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Sample records for residential energy codes

  1. Compliance Verification Paths for Residential and Commercial Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Makela, Eric J.; Fannin, Jerica D.; Sullivan, Robin S.

    2011-10-10

    This report looks at different ways to verify energy code compliance and to ensure that the energy efficiency goals of an adopted document are achieved. Conformity assessment is the body of work that ensures compliance, including activities that can ensure residential and commercial buildings satisfy energy codes and standards. This report identifies and discusses conformity-assessment activities and provides guidance for conducting assessments.

  2. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  3. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  4. The Marriage of Residential Energy Codes and Rating Systems: Conflict Resolution or Just Conflict?

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-08-21

    After three decades of coexistence at a distance, model residential energy codes and residential energy rating systems have come together in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code. At the October, 2013, International Code Council’s Public Comment Hearing, a new compliance path based on an Energy Rating Index was added to the IECC. Although not specifically named in the code, RESNET’s HERS rating system is the likely candidate Index for most jurisdictions. While HERS has been a mainstay in various beyond-code programs for many years, its direct incorporation into the most popular model energy code raises questions about the equivalence of a HERS-based compliance path and the traditional IECC performance compliance path, especially because the two approaches use different efficiency metrics, are governed by different simulation rules, and have different scopes with regard to energy impacting house features. A detailed simulation analysis of more than 15,000 house configurations reveals a very large range of HERS Index values that achieve equivalence with the IECC’s performance path. This paper summarizes the results of that analysis and evaluates those results against the specific Energy Rating Index values required by the 2015 IECC. Based on the home characteristics most likely to result in disparities between HERS-based compliance and performance path compliance, potential impacts on the compliance process, state and local adoption of the new code, energy efficiency in the next generation of homes subject to this new code, and future evolution of model code formats are discussed.

  5. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  6. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  7. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  8. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  9. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  10. Building up energy efficiency: an analysis of the relationship between energy efficiency building codes and electricity consumption in the U.S. residential sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Matthew John

    The effects of climate change caused by the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) are a growing concern for state governments in the United States. The majority of state governments have attempted to mitigate GHG emissions through energy efficiency programs to combat the rising demand for electricity. In order to manage the increasing demand for electricity, states have adopted International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) for new residential buildings to offset the demand for energy. This paper studies the relationship between state level residential building codes and electricity consumption rates. Using state-level panel data, I construct a database of state residential building code adoptions and energy use from 2000-2010 to measure the relationship between state regulation and residential electricity consumption using an OLS Fixed Effects model. My most conclusive findings suggest that there is a negative association between specific code adoption and electricity consumption, but only in states with low rates of new residential construction. I find that the adoption of the 2006 IECC building code in states with low rates of new residential construction is associated with a 1.7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents. I also find that the adoption of an up-to-date building code is associated with a .7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents in states with low rates of new residential construction.

  11. Residential Energy Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)

  12. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  13. A Comparison of the 2003 and 2006 International Energy Conservation Codes to Determine the Potential Impact on Residential Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Baxter, Van D

    2008-03-01

    The IECC was updated in 2006. As required in the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1992, Title 3, DOE has a legislative requirement to "determine whether such revision would improve energy efficiency in residential buildings" within 12 months of the latest revision. This requirement is part of a three-year cycle of regular code updates. To meet this requirement, an independent review was completed using personnel experienced in building science but not involved in the code development process.

  14. Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1995-08-01

    Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

  15. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  16. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-03-31

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  17. Building code compliance and enforcement: The experience of San Francisco's residential energy conservation ordinance and California's building standards for new construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing to construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and

  19. Residential construction code impacts on radon

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, S.; Brennan, T.; Osborne, M.C.

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses residential construction-code impacts on radon. It references existing residential construction codes that pertain to the elements of construction that impact either the ability to seal radon out of houses or the ability to achieve good soil ventilation for radon control. Several inconsistencies in the codes that will impact radon resistant construction are identified. Resolution of these resulting radon issues is necessary before specification-style building codes can be developed to achieve radon-resistant construction.

  20. Comparison of current state residential energy codes with the 1992 model energy code for one- and two-family dwellings; 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, L.A.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lucas, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the program is to develop and support the adopting, implementation, and enforcement of Federal, State, and Local energy codes for new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Also supported are the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report documents findings from an analysis conducted by PNL of the State`s building codes to determine if the codes meet or exceed the 1992 MEC energy efficiency requirements (CABO 1992a).

  1. Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.

  2. Advancing Residential Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    To advance the market penetration of residential retrofits, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered to provide technical assistance on nine home energy retrofits in metropolitan Atlanta with simulated source energy savings of 30% to 50%. Retrofit measures included duct sealing, air infiltration reductions, attic sealing and roofline insulation, crawlspace sealing, HVAC and water heating equipment replacement, and lighting and appliance upgrades. This paper will present a summary of these measures and their associated impacts on important home performance metrics, such as air infiltration and duct leakage. The average estimated source energy savings for the homes is 33%, and the actual heating season average savings is 32%. Additionally, a case study describing expected and realized energy savings of completed retrofit measures of one of the homes is described in this paper.

  3. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  4. Comparison of the Supplement to the 2004 IECC to the Current New York Energy Conservation Code - Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2004-09-01

    The New York State Department of State requested the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report consisting of two components. The first component is an analysis comparing the effects on energy usage as a result of implementation of the 2004 Supplement to the IECC with the current New York code. The second component is an engineering analysis to determine whether additional costs of compliance with the proposal would be equal to or less than the present value of anticipated energy savings over a 10-year period. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed the requested assessment of the potential code upgrade.

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  6. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  7. State energy codes: An uphill battle

    SciTech Connect

    Bodzin, S.

    1997-03-01

    Energy codes have helped many states and counties achieve higher efficiency in new construction, but builders and efficiency advocates continue to struggle over how and when to change these codes. This article presents state by state residential energy codes as well as a discussion of the problems. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  9. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R. L.

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  10. Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2006-12-01

    This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  11. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  12. Impact of improved building thermal efficiency on residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Rockwood, A.D.

    1983-04-01

    The impact of improved building shell thermal efficiency on residential energy demand is explored in a theoretical framework. The important economic literature on estimating the price elasticity of residential energy demand is reviewed. The specification of the residential energy demand model is presented. The data used are described. The empirical estimation of the residential energy demand model is described. (MHR)

  13. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Sivaraman, Deepak; Elliott, Douglas B.; Liu, Bing; Bartlett, Rosemarie

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  14. Technology change and energy consumption: A comparison of residential subdivisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    The energy savings in residential buildings likely to result from implementation of the building energy performance standards (BEPS) were assessed. The goals were to: compare energy use in new homes designed to meet or exceed BEPS levels of energy efficiency with that in similar but older homes designed to meet conventional building codes, and to survey the home owners regarding their energy conservation attitudes and behaviors and to ascertain the degree to which conservation attitudes and behaviors are related to residential energy use. The consumer demand theory which provides the framework for the empirical analysis is presented. The sample residences are described and the data collection method discussed. The definition and measurement of major variables are presented.

  15. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  16. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  1. Childhood cancer in relation to a modified residential wire code

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. ); Kaune, W.T. )

    1993-04-22

    Several studies have found associations between wire configuration codes, a proxy for historical residential magnetic field exposure, and childhood cancer. The Wertheimer-Leeper coding method was modified by eliminating the distinction between thick and thin primaries, distinguishing only between open and spun secondaries, and reducing the number of categories from five to three. The association between the modified code and measured magnetic fields was similar to the association with the original wire code. The modified code was used to reanalyze data from a case-control study of childhood cancer in the Denver metropolitan area. In the original study, cases were diagnosed from 1976 to 1983 among children under age 15 and compared to controls selected through random digit dialing. Wire codes for the residence at diagnosis yielded imprecise elevations of two and above for very high current configuration homes or modest 1.5-fold elevations for a dichotomous wire code. In contrast, the modified Wertheimer-Leeper code generated risk estimates that were both precise and markedly elevated for the high wire code (HWC) compared to low wire code (LWC) classifications, with medium wire code (MWC) showing little or no increase in risk. High wire code yielded odds ratios of 1.9 for total cancers (95% CI: 1.1--3.2), 2.9 for leukemias (95% CI: 1.5--5.5), and 2.5 for brain cancer (95% CI: 1.1--5.5) that were not confounded by measured potential risk factors for childhood cancer. These risk estimates are larger than the dichotomized results and more precise than those from the original five-level wire code, though limitations in the original study remain, particularly potential control selection bias. This refined and greatly simplified approach to wire configuration coding may be useful in other studies. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Building energy codes as a tool for energy efficiency: Examining implementation in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Brittany L.

    2011-12-01

    Kentucky adopted the 2009 IECC residential energy code in 2011 and is developing a plan for achieving 90 percent compliance with the code. This report examines recommendations for energy code implementation from various expert sources and then compares them to Kentucky's current and planned future procedures for energy code adoption, implementation, and enforcement. It seeks to answer the question: To what extent is Kentucky following expert recommendations as it moves toward adopting and planning for implementation and enforcement of the IECC 2009? The report concludes with recommendations to the Kentucky Board of Housing, Buildings, and Construction for increasing residential energy code compliance and suggestions for exploring increased utility investments in energy efficiency.

  3. Prototype residential solar-energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

  4. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  9. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  10. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  11. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  12. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code...

  13. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code...

  14. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code...

  15. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  16. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  17. 76 FR 76328 - Energy Conservation Program: Enforcement of Regional Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Residential Furnaces and Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... of regional standards for residential furnaces and residential central air conditioners and heat... inform the rulemaking for enforcement of regional energy efficiency standards for residential...

  18. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes amending its test procedure for residential clothes washers under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to provide for measuring standby mode and off mode energy consumption, and to update the active mode test procedure. DOE is also proposing to eliminate an obsolete clothes washer test procedure currently codified in the Code of Federal......

  19. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes amending its test procedure for residential clothes washers under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to provide for measuring standby mode and off mode energy consumption, and to update the active mode test procedure. DOE is also proposing to eliminate an obsolete clothes washer test procedure currently codified in the Code of Federal......

  20. What the codes say on life safety. Significant changes for residential care.

    PubMed

    Koffel, W E

    1987-03-01

    The fire protection requirements contained in the model building codes and the Life Safety Code are constantly being scrutinized and revised. The American Health Care Association is actively participating in the code development and revision processes of the model code organizations and NFPA to ensure that the interests of the residential care community can be considered. While the effort is being coordinated by AHCA's Residential Care Committee, all interested parties are invited to participate and have their opinions and concerns heard.

  1. Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology for informing targeted demand-response (DR) and marketing programs that focus on the temperature-sensitive part of residential electricity demand. Our methodology uses data that is becoming readily available at utility companies-hourly energy consumption readings collected from "smart" electricity meters, as well as hourly temperature readings. To decompose individual consumption into a thermal-sensitive part and a base load (non-thermally-sensitive), we propose a model of temperature response that is based on thermal regimes, i.e., unobserved decisions of consumers to use their heating or cooling appliances. We use this model to extract useful benchmarks that compose thermal profiles of individual users, i.e., terse characterizations of the statistics of these users' temperature-sensitive consumption. We present example profiles generated using our model on real consumers, and show its performance on a large sample of residential users. This knowledge may, in turn, inform the DR program by allowing scarce operational and marketing budgets to be spent on the right users-those whose influencing will yield highest energy reductions-at the right time. We show that such segmentation and targeting of users may offer savings exceeding 100% of a random strategy.

  2. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  3. Energy Management Policies in Distributed Residential Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Sisi; Sun, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study energy management problems in communities with several neighborhood-level Residential Energy Systems (RESs). We consider control problems from both community level and residential level to handle external changes such as restriction on peak demand and restriction on the total demand from the electricity grid. We propose three policies to handle the problems at community level. Based on the collected data from RESs such as predicted energy load, the community controller analyzes the policies, distribute the results to the RES, and each RES can then control and schedule its own energy load based on different coordination functions. We utilize a framework to integrate both policy analysis and coordination of functions. With the use of our approach, we show that the policies are useful to resolve the challenges of energy management under external changes.

  4. 1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

  5. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  6. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  7. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  8. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Kazakevicius, E.

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  9. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As... direct final rule for ] Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air...

  10. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... for certain residential furnaces, and the analytical approach, models, and tools that DOE is using to... furnaces, which is available at:...

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  12. Technology Innovation and Building Energy Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altwies, Joy E.

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to add insight on the following general question: Has public policy stimulated energy-related technological change in buildings? Greater understanding of how policy influences technological change in the building sector can translate into better-designed policy mechanisms, ultimately accelerating innovation and adoption of energy-saving technologies. These technologies can enable building users to reduce their energy consumption and associated environmental impacts. This research addresses this general question using a case study of building controls technology, and poses the following specific research question: Has the use of building energy codes stimulated adoption of building controls? Building controls can be used in any type of building, of any vintage, and in any location; the systems come in a variety of configurations with a common objective; and they affect major sources of building energy consumption. Since they are used in both residential and commercial sectors, both of these sectors are included in the analysis. To address this research question, data are assembled from diverse sources and analyzed in multiple ways. The chapters proceed in a sequence that adds insight on individual aspects of the process of innovation in building controls. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on technological change, the characteristics of the building industry, and related energy policy. Chapter 2 uses patent citation data to characterize invention. Chapter 3 measures trends in technology prices to assess innovation. Chapter 4 uses federal commercial and residential building surveys to measure diffusion. Chapter 5 examines building energy code policies, selected for their relatively long history, widespread use, and relevance to building controls. In Chapter 6, data from Chapters 2 through 5 are used as inputs to a regression model to identify the effect of policy on adoption of the technology. Findings are discussed in

  13. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  14. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... conservation standards for residential furnace fans, with a comment period that was scheduled to close December... conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78 FR 64067) is extended...

  16. Energy Efficiency of the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2004-11-30

    The West Virginia State Building Code contains two options for energy efficiency requirements in one- and two-family dwellings. One is the International Code Council?s (ICC) 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (ICC 1999a,b) (87-4-4.1.6). The second is an exception (replacement) for Chapter 11 of the ICC International Residential Code (IRC) (87-4-4.1.7). The West Virginia Energy Efficiency Program, West Virginia Development Office, has asked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to compare the energy use resulting from the application of the 2000 IECC code and the IRC code, as amended by West Virginia. The Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compared the energy use from compliance with the 2000 IECC to the exception to Chapter 11 of the IRC known as the ''Alternate Energy Code''.

  17. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  18. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  19. Infrared thermography in a residential energy conservation program

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Implementing a thermographic inspection service in a residential energy conservation program offers numerous benefits to consumers, the conservation program, and the provider of this service. A description of the need for thermographic inspections, the problems encountered in setting up this service, the interface of the technical and non-technical sectors will be discussed in addition to the benefits to be gained through thermographic inspections. The credibility of a residential energy conservation service can be enhanced tremendously through the implementation of a thermographic inspection service. The need for thermography and its resultant benefits can provide a barometer for the future implementation of thermography within residential conservation programs.

  20. 76 FR 70865 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...-AB79 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers Correction In rule document 2011-22329 appearing on pages 57516...

  1. 76 FR 37549 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    .... 76, No. 123 / Monday, June 27, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  2. 24 CFR 200.925b - Residential and institutional building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... building code comparison items. 200.925b Section 200.925b Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Minimum Property Standards § 200.925b Residential and institutional building code comparison items. HUD...); (6) Individual unit smoke detectors; (7) Building alarm systems; (8) Highrise criteria; (b) Light and...

  3. 76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy... Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. This correction revises the DFR.... Mohammed Khan (furnaces) or Mr. Wesley Anderson (central air conditioners and heat pumps), U.S....

  4. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  5. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  6. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information. SUMMARY: The...

  7. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  8. Carbon reductions and health co-benefits from US residential energy efficiency measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Woo, May K.; Penn, Stefani L.; Omary, Mohammad; Tambouret, Yann; Kim, Chloe S.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2016-03-01

    The United States (US) Clean Power Plan established state-specific carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction goals for fossil fuel-fired electricity generating units (EGUs). States may achieve these goals through multiple mechanisms, including measures that can achieve equivalent CO2 reductions such as residential energy efficiency, which will have important co-benefits. Here, we develop state-resolution simulations of the economic, health, and climate benefits of increased residential insulation, considering EGUs and residential combustion. Increasing insulation to International Energy Conservation Code 2012 levels for all single-family homes in the US in 2013 would lead to annual reductions of 80 million tons of CO2 from EGUs, with annual co-benefits including 30 million tons of CO2 from residential combustion and 320 premature deaths associated with criteria pollutant emissions from both EGUs and residential combustion sources. Monetized climate and health co-benefits average 49 per ton of CO2 reduced from EGUs (range across states: 12-390). State-specific co-benefit estimates can inform development of optimal Clean Power Plan implementation strategies.

  9. Dynamic modeling of potentially conflicting energy reduction strategies for residential structures in semi-arid climates.

    PubMed

    Hester, Nathan; Li, Ke; Schramski, John R; Crittenden, John

    2012-04-30

    Globally, residential energy consumption continues to rise due to a variety of trends such as increasing access to modern appliances, overall population growth, and the overall increase of electricity distribution. Currently, residential energy consumption accounts for approximately one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption. This research analyzes the effectiveness of a range of energy-saving measures for residential houses in semi-arid climates. These energy-saving measures include: structural insulated panels (SIP) for exterior wall construction, daylight control, increased window area, efficient window glass suitable for the local weather, and several combinations of these. Our model determined that energy consumption is reduced by up to 6.1% when multiple energy savings technologies are combined. In addition, pre-construction technologies (structural insulated panels (SIPs), daylight control, and increased window area) provide roughly 4 times the energy savings when compared to post-construction technologies (window blinds and efficient window glass). The model also illuminated the importance variations in local climate and building configuration; highlighting the site-specific nature of this type of energy consumption quantification for policy and building code considerations.

  10. 76 FR 67037 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a direct final rule to establish amended energy conservation standards for residential furnaces and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps in the Federal Register on June 27, 2011. DOE has determined that the adverse comments received in response to the direct final rule do not provide a reasonable basis for withdrawing the direct......

  11. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  12. 1995 building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    During the spring of 1995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted four two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the US. Workshops were held in Chicago, Denver, Rhode Island, and Atlanta. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing building energy codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about residential and commercial building energy codes and standards, the role of the US Department of Energy and the Building Standards and Guidelines Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. Participants heard success stories, got tips on enforcement training, and received technical support materials. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants had an opportunity to provide input on code adoption issues, building industry training issues, building design issues, and exemplary programs across the US. This paper documents the workshop planning, findings, and follow-up processes.

  13. 77 FR 49739 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dehumidifiers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC81 Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... the energy conservation standards for residential dehumidifiers. DOE also announces a public meeting... initiating data collection for considering amended energy conservation standards for residential...

  14. An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.

    1996-09-01

    Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.

  15. Comparison of selected codes and standards relating to existing residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P. W.

    1980-07-01

    The performance levels of older residential buildings generally do not comply with the standards for safety or function that are applied of new buildings. The extent to which seven codes vary among each other in establishing minimum requirements for life, health and safety in existing dwellings, the differing approaches provided by traditional housing codes in contrast to more recently developed rehabilitation guideline documents regarding performance levels, and the degree to which each code meets its intended goals of providing and maintaining human shelter, protection, and privacy is examined. The code provisions are compared and analyzed in sixteen major code areas (e.g., structural requirements, light and illumination, plumbing requirements, etc.). Various inconsistencies among code documents with respect to uniformity and irrational approaches in the historical development of code provisions are indicated.

  16. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  17. How to buy energy-efficient residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The General Services Administration (GSA) will soon include residential windows in its Federal Supply Schedule 56-IV(A), ``Construction and Building Materials.`` When contracting for residential windows, specify NFRC-rated SHGC and U-factor values that meet this Efficiency Recommendation for your geographic region. When buying commercially, look for windows with the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label, all of which meet this Recommendation.

  18. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  19. Residential Energy Savings Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

  1. Residential Energy Savings Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2013-06-20

    Senate - 06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Residential Energy Savings Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

  4. 77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    .... 77, No. 105 / Thursday May 31, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  5. 77 FR 31964 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    .... 77, No. 104 / Wednesday, May 30, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC64 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION:...

  6. IMPROVING THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL CLOTHESDRYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmat, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate four techniques to improve the energy efficiency of electrically-heated domestic clothes dryers. Reduced air flow rate and heater input led to energy savings around 8%, while recirculation of a portion of the exhaust air back into the clothes dryer reduced energy consumption by approximately 18%. These two measures are attractive because of their low cost. Two modes of using an air-to-air heat exchanger for heat recovery were considered. The first is to preheat the inlet air with heat from the exhaust air, which resulted in 20 to 26% energy savings. The second mode is 100% recirculation of air through the dryer and a heat exchanger and condensation of water from this air in the heat exchanger by using indoor air. as a heat sink. This resulted in 100% heat recovery (i.e., all heat was rejected to indoors) but the energy consumption of the dryer was increased by up to 6%. To maximize energy savings, a clothes dryer with a heat exchanger can be equipped to operate in the preheating mode in the summer and in the recirculation/condensation mode in the winter. The last measure investigated recirculation, through a heat pump (i.e., dehumidifier), also resulted in a 100% heat recovery and, in addition, up to a 33% reduction in dryer energy consumption, but this technique also yielded long drying times.

  7. 76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent, amended standards for these products would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this direct final rule, DOE adopts amended energy conservation standards for residential furnaces and for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A notice of proposed rulemaking that proposes identical energy efficiency standards is published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register. If DOE receives adverse comment and determines that such comment may provide a reasonable basis for withdrawing the direct final rule, this final rule will be withdrawn, and DOE will proceed with the proposed rule.

  8. Residential energy demand models: Current status and future improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, G.

    1980-12-01

    Two models currently used to analyze energy use by the residential sector are described. The ORNL model is used to forecast energy use by fuel type for various end uses on a yearly basis. The MATH/CHRDS model analyzes variations in energy expenditures by households of various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The essential features of the ORNL and MATH/CHRDS models are retained in a proposed model and integrated into a framework that is more flexible than either model. The important determinants of energy use by households are reviewed.

  9. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  10. 77 FR 59719 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  15. An energy used model of the residential sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneal, D. L.; Hirst, E.

    1980-11-01

    An energy simulation model for residential energy uses and costs from 1970 through 2000 estimates annual consumption of four fuels, eight end uses, and three housing types. The model also evaluates annual equipment installation, ownership, and equipment costs including charges for improving thermal performance of new and existing housing. An example of the model application is given by estimating the energy and economic factors of alternate water heating conservation options; they show the advantages of heat pump water heaters over conventional and solar units.

  16. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  17. Residential energy consumption: An analysis-of-variance study

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this report, tests of statistical significance of five sets of variables with household energy consumption (at the point of end-use) are described. Five models, in sequence, were empirically estimated and tested for statistical significance by using the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. Each model incorporated additional information, embodied in a set of variables not previously specified in the energy demand system. The variable sets were generally labeled as economic variables, weather variables, household-structure variables, end-use variables, and housing-type variables. The tests of statistical significance showed each of the variable sets to be highly significant in explaining the overall variance in energy consumption. The findings imply that the contemporaneous interaction of different types of variables, and not just one exclusive set of variables, determines the level of household energy consumption.

  18. An energy standard for residential buildings in south China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu Joe; Lang, Siwei; Hogan, John; Lin, Haiyan

    2003-07-01

    To curb the spiraling demand for building energy use, China's Ministry of Construction has worked at developing and implementing building energy standards, starting with a standard for heated residential buildings in the Cold regions in 1986, followed by a standard for residential buildings in the Hot Summer Cold Winter Region in central China in 2001. In July 2001, a similar effort was started to develop a standard for residential buildings in the Hot Summer Warm Winter Region, comprising of the entirety or large portions of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Fujian. The target for the standard is to improve the thermal efficiency of buildings by 50 percent compared to current construction, which are typically uninsulated and have single-pane windows. Because of the importance of controlling window solar gain, the standard developed tables specifying the required window thermal transmittance and shading coefficient for differing window-to-wall ratios. The intent of such trade-off table is to permit flexibility in the location and size of windows, as long as their thermal performances meet the requirements of the standard. For further flexibility, the standard provides three methods of compliance: (1) a simple set of prescriptive requirements, (2) a simplified performance calculation, and (3) a detailed computer-based performance calculation using a Custom Budget approach.

  19. Feasibility study of solar energy in residential electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Divyangsinh G.

    With the increasing demand for energy and the concerns about the global environment, along with the steady progress in the field of renewable energy technologies, new opportunities and possibilities are opening up for an efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Solar energy is undoubtedly the most clean, inexhaustible and abundant source of renewable energy. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the most efficient mean to utilize solar power. The focus of this study was to establish economics of a residential photovoltaic system for a typical home in south Texas. The PV system serves the needs of a typical mid-size home inhibited by a typical family. Assumptions are made for the typical daily energy consumption, and the necessary equipments like solar arrays, batteries, inverter, etc. are sized and evaluated optimally so as to reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system. Calculations are done taking into consideration the economic parameters concerned with the system.

  20. Autonomous Hybrid Priority Queueing for Scheduling Residential Energy Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimullah, I. Q.; Shamroukh, M.; Sahar, N.; Shetty, S.

    2017-05-01

    The advent of smart grid technologies has opened up opportunities to manage the energy consumption of the users within a residential smart grid system. Demand response management is particularly being employed to reduce the overall load on an electricity network which could in turn reduce outages and electricity costs. The objective of this paper is to develop an intelligible scheduler to optimize the energy available to a micro grid through hybrid queueing algorithm centered around the consumers’ energy demands. This is achieved by shifting certain schedulable load appliances to light load hours. Various factors such as the type of demand, grid load, consumers’ energy usage patterns and preferences are considered while formulating the logical constraints required for the algorithm. The algorithm thus obtained is then implemented in MATLAB workspace to simulate its execution by an Energy Consumption Scheduler (ECS) found within smart meters, which automatically finds the optimal energy consumption schedule tailor made to fit each consumer within the micro grid network.

  1. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    1981-10-01

    The probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption were studied. Observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm consumption estimates of the Department of Energy's 2.0A simulation model were obtained. Home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions were investigated. The investigation of determinants of household energy consumption is described. The underlying economic theory and its implications are given as well as a description of the data collection procedures, of the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. The assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation.

  2. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  3. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Price, Sarah K.; Vine, Ed

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to present key findings regarding costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance–primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. Building codes, if complied with, have the ability to save a significant amount of energy. However, energy code compliance rates have been significantly lower than 100%. Renewed interest in building energy codes has focused efforts on increasing compliance, particularly as a result of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requirement that in order for states to receive additional energy grants, they must have “a plan for the jurisdiction achieving compliance with the building energy code…in at least 90 percent of new and renovated residential and commercial building space” by 2017 (Public Law 111-5, Section 410(2)(C)). One study by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) estimated the costs associated with reaching 90% compliance to be $810 million, or $610 million in additional funding over existing expenditures, a non-trivial value. [Majersik & Stellberg 2010] In this context, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted a study to better pinpoint the costs of enforcement through a two-phase process.

  4. Technical support document for the proposed Federal Commercial Building energy code

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Halverson, M.A.; Jones, C.C.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the justification and technical documentation for all changes and updates made (since 1993) to the Energy Code for Commercial and High-Rise Residential Buildings, the codified version of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, ``Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.`` These changes and updates, which were subject to the ASHRAE addenda approval process, include Addenda b, c, d, e, g, and i. A seventh addenda, Addenda f, which has not been officially approved by ASHRAE, has been included into the proposed rule. Also included in the changes was technical work conducted to justify revisions to the 1993 DOE lighting power densities. The updated text will be reviewed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and issued as the new Federal Commercial Building Energy Code (10 CFR 434); Mandatory for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings.

  5. 78 FR 64067 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must prescribe energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnace fans. EPCA requires DOE to determine whether such standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this notice, DOE is proposing new energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans. The notice also announces a public meeting to receive comment on these proposed standards and associated analyses and results.

  6. Residential End-use Energy Planning System (REEPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goett, A.; McFadden, D.

    1982-07-01

    The Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS) is described. REEPS is a forecasting model of residential energy patterns that is capable of evaluating the impacts of a broad range of energy conservation measures. REEPS forecasts appliance installations, operating efficiencies, and utilization patterns for space heating, water heating, air conditioning, and cooking. Each of these decisions is sensitive to energy prices, mandatory policies, and household/dwelling and geographical characteristics. The parameters of these choice models have been estimated statistically from national household survey data. The structure of the choice models and the results of the statistical analysis are reported in detail. REEPS forecasts energy choices for a large number of market segments representing households with different socioeconomic, dwelling, and geographical characteristics. These segments reflect the joint distribution of characteristics in the population. Aggregate forecasts are generated by summing up the decisions for all population segments. This technique provides a consistent method of obtaining aggregate forecasts from disaggregate, nonlinear choice models. Moreover, it permits evaluation of the distributional impacts of prospective conservation policies. The results of simulation of REEPS are described.

  7. Nonlinear predictive energy management of residential buildings with photovoltaics & batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies a nonlinear predictive energy management strategy for a residential building with a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system and second-life lithium-ion battery energy storage. A key novelty of this manuscript is closing the gap between building energy management formulations, advanced load forecasting techniques, and nonlinear battery/PV models. Additionally, we focus on the fundamental trade-off between lithium-ion battery aging and economic performance in energy management. The energy management problem is formulated as a model predictive controller (MPC). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme achieves 96%-98% of the optimal performance given perfect forecasts over a long-term horizon. Moreover, the rate of battery capacity loss can be reduced by 25% with negligible losses in economic performance, through an appropriate cost function formulation.

  8. PEAR: a microcomputer program for residential energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.; Huang, Y.J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Bull, J.

    1985-11-01

    We have designed a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), which is written with user-friendly input and output and runs on the IBM PC. PEAR provides an easy-to-use and very fast compilation and extrapolation of a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. The current version, which covers five residential building prototypes in over 800 locations, estimates energy and cost savings resulting from typical conversion measures such as ceiling, wall and floor insulation, window type and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to adjust for optional measures including roof or wall color, movable insulation, whole-house fans, night temperature setback, reflective or heat absorbing glass, thermal mass in exterior walls, and two attached sunspace options. The program is designed to be used as a research tool by energy and policy analysts, and as a non-technical energy calculation method by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  9. Energy reduction using biofiltration in a highly efficient residential home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Kevin L.

    The objective of this research was to design, demonstrate, and monitor the Biowall; a novel system for improving indoor air quality in a residential building, which has the potential to save energy compared to traditional air quality control. The Biowall was integrated into the heating, ventilation, and air-condition system of a high performance home and utilized plants as a passive filter system to remove volatile organic compounds from the interior space of the home. The testing environment in this study was a 984 square foot efficient residential home constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 competition. A number of sensors were installed in the home to monitor the operation of the wall including temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) sensors. The main outcomes of the project included the design and construction of a test platform for the current study and future research, energy results that showed as high as 160% energy savings over a 1 week test period and $170 per year in cost savings versus a traditional ventilation strategy, and lessons learned and suggestions for future research.

  10. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M.

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  11. 77 FR 32307 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... May 31, 2012 Part III Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers; Final Rule and Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 105 / Thursday, May 31, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  13. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  14. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  15. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  16. Financing residential energy conservation investment in the Northwest, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi,, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed how households in the Pacific Northwest financed their investments in energy conservation measures during the 1983-85 period, how they would finance their likely future investments, and related topics regarding conservation investments and financing. The information was collected through a stratified random telephone survey of householders conducted in October/November 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This information will be used by BPA to facilitate the planning, design, and implementation of relevant conservation programs such as the Residential Weatherization Program, and potential programs of bank and utility loans.

  17. Aggressive Strategies for Residential Energy and Carbon Savings by 2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Energy efficiency technologies and practices have long been recognized as a low-cost, often least cost, option that can be deployed widely throughout the economy (Steve Nadel, 2002; Donald A. Hanson and John A. Laitner, 2003). We are engaged in a review of technology-based energy savings options throughout the U. S. economy with a joint focus on both immediate savings opportunities and long-term strategies for accelerating the innovation process and pipeline. For the near term, we developed scenarios based on available 'off the shelf' technologies and practices for achieving minimum energy consumption in lighting, standby power in electronics, and miscellaneous end-uses in the U.S. residential sector. In the business-as-usual (BAU) case, energy consumption continues to grow despite innovations at a current rate of 1.7 percent/year (Laitner, 2004). Nevertheless, the need for developing new energy supplies can be mitigated through the use of 'best current technologies' as the industry norm in 2025. Figure 1 (see URL below) shows this reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The BAU model corresponds to the current rate of 'decarbonization' in the overall U.S. economy (Energy Information Administration, 2004). Over a twenty-year period, about 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide and 30 quads of primary fuel could be saved through the introduction of "best current technology" with the greatest reductions in the area of lighting technologies. In 2025, 1.5 quads of primary energy is saved with the breakdown in end-use electricity saved as follows: 113 TWh (0.39 quads), 70.8 TWh (0.24 quads), and 62 TWh (0.21 quads) for residential lighting, appliance standards, and standby power respectively. In addition, there is empirical evidence from specific technology sectors, from statewide programs in California, as well as on theoretical grounds (Laitner, 2004) that innovation and decarbonization rates of 3 to 5 percent/year have at times been, and could

  18. Estimating transportation energy consumption of residential land types. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    To estimate the transportation energy implications of residential development, the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) from that development was calculated for each individual unit of government in Dane County. The VMT incorporates the trip frequency and the associated trip length for vehicular trips made by occupants of single and multi-family dwelling units for any given location in the county. The methodology involved ten basic steps which included: defining the overall study area, defining subareas, determining the average number of household trips by dwelling unit type in each subarea, determining the average trip length for each household type, calculating the resulting VMT, applying the VMT factors to the existing fleet of vehicles and the estimated miles per gallon (MPG) rating, estimating the gallons of fuel consumed, converting gallons to Btu's, determining density and transportation energy relationships, and developing a system for tracking transportation energy consumption trends from residential development. The results available include trip frequency rates, average trip length, annual vehicle miles traveled, the resulting gallons of fuel consumed and costs of that fuel. These factors are provided for single-family and multi-family units. The data are presented in two different categories: community class and geographic area.

  19. Energy coding in biological neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhikang

    2007-01-01

    According to the experimental result of signal transmission and neuronal energetic demands being tightly coupled to information coding in the cerebral cortex, we present a brand new scientific theory that offers an unique mechanism for brain information processing. We demonstrate that the neural coding produced by the activity of the brain is well described by our theory of energy coding. Due to the energy coding model’s ability to reveal mechanisms of brain information processing based upon known biophysical properties, we can not only reproduce various experimental results of neuro-electrophysiology, but also quantitatively explain the recent experimental results from neuroscientists at Yale University by means of the principle of energy coding. Due to the theory of energy coding to bridge the gap between functional connections within a biological neural network and energetic consumption, we estimate that the theory has very important consequences for quantitative research of cognitive function. PMID:19003513

  20. Mechanism on brain information processing: Energy coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rubin; Zhang, Zhikang; Jiao, Xianfa

    2006-09-01

    According to the experimental result of signal transmission and neuronal energetic demands being tightly coupled to information coding in the cerebral cortex, the authors present a brand new scientific theory that offers a unique mechanism for brain information processing. They demonstrate that the neural coding produced by the activity of the brain is well described by the theory of energy coding. Due to the energy coding model's ability to reveal mechanisms of brain information processing based upon known biophysical properties, they cannot only reproduce various experimental results of neuroelectrophysiology but also quantitatively explain the recent experimental results from neuroscientists at Yale University by means of the principle of energy coding. Due to the theory of energy coding to bridge the gap between functional connections within a biological neural network and energetic consumption, they estimate that the theory has very important consequences for quantitative research of cognitive function.

  1. Energy coding in biological neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rubin; Zhang, Zhikang

    2007-09-01

    According to the experimental result of signal transmission and neuronal energetic demands being tightly coupled to information coding in the cerebral cortex, we present a brand new scientific theory that offers an unique mechanism for brain information processing. We demonstrate that the neural coding produced by the activity of the brain is well described by our theory of energy coding. Due to the energy coding model's ability to reveal mechanisms of brain information processing based upon known biophysical properties, we can not only reproduce various experimental results of neuro-electrophysiology, but also quantitatively explain the recent experimental results from neuroscientists at Yale University by means of the principle of energy coding. Due to the theory of energy coding to bridge the gap between functional connections within a biological neural network and energetic consumption, we estimate that the theory has very important consequences for quantitative research of cognitive function.

  2. Understanding Building Energy Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2003-03-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. The Difference Between Energy Codes, Energy Standards and the Model Energy Code Energy codes--specify how buildings must be constructed or perform, and are written in mandatory, enforceable language. States or local governments adopt and enforce energy codes for their jurisdictions. Energy standards--describe how buildings should be constructed to save energy cost-effectively. They are published by national organizations such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). They are not mandatory, but serve as national recommendations, with some variation for regional climate. States and local governments frequently use energy standards as the technical basis for developing their energy codes. Some energy standards are written in mandatory, enforceable language, making it easy for jurisdictions to incorporate the provisions of the energy standards directly into their laws or regulations.

  3. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  4. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  5. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  6. Residential building codes, affordability, and health protection: a risk-tradeoff approach.

    PubMed

    Hammitt, J K; Belsky, E S; Levy, J I; Graham, J D

    1999-12-01

    Residential building codes intended to promote health and safety may produce unintended countervailing risks by adding to the cost of construction. Higher construction costs increase the price of new homes and may increase health and safety risks through "income" and "stock" effects. The income effect arises because households that purchase a new home have less income remaining for spending on other goods that contribute to health and safety. The stock effect arises because suppression of new-home construction leads to slower replacement of less safe housing units. These countervailing risks are not presently considered in code debates. We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the approximate magnitude of countervailing risks by combining the income effect with three relatively well understood and significant home-health risks. We estimate that a code change that increases the nationwide cost of constructing and maintaining homes by $150 (0.1% of the average cost to build a single-family home) would induce offsetting risks yielding between 2 and 60 premature fatalities or, including morbidity effects, between 20 and 800 lost quality-adjusted life years (both discounted at 3%) each year the code provision remains in effect. To provide a net health benefit, the code change would need to reduce risk by at least this amount. Future research should refine these estimates, incorporate quantitative uncertainty analysis, and apply a full risk-tradeoff approach to real-world case studies of proposed code changes.

  7. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  8. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  9. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  10. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  11. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  12. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  13. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  15. Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S.; Hoak, David; Cummings, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses instantaneous feedback on household electrical demand has shown promise to reduce energy consumption. This report reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in FL.

  16. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY PART ONE: THE DATA BASE

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Ketoff, A.; Meyers, S.

    1981-05-01

    This summary report presents information on the end-uses of energy in the residential sector of seven major OECD countries over the period 1960-1978. Much of the information contained herein has never been published before. We present data on energy consumption by energy type and end-use for three to five different years for each country. Each year table is complemented by a set of indicators, which are assembled for the entire 20-year period at the end of each country listing. Finally, a set of key indicators from each country is displayed together in a table, allowing comparison for three periods: early (1960-63), pre-embargo (1970-73), and recent (1975-78). Analysis of these results, smoothing and interpolation of the data, addition of further data, and analytical comparison of in-country and cross-country trends will follow in the next phase of our work.

  17. Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Winett, R A; Leckliter, I N; Chinn, D E; Stahl, B; Love, S Q

    1985-01-01

    A combination of social marketing, communications, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films and television. We used this approach in developing special television programs about residential energy conservation. The programs were tailored and directed to preselected middle-class homeowners (N = 150), and delivered over a public access channel of a cable TV system. The results indicated that after one program exposure (about 20 minutes), viewers adopted simple strategies modeled in the programs which led to savings of approximately 10% on their home energy use for a substantial part of the cooling and heating season. Although the potential benefits to costs of large-scale media efforts seemed great, institutional barriers for such programs were identified. Less expensive, more local programs seem more viable.

  18. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  19. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max

    2008-01-10

    The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.

  20. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  1. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  2. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  3. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Levine, Mark

    2009-06-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it to the rank of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modelling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities. From this analysis, we can conclude that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020. This increase will be driven primarily by urbanization, in combination with increases in living standards. In the urban and higher income Chinese households of the future, most major appliances will be common, and heated and cooled areas will grow on average. These shifts will offset the relatively modest efficiency gains expected according to current government plans and policies already in place. Therefore, levelling and reduction of growth in residential energy demand in China will require a new set of more aggressive efficiency policies.

  4. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1985-11-01

    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  5. 77 FR 24341 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction AGENCY: Office... clothes washers. In the final rule establishing new and amended test procedures for residential clothes.... Department of Energy (DOE) erroneously referenced the new test procedure, rather than the currently effective...

  6. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... units tested without an indoor blower installed, and for central air conditioners and heat pumps tested... Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking...

  7. 76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment, including residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if amended standards for these products are technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this direct final rule, DOE adopts amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. A notice of proposed rulemaking that proposes identical energy efficiency standards is published elsewhere in today's Federal Register. If DOE receives adverse comment and determines that such comment may provide a reasonable basis for withdrawing the direct final rule, this final rule will be withdrawn and DOE will proceed with the proposed rule.

  8. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  9. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  10. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  11. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brief explores how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  12. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  13. Retrofit energy conservation in residential buildings in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.; Birur, G. C.; Daksla, C.

    1982-01-01

    The common energy conservation techniques (ECTs) that can be retrofit-installed into residential buildings are surveyed. The quantity of saved energy for heating and cooling attributable to each ECT is evaluated for three common modes of heating: natural gas heating at 60/therm; heating via heat pump at $1.20/therm; and electric resistance heating at $2.40/therm. In every case, a life cycle cost comparison is made between the long term revenue due to energy conservation and a safe and conventional alternative investment that might be available to the prudent homeowner. The comparison between investment in an ECT and the alternative investment is brought into perspective using the life cycle payback period and an economic Figure of Merit (FOM). The FOM allows for relative ranking between candidate ECTs. Because the entire spectrum of winter heating climates in California is surveyed, the decision maker can determine whether or not a considered ECT is recommended in a given climate, and under what conditions an ECT investment becomes attractive.

  14. Exploring efficacy of residential energy efficiency programs in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nicholas Wade

    Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the U.S. have committed and continue to invest substantial resources in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. Program investments, and the demand for impact evaluations that accompany them, are projected to grow in coming years due to increased pressure from state-level energy regulation, costs and challenges of building additional production capacity, fuel costs and potential carbon or renewable energy regulation. This dissertation provides detailed analyses of ex-post energy savings from energy efficiency programs in three key sectors of residential buildings: new, single-family, detached homes; retrofits to existing single-family, detached homes; and retrofits to existing multifamily housing units. Each of the energy efficiency programs analyzed resulted in statistically significant energy savings at the full program group level, yet savings for individual participants and participant subgroups were highly variable. Even though savings estimates were statistically greater than zero, those energy savings did not always meet expectations. Results also show that high variability in energy savings among participant groups or subgroups can negatively impact overall program performance and can undermine marketing efforts for future participation. Design, implementation, and continued support of conservation programs based solely on deemed or projected savings is inherently counter to the pursuit of meaningful energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. To fully understand and optimize program impacts, consistent and robust measurement and verification protocols must be instituted in the design phase and maintained over time. Furthermore, marketing for program participation must target those who have the greatest opportunity for savings. In most utility territories it is not possible to gain access to the type of large scale

  15. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  16. Analysis of EnergyPlus for use in residential building energy optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Justin S.

    This work explored the utility of EnergyPlus as a simulation engine for doing residential building energy optimization, with the objective of finding the modeling areas that require further development in EnergyPlus for residential optimization applications. This work was conducted primarily during 2006-2007, with publication occurring later in 2010. The assessments and recommendations apply to the simulation tool versions available in 2007. During this work, an EnergyPlus v2.0 (2007) input file generator was developed for use in BEopt 0.8.0.4 (2007). BEopt 0.8.0.4 is a residential Building Energy optimization program developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Residential modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus v2.0 were scrutinized and tested. Modeling deficiencies were identified in a number of areas. These deficiencies were compared to deficiencies in the DOE2.2 V44E4(2007)/TRNSYS simulation engines. The highest priority gaps in EnergyPlus v2.0's residential modeling capability are in infiltration, duct leakage, and foundation modeling. Optimization results from DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were analyzed to search for modeling differences that have a significant impact on optimization results. Optimal buildings at different energy savings levels were compared to look for biases. It was discovered that the EnergyPlus v2.0 optimizations consistently chose higher wall insulation levels than the DOE2.2 V44E4 optimizations. The points composing the optimal paths chosen by DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were compared to look for points chosen by one optimization that were significantly different from the other optimal path. These outliers were compared to consensus optimal points to determine the simulation differences that cause disparities in the optimization results. The differences were primarily caused by modeling of window radiation exchange and HVAC autosizing.

  17. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... procedures for residential furnaces and boilers to include provisions for measuring the standby mode and off... Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, and provide the docket number EERE-2011-BT- TP-0007 and/or...

  18. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...-AC96 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...) published a final rule in the Federal Register that amended the test procedure for residential furnaces and... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-6590. Email:...

  19. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... process to develop a uniform efficiency descriptor and accompanying test method for residential water heaters and commercial water heaters. This test procedure rulemaking is intended to fulfill...

  20. 76 FR 65616 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Procedures for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... central air conditioners and heat pumps in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (June 2010 NOPR) and... to determine off-mode power consumption for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. DOE...

  1. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    manufactured homes procured with minimal energy-efficiency specifications typical of existing homes in the region, and sited on the PNNL campus. The Lab Homes serve as a flexible test facility (the first of its kind in the Pacific Northwest) to rapidly evaluate energy-efficient and grid-smart technologies that are applicable to residential construction.

  2. Using the Beopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares-Velasco, Paulo Cesar; Maguire, Jeff; Horowitz, Scott; Christensen, Craig

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures to follow when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important because a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes building models that isolate the impacts of specific components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models. These discrepancies are caused by differences in the algorithms used by the engines or coding errors.

  3. Using the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Maguire, J.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important as a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes models that isolate the impacts of specific building components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models; these discrepancies are caused by differences in the models used by the engines or coding errors.

  4. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  5. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V

    2017-05-15

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  6. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyna, Janet L.; Chester, Mikhail V.

    2017-05-01

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  7. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Janet L.; Chester, Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41–87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand. PMID:28504255

  8. Evaluation of the ORNL residential energy-use model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, D.

    1982-06-01

    The architecture, empirical foundation, and applications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Residential Energy Use Model are valuated. A particular effort is made to identify the strengths and shortcomings of the model for alternative uses and to identify areas where model structure and empirical support could be upgraded. Concrete suggestions are made for improving model logic, strengthening the empirical basis for behavioral and technical parameters, and reducing the biases in the model that arise from aggregation. The overall conclusion is that the model has the potential to provide adequate forecasts, at a regional or national level, of the aggregate impacts of policies whose effects on households are relatively homogeneous. There are a number of model changes which would be relatively easy to implement and which should substantially improve forecasts of this sort. The version of the ORNL model reviewed here makes it fundamentally unsuitable for applications to geographical areas smaller than DOE regions or to policies that have a heterogeneous impact on households.

  9. Energy consumption in residential building: The effect of appliances and human behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K. A.; Hariri, Azian; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Najib, M. N. M.

    2017-04-01

    Electricity is the predominant energy source used in these buildings. Therefore, energy management in residential buildings requires serious attention to ensure the energy consumption in residential building have been managed properly. Currently, the unstable of fuel price give the big impact to electricity price. Due to the issue, consumers require to use electricity more wisely. Using energy efficiently is one of the solution to reduce energy consumption. This paper aims to propose an initiative strategy for energy management system based on an analysis of energy consumption in residential building. The level of energy consumption among the occupants was found by obtaining electricity bills and distributing a questionnaire. A case study was carried out in selected areas in the Southern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study show that energy consumption was significant increased by month and the EEES as one of energy management system was suggested.

  10. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... control: Mandated whole-house pressure test with strict allowances for air leakage rates Wall insulation... required to be high- efficacy Air distribution systems--leakage control requirements Hot water pipe... performance compliance path Fireplace air leakage control Insulating covers for in-ground spas Baffles for...

  11. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Table A3.4. ] Air Barrier Location The 2012 IECC changes Table R402.4.1.1 by removing a... Department, following precedent set by the ICC and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air...: Mandated whole-house pressure test with strict allowances for air leakage rates. Wall insulation...

  12. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... stringent. For example, more specific requirements have been added for steel roofs/ ceilings and floors to... are permitted to have ceiling, wall insulation, and window U-factor requirements that are typically... (ceilings, walls, doors, windows, foundations, etc.) requirements in particular were completely restructured...

  13. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ..., more specific requirements have been added for steel roofs/ceilings and floors to correspond to those...\\2\\). Sunroom additions are permitted to have ceiling, wall insulation, and window U-factor... IECC in general and the building thermal envelope (ceilings, walls, doors, windows, foundations, etc...

  14. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  15. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  16. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  17. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  19. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.; Polly, B.

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  20. Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

  1. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  2. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... energy consumption over a range of operating conditions that may be present in residential heating... standby mode and off mode energy ] consumption, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of... address and incorporate standby mode and off mode energy consumption, so DOE has tentatively...

  3. 77 FR 31443 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to amend its test procedures for residential dishwashers, dehumidifiers, and conventional cooking products (which includes cooktops, ovens, and ranges) to address the measurement of active mode fan-only energy use. This SNOPR also addresses energy and water use associated with dishwasher water softeners, the energy test cycle for dishwashers with a......

  4. 78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential water heaters. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more stringent amended standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. Accordingly, DOE established amended energy conservation standards for several classes of residential water heaters in an April 2010 final rule. Subsequent to the publication of that final rule, a number of utility companies brought forth concerns regarding the amended energy conservation standard levels for electric storage water heaters and the impact of these standards on electric thermal storage programs that utility companies administer to manage peak load. In this document, DOE proposes to establish a waiver process that will mitigate the concerns of utility companies regarding the implementation of the April 2010 standard levels by allowing for the manufacture of certain large-volume electric storage water heaters provided that they meet a set of conditions discussed in this proposed rule. The document also announces a public meeting to receive comment on the proposed waiver process and criteria for obtaining a waiver.

  5. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  6. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  7. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  8. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  10. A Method for Modeling Household Occupant Behavior to Simulate Residential Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Brandon J; Starke, Michael R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K; Tolbert, Leon M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for modeling the behavior of household occupants to estimate residential energy consumption. Using data gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), actions carried out by survey respondents are categorized into ten distinct activities. These activities are defined to correspond to the major energy consuming loads commonly found within the residential sector. Next, time varying minute resolution Markov chain based statistical models of different occupant types are developed. Using these behavioral models, individual occupants are simulated to show how an occupant interacts with the major residential energy consuming loads throughout the day. From these simulations, the minimum number of occupants, and consequently the minimum number of multiple occupant households, needing to be simulated to produce a statistically accurate representation of aggregate residential behavior can be determined. Finally, future work will involve the use of these occupant models along side residential load models to produce a high-resolution energy consumption profile and estimate the potential for demand response from residential loads.

  11. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  12. 76 FR 69869 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...In this supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential clothes washers established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). DOE proposes to amend the definition of the energy test cycle to provide further clarity to ensure that the test procedure is representative of consumer behavior and......

  13. 77 FR 65941 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) establishes new test procedures for residential dishwashers and dehumidifiers, and amends the currently applicable test procedure for conventional cooking products under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The new test procedures include provisions for measuring standby mode and off mode energy consumption, and update the provisions for measuring active......

  14. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...On March 25, 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced that it would hold a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on the product classes that DOE plans to analyze for purposes of establishing energy conservation standards for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended standards for these products; the results of preliminary analyses performed by DOE for these products; and potential energy conservation standard levels derived from these analyses that DOE could consider for these products. DOE also encouraged written comments on these subjects. This document announces an extension of the time period for submitting comments on the energy conservation standards notice of public meeting (NOPM) and availability of the preliminary technical support document for central air conditioners and heat pumps. The comment period is extended to May 17, 2010.

  15. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute

  16. Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

  17. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... amendments to DOE's test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters... heating equipment test procedures as applied to vented hearth heaters, and coverage of electric...

  18. 76 FR 70918 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers Correction In proposed rule document 2011-28543 appearing on pages 69870-69893 in the issue of November 9, 2011, make the...

  19. 77 FR 20291 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers...; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is correcting a final rule establishing revised test... parenthetical note from the water factor calculation section of the currently applicable test procedure. DATES...

  20. 76 FR 57612 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... December 16, 2011 interim final rule to amend the test procedures for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers that will apply to products that are manufactured starting in 2014....

  1. Energy Conservation for the Home Builder: A Course for Residential Builders. Course Outline and Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigshofer, Daniel R.

    Background information, handouts and related instructional materials comprise this manual for conducting a course on energy conservation for home builders. Information presented in the five- and ten-hour course is intended to help residential contractors make appropriate and cost-effective decisions in constructing energy-efficient dwellings.…

  2. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  3. Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all

  4. Energy consumption trends of multi-unit residential buildings in the city of Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binkley, Clarissa

    The purpose of this research is to determine the average energy intensity of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) in Toronto, and evaluate whether certain building characteristics influence energy intensity. This information is particularly important in the Toronto market. Relative to the city's population, Toronto has an unusually high proportion of MURBs with more than half of residential dwellings in apartment buildings. Additionally, Toronto MURBs are significant consumers of energy and produce an estimated 1.3M tonnes of CO2e each year. The ultimate goal is to assess the most efficient building retrofit measures. Energy consumption data for Toronto MURBs were collected and weather normalized. Correlations between the energy data and the building characteristics were examined. Window characteristics and heating system type were found to have the most significant influence on energy intensity. Establishing energy consumption characteristics of MURBs is the first step towards improving the energy efficiency of Toronto's MURBs stock.

  5. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jeffrey J.; Aznar, Alexandra; Dane, Alexander; Day, Megan; Mathur, Sivani; Doris, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  6. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 2: Automated residential energy standard---user's guide--version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lortz, V.B.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations were developed over a 25-month period by a multidisciplinary project team under the management of the DOE and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  7. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  8. Household energy conservation: a review of the federal residential conservation service

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1984-09-01

    Most electric and gas utilities provide free or low-cost energy audits to their residential customers, usually as part of the federal Residential Conservations Service (RCS). RCS programs in the few states where competent evaluations were done show incremental energy savings for participants of approximately 3.5 percent. Assessing the economic worth of RCS programs is particularly difficult (and very site-specific) because of factors such as future fuel prices, differences between marginal and average fuel prices, discount rates, and differences in how programs are implemented. The meager evidence on RCS program cost-effectiveness suggests that the economic benefits are generally small. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Economic analysis of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Callaway, J.W.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this document is to present an analysis of the impacts of the proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for the construction of new residential buildings. This analysis examines the impacts of having the proposed residential standard apply immediately and, alternatively, having the proposed standard phased in over a five-year period. It does not address the question of whether realistically the standard would be adopted by states, nor does it weight the improbable impact of states with higher energy efficiency standards modifying their standard to comply with this voluntary standard. 19 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  10. Health and Climate Impacts of Rural Residential Energy Transition in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shu; Ru, Muye; Du, Wei; Zhu, Xi; Zhong, Qirui

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two to three decades, energy mix in rural China transit dramatically owing to rapid socioeconomic development. It is expected that such transition can result in changes in emissions of climate forcing components and air pollutants, consequently environmental and climate impacts. Such impacts were quantified by a nationwide survey on rural residential energy consumption, compilation of a series of emission inventories, modeling of atmospheric transport of pollutants, assessment on health risk induced by exposure to ambient air pollutants, and evaluation on rural residential emission originated climate forcing components. Co-benefit of the transition on both health and climate is demonstrated.

  11. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun

    2008-12-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

  12. A framework for understanding and generating integrated solutions for residential peak energy demand.

    PubMed

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times.

  13. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  14. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  15. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  16. 78 FR 38696 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY... grants to GE Appliances (GE) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for the basic...

  17. 77 FR 5784 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Sub-Zero From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... to Sub-Zero, Inc. (Sub-Zero) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for...

  18. 77 FR 49443 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Sanyo From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... Sanyo E&E Corporation (Sanyo) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator- freezer test procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for the basic...

  19. 77 FR 60688 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Sanyo From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures; Correction AGENCY... the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for the basic models set forth in its petition for...

  20. Effectiveness of In-Home Feedback Devices in Conjunction with Energy Use Information on Residential Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rungta, Shaily

    Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the total energy use in the United States. The consumer's perception of energy usage and conservation are very inaccurate which is leading to growing number of individuals who try to seek out ways to use energy more wisely. Hence behavioral change in consumers with respect to energy use, by providing energy use feedback may be important in reducing home energy consumption. Real-time energy information feedback delivered via technology along with feedback interventions has been reported to produce up to 20 percent declines in residential energy consumption through past research and pilot studies. There are, however, large differences in the estimates of the effect of these different types of feedback on energy use. As part of the Energize Phoenix Program, (a U.S. Department of Energy funded program), a Dashboard Study was conducted by the Arizona State University to estimate the impact of real-time, home-energy displays in conjunction with other feedback interventions on the residential rate of energy consumption in Phoenix, while also creating awareness and encouragement to households to reduce energy consumption. The research evaluates the effectiveness of these feedback initiatives. In the following six months of field experiment, a selected number of low-income multi-family apartments in Phoenix, were divided in three groups of feedback interventions, where one group received residential energy use related education and information, the second group received the same education as well as was equipped with the in-home feedback device and the third was given the same education, the feedback device and added budgeting information. Results of the experiment at the end of the six months did not lend a consistent support to the results from literature and past pilot studies. The data revealed a statistically insignificant reduction in energy consumption for the experiment group overall and inconsistent results for

  1. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  2. 77 FR 49063 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to amend its test procedures for residential dishwashers to update certain obsolete dishware, flatware and food items, make minor amendments to the definition of the normal cycle, and update the ambient temperature and preconditioning requirements as well as the industry test method referenced in DOE's test procedure. DOE also proposes to add water......

  3. 77 FR 44603 - Petition for Waiver of LG Electronics, Inc. From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure and Grant of Interim... consumption of electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. It also grants LG with an interim waiver from... regarding similar refrigerator-freezers. Please call Ms. Brenda Edwards at the above telephone number...

  4. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  5. Technology assessment of solar energy systems: residential use of fuelwood in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, P.N.; Hopp, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    The evidence of impacts associated with the use of fuelwood for residential space heating in the region including the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is identified and evaluated. The use of fuelwood for space heating was projected into the future, and then the potential size of the impacts that had been identified and estimated was evaluated. These projections are provided in five year increments beginning in 1980 and proceeding to the year 2000. Policy options are suggested which may mitigate the adverse impacts identified, while preserving the positive effect of reducing residential demand for energy derived from nonrenewable sources.

  6. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report: Washington, D.C. - October 27-28, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  8. State energy price projections for the residential sector, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of tills report, State Energy Price Projections for the Residential Sector, 1993--1994, is to provide projections of State-level residential prices for 1993 and 1994 for the following fuels: electricity, natural gas, heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, and coal. Prices for 1992 are also included for comparison purposes. This report also explains the methodology used to produce estimates and the limitations. This report is provided at the request of the Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services, which provides State grants to assist eligible households in meeting the costs of home energy use for space heating or cooling under the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). Funds for LIHEAP are allocated according to each State`s share of home energy expenditures by low income households, if Congress allocates more than $1.975 billion for LIHEAP. Whenever less than $1.975 billion is allocated for LIHEAP, funds are allocated based on the allotment percentages for fiscal year 1984. This has been the case for the last several years. Each State`s share of the funds above $1.975 billion is determined using a formula based, in part, on the price estimates in this report. Several data sources and factors are used in deriving estimates on each State`s share of home energy expenditures by low-income households. One such factor is State-level residential energy prices. The State-level residential energy price projections presented in this report are derived from a set of forecasting equations estimated for each State, based on annual time series data from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) database, the EIA Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), the EIA Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA), and the EIA Electric Power Monthly (EPM).

  9. APPLICATION OF DOE-2 TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D.; Rosenfield, A. H.

    1980-10-01

    One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.

  10. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS ) 2009 Technical Documentation - Summary

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    RECS is a periodic survey sponsored by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) that provides detailed information about energy usage in U.S. homes. RECS is a multi-year effort consisting of a Household Survey phase, data collection from household energy suppliers, and detailed consumption and expenditures estimation. The Household Survey collects data on energy-related characteristics and usage patterns of a nationally representative sample of housing units. For renters that do not directly pay for their energy usage, a supplementary Rental Agent Survey is conducted. The Energy Supplier Surveys (ESS) collect data on how much electricity, natural gas, propane/LPG, fuel oil, and kerosene were consumed in the sampled housing unit during the reference year. It also collects data on actual dollar amounts spent on these energy sources.

  11. Increases in residential and energy development are associated with reductions in recruitment for a large ungulate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather E; Sushinsky, Jessica R; Holland, Andrew; Bergman, Eric J; Balzer, Trevor; Garner, James; Reed, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Land-use change due to anthropogenic development is pervasive across the globe and commonly associated with negative consequences for biodiversity. While land-use change has been linked to shifts in the behavior and habitat-use patterns of wildlife species, little is known about its influence on animal population dynamics, despite the relevance of such information for conservation. We conducted the first broad-scale investigation correlating temporal patterns of land-use change with the demographic rates of mule deer, an iconic species in the western United States experiencing wide-scale population declines. We employed a unique combination of long-term (1980-2010) data on residential and energy development across western Colorado, in conjunction with congruent data on deer recruitment, to quantify annual changes in land-use and correlate those changes with annual indices of demographic performance. We also examined annual variation in weather conditions, which are well recognized to influence ungulate productivity, and provided a basis for comparing the relative strength of different covariates in their association with deer recruitment. Using linear mixed models, we found that increasing residential and energy development within deer habitat were correlated with declining recruitment rates, particularly within seasonal winter ranges. Residential housing had two times the magnitude of effect of any other factor we investigated, and energy development had an effect size similar to key weather variables known to be important to ungulate dynamics. This analysis is the first to correlate a demographic response in mule deer with residential and energy development at large spatial extents relevant to population performance, suggesting that further increases in these development types on deer ranges are not compatible with the goal of maintaining highly productive deer populations. Our results underscore the significance of expanding residential development on mule deer

  12. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... current energy code requirement, giving that product a relatively low price in the market. Should the code... step with the home price. Energy savings occur every year, starting at year 1, and are equal to the... energy savings to pay for the cost of the measures, without regard for changes in fuel prices, tax...

  13. Comparison of 2006 IECC and 2009 IECC Commercial Energy Code Requirements for Kansas City, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yunzhi; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-03-22

    This report summarizes code requirements and energy savings of commercial buildings in climate zone 4 built to the 2009 IECC when compared to the 2006 IECC. In general, the 2009 IECC has higher insulation requirements for exterior walls, roof, and windows and have higher efficiency requirements for HVAC equipment (HVAC equipment efficiency requirements are governed by National Appliance Conversion Act of 1987 (NAECA), and are applicable irrespective of the IECC version adopted). The energy analysis results show that residential and nonresidential commercial buildings meeting the 2009 IECC requirements save between 6.1% and 9.0% site energy, and between 6.4% and 7.7% energy cost when compared to 2006 IECC. Analysis also shows that semiheated buildings have energy and cost savings of 3.9% and 5.6%.

  14. EPRI simplified program for residential energy (ESPRE). Volume 1. Review of energy analysis methods and model development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, R.L.; Rancatore, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    A review of the theory and implementations of simplified residential building energy analysis methods is carried out. Strengths and weaknesses and the areas of application of the methods are identified. Two programmable calculator programs (ADM-3 and the NBS TI-59 procedure) are evaluated along with four microcomputer based calculative methods (CIRA, HOTCAN, MICROPAS, SEA). The review, which was carried out in 1983, indicates the relationships between the various procedures. A new microcomputer based simulation method is developed. The program, ESPRE (EPRI Simplified Program for Residential Energy), which is implemented in MS-DOS FORTRAN, reads TMY weather data to carry out hourly simulations of thermal loads and energy use in a one or two conditioned space residential building. Typical residential structures including an attic or cathedral ceiling and one of three foundation types (slab, crawlspace, or basement) can be modeled. The equipment simulation models handle the variation in hourly performance characteristics with temperature and part load operation degradation. The program is tested using metered hourly energy and temperature data for several unoccupied houses.

  15. Energy Impacts of Envelope Tightening and Mechanical Ventilation for the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J. M.; Sherman, M. H.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    Effective residential envelope air sealing reduces infiltration and associated energy costs for thermal conditioning, yet often creates a need for mechanical ventilation to protect indoor air quality. This study estimated the potential energy savings of implementing airtightness improvements or absolute standards along with mechanical ventilation throughout the U.S. housing stock. We used a physics-based modeling framework to simulate the impact of envelope tightening, providing mechanical ventilation as needed. There are 113 million homes in the US. We calculated the change in energy demand for each home in a nationally representative sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Ventilation was provided as required by 2010 and proposed 2013 versions of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ensuring that all current homes comply with 62.2-2010 would increase residential site energy demand by 0.07 quads (0.07 exajoules (EJ)) annually. Improving airtightness of all homes at current average retrofit performance levels would decrease demand by 0.7 quads (0.74 EJ) annually and upgrading all homes to be as airtight as the top 10% of similar homes would double the savings, leading to roughly $22 billion in annual savings in energy bills. We also analyzed the potential benefits of bringing the entire stock to airtightness specifications of IECC 2012, Canada's R2000, and Passive House standards.

  16. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..._standards/residential/furnaces_boilers.html . DATES: Meeting: DOE will hold a public meeting on Wednesday, March 13, 2013, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. directly after the Residential Furnace and Boilers Test...'s Web site at:...

  17. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  18. An international survey of building energy codes and their implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Graham, Peter

    2017-01-03

    Buildings are key to low-carbon development everywhere, and many countries have introduced building energy codes to improve energy efficiency in buildings. Yet, building energy codes can only deliver results when the codes are implemented. For this reason, studies of building energy codes need to consider implementation of building energy codes in a consistent and comprehensive way. This research identifies elements and practices in implementing building energy codes, covering codes in 22 countries that account for 70% of global energy use in buildings. These elements and practices include: comprehensive coverage of buildings by type, age, size, and geographic location; an implementationmore » framework that involves a certified agency to inspect construction at critical stages; and building materials that are independently tested, rated, and labeled. Training and supporting tools are another element of successful code implementation. Some countries have also introduced compliance evaluation studies, which suggested that tightening energy requirements would only be meaningful when also addressing gaps in implementation (Pitt&Sherry, 2014; U.S. DOE, 2016b). Here, this article provides examples of practices that countries have adopted to assist with implementation of building energy codes.« less

  19. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  20. Roles For Thermography In Utility Company Residential Energy Audits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Bismarck, North Dakota, provides wholesale electricity to more than 100 rural electric cooperatives of the Missouri Pasin Region. The Cooperative, in cooperation with Aadland*Hoffmann*Pieri Energy Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, MN has developed a three-fold program which involves the analytical approach, the instructional approach and the motivational approach (A'IsM) to an energy audit. This three-fold program utilizes infrared thermography to pinpoint where heat loss is occurring in the home. The auditor can motivate the homeowner to initiate energy conserving improvements and practices by showing where money can be saved. Infrared thermography is a most valuable tool in helping the rural electrics conserve energy and the nation's natural resources. Over 180 energy auditors have been trained through this program in this area and 5,000 trained in the nation.

  1. FEASIBILITY OF WIND TO SERVE UPPER SKAGIT'S BOW HILL TRIBAL LANDS AND FEASIBILITY UPDATE FOR RESIDENTIAL RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect

    RICH, LAUREN

    2013-09-30

    A two year wind resource assessment was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a community scale wind generation system for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe's Bow Hill land base, and the project researched residential wind resource technologies to determine the feasibility of contributing renewable wind resource to the mix of energy options for our single and multi-family residential units.

  2. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  3. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  4. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  5. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  6. Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review. Part 1: Pathways.

    PubMed

    Willand, Nicola; Ridley, Ian; Maller, Cecily

    2015-05-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a realist review that tries to explain the impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs) on householder health. According to recent systematic reviews residential energy efficiency interventions may benefit health. It is argued that home energy improvement are complex interventions and that a better understanding of the latent mechanisms and contextual issues that may shape the outcome of interventions is needed for effective intervention design. This realist review synthesises the results of 28 energy efficiency improvement programmes. This first part provides a review of the explanatory factors of the three key pathways, namely warmth in the home, affordability of fuel and psycho-social factors, and the pitfall of inadequate indoor air quality. The review revealed that REEIs improved winter warmth and lowered relative humidity with benefits for cardiovascular and respiratory health. In addition, residential energy efficiency improvements consolidated the meaning of the home as a safe haven, strengthened the householder's perceived autonomy and enhanced social status. Although satisfaction with the home proved to be an important explanation for positive mental health outcomes, financial considerations seemed to have played a secondary role. Evidence for negative impacts was rare but the risk should not be dismissed. Comprehensive refurbishments were not necessarily more effective than thermal retrofits or upgrades. A common protocol for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of interventions would facilitate the synthesis of future studies. Householder and contextual influences are addressed in Part 2.

  7. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future.

  8. High Energy Radiation Transport Codes: Their Development and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Tony A.

    1996-05-01

    The development of high energy radiation transport codes has been very strongly correlated to the development of higher energy accelerators and more powerful computers. During the early 1960's a Nucleon Transport Code (NTC) was developed to transport neutrons and protons up to energies below the pion threshold. During the middle 1960's this code which was renamed to NMTC was expanded to include multiple pion production and could be used for particle energies up to 3.5 GeV. During the late 1960's and early 1970's with the development of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) NMTC was again refined by the inclusion of a particle nucleus collision scaling model which could generate reliable collision information at the higher energies necessary for the development of radiation shielding at FNAL. This was HETC. During the 1970's HETC was coupled with the EGS code for electromagnetic particle transport the MORSE code for low-energy (<20MeV) neutron transport, and SPECT, a HETC analysis code for obtaining energy deposition, to produce the CALOR code system, a complete high energy radiation transport code package. For this paper CALOR will be described in detail and some recent applications will be presented. The strength and weakness as well as the applicability of other radiation transport code systems like FLUKA will be briefly discussed.

  9. Analysis of Residential System Strategies Targeting Least-Cost Solutions Leading to Net Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Building America residential systems research project uses an analysis-based system research approach to identify research priorities, identify technology gaps and opportunities, establish a consistent basis to track research progress, and identify system solutions that are most likely to succeed as the initial targets for residential system research projects. This report describes the analysis approach used by the program to determine the most cost-effective pathways to achieve whole-house energy-savings goals. This report also provides an overview of design/technology strategies leading to net zero energy buildings as the basis for analysis of future residential system performance.

  10. Valuing Residential Energy Efficiency in Two Alaska Real Estate Markets: A Hedonic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, Dominique J.

    Alaska households have high home energy consumption and expenditures. Improving the energy efficiency of the housing stock can reduce home energy consumption, thereby reducing home energy expenditures and CO2 emissions. Improving the energy efficiency of a home may also increase its transaction price if the energy efficiency improvements are capitalized into the value of the home. The relationship between energy efficiency and transaction prices in the Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska residential real estate markets is examined. Using a hedonic pricing framework and difference-in-differences analysis, the impact of the Alaska Home Energy Rebate program on the transaction prices of single-family homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage housing markets from 2008 through 2015 is examined. The results indicate that compared to homes that did not complete the program, homes that completed the program sell for a statistically significant price premium between 15.1% and 15.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 5% and 11% in the Anchorage market. A hedonic pricing framework is used to relate energy efficiency ratings and transaction prices of homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage residential real estate markets from 2008 through 2015. The results indicate that homes with above-average energy efficiency ratings sell for a statistically significant price premium between 6.9% and 17.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 1.8% and 6.0% in the Anchorage market.

  11. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  12. Quantifying Energy and Water Savings in the U.S. Residential Sector.

    PubMed

    Chini, Christopher M; Schreiber, Kelsey L; Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-09-06

    Stress on water and energy utilities, including natural resource depletion, infrastructure deterioration, and growing populations, threatens the ability to provide reliable and sustainable service. This study presents a demand-side management decision-making tool to evaluate energy and water efficiency opportunities at the residential level, including both direct and indirect consumption. The energy-water nexus accounts for indirect resource consumption, including water-for-energy and energy-for-water. We examine the relationship between water and energy in common household appliances and fixtures, comparing baseline appliances to ENERGY STAR or WaterSense appliances, using a cost abatement analysis for the average U.S. household, yielding a potential annual per household savings of 7600 kWh and 39 600 gallons, with most upgrades having negative abatement cost. We refine the national average cost abatement curves to understand regional relationships, specifically for the urban environments of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. Cost abatement curves display per unit cost savings related to overall direct and indirect energy and water efficiency, allowing utilities, policy makers, and homeowners to consider the relationship between energy and water when making decisions. Our research fills an important gap of the energy-water nexus in a residential unit and provides a decision making tool for policy initiatives.

  13. Examination of the consumer decision process for residential energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the factors that influence consumers' energy-using behavior. A comprehensive review of these studies was conducted in which articles from different research disciplines (economics, sociology, psychology, and marketing) were examined. This paper provides a discussion of a subset of these studies, and based on findings of the review, offers recommendations for future research. The literature review revealed a need to develop an integrated framework for examining consumers' energy-using behavior. This integrated framework should simultaneously consider both price and nonprice related factors which underlie energy use decisions. It should also examined the process by which decisions are made, as well as the factors that affect the decision outcome. This paper provides a suggested integrated framework for future research and discusses the data required to support this framework. 23 references, 3 figures.

  14. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  15. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  16. Overcoming barriers to residential conservation: do energy audits help

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A study on the effects of energy audits on the pace and choice of household investment in energy-saving improvements in the home is reported. An evaluation based on the household's assessment of the usefulness of the audit which was provided for their home was performed. The number and types of recent conservation actions among audited and unaudited samples of households are compared. The audit's effect on household knowledge about the economically attractive options for their home and on the choice of recent improvements is assessed. Possible reasons are suggested for the weak effect of audits in stimulating activity and reorienting investment choices. (LEW)

  17. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG.

  18. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  19. Roadmap Toward a Predictive Performance-based Commercial Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.

    2014-10-01

    Energy codes have provided significant increases in building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy model code was published in late 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, and the inability to handle control optimization that is specific to building type and use. This paper provides a high level review of different options for energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, EUI Target, outcome-based, and predictive performance approaches. This paper also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria. A vision is outlined to serve as a roadmap for future commercial code development. That vision is based on code development being led by a specific approach to predictive energy performance combined with building specific prescriptive packages that are designed to be both cost-effective and to achieve a desired level of performance. Compliance with this new approach can be achieved by either meeting the performance target as demonstrated by whole building energy modeling, or by choosing one of the prescriptive packages.

  20. Home energy ratings and energy codes -- A marriage that should work

    SciTech Connect

    Verdict, M.E.; Fairey, P.W.; DeWein, M.C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines how voluntary home energy ratings systems (HERS) can be married to mandatory energy codes to increase code compliance while providing added benefits to consumers, builders, and code officials. Effective code enforcement and compliance is a common problem for state and local jurisdictions attempting to reduce energy consumption and increase housing affordability. Reasons frequently cited for energy code noncompliance are: (1) builder resistance to government regulations and change in building practices; (2) the perceived complexity of the code; (3) a lack of familiarity of energy impacts by cod officials and the housing industry, and (4) inadequate government resources for enforcement. By combing ratings and codes, one can create a win-win approach for code officials and energy rating organizations, the housing industry, as well as consumers who wish to reduce air pollution and energy waste. Additionally, state and local government experiences where the marriage between codes and ratings has begun are highlighted and the barriers and benefits assessed.

  1. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  2. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Martin, E.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  3. Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. The results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations. These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, the authors were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

  4. Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional. insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. We used the DOE2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. Our results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, we were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

  5. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  6. Planning for an energy-efficient future: The experience with implementing energy conservation programs for new residential and commercial buildings: Volume 2, Program descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Harris, J.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains the descriptions of programs contained in Volume 1 of our main report: Planning for an Energy-Efficient Future: The Experience With Implementing Energy Conservation Programs For New Residential and Commercial Buildings (LBL-25525).

  7. Potential energy savings in the residential sector of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art computer program, DOE 2.1, was used to simulate the hour-by-hour thermal performance of residential buildings in the four major climate zones of the United States, and a life-cycle cost analysis was applied to determine the optimal energy requirement of a typical house demonstrate that present levels of energy consumption can be reduced by a factor of two without compromising health and comfort standards. Within present technology, additional energy savings can be achieved but not yet in a cost-effective way.

  8. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  9. NFRC efforts to develop a residential fenestration annual energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, B.; Larsen, J.; Sullivan, R.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper documents efforts currently being undertaken by the National Fenestration Rating Council`s Annual Energy Rating Subcommittee to develop procedures to quantify the energy impacts of fenestration products in typical residential buildings throughout the US. Parallel paths focus on (1) the development of simplified heating and cooling indices and (2) the development of a more detailed methodology to calculate the cost and energy impacts of specific products in a variety of housing types. These procedures are currently under discussion by NFRC`s Technical Committee; future efforts will also address commercial buildings.

  10. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  11. CLASSIFY-Profiles. Volume 1: Residential customer needs and energy decision making; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweber, D.; Finkbeiner, C.

    1995-12-01

    Efficient promotion of utility products and services is best achieved by a commitment to customer-focused, market-driven strategies. EPRI`s CLASSIFY System provides utilities with the information, methods, and tools necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of customer attitudes toward electrotechnologies and their applications. This guide presents an overview of Residential CLASSIFY, a needs-defined customer research and target marketing framework, focusing on energy lifestyle, HVAC, lighting, and water heating needs. Specifically, the guide identifies 11 residential energy lifestyle needs and groups customers into eight target markets according to their needs. Each CLASSIFY-Profile lists in order of priority the 11 energy lifestyle factors and 24 additional technology-related factors that influence customer purchases of end-use technologies. The guide also describes how to use customer needs information to develop and deploy customer-driven products, programs and services. The appendix provides succinct demographic descriptions for each Residential CLASSIFY profile. Future CLASSIFY-Profile reports will present customer needs information for the commercial and industrial sectors.

  12. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Vine, Ed; Price, Sarah; Sturges, Andrew; Rosenquist, Greg

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  13. New Low-Cost Residential Energy Audit Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamoen, D. W. J.

    1982-03-01

    A method is presented, using new infrared heat flow meters, to measure the heat flows and R-values in homes. Such defects as wet or missing insulation, air infiltration effects, and thermal bridges are readily evaluated. A new reference standard method simplifies the heat flow measurement. The procedure can be used by modestly skilled auditors to advise the homeowner regarding retrofit of new insulation, or repairs to the existing envelope. The procedure is sufficiently direct, that it is believed to be the lowest cost of all measurement-based energy audits. It is competitive with non-measurement survey methods which produce much less information.

  14. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  15. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page 56413 in the issue of Tuesday, September 13, 2011 make the following...

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  17. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  18. Life Cycle Energy Assessment of a Multi-storey Residential Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sourabh; Chandur, Arjun; Palaniappan, Sivakumar

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the findings of life cycle energy assessment of two multi-storey residential buildings. These buildings consist of a total of 60 homes. The usable floor area is 43.14 m2 (463.36 ft2) per home. A detailed estimation of embodied energy is carried out by considering the use of materials during building construction. Major contributors of embodied energy are found to be steel, cement and aluminum. Monthly building operation energy was assessed using a total of 2520 data samples corresponding to 3 years of building operation. Analysis of a base case scenario, with 50 years of service life and average monthly operation energy, indicates that the embodied energy and the operation energy account for 16 and 84% of the life cycle energy respectively. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the influence of service life and operation energy on the relative contribution of embodied energy and operation energy. It is found that the embodied energy represents as high as 31% of the life cycle energy depending upon the variation in the operation energy and the service life. Hence, strategies towards sustainable building construction should also focus on reducing the embodied energy in the design and construction phases in addition to operation energy.

  19. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  20. Residential energy use and potential conservation through reduced laundering temperatures in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Sabaliunas, Darius; Pittinger, Charles; Kessel, Cristy; Masscheleyn, Patrick

    2006-04-01

    A residential energy-use model was developed to estimate energy budgets for household laundering practices in the United States and Canada. The thermal energy for heating water and mechanical energy for agitating clothes in conventional washing machines were calculated for representative households in the United States and Canada. Comparisons in energy consumption among hot-, warm-, and cold-water wash and rinse cycles, horizontal- and vertical-axis washing machines, and gas and electric water heaters, were calculated on a per-wash-load basis. Demographic data for current laundering practices in the United States and Canada were then incorporated to estimate household and national energy consumption on an annual basis for each country. On average, the thermal energy required to heat water using either gas or electric energy constitutes 80% to 85% of the total energy consumed per wash in conventional, vertical-axis (top-loading) washing machines. The balance of energy used is mechanical energy. Consequently, the potential energy savings per load in converting from hot-and-warm- to cold-wash temperatures can be significant. Annual potential energy and cost savings and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions are also estimated for each country, assuming full conversion to cold-wash water temperatures. This study provides useful information to consumers for conserving energy in the home, as well as to, manufacturers in the design of more energy-efficient laundry formulations and appliances.

  1. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen P.; McMahon, James; Atkinson, Barbara

    2008-05-08

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. Federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2006 period, and of energy efficiency standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts and distribution transformers. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. It also performed new analysis for the first (1990) fluorescent ballast standards, which had been introduced in the NAECA legislation without a rulemaking. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential/ commercial primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in 2030 by 4percent compared to the levels expected without any standards. The reduction for the residential sector is larger, at 8percent. The estimated cumulative energy savings from the standards amount to 39 quads by 2020, and 63 quads by 2030. The standards will also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by considerable amounts.The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $241 billion by 2030, and grows to $269 billion by 2045. The overall ratio of consumer benefits to costs (in present value terms) in the 1987-2050 period is 2.7 to 1. Although the estimates made in this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe they provide a reasonable approximation of the national benefits resulting from Federal appliance efficiency standards.

  2. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  3. WEC3: Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Combourieu, Adrien; Lawson, Michael; Babarit, Aurelien; Ruehl, Kelley; Roy, Andre; Costello, Ronan; Laporte Weywada, Pauline; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently launched Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison (WEC3) project and present preliminary results from this effort. The objectives of WEC3 are to verify and validate numerical modelling tools that have been developed specifically to simulate wave energy conversion devices and to inform the upcoming IEA OES Annex VI Ocean Energy Modelling Verification and Validation project. WEC3 is divided into two phases. Phase 1 consists of a code-to-code verification and Phase II entails code-to-experiment validation. WEC3 focuses on mid-fidelity codes that simulate WECs using time-domain multibody dynamics methods to model device motions and hydrodynamic coefficients to model hydrodynamic forces. Consequently, high-fidelity numerical modelling tools, such as Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulation, and simple frequency domain modelling tools were not included in the WEC3 project.

  4. Realized and prospective impacts of U.S. energy efficiency standards for residential appliances: 2004 update

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen; McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael

    2005-06-24

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2001 period or will take effect by the end of 2007. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in 2020 by 8% compared to the levels expected without any standards. They will save a cumulative total of 34 quads by 2020, and 54 quads by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $93 billion by 2020, and grows to $125 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts is 2.45 to 1. While the results of this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe that the general conclusions--DOE's energy efficiency standards save significant quantities of energy (and associated carbon emissions) and reduce consumers' net costs--are robust.

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  6. Current Trends in Commercial Energy Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, James J.; Diemer, Robert; Ierardi, James

    2013-01-01

    Buildings consume approximately 40 percent of the energy used in the U.S., and efficiency is widely recognized to be the most effective means for containing demand and reducing use. Institutions of higher education make up a significant proportion of building area and annual energy and facility-related costs in the United States. The national…

  7. Current Trends in Commercial Energy Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, James J.; Diemer, Robert; Ierardi, James

    2013-01-01

    Buildings consume approximately 40 percent of the energy used in the U.S., and efficiency is widely recognized to be the most effective means for containing demand and reducing use. Institutions of higher education make up a significant proportion of building area and annual energy and facility-related costs in the United States. The national…

  8. Roadmap for the Future of Commercial Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-01-01

    Building energy codes have significantly increased building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy code was published in 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, the inability to handle optimization that is specific to building type and use, the inability to account for project-specific energy costs, and the lack of follow-through or accountability after a certificate of occupancy is granted. It is likely that an approach that considers the building as an integrated system will be necessary to achieve the next real gains in building efficiency. This report provides a high-level review of different formats for commercial building energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, capacity constrained, outcome based, and predictive performance approaches. This report also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria.

  9. A High-Granularity Approach to Modeling Energy Consumption and Savings Potential in the U.S. Residential Building Stock

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-12

    Building simulations are increasingly used in various applications related to energy efficient buildings. For individual buildings, applications include: design of new buildings, prediction of retrofit savings, ratings, performance path code compliance and qualification for incentives. Beyond individual building applications, larger scale applications (across the stock of buildings at various scales: national, regional and state) include: codes and standards development, utility program design, regional/state planning, and technology assessments. For these sorts of applications, a set of representative buildings are typically simulated to predict performance of the entire population of buildings. Focusing on the U.S. single-family residential building stock, this paper will describe how multiple data sources for building characteristics are combined into a highly-granular database that preserves the important interdependencies of the characteristics. We will present the sampling technique used to generate a representative set of thousands (up to hundreds of thousands) of building models. We will also present results of detailed calibrations against building stock consumption data.

  10. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  11. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  12. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  13. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle 6 and Reflector CFL In-situ Testing of PEARL program during the period of April 2005 to October 2005, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC performed testing for the fixture samples in Cycle 6 against Energy Star residential fixture specifications during this period of time. LRC subcontracted the Reflector CFL In-situ Testing to Luminaire Testing Laboratories located at Allentown PA, and supervised this test.

  14. Residential-energy-demand modeling and the NIECS data base: an evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cowing, T.G.; Dubin, J.A.; McFadden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the 1978-1979 National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data base in terms of its usefulness for estimating residential energy demand models based on household appliance choice and utilization decisions. The NIECS contains detailed energy usage information at the household level for 4081 households during the April 1978 to March 1979 period. Among the data included are information on the structural and thermal characteristics of the housing unit, demographic characteristics of the household, fuel usage, appliance characteristics, and actual energy consumption. The survey covers the four primary residential fuels-electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas - and includes detailed information on recent household conservation and retrofit activities. Section II contains brief descriptions of the major components of the NIECS data set. Discussions are included on the sample frame and the imputation procedures used in NIECS. There are also two extensive tables, giving detailed statistical and other information on most of the non-vehicle NIECS variables. Section III contains an assessment of the NIECS data, focusing on four areas: measurement error, sample design, imputation problems, and additional data needed to estimate appliance choice/use models. Section IV summarizes and concludes the report.

  15. 78 FR 38699 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for the basic models... this technology into account when measuring energy consumption. DATES: This Decision and Order is... procedures may evaluate the basic model in a manner so unrepresentative of its true energy consumption...

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Van Geet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-04-01

    This abbreviated report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project.

  17. Increasing Flexibility in Energy Code Compliance: Performance Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2015-06-30

    Energy codes and standards have provided significant increases in building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy code was published in late 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. As the code matures, the prescriptive path becomes more complicated, and also more restrictive. It is likely that an approach that considers the building as an integrated system will be necessary to achieve the next real gains in building efficiency. Performance code paths are increasing in popularity; however, there remains a significant design team overhead in following the performance path, especially for smaller buildings. This paper focuses on development of one alternative format, prescriptive packages. A method to develop building-specific prescriptive packages is reviewed based on a multiple runs of prototypical building models that are used to develop parametric decision analysis to determines a set of packages with equivalent energy performance. The approach is designed to be cost-effective and flexible for the design team while achieving a desired level of energy efficiency performance. A demonstration of the approach based on mid-sized office buildings with two HVAC system types is shown along with a discussion of potential applicability in the energy code process.

  18. Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

  19. Progress in the energy efficiency of residential appliances and space conditioning equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Howard S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper addresses a number of questions regarding the energy performance of residential appliances, water heaters and space conditioning equipment including the changes in the efficiency and energy consumption of new models during the past decade, the technologies used to achieve higher levels of energy efficiency, and the potential for further technical improvements. It is shown that there have been major improvements in the energy efficiency of all product types. For some products (eg., refrigerators), the average efficiency of new models has significantly risen during the past decade. For other products (eg., water heaters), major savings are possible through the purchase and use of the more-efficient models now available. A large assortment of technologies have been utilized to achieve greater efficiencies and further improvements are under development in many areas.

  20. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  1. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  3. Residential ventilation with heat recovery: Improving indoor air quality and saving energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseme, G. D.; Berk, J. V.; Boegel, M. L.; Halsey, H. I.; Hollowell, C. D.; Rosenfeld, A. H.; Turiel, I.

    1980-05-01

    Residential air quality measurements were made and the use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers is discussed as a promising means of pollutant control. A particular advantage of this control strategy is that the heat exchanger permits recovery of a large portion of the heat that would normally be lost in a simple exhaust ventilation system, and therefore maintains the energy efficiency of the house. An economic analysis is presented showing that installation of these systems in newly constructed homes is cost effective in most regions of the country.

  4. The characterization and assessment of selected solar thermal energy systems for residential and process heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, J. C.

    1980-09-01

    Results of studies of seven solar thermal energy applications are presented. Five of these are residential applications: space heating--active liquid, space heating--active air, domestic hot water--active, space heating--passive, and space heating and cooling--active liquid. Denver, Colorado, was selected as a representative location for each of the above applications. The remaining two applications produce industrial process heat: a flat plate collector system producing 50 C - 100 C hot water for a commercial laundry in Indianapolis, Indiana; and a concentrating collector system that could produce 100 C - 300 C process heat adequate to the needs of a pulp mill in Madison, Wisconsin.

  5. Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevius, Monica Josefina

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy

  6. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three of PEARL program during the period of October 2002 to April 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The products tested are 20 models of screw-based compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) of various types and various wattages made or marketed by 12 different manufacturers, and ten models of residential lighting fixtures from eight different manufacturers.

  7. Reducing U.S. residential energy use and CO2 emissions: how much, how soon, and at what cost?

    PubMed

    Lima Azevedo, Inês; Morgan, M Granger; Palmer, Karen; Lave, Lester B

    2013-03-19

    There is growing interest in reducing energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide from the residential sector by deploying cost-effectiveness energy efficiency measures. However, there is still large uncertainty about the magnitude of the reductions that could be achieved by pursuing different energy efficiency measures across the nation. Using detailed estimates of the current inventory and performance of major appliances in U.S. homes, we model the cost, energy, and CO2 emissions reduction if they were replaced with alternatives that consume less energy or emit less CO2. We explore trade-offs between reducing CO2, reducing primary or final energy, or electricity consumption. We explore switching between electricity and direct fuel use, and among fuels. The trade-offs between different energy efficiency policy goals, as well as the environmental metrics used, are important but have been largely unexplored by previous energy modelers and policy-makers. We find that overnight replacement of the full stock of major residential appliances sets an upper bound of just over 710 × 10(6) tonnes/year of CO2 or a 56% reduction from baseline residential emissions. However, a policy designed instead to minimize primary energy consumption instead of CO2 emissions will achieve a 48% reduction in annual carbon dioxide emissions from the nine largest energy consuming residential end-uses. Thus, we explore the uncertainty regarding the main assumptions and different policy goals in a detailed sensitivity analysis.

  8. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits “0” and “1” to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency‐spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments. PMID:28932671

  9. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  10. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  11. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  12. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Declining supplies of domestic oil and gas and the increased cost of energy resulted in a renewed emphasis in utilizing available resources in the most efficient manner possible. This, in turn, brought about a reassessment of a number of methods for converting fossil fuels to end uses at the highest practical efficiency. One of these is the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES). This system provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat from the power plant that would normally be rejected to the environment. An OS/IES is potentially useful in any application that requires both electricity and heat. Several OS/IES are analyzed for a residential complex. The paper is divided into two sections; the first compares three energy supply systems, the second compares various designs for fuel cell OS/IES.

  13. 76 FR 58345 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...Where appropriate, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed to amend its test procedures for residential dishwashers, dehumidifiers, and conventional cooking products (which includes cooktops, ovens, and ranges) to include provisions for measuring standby mode and off mode energy consumption, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007). These test procedure amendments would incorporate by reference certain provisions of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 62301, ``Household electrical appliances--Measurement of standby power.'' Since publication of DOE's initial proposal in December 2010, the IEC has replaced the First Edition of this standard with the current Second Edition. This supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking proposes to incorporate the latest edition of IEC Standard 62301.

  14. Evaluating the benefits of commercial building energy codes and improving federal incentives for code adoption.

    PubMed

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2014-12-16

    The federal government has the goal of decreasing commercial building energy consumption and pollutant emissions by incentivizing the adoption of commercial building energy codes. Quantitative estimates of code benefits at the state level that can inform the size and allocation of these incentives are not available. We estimate the state-level climate, environmental, and health benefits (i.e., social benefits) and reductions in energy bills (private benefits) of a more stringent code (ASHRAE 90.1-2010) relative to a baseline code (ASHRAE 90.1-2007). We find that reductions in site energy use intensity range from 93 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (California) to 270 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (North Dakota). Total annual benefits from more stringent codes total $506 million for all states, where $372 million are from reductions in energy bills, and $134 million are from social benefits. These total benefits range from $0.6 million in Wyoming to $49 million in Texas. Private benefits range from $0.38 per square meter in Washington State to $1.06 per square meter in New Hampshire. Social benefits range from $0.2 per square meter annually in California to $2.5 per square meter in Ohio. Reductions in human/environmental damages and future climate damages account for nearly equal shares of social benefits.

  15. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  16. Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  18. Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the UnitedStates

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2007-02-01

    The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does not by itself have the force of regulation, but is being considered for adoption by various jurisdictions within the U.S. as well as by various voluntary programs. The adoption of 62.2 would require mechanical ventilation systems to be installed in virtually all new homes, but allows for a wide variety of design solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non-energy benefits. This report uses a detailed simulation model to evaluate the energy impacts of currently popular and proposed mechanical ventilation approaches that are 62.2 compliant for a variety of climates. These results separate the energy needed to ventilate from the energy needed to condition the ventilation air, from the energy needed to distribute and/or temper the ventilation air. The results show that exhaust systems are generally the most energy efficient method of meeting the proposed requirements. Balanced and supply systems have more ventilation resulting in greater energy and their associated distribution energy use can be significant.

  19. Cost effectiveness of the 1995 model energy code in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in Massachusetts. The goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1995 MEC to the energy conservation requirements of the Massachusetts State Building Code-based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each.. This comparison was performed for three cities representing three geographical regions of Massachusetts--Boston, Worcester, and Pittsfield. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily condominium unit. Natural gas, oil, and electric resistance heating were examined. The Massachusetts state code has much more stringent requirements if electric resistance heating is used rather than other heating fuels and/or equipment types. The MEC requirements do not vary by fuel type. For single-family homes, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are more energy-efficient than the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. For multifamily housing, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are approximately equally energy-efficient to the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. The 1995 MEC is generally not more stringent than the electric resistance requirements of the state code, in fact; for multifamily buildings the 1995 MEC is much less stringent.

  20. Spatial analysis of participation in the Waterloo Residential Energy Efficiency Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ge Bella

    Researchers are in broad agreement that energy-conserving actions produce economic as well as energy savings. Household energy rating systems (HERS) have been established in many countries to inform households of their house's current energy performance and to help reduce their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In Canada, the national EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) program is delivered by many local delivery agents, including non-profit green community organizations. Waterloo Region Green Solutions is the local non-profit that offers the EGH residential energy evaluation service to local households. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the determinants of household's participation in the residential energy efficiency program (REEP) in Waterloo Region, to explain the relationship between the explanatory variables and REEP participation, and to propose ways to improve this kind of program. A spatial (trend) analysis was conducted within a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the spatial patterns of the REEP participation in Waterloo Region from 1999 to 2006. The impact of sources of information on participation and relationships between participation rates and explanatory variables were identified. GIS proved successful in presenting a visual interpretation of spatial patterns of the REEP participation. In general, the participating households tend to be clustered in urban areas and scattered in rural areas. Different sources of information played significant roles in reaching participants in different years. Moreover, there was a relationship between each explanatory variable and the REEP participation rates. Statistical analysis was applied to obtain a quantitative assessment of relationships between hypothesized explanatory variables and participation in the REEP. The Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between hypothesized explanatory variables and REEP participation at the CDA level. The results show that

  1. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  2. System design and house dynamic signature identification for intelligent energy management in residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae Hwi

    Increasing energy demand from residential buildings and evolving utility pricing policy to regulate energy use during peak times require a new paradigm for energy management in residential buildings. As a prototype for intelligent energy management systems of residential buildings, DREAM (Demand Responsive Electrical Appliance Manager), based on a wireless sensor network, was developed. This autonomous system consisting of wireless sensors and actuators, a graphical user interface, and a main control reduces peak electrical demand and ultimately optimizes energy management by identifying house dynamic signature as well as occupant thermal preference and patterns. In summer 2007, functionality and overall performance were evaluated with two field tests and showed promise for the DREAM system. Due to significance of the house dynamic signature learning in an intelligent energy management system, three approaches were studied. Despite the simplicity of the model and success in identifying thermal characteristics of a house, the 1st order differential equation method, which considered thermal influences of five heat sources, showed limitations in representing actual temperature behavior delicately. The tabular method was suggested to capture house nonlinear behavior by learning temperature change rate with respect to different events and periods. The prediction using the tabular method followed the actual measured temperature within a tolerable error range, except for a relatively long heater-on event. The last method, the ARX model fitting method, provided the best prediction result, but the performance was considerably influenced by the choice of sample data for parameter learning. The multiple-model switching algorithm was proposed to minimize performance inconsistency in the ARX model fitting method. Instead of sticking to one model, it allows several candidates whose parameters are calculated from seven consecutive days, and selects one (multiple-model hard

  3. New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

    2007-12-01

    The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has

  4. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    SciTech Connect

    Applied Management & Planning Group; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  5. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  6. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 2 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group

    1993-08-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by region. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  7. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    Treesearch

    Brad Upton; Reid Miner; Mike Spinney; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/...

  8. 77 FR 8238 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure, and Grant of Interim... the energy consumption of certain specific electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. In its... waiver from the electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedure, subject to use of...

  9. Reducing Energy Usage in Residential and Industrial Buildings via the Sealing of Heating and Air Conditioning Ductwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witriol, Norman; Katz, Myron; McKim, Robert; Erinjeri, Jinson; Saber, Aziz

    2003-03-01

    Many existing residential and industrial heating and cooling systems have leaky ductwork. These leaks result in large energy losses, and thus significantly higher than necessary utility costs. We will discuss the use of extensions of well investigated cost effective sealing methodologies to ductwork, and quantify the energy savings that can be achieved by sealing these leaks.

  10. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  11. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  12. An analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    In this paper a descriptive analysis of the relationship between energy consumption, patterns of energy use, and housing stock variables is presented. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover evidence of variations in energy consumption and expenditures, and patterns of energy use between majority households (defines as households with neither a black nor Hispanic head of household), black households (defined as households with a black head of household), and Hispanic households (defined as households with a Hispanic head of household) between 1980 (time of the first DOE/EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 1982a) and 1987 (time of the last DOE/EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 1989a). The analysis is three-dimensional: energy consumption and expenditures are presented by time (1980 to 1987), housing vintage, and housing type. A comparative analysis of changes in energy variables for the three population groups -- majority, black, and Hispanic -- within and between specific housing stock categories is presented.

  13. An analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a descriptive analysis of the relationship between energy consumption, patterns of energy use, and housing stock variables is presented. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover evidence of variations in energy consumption and expenditures, and patterns of energy use between majority households (defines as households with neither a black nor Hispanic head of household), black households (defined as households with a black head of household), and Hispanic households (defined as households with a Hispanic head of household) between 1980 (time of the first DOE/EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 1982a) and 1987 (time of the last DOE/EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 1989a). The analysis is three-dimensional: energy consumption and expenditures are presented by time (1980 to 1987), housing vintage, and housing type. A comparative analysis of changes in energy variables for the three population groups -- majority, black, and Hispanic -- within and between specific housing stock categories is presented.

  14. Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

  15. New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface

    SciTech Connect

    Forowicz, T.

    1997-06-01

    The paper presents an interactive on-line package for calculation of energy and cost demands for residential infiltration and ventilation, with input and output data entry through a web browser. This is a unique tool. It represents a new kind of approach to developing software employing user (client) and server (package provider) computers. The main program, servicing {open_quotes}intelligent{close_quotes} CGI (Common Gateway Interface) calls, resides on the server and dynamically handles the whole package performance and the procedure of calculations. The {open_quotes}computing engine{close_quotes} consists of two parts: RESVENT - the previously existing program for ventilation calculations and ECONOMICS - for heating and cooling system energy and cost calculations. The user interface is designed in such a way, that it allows simultaneous access by many users from all over the world.

  16. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  17. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  18. Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

    2004-02-01

    In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

  19. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  20. The High-Energy Transport Code HETC88

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Barnes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An upgraded version, HETC88, of the previously available High-Energy Transport Code HETC is briefly described. In the upgraded code, the particle production model from hadron-nucleus nonelastic collisions at energies greater than 5 GeV has been revised. At nucleon and ion energies below 5 GeV, HETC88 is not different from the code previously available. In particular, provision is still made to allow neutrons with energies less than or equal to20 MeV to be transported by none of the available codes designed for low-energy neutron transport. Calculated results for the longitudinal distribution of the flux of neutrons with energy greater than or equal to40 KeV in the Tevatron tunnel when 900 GeV protons interact with N/sub 2/ in a warm section are presented and compared with experimental data. Some disagreements between the calculated and measured neutron flux are found. For 20 TeV protons incident on a large cylindrical iron target, calculated ''star'' density results from HETC88, FLUKA87, CASIM, and MARS10 are also compared. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    SciTech Connect

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  2. Energy distribution property and energy coding of a structural neural network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    Studying neural coding through neural energy is a novel view. In this paper, based on previously proposed single neuron model, the correlation between the energy consumption and the parameters of the cortex networks (amount of neurons, coupling strength, and transform delay) under an oscillational condition were researched. We found that energy distribution varies orderly as these parameters change, and it is closely related to the synchronous oscillation of the neural network. Besides, we compared this method with traditional method of relative coefficient, which shows energy method works equal to or better than the traditional one. It is novel that the synchronous activity and neural network parameters could be researched by assessing energy distribution and consumption. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will refine the framework of neural coding theory and contribute to our understanding of the coding mechanism of the cerebral cortex. It provides a strong theoretical foundation of a novel neural coding theory—energy coding. PMID:24600382

  3. Energy distribution property and energy coding of a structural neural network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    Studying neural coding through neural energy is a novel view. In this paper, based on previously proposed single neuron model, the correlation between the energy consumption and the parameters of the cortex networks (amount of neurons, coupling strength, and transform delay) under an oscillational condition were researched. We found that energy distribution varies orderly as these parameters change, and it is closely related to the synchronous oscillation of the neural network. Besides, we compared this method with traditional method of relative coefficient, which shows energy method works equal to or better than the traditional one. It is novel that the synchronous activity and neural network parameters could be researched by assessing energy distribution and consumption. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will refine the framework of neural coding theory and contribute to our understanding of the coding mechanism of the cerebral cortex. It provides a strong theoretical foundation of a novel neural coding theory-energy coding.

  4. The integration of quantitative information with an intelligent decision support system for residential energy retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yunjeong

    The purpose of this research is to support the development of an intelligent Decision Support System (DSS) by integrating quantitative information with expert knowledge in order to facilitate effective retrofit decision-making. To achieve this goal, the Energy Retrofit Decision Process Framework is analyzed. Expert system shell software, a retrofit measure cost database, and energy simulation software are needed for developing the DSS; Exsys Corvid, the NREM database and BEopt were chosen for implementing an integration model. This integration model demonstrates the holistic function of a residential energy retrofit system for existing homes, by providing a prioritized list of retrofit measures with cost information, energy simulation and expert advice. The users, such as homeowners and energy auditors, can acquire all of the necessary retrofit information from this unified system without having to explore several separate systems. The integration model plays the role of a prototype for the finalized intelligent decision support system. It implements all of the necessary functions for the finalized DSS, including integration of the database, energy simulation and expert knowledge.

  5. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  6. 77 FR 31917 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... May 30, 2012 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy.... 77, No. 104 / Wednesday, May 30, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC64 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...

  7. Energy deposition calculated by PHITS code in Pb spallation target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Quanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Energy deposition in a Pb spallation target irradiated by high energetic protons was calculated by PHITS2.52 code. The validation of the energy deposition and neutron production calculated by PHITS code was performed. Results show good agreements between the simulation results and the experimental data. Detailed comparison shows that for the total energy deposition, PHITS simulation result was about 15% overestimation than that of the experimental data. For the energy deposition along the length of the Pb target, the discrepancy mainly presented at the front part of the Pb target. Calculation indicates that most of the energy deposition comes from the ionizations of the primary protons and the produced secondary particles. With the event generator mode of PHITS, the deposit energy distribution for the particles and the light nulclei is presented for the first time. It indicates that the primary protons with energy more than 100 MeV are the most contributors to the total energy deposition. The energy depositions peaking at 10 MeV and 0.1 MeV, are mainly caused by the electrons, pions, d, t, 3He and also α particles during the cascade process and the evaporation process, respectively. The energy deposition density caused by different proton beam profiles are also calculated and compared. Such calculation and analyses are much helpful for better understanding the physical mechanism of energy deposition in the spallation target, and greatly useful for the thermal hydraulic design of the spallation target.

  8. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, Kristen; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  9. Energy demand of the German and Dutch residential building stock under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olonscheck, Mady; Holsten, Anne; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In order to mitigate climate change, extraordinary measures are necessary in the future. The building sector, in particular, offers considerable potential for transformation to lower energy demand. On a national level, however, successful and far-reaching measures will likely be taken only if reliable estimates regarding future energy demand from different scenarios are available. The energy demand for space heating and cooling is determined by a combination of behavioral, climatic, constructional, and demographic factors. For two countries, namely Germany and the Netherlands, we analyze the combined effect of future climate and building stock changes as well as renovation measures on the future energy demand for room conditioning of residential buildings until 2060. We show how much the heating energy demand will decrease in the future and answer the question of whether the energy decrease will be exceeded by an increase in cooling energy demand. Based on a sensitivity analysis, we determine those influencing factors with the largest impact on the future energy demand from the building stock. Both countries have national targets regarding the reduction of the energy demand for the future. We provide relevant information concerning the annual renovation rates that are necessary to reach these targets. Retrofitting buildings is a win-win option as it not only helps to mitigate climate change and to lower the dependency on fossil fuels but also transforms the buildings stock into one that is better equipped for extreme temperatures that may occur more frequently with climate change. For the Netherlands, the study concentrates not only on the national, but also the provincial level, which should facilitate directed policy measures. Moreover, the analysis is done on a monthly basis in order to ascertain a deeper understanding of the future seasonal energy demand changes. Our approach constitutes an important first step towards deeper insights into the internal dynamics

  10. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  11. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  12. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  13. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... utilize forecasts of energy prices and housing starts from the AEO2010 Reference case, Low Economic Growth... energy prices and housing starts from the AEO2010 Reference case, Low Economic Growth case, and High...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...

  14. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  15. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  16. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 8. Montana cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the state of Montana to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which are cross-tabulated against the above, fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled; 570 households were sampled in Montana.

  17. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  18. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 7. Idaho cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the state of Idaho to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above, fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled; 827 households were sampled in Idaho. (MCW)

  19. Temporal De-biasing of Behaviour in Residential Energy Consumption: Supporting Conservation Compliance Through Feedback Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Kevin

    Despite years of research in residential energy conservation, means of inducing conservation behaviour through feedback are not well understood. In this thesis I take a novel approach to feedback design by addressing temporal inconsistencies that may hinder individuals from forming an intention to conserve. To help understand conservation compliance strategies, I proposed a visual framework to categorize interventions. I present two design heuristics that were inspired by temporal construal theory (Liberman & Trope, 2003). They were the impetus for the design of three feedback display prototypes, which were examined. Due to methodological limitations, significant improvements to compliance were not found. However, evidence suggests that comparative feedback may have supported reasoning about conservation rather than supporting conservation compliance directly. Future work includes refinement of feedback displays to avoid direct comparisons, exploring the use of nature imagery, and the study of a possible interaction between environmental values and comparative feedback on compliance.

  20. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness..., Confidential business information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Imports, Intergovernmental... / Tuesday, July 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN...

  1. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness Project (ASAP), Natural... information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Small... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  2. 75 FR 19296 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... mode electrical consumption was small as compared to the fossil fuel energy consumption currently... mode energy consumption into the statutorily identified efficiency descriptor, Annual Fuel Utilization...

  3. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at Clipper

  4. 77 FR 75426 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY... grants to GE Appliances (GE) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test... rate these refrigerator- freezers using an alternate test procedure as adopted in DOE's final...

  5. 77 FR 1474 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for the basic models set forth in its petitions for waiver in Cases...

  6. 77 FR 19654 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Sanyo E&E Corporation from the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure AGENCY... refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers. The waiver request pertains to the hybrid wine chiller/beverage center... refrigerator-freezers. Please call Ms. Brenda Edwards at the above telephone number for additional...

  7. 78 FR 35901 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for specific basic models set forth in its petition for waiver. In...

  8. 77 FR 75428 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for the basic models set forth in its petition for waiver in Case...

  9. 78 FR 35898 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for specific basic models set forth in its petition for waiver. In...

  10. 78 FR 65623 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of... to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for specific basic models set forth in its petition for waiver. In...

  11. Summary of Needs and Opportunities from the 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting: Atlanta, Georgia, March 16-18, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-05-01

    This meeting brought together more than 200 professionals representing organizations with vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings. Participants identified or reinforced a wide variety of needs and issues associated with delivering high-performance homes in both new and existing home scenarios,

  12. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three and Cycle Four of PEARL program during the period of April 2003 to October 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle three is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Four are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  13. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Four and Cycle Five of PEARL program during the period of October 2003 to April 2004, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle Four is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Five are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  14. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Six of PEARL program during the period of October 2004 to April 2005, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameters tested for CFL models in Cycle Six are 1000-hour Lumen Maintenance, Lumen Maintenance at 40% Rated Life, and Interim Life Test, along with a series of parameters verified, such as ballast electrical parameters and Energy Star label.

  15. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  16. Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.

  17. 76 FR 57515 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment, including refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if more stringent, amended standards for these products are technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this final rule, DOE is adopting more stringent energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. It has determined that the amended energy conservation standards for these products would result in the significant conservation of energy and are technologically feasible and economically justified.

  18. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  20. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation of numbering system for codes. 434.99 Section 434.99 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.; Rutter, A.; Briggs, D.

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  4. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  5. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  6. Image coding based on energy-sorted wavelet packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lin-Wen; Lay, Kuen-Tsair

    1995-04-01

    The discrete wavelet transform performs multiresolution analysis, which effectively decomposes a digital image into components with different degrees of details. In practice, it is usually implemented in the form of filter banks. If the filter banks are cascaded and both the low-pass and the high-pass components are further decomposed, a wavelet packet is obtained. The coefficients of the wavelet packet effectively represent subimages in different resolution levels. In the energy-sorted wavelet- packet decomposition, all subimages in the packet are then sorted according to their energies. The most important subimages, as measured by the energy, are preserved and coded. By investigating the histogram of each subimage, it is found that the pixel values are well modelled by the Laplacian distribution. Therefore, the Laplacian quantization is applied to quantized the subimages. Experimental results show that the image coding scheme based on wavelet packets achieves high compression ratio while preserving satisfactory image quality.

  7. Exact energy conservation in hybrid meshless model/code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.

    2008-11-01

    Energy conservation is an important issue for both PIC and hybrid models. In hybrid codes the ions are treated kinetically and the electrons are described as a massless charge-neutralizing fluid. Our recently developed Particle-In-Cloud-Of-Points (PICOP) approach [1], which uses an adaptive meshless technique to compute electromagnetic fields on a cloud of computational points, is applied to a hybrid model. An exact energy conservation numerical scheme, which describes the interaction between geometrical space, where the electromagnetic fields are computed, and particle/velocity space, is presented. Having being utilized in a new PICOP hybrid code, the algorithm had demonstrated accurate energy conservation in the numerical simulation of two counter streaming plasma beams instability. [1] S. A. Galkin, B. P. Cluggish, J. S. Kim, S. Yu. Medvedev ``Advansed PICOP Algorithm with Adaptive Meshless Field Solver'', Published in the IEEE PPPS/ICOP 2007 Conference proceedings, pp. 1445-1448, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 17-22, 2007.

  8. Assessing Impact of Large-Scale Distributed Residential HVAC Control Optimization on Electricity Grid Operation and Renewable Energy Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Charles D.

    Demand management is an important component of the emerging Smart Grid, and a potential solution to the supply-demand imbalance occurring increasingly as intermittent renewable electricity is added to the generation mix. Model predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for controlling HVAC demand in commercial buildings, making it an ideal solution to this problem. MPC is believed to hold similar promise for residential applications, yet very few examples exist in the literature despite a growing interest in residential demand management. This work explores the potential for residential buildings to shape electric demand at the distribution feeder level in order to reduce peak demand, reduce system ramping, and increase load factor using detailed sub-hourly simulations of thousands of buildings coupled to distribution power flow software. More generally, this work develops a methodology for the directed optimization of residential HVAC operation using a distributed but directed MPC scheme that can be applied to today's programmable thermostat technologies to address the increasing variability in electric supply and demand. Case studies incorporating varying levels of renewable energy generation demonstrate the approach and highlight important considerations for large-scale residential model predictive control.

  9. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness Project (ASAP), Natural Resources Defense Council... procedure, Confidential business information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Imports... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  10. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  11. Characterization and assessment of selected solar thermal energy systems for residential and process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Gregory J.; Blaustein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The results of studies of seven solar thermal energy applications are presented. Five of these are residential applications: space heating-active liquid, space heating-active air, domestic hot water-active, space heating-passive, and space heating and cooling- active liquid. Denver, Colorado, was selected as a representative location for each of the above applications. The remaining two applications produce industrial process heat: a flat-plate collector system producing 50/sup 0/C to 100/sup 0/C hot water for a commercial laundry in Indianapolis, Indiana; and a concentrating collector system that could produce 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C process heat adequate to the needs of a pulp mill in Madison, Wisconsin. For each application, a representative system model and preliminary designs of major system elements were established. Then the following data were generated: annual useful energy produced, type and weight of the basic component materials, environmental residuals generated during system operation, and land and water requirements. These data were generalized for other TASE study purposes by expressing them as quantities per 10/sup 15/ Btu of useful energy. The system characteristics are discussed and the environmental impacts are evaluated. To allow the reader to estimate system performance at other geographic locations than those studied, insolation and other pertinent data are provided.

  12. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Five and Cycle Six of PEARL program during the period of April 2004 to October 2004, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle Five is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Six are Efficacy, CCT, CRI, Power Factor, Start Time, Warm-up Time, and Rapid Cycle Stress Test for CFLs.

  13. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-05-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure of Cycle 7 of PEARL program during the period of October 2005 to March 2006, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC administered the purchasing of CFL samples to test in Cycle 7, performed 100-hour seasoning for most of the CFL samples received by March 2006, and performed sphere testing for some of the CFL samples at 100 hours of life (initial measurement).

  14. Investigation on the Standard for Energy and Environmental Designof Residential House in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yumiko, Ogawa; Weijun, Gao; Nan, Zhou; Toshiyuki, Watanabe; Hiroshi,Yoshino; Toshio, Ojima

    2004-07-01

    In this research, the authors have carried out the researchto investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of theresidential building in China. Efforts have also been made to promote abetter understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard forarchitects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficientbuilding design in China. The results can mainly summarized as follows:(1) As for the thermal environment design, the climate of China has beenclassified five zones. (2) The sunlight, lighting, ventilationenvironment of residential building have been specified in the newstandards. (3) Prescribed the building design elements, such as layout,orientation, shape, color, plan and the type of window. In particular,the thermal insulation measures for heating system has been added in hotsummer and cold winter region, which was not described in old standard.(4) It is admitted that there is still a difference compared with thestandard of many foreign countries, and the improvement in the furtherheat insulation performance and positive execution of the standardcontinue to be expected.

  15. Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurban Residential Neighbourhood of Kansas City, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Vezhapparambu, Sajith; Mauder, Matthias; McFadden, Joseph P.; Gallo, Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Previous measurements of urban energy balances generally have been limited to densely built, central city sites and older suburban locations with mature tree canopies that are higher than the height of the buildings. In contrast, few data are available for the extensive, open vegetated types typical of low-density residential areas that have been newly converted from rural land use. We made direct measurements of surface energy fluxes using the eddy-covariance technique at Greenwood, a recently developed exurban neighbourhood near Kansas City, Missouri, USA, during an intensive field campaign in August 2004. Energy partitioning was dominated by the latent heat flux under both cloudy and near clear-sky conditions. The mean daytime Bowen ratio ( β) values were 0.46, 0.48, and 0.47 respectively for the cloudy, near clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Net radiation ( R n ) increased rapidly from dawn (-34 and -58W m-2) during the night to reach a maximum (423 and 630W m-2) after midday for cloudy and near clear-sky conditions respectively. Mean daytime values were 253 and 370W m-2, respectively for the cloudy and near clear-sky conditions, while mean daily values were 114 for cloudy and 171W m-2 for near clear-sky conditions, respectively. Midday surface albedo values were 0.25 and 0.24 for the cloudy and near clear-sky conditions, respectively. The site exhibited an angular dependence on the solar elevation angle, in contrast to previous observations over urban and suburban areas, but similar to vegetated surfaces. The latent heat flux ( Q E ), sensible heat flux ( Q H ), and the residual heat storage Δ Q s terms accounted for between 46-58%, 21-23%, and 18-31% of R n , respectively, for all-sky conditions and time averages. The observed albedo, R n , and Q E values are higher than the values that have been reported for suburban areas with high summer evapotranspiration rates in North America. These results suggest that the rapidly growing residential areas at the

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Lucas, Robert G.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-12-04

    This analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE supports the development and adoption of efficient residential and commercial building energy codes. These codes set the minimum requirements for energy efficient building design and construction and ensure energy savings on a national level. This analysis focuses on one and two family dwellings, townhomes, and low-rise multifamily residential buildings. For these buildings, the basis of the energy codes is the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report does not address commercial and high-rise residential buildings, which reference ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

  17. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  18. Evaluating Cool Impervious Surfaces: Application to an Energy-Efficient Residential Roof and to City Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo Javier

    heating savings of 4% and electric heating savings of 3%. The slightly positive fractional annual heating energy savings likely resulted from the tile roof's high thermal capacitance, which increased the overnight temperature of the attic air. Thus cool tile roofs should be perceived as a technology that provides energy and environmental benefits during the cooling season as well as the heating season. The second topic investigates the direct and indirect effects of cool pavements on the energy use of California's building stock. First, a simple urban canyon model was developed to calculate the canyon albedo after the user provides the solar position, canyon orientation, and dimensions of the canyon walls, road, and setbacks. Next, a method is presented to correct the values of temperature changes obtained from previous urban climate models to values that would be obtained from canyon geometries that distinguish between road and setbacks (e.g. sidewalk, front yard). The new canyon model is used to scale the temperature changes obtained from a recent urban climate model that simulated the climatological impact of cool pavements on various California cities. The adjusted temperature changes are then combined with building energy simulations to investigate the effect of cool pavements on the cooling, heating, and lighting energy uses of buildings as well as the environmental impact related to these energy uses. Net (direct + indirect) conditioning (cooling + heating) energy savings and environmental savings from cool pavements were smaller in residential buildings than in commercial buildings. Additionally, residential buildings strongly dominate the building stock in all of the evaluated cities. Therefore, even though most cities yielded conditioning energy and environmental savings, they were small due to the minuscule savings from the residential buildings. When increasing the albedo by 0.20 of all public pavements in different California cities, Los Angeles was the city

  19. Hybrid Particle Code Simulations of Mars: The Energy Budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, S. H.; Ledvina, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of our latest hybrid particle simulations using the HALFSHEL code are discussed. The presentation will address the energy budget of the solar wind interaction with Mars. The simulations produce loss rates that are very consistent with measured data, Brecht and Ledvina [2014], therefore inspection of the details of the interaction is now warranted. This paper will address the relationship between the energy flowing into the planet and the energy flowing away from the planet. The partition of the energy between fields, and individual ion species will be addressed as well as the amount of energy deposited in the neutral atmosphere by incoming solar wind plasma and during the process of ion loss caused by acceleration via electric fields. Brecht, S.H. and S.A. Ledvina (2014), "The role of the Martian crustal magnetic fields in controlling ionospheric loss," Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5340-5346, doi:10.1002/2014GL060841.

  20. 76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office of... for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction provides... `` FurnaceBoiler-IEC-2011-TP@ee.doe.gov '' Issued in Washington, DC, on September 29, 2011. Kathleen B....

  1. Free Energy Gap and Statistical Thermodynamic Fidelity of DNA Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    reverse-complement unless otherwise stated. For strand x, let Nx denote its complement. A (perfect) Watson - Crick duplex is the joining of complement...is possible for complementary sequences to form a non-perfectly aligned duplex, we will call any x W Nx duplex a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. Two...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FREE ENERGY GAP AND STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMIC FIDELITY OF DNA CODES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-07

  2. Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2012-02-14

    This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

  3. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  4. Integrated window systems: An advanced energy-efficient residential fenestration product

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.; Griffith, B.; LaBerge, P.

    1994-03-01

    The last several years have produced a wide variety of new window products aimed at reducing the energy impacts associated with residential windows. Improvements have focused on reducing the rate at which heat flows through the total window product by conduction/convection and thermal radiation (quantified by the U-factor) as well as in controlling solar heat gain (measured by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Shading Coefficient (SC)). Significant improvements in window performance have been made with low-E coated glazings, gas fills in multiple pane windows and with changes in spacer and frame materials and designs. These improvements have been changes to existing design concepts. They have pushed the limits of the individual features and revealed weaknesses. The next generation of windows will have to incorporate new materials and ideas, like recessed night insulation, seasonal sun shades and structural window frames, into the design, manufacturing and construction process, to produce an integrated window system that will be an energy and comfort asset.

  5. Energy saving potential of residential HVAC options at Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Stucky, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated heating and cooling system options for existing family housing at Fort Irwin, California. The purpose of this work was to quantify the energy conservation potential of alternative system types and to identify the most cost-effective technology available. The conventional residential heating/cooling systems at Fort Irwin are separate propane forced-air furnaces and central air conditioners. The options examined included air- and ground-source heat pumps, a natural gas furnace with central air conditioning, and a natural-gas-fired heat pump. The most cost-effective technology applicable to Fort Irwin was found to be the high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps. If all conventional units were replaced immediately, the net energy savings would be 76,660 MBtu (80.9 TJ) per year and a reduction in electrical demand of approximately 15,000 kW-month. The initial investment for implementing this technology would be approximately $7.1 million, with a savings-to-investment ratio of 1.74.

  6. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  7. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2007-12-31

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This final report summarizes the experimental procedure and results of all cycles (Cycles 1 through 8) of PEARL program from the beginning of year 2000 to the end of 2007, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. In each cycle of PEARL program, PEARL Board selects a list of Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and Residential Lighting Fixture (RLF) models that are Energy Star qualified. In Cycle 5, Cycle 7, and Cycle 8, no fixture models were selected. After that PEARL sponsors procure product samples for each selected model from different stores and locations in the retail market and send them to LRC for testing. LRC then receive and select the samples, and test them against Energy Star specifications. After the testing LRC analyze and report the results to PEARL Board. Totally 185 models of CFL and 52 models of RLF were tested in PEARL program. Along with the evolution of the Energy Star specifications from year 2000 to 2003, parameters that were required by Energy Star changed during the eight years of PEARL program. The testing parameters and number of samples tested in PEARL program also changed during this time. For example, in Cycle 1, three samples of each models were tested

  8. Advanced Residential Envelopes for Two Pair of Energy-Saver Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Karagiozis, Achilles N; Kosny, Jan; Shrestha, Som S; Christian, Jeffrey E; Kohler, Christian; Dinse, David

    2010-01-01

    Four homes are under construction in the Tennessee Valley to showcase homes that are at least 50% energy savers as compared to homes built to local code. Schaad Companies LLC, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Barber McMurry Architects (BMA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) intend to transform new and existing buildings into affordable, durable and efficient housing. All formed a private- and federal-sector consortium herein called the Zero Energy Building Research Alliance (ZEBRA). The consortium is about to evaluate the market viability for making two pairs of homes 50 percent more energy efficient than homes of similar size and style. Achieving the goal requires the most advanced building technology, products and techniques available. The homes are located on adjacent cul-de-sacs and are unoccupied for the duration of a two-year field study, thereby eliminating the confounding issue of occupancy habits.

  9. Simulation of tree shade impacts on residential energy use for space conditioning in Sacramento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; McPherson, E. G.

    Tree shade reduces summer air conditioning demand and increases winter heating load by intercepting solar energy that would otherwise heat the shaded structure. We evaluate the magnitude of these effects here for 254 residential properties participating in a utility sponsored tree planting program in Sacramento, California. Tree and building characteristics and typical weather data are used to model hourly shading and energy used for space conditioning for each building for a period of one year. There were an average of 3.1 program trees per property which reduced annual and peak (8 h average from 1 to 9 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time) cooling energy use 153 kWh (7.1%) and 0.08 kW (2.3%) per tree, respectively. Annual heating load increased 0.85 GJ (0.80 MBtu, 1.9%) per tree. Changes in cooling load were smaller, but percentage changes larger, for newer buildings. Averaged over all homes, annual cooling savings of 15.25 per tree were reduced by a heating penalty of 5.25 per tree, for net savings of 10.00 per tree from shade. We estimate an annual cooling penalty of 2.80 per tree and heating savings of 6.80 per tree from reduced wind speed, for a net savings of 4.00 per tree, and total annual savings of 14.00 per tree (43.00 per property). Results are found to be consistent with previous simulations and the limited measurements available.

  10. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  11. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 9. Climate Zone 1 cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 1 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 1, defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, amounts to less than 6000. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories; dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled; 1873 households were sampled in Climate Zone 1. Information in 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  12. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 10. Climate Zone 2 cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 2 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 2, defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, amounts to 6000 to 6999. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled; 685 households were sampled in Climate Zone 2. Informational data are presented in 54 tables. (MCW)

  13. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  14. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson; Polly, Ben; Collis, Jon

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  15. Comprehensive x-ray spectral code for high energy astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Mauche, C W

    2000-08-18

    The aim of this project has been to develop a spectral analysis tool with a level of quality and completeness commensurate to that expected in data from the current generation of X-ray observatories. The code is called LXSS (Livermore X-Ray Spectral Synthesizer). X-ray-emitting astrophysical plasmas are rarely, if ever, in LTE, so they have adopted the detailed level accounting approach, in which rates for processes that populate or depopulate atomic energy levels are treated explicitly. This entails the generation of a large quantity of atomic data, most of which is calculated using ''in-house'' computer codes. Calculations are benchmarked against laboratory data, and spectral models have been used to provide first-time interpretations of astrophysical X-ray spectra. The design of a versatile graphical user interface that allows access to and manipulation of the atomic database comprises the second major part of the project.

  16. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...-fired Thermal Efficiency = 82% * EF is the ``energy factor,'' and the ``Rated Storage Volume'' equals... is ``British thermal units per hour,'' and AFUE is ``Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency.'' B.... Additionally, the standards will help alleviate air pollution by resulting in cumulative emissions...

  17. 76 FR 52854 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis (76 FR 9696, Feb. 22, 2011), has not... innovations for production of gas from tight shales. AGA recommended that DOE conduct its analysis using the.... Equipment Price Forecasting AHAM expressed concern regarding the use of experience curves in equipment...

  18. 75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Analysis Treatment of Design Options a. Heat Exchangers b. Variable Speed Compressors for Compact Products c. Variable Anti-Sweat Heaters d. Vacuum-Insulated Panels 5. Energy Modeling 6. Cost-Efficiency... savings would result in cumulative greenhouse gas emission reductions of 305 million metric tons (Mt \\3...

  19. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  20. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) bas conducted a project to demonstrate use of its Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings. The demonstration is the second step in a three-step process: development of interim standards, demonstration of the interim standards, and development of final standards. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) collected information from the demonstration project and prepared this report under a contract with DOE. The purpose of the standards is to improve the energy efficiency of federal housing and increase the use of nondepletable energy sources. In accordance with the legislation, the standards were to be performance-based rather than prescribing specific energy conservation measures. The standards use a computer software program called COSTSAFR which individualizes the standards based on climate, housing type, and fuel costs. The standards generate minimum energy-efficiency requirements by applying the life-cycle cost methodology developed for federal projects, For the demonstration, the DOE chose live federal agency housing projects: four military housing projects and one project for the Department of Health and Human Services. DOE and PNL worked with agency housing procurement officials and designers/architects to hypothetically apply the interim standards to each housing project. PNL conducted extensive interviews with the federal agencies and design contractors to determine what impacts the standards would have on the existing agency procurement process as well as on designers. Overall, PNL found that the interim standards met the basic intent of the law. Specific actions were identified, however, that DOE could take to improve the standards and encourage the agencies to implement them. Agency personnel and designers expressed similar concerns about the standards: the minimum efficiency levels established by the standards were lower than expected and the

  2. Energy Management for Navy Family Housing: A Manual for Voluntary Residential Energy Conservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    332 1(2 1.56 TV (black & white) 237 30 1.12 Iron 1000 10 .37 Coffee Maker 800 7 .26 Toaster 1200 3 .11 Deep Fat Fryer H50 7 .26 Electric...4 Corn Popper 575 100 9 15 100 9 Curling Iron 40 300 10 50 82 1.6 Cooker- Fryer / Dutch Oven 1200 35 60 35 54 23 Egg Cooker 550 270 5 23 100 13... coatings for hulls to eliminate biofouling. Let’s each do our share to conserve energy resources. ALTERNATIVE FUELS The development of alternative

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2010-10-01

    Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).

  4. Forecasting jobs in the supply chain for investments in residential energy efficiency retrofits in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobair, Richard C., II

    This research presents a model for forecasting the numbers of jobs created in the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) supply chain resulting from an investment in upgrading residential buildings in Florida. This investigation examined material supply chains stretching from mining to project installation for three product types: insulation, windows/doors, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Outputs from the model are provided for the project, sales, manufacturing, and mining level. The model utilizes reverse-estimation to forecast the numbers of jobs that result from an investment. Reverse-estimation is a process that deconstructs a total investment into its constituent parts. In this research, an investment is deconstructed into profit, overhead, and hard costs for each level of the supply chain and over multiple iterations of inter-industry exchanges. The model processes an investment amount, the type of work and method of contracting into a prediction of the number of jobs created. The deconstruction process utilizes data from the U.S. Economic Census. At each supply chain level, the cost of labor is reconfigured into full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs (i.e. equivalent to 40 hours per week for 52 weeks) utilizing loaded labor rates and a typical employee mix. The model is sensitive to adjustable variables, such as percentage of work performed per type of product, allocation of worker time per skill level, annual hours for FTE calculations, wage rate, and benefits. This research provides several new insights into job creation. First, it provides definitions that can be used for future research on jobs in supply chains related to energy efficiency. Second, it provides a methodology for future investigators to calculate jobs in a supply chain resulting from an investment in energy efficiency upgrades to a building. The methodology used in this research is unique because it examines gross employment at the sub-industry level for specific

  5. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  6. Toroidal Energy Principle (TEP) and perturbed equilibrium code STB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Hu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The MHD energy principle TEP is presented in terms of perturbations of the vector potential, rather than plasma displacement. This form makes TEP capable to discribe both the ideal plasmas stability and the perturbed equilibria. The functional is expressed in two terms. The first one represents the energy of magnetic field and is calculated using working equilibrium coordinate system. The second term, containing plasma displacement is expressed in the compact form using Hamada coordinates. This representation uses the same combinations of metric coefficients as in the equilibrium calculations. The STB code implements the TEP for both ideal MHD and perturbed equilibria. In the first case, it uses the matching conditions of the ideal MHD. In the second case, the 2-D equilibrium islands are introduced in order to resolve the singularity and match the solutions across the resonant surfaces Partially by (a) US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466, (b) General Fusion Inc.

  7. Reducing EnergyPlus Run Time For Code Compliance Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Gowri, Krishnan; Schultz, Robert W.; Glazer, Jason

    2014-09-12

    Integration of the EnergyPlus ™ simulation engine into performance-based code compliance software raises a concern about simulation run time, which impacts timely feedback of compliance results to the user. EnergyPlus annual simulations for proposed and code baseline building models, and mechanical equipment sizing result in simulation run times beyond acceptable limits. This paper presents a study that compares the results of a shortened simulation time period using 4 weeks of hourly weather data (one per quarter), to an annual simulation using full 52 weeks of hourly weather data. Three representative building types based on DOE Prototype Building Models and three climate zones were used for determining the validity of using a shortened simulation run period. Further sensitivity analysis and run time comparisons were made to evaluate the robustness and run time savings of using this approach. The results of this analysis show that the shortened simulation run period provides compliance index calculations within 1% of those predicted using annual simulation results, and typically saves about 75% of simulation run time.

  8. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  10. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  11. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

  12. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  13. Optimizations of the energy grid search algorithm in continuous-energy Monte Carlo particle transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Romano, Paul K.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we propose, implement, and test various optimizations of the typical energy grid-cross section pair lookup algorithm in Monte Carlo particle transport codes. The key feature common to all of the optimizations is a reduction in the length of the vector of energies that must be searched when locating the index of a particle's current energy. Other factors held constant, a reduction in energy vector length yields a reduction in CPU time. The computational methods we present here are physics-informed. That is, they are designed to utilize the physical information embedded in a simulation in order to reduce the length of the vector to be searched. More specifically, the optimizations take advantage of information about scattering kinematics, neutron cross section structure and data representation, and also the expected characteristics of a system's spatial flux distribution and energy spectrum. The methods that we present are implemented in the OpenMC Monte Carlo neutron transport code as part of this work. The gains in computational efficiency, as measured by overall code speedup, associated with each of the optimizations are demonstrated in both serial and multithreaded simulations of realistic systems. Depending on the system, simulation parameters, and optimization method employed, overall code speedup factors of 1.2-1.5, relative to the typical single-nuclide binary search algorithm, are routinely observed.

  14. Probabilistic modeling of the indoor climates of residential buildings using EnergyPlus

    DOE PAGES

    Buechler, Elizabeth D.; Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; ...

    2017-04-25

    The indoor air temperature and relative humidity in residential buildings significantly affect material moisture durability, HVAC system performance, and occupant comfort. Therefore, indoor climate data is generally required to define boundary conditions in numerical models that evaluate envelope durability and equipment performance. However, indoor climate data obtained from field studies is influenced by weather, occupant behavior and internal loads, and is generally unrepresentative of the residential building stock. Likewise, whole-building simulation models typically neglect stochastic variables and yield deterministic results that are applicable to only a single home in a specific climate. The

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, H. C.; Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a study to demonstrate use of its Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings. The demonstration study was conducted by DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The demonstration is the second step in a three-step process: I) development of interim standards, 2) demonstration of the interim standards, and 3) development of final standards. The standards are mandatory for federal agency housing procurements. Nevertheless, PNL found at the start of the demonstration that agency use of the interim standards had been minimal. The purpose of the standards is to improve the energy efficiency of federal housing and increase the use of nondepletable energy sources. In accordance with the legislation, the standards were to be performance-based rather than prescribing specific energy conservation measures. To fulfill this aspect of the legislation, the standards use a computer software program called COSTSAFR which generates a point system that individualizes the standards to specific projects based on climate, housing type, and fuel costs. The standards generate minimum energy-efficiency requirements by applying the life-cycle cost methodology developed for federal projects. For the demonstration, PNL and DOE chose five federal agency housing projects which had been built in diverse geographic and climate regions. Participating agencies were the Air Force, the Army (which provided two case studies), the Navy, and the Department of Health and Human Services. PNL worked with agency housing procurement officials and designers/architects to hypothetically apply the interim standards to the procurement and design of each housing project. The demonstration started at the point in the project where agencies would establish their energyefficiency requirements for the project and followed the procurement process through the designers' use of the point

  17. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  19. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft(2) (252 m(2)), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft(-2), 51.7 kWh m(-2)), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft(-2,) 24.7 kWh m(-2)) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.95 W W(-1)), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (4.63 W W(-1)). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.09 W W(-1)), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.65 W W(-1)). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  20. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance

    2017-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively. PMID:28729740

  1. Solar Energy: Non-Residential Applications and Future Technology: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Robert; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Student materials are presented for the course, Non-Residential Applications and Future Technology, one of seven core courses in Navarro College's two-year associate degree program for solar technicians. First, introductory material discusses the form and objectives of the course and ways of using the student materials. Next, readings, worksheets,…

  2. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... phase electric current and which is an encased assembly designed as a unit for mounting in a window or.... Current Rulemaking Process i. Residential Clothes Dryers ii. Room Air Conditioners iii. Consent Decree III... defines ``electric clothes dryer'' under EPCA as ``a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in...

  3. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  4. Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in Jaipur: Testing the Energy Conservation Building Code

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Yu, Sha

    2014-03-26

    The Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India is constructing two new buildings on its campus that allow it to test implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which Rajasthan made mandatory in 2011. PNNL has been working with MNIT to document progress on ECBC implementation in these buildings.

  5. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000...

  6. 78 FR 33838 - DOE Participation in Development of the International Energy Conservation Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-13308] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-BC-0030] DOE Participation in Development of the International Energy Conservation Code AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and...

  7. Regional coordination of the ENERGY STAR{reg{underscore}sign} residential fixture program: Design, implementation, and early observations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.; Gordon, L.; Latham, L.

    1998-07-01

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance and a group of California utilities are implementing a unique market transformation initiative to promote the use of energy-efficient residential light fixtures. This effort is based on the current ENERGY STAR{reg{underscore}sign} specification for residential fixtures, and combines manufacturer rebates with aggressive education and marketing efforts in order to stimulate increased sales of these products. The initiative was developed in 1997, and has been underway in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and California since early 1998. Program efforts are designed to increase the availability of qualified fixtures in the retail and electric wholesale channels throughout the five-state area, and to stimulate direct sales to large homebuilders active in the region. An RFP process was used to select six lighting manufacturers, who are now eligible to receive rebate payments of $7 to $10 for each qualified fixture shipped during 1998. A similar process will be employed in late 1998 to select the eligible manufacturers for 1999. As of May 1998, participating manufacturers have shipped over 37,000 qualifying fixtures throughout the five states covered by the program, with most units being delivered to retain stores such as Home Depot, Home Base, Eagle Hardware and Garden, and Costco. These shipments represent 10% of the 1998 program goal.

  8. Modeling cascading diffusion of new energy technologies: case study of residential solid oxide fuel cells in the US and internationally.

    PubMed

    Herron, Seth; Williams, Eric

    2013-08-06

    Subsidy programs for new energy technologies are motivated by the experience curve: increased adoption of a technology leads to learning and economies of scale that lower costs. Geographic differences in fuel prices and climate lead to large variability in the economic performance of energy technologies. The notion of cascading diffusion is that regions with favorable economic conditions serve as the basis to build scale and reduce costs so that the technology becomes attractive in new regions. We develop a model of cascading diffusion and implement via a case study of residential solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for combined heating and power. We consider diffusion paths within the U.S. and internationally. We construct market willingness-to-pay curves and estimate future manufacturing costs via an experience curve. Combining market and cost results, we find that for rapid cost reductions (learning rate = 25%), a modest public subsidy can make SOFC investment profitable for 20-160 million households. If cost reductions are slow however (learning rate = 15%), residential SOFCs may not become economically competitive. Due to higher energy prices in some countries, international diffusion is more favorable than domestic, mitigating much of the uncertainty in the learning rate.

  9. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  10. Development and evaluation of a prototype concentrating solar collector with thermocline based thermal energy storage for residential thermal usage

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Vinod; Afrin, Samia; Ortega, Jesus; ...

    2013-09-01

    A prototype of a concentrating solar collector (CSC) receiver was designed, built, and evaluated on-sun at the University of Texas at El Paso in El Paso, TX. This prototype receiver consists of two parabolic trough-reflectors but, in principle, the design can be efficiently extended to multiple units for achieving a higher temperature throughput. Each reflector has a vacuum tube collector at the focal point of the trough. The solar collector system was combined with a single-tank thermocline thermal energy storage (TES) for off-solar thermal usage. The main goal of this study is to develop an advanced solar hot water systemmore » for most residential applications. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility and performance of the solar thermal system by employing the recent advancement in the TES—a thermocline based TES—system for the concentrating solar power technologies developed by the Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratories for electricity production. A CSC when combined with TES has potential to provide uninterrupted thermal energy for most residential usages. This paper presents a detailed description of prototype design and materials required. The thermal energy storage tank utilizes an insulated 170 l (45 gal) galvanized steel tank. In order to maintain thermocline in the TES tank, with hot water on top and cold water at the bottom, two plate distributors are installed in the tank. The data showed a significant enhancement in thermal energy generation. This thermocline based single tank presented a thermal energy storage potential for at least three days (with diminishing storage capacity) that test were performed. The whole prototype was made for approximately USD 355 (excludes any labor costs) and hence also has strong potential for supplying clean thermal energy in most developing countries. As a result, tests of the prototype were conducted in November 2011.« less

  11. Development and evaluation of a prototype concentrating solar collector with thermocline based thermal energy storage for residential thermal usage

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vinod; Afrin, Samia; Ortega, Jesus; Sepulveda, Arturo; Delgado, Paul M.; Aguilar, Dante; Avila, Jesus M.; Loya, Juan D.; Lu, Huanmin

    2013-09-01

    A prototype of a concentrating solar collector (CSC) receiver was designed, built, and evaluated on-sun at the University of Texas at El Paso in El Paso, TX. This prototype receiver consists of two parabolic trough-reflectors but, in principle, the design can be efficiently extended to multiple units for achieving a higher temperature throughput. Each reflector has a vacuum tube collector at the focal point of the trough. The solar collector system was combined with a single-tank thermocline thermal energy storage (TES) for off-solar thermal usage. The main goal of this study is to develop an advanced solar hot water system for most residential applications. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility and performance of the solar thermal system by employing the recent advancement in the TES—a thermocline based TES—system for the concentrating solar power technologies developed by the Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratories for electricity production. A CSC when combined with TES has potential to provide uninterrupted thermal energy for most residential usages. This paper presents a detailed description of prototype design and materials required. The thermal energy storage tank utilizes an insulated 170 l (45 gal) galvanized steel tank. In order to maintain thermocline in the TES tank, with hot water on top and cold water at the bottom, two plate distributors are installed in the tank. The data showed a significant enhancement in thermal energy generation. This thermocline based single tank presented a thermal energy storage potential for at least three days (with diminishing storage capacity) that test were performed. The whole prototype was made for approximately USD 355 (excludes any labor costs) and hence also has strong potential for supplying clean thermal energy in most developing countries. As a result, tests of the prototype were conducted in November 2011.

  12. 76 FR 30555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...This document announces a reopening of the time period for submitting comments on the supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR) to further amend DOE's proposed amendments to its test procedures for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR). The comment period closed on May 2, 2011. The comment period is reopened from May 26, 2011 until June 9, 2011.

  13. Reduction of energy consumption in low rise residential space conditioning by retrofitting with evaporative condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndukaife, Theodore Aganachi

    This work presents an experimental investigation of the application of direct evaporative cooling to reduce energy consumption in a residential sized split Air Conditioning system. Direct evaporative cooling is employed at the air-cooled condenser of a split air-conditioning system to pre-cool the ambient air flowing over the condenser coils. Different ambient conditions of air were simulated using a heater to mimic typical high temperature environments. Rigid cellulose pads with thickness ranging from 2-6inches (5.1cm-15.2cm) served as the heat exchange medium for air-water interaction, and were tested to determine the influence of the pad thickness in pre-cooling the ambient air before it flows over the condenser coils to extract heat from the refrigerant in the condenser. It was observed that a 1°C drop in ambient air temperature causes the condensing temperature of the refrigerant to drop by 0.6°C. This drop in condensing temperature of the refrigerant causes a decrease in power consumption of the unit, accompanied by an increase in Coefficient of Performance (COP). Results obtained shows that up to 44% increase in COP, and a 20% decrease in power consumption can be achieved by employing evaporative cooling. Additionally, the COP was found to increase by 4% for every 1°C drop in refrigerant condensing temperature. The water consumption pattern of the hybrid system is monitored to provide a realistic estimate of the operating cost, and profitability of the hybrid system. It was observed that 0.34liters of water is consumed for every percent increase in COP. To provide a realistic estimate of the daily water consumption of the hybrid system, the operation time was increased from 1-4hours, in step increments of 1hour. The volume of water consumed was found to increase by a factor of 1.8, 2.5, and 3.2, for 2hrs, 3hrs and 4hrs of operation respectively. This shows that as the operating hours of the hybrid system in a day increases, the volume of water consumed

  14. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy

  15. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume I. A methodology. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method electric utilities can use to determine the value of wind energy systems. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This report, first of two volumes, describes the value determination method and gives detailed discussion on each computer program available from SERI. The second volume is a user's guide for these computer programs.

  16. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume II. A user's guide. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method for determining the value of wind energy systems to electric utilities. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This volume, the second of two volumes, is a user's guide for the computer programs available from SERI. The first volume describes the value determination methodology and gives detailed discussion on each step of the computer modeling.

  17. Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.

  18. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  19. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  20. Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.

  1. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  2. Energy efficiency in the U.S. residential sector: An engineering and economic assessment of opportunities for large energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima de Azevedo, Ines Margarida

    Energy efficiency and conservation is a very promising part of a portfolio of the needed strategies to mitigate climate change. Several technologies and energy efficiency measures in the residential sector offer potential for large energy savings. However, while energy efficiency options are currently considered as a means of reducing carbon emissions, there is still large uncertainty about the effect of such measures on overall carbon savings. The first part of this thesis provides a national assessment of the energy efficiency potential in the residential sector under several different scenarios, which include the perspectives of different economic agents (consumers, utilities, ESCOs, and a society). The scenarios also include maximizing energy, electricity or carbon dioxide savings. The second part of this thesis deals with a detailed assessment of the potential for white-light LEDs for energy and carbon dioxide savings in the U.S. commercial and residential sectors. Solid-state lighting shows great promise as a source of efficient, affordable, color-balanced white light. Indeed, assuming market discount rates, the present work demonstrates that white solid-state lighting already has a lower levelized annual cost (LAC) than incandescent bulbs and that it will be lower than that of the most efficient fluorescent bulbs by the end of this decade. However, a large literature indicates that households do not make their decisions in terms of simple expected economic value. The present analysis shows that incorporating the findings from literature on high implicit discount rates from households when performing decisions towards efficient technologies delays the adoption of white LEDs by a couple of years. After a review of the technology, the present work compares the electricity consumption, carbon emissions and cost-effectiveness of current lighting technologies, when accounting for expected performance evolution through 2015. Simulations of lighting electricity

  3. Capturing Energy-Saving Opportunities: Improving Building Efficiency in Rajasthan through Energy Code Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Qing; Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Vu, Linh D.

    2016-05-01

    India adopted the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007. Rajasthan is the first state to make ECBC mandatory at the state level. In collaboration with Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working with Rajasthan to facilitate the implementation of ECBC. This report summarizes milestones made in Rajasthan and PNNL's contribution in institutional set-ups, capacity building, compliance enforcement and pilot building construction.

  4. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  5. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  6. A Methology for Assessing the Regional Transportation Energy Demands of Different Spatial Residential Development Scenarios: a Case Study for the Upper Housatonic River Basin, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oski, J. A.; Fabos, J. G.; Gross, M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is suggested whereby regional landscape planning efforts can be aided by the use of a geographic information system to determine sites for more energy efficient residential and mixed use developments within a study area. The location of land parcels suited for residential and mixed land use developments in the Upper Housatonic River Basin Study Area in Berkshire County, Massachusetts is described as well as the three development options. Significant steps in the procedure are discussed and the computation of the transportation energy requirement is elaborated.

  7. A Methology for Assessing the Regional Transportation Energy Demands of Different Spatial Residential Development Scenarios: a Case Study for the Upper Housatonic River Basin, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oski, J. A.; Fabos, J. G.; Gross, M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is suggested whereby regional landscape planning efforts can be aided by the use of a geographic information system to determine sites for more energy efficient residential and mixed use developments within a study area. The location of land parcels suited for residential and mixed land use developments in the Upper Housatonic River Basin Study Area in Berkshire County, Massachusetts is described as well as the three development options. Significant steps in the procedure are discussed and the computation of the transportation energy requirement is elaborated.

  8. A new neutron energy spectrum unfolding code using a two steps genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabinejad, H.; Hosseini, S. A.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2016-03-01

    A new neutron spectrum unfolding code TGASU (Two-steps Genetic Algorithm Spectrum Unfolding) has been developed to unfold the neutron spectrum from a pulse height distribution which was calculated using the MCNPX-ESUT computational Monte Carlo code. To perform the unfolding process, the response matrices were generated using the MCNPX-ESUT computational code. Both one step (common GA) and two steps GAs have been implemented to unfold the neutron spectra. According to the obtained results, the new two steps GA code results has shown closer match in all energy regions and particularly in the high energy regions. The results of the TGASU code have been compared with those of the standard spectra, LSQR method and GAMCD code. The results of the TGASU code have been demonstrated to be more accurate than that of the existing computational codes for both under-determined and over-determined problems.

  9. Distributed thermal energy storage in the residential sector: commercialization-readiness assessment and implementation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Adolfson, William; Long, Hugh; Eissenberg, David; Martin, James; Walker, Ted; Winer, Bette; Harrison, James W.; Asbury, Joseph; Giese, Robert

    1980-08-01

    The readiness of each of three candidate TES systems for near-term commercialization was examined. It was concluded that of these, TES for residential space and hot-water heating are technically and economically ready for commercialization. TES systems are unlikely to be more attractive than standard-heat-pump systems in all areas of the country; however, in many regions, particularly in the northeast and north central states, TES appears to be more attractive. In the not-too-distant future, use of TES with heat pumps may prove to be the best system nationwide. For the third system, TES for residential space cooling, it was found that those units that are presently technically viable would be too costly except in a few parts of the country; more development will be required before these systems could be commercialized on a national scale. TES systems that might be used in commercial buildings (e.g., stores and office buildings) were not examined. Environmental, market and economic, and institutional-readiness studies are presented. Market penetration and benefit analysis are summarