alan
Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residents require more exposure to all aspects of care of the elderly in the community, including care in long-term care (LTC) homes. Objective of program To provide a framework for the development of integrated LTC rotations in family medicine programs. Program description Clear objectives for residents and clinical preceptors provided the foundation for the program. Rotations of 4 half days per year in LTC homes were integrated into core family medicine blocks. Residents worked with family physician preceptors providing LTC in the community. Teaching was case based and aligned with the core competencies set out in the CanMEDS (Canadian Medical Directives for Specialists) framework for medical education. The program was strongly supported by the university’s administration, clinical preceptors in the community, and LTC homes. Conclusion All the residents rated their LTC rotations as useful or extremely useful in preparing them to provide LTC in their future practices. Long-term care homes realized that investing in training medical residents in LTC could help improve care of the elderly in the community. PMID:21841091
Parker, Parker; Folkman, Jessica
The purpose of this article is to inform educators (general educators, special educators, teacher educators, and administrators) about ways to teach, advocate for, and empower students with disabilities who are also engaged in the foster care system. The conclusion includes authors' suggestions for how teacher educators might incorporate the…
Mallory, Judy L
Nurse educators have identified that historically nurses have not been prepared to care for dying patients. Research also has identified that nursing students have anxieties about death, dying, and caring for dying patients. Several factors have been identified as affecting nurses' and nursing students' attitudes toward care of the dying. Factors addressed in this research were current and previous death education. This research incorporated experiential learning using a model of death education and transformative learning theory. The educational experiences were geared to help students understand the skills needed to care competently and compassionately for the dying. The use of the End of Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) education package along with experiences at the hospice, the funeral home, the anatomy laboratory, and role play helped facilitate transformative learning in the nursing students. The study examined the effects of an educational experience to determine if a one-time educational experience provides sufficient, lasting effects in a 6-week format. Results of this study indicate that education can have a positive effect on nursing students' attitudes toward care of the dying. Nursing students in the intervention group had a significant positive increase in their attitudes toward care of the dying after the intervention. The attitude change increased slightly after a 4-week period.
Busari, Jamiu O
Quality assurance (QA) in higher medical education involves the development, sustenance, improvement, and evaluation of the standard of training of medical professionals. In health care delivery, QA focuses on guaranteeing and maintaining a high standard of the service provided in different health care systems. When the service delivered by the care provider is in accordance with what the recipients of health care expect, then quality in health care is considered to be present. There are several factors in higher medical education and health care that are responsible for the emergence of QA. These include externally imposed obligations requiring demonstration of public accountability and responsibility from educational institutions, as well as the need for activity-specific information by policy makers as an aid for important decision-making within educational institutions. In health care delivery on the other hand, the emergence of QA is linked to the need for containing rising health care costs in the face of limited resources and to guaranteeing high quality patient care in a changing health care environment where the power relationship between doctors and patients is shifting towards patients. Although medical education can be regarded as a distinct entity in the health care industry, it still remains an inherent part of the health care delivery system. As a result, different strategies aimed at guaranteeing and assuring high standards of health care and education in many countries tend to overlap. This paper reflects on whether quality assurance in health care delivery and medical education should be seen as separate entities.
Wright Nunes, Julie A
Patient education is promoted as an integral part of effective kidney disease management. Programs and tools are available for providers and patients to support patient CKD education in primary care and nephrology. Challenges to providing patient education across practice settings include patients' lack of awareness of CKD as a medical entity, physician perceptions of their own lack of skill and ability to educate patients, differences in how primary care and nephrology physicians perceive collaborative care, and shortage of staff and time to support educational efforts. In addition, there is little research available to guide evidence-based practices for implementing early patient CKD education interventions across medical disciplines. Development and testing of patient education programs using early CKD multidisciplinary care, educational websites, and phone-based applications are all areas of growing research. More work is needed to provide evidence and support that physicians and other health professionals need to ensure a seamless patient education experience across the continuum of care.
Chang, E-shien; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi
As US populations become increasing diverse, healthcare professionals are facing a heightened challenge to provide cross-cultural care. To date, medical education around the world has developed specific curricula on cultural competence training in acknowledgement of the importance of culturally sensitive and grounded services. This article proposes to move forward by integrating the concept of cultural humility into current trainings, in which we believe, is vital in complementing the current model, and better prepare future professionals to address health challenges with culturally appropriate care. Based on the works of Chinese philosophers, cultural values and the contemporary Chinese immigrants' experience, we hereby present the QIAN (Humbleness) curriculum: the importance of self-Questioning and critique, bi-directional cultural Immersion, mutually Active-listening, and the flexibility of Negotiation. The principles of the QIAN curriculum reside not only between the patient and the healthcare professional dyad, but also elicit the necessary support of family, health care system as well as the community at large. The QIAN curriculum could improve practice and enhance the exploration, comprehension and appreciation of the cultural orientations between healthcare professionals and patients which ultimately could improve patient satisfaction, patient-healthcare professional relationship, medical adherence and the reduction of health disparities. QIAN model is highly adaptable to other cultural and ethnic groups in multicultural societies around the globe. Incorporating its framework into the current medical education may enhance cross-cultural clinical encounters.
This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)
Child Welfare, 2010
Current federal legislation identifies three goals for the child welfare system: safety, permanence, and family and child well-being. Unfortunately, child well-being becomes subordinate to the more easily achievable and measurable goal of permanence--returning children to the biological family, facilitating an adoption, or placing them with…
Paul, M; Welch, L
Workers and citizens are turning increasingly to the health care system for information about occupational and environmental reproductive hazards, yet most primary care providers and specialists know little about the effects of occupational/environmental toxicants on the reproductive system or how to evaluate and manage patients at potential risk. Although it is unrealistic to expect all clinicians to become experts in this area, practitioners should know how to take a basic screening history, identify patients at potential risk, and make appropriate referrals. At present, occupational and environmental health issues are not well integrated into health professional education in the United States, and clinical information and referral resources pertaining to reproductive hazards are inadequate. In addressing these problems, the conference "Working Group on Health Provider Education and Resources" made several recommendations that are detailed in this report. Short-term goals include enhancement of existing expertise and resources at a regional level and better integration of information on occupational/environmental reproductive hazards into curricula, meetings, and publications of medical and nursing organizations. Longer term goals include development of a comprehensive, single-access information and referral system for clinicians and integration of occupational and environmental medicine into formal health professional education curricula at all levels. PMID:8243391
Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason
Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.
Jackson, Susan E
The transformation of health care into managed care has raised many issues and concerns for nurse educators. The milieu in which nurses currently practice reflects the restructuring shaped by managed care principles. The shift from acute care to expanded community services has changed the way health care is provided within hospital settings. The organization of nursing programs has been affected by this shift, and the ramifications of these external forces on curriculum structure have altered the way nursing students are educated. This article presents research demonstrating the changes in the structure of the curricula for baccalaureate nursing education in 2001, which were caused by health care reform in effect since 1994.
Williamson, Lara; Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Harrison, Linda
Introduction: Although the family day care workforce has changed over the past decade in response to evolving childcare regulations and accreditation requirements, there is little research on family day care educators in Australia. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of Australian family day care educators, including their…
Ongoing changes in the Polish political and economic sectors have led to tremendous changes in its education and health care systems that will likely bring reforms in the care of orphaned children. After the Second World War, many children in Poland were orphaned and an institutional system for their care and education became entrenched. Many…
Luff, Paulette; Kanyal, Mallika; Shehu, Mansur; Brewis, Nicola
In this article we explore the notion of young children as citizens and the implications of this for early childhood education and care (ECEC). Citizenship has a place in the National Curriculum, in England, and is compulsory for pupils aged 11-16 years. In the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) curriculum, for children aged from 0-5 years, there…
Busboom, Jan R.; Newman, Jerry A.; Shulaw, William P.; Jeffreys, J. Bradford
This curriculum guide contains a six-unit, two-level program combining animal science and veterinary care for youth club leaders and members in grades three through twelve. The Facilitator and Educator/Leader Introductions describe the program, the goals, and the students who will participate. The six lesson plans contain what the lesson is about,…
Lowenstein, Amy E.
Most young children in the United States regularly spend time in early care and education (ECE) settings. Institutionalized messages surrounding ECE claim that it has the potential to promote children's life-long success, especially among low-income children. I examine the legitimacy of these claims by reviewing empirical evidence that bears on…
Palladino, John M.
This case describes the educational experiences of a foster care student named Chad. His foster parents and teacher notice educational deficits and express concern about gaps in the student's cumulative educational record. The principal and special education director must guide all constituents to adhere to special education mandates and at the…
It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and team performance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of team performance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores.
US Department of Education, 2014
Providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings presents unique challenges for the administrators, teachers, and staff who are responsible for the education, rehabilitation, and welfare of youths committed to their care. The United States departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) recognize that while these…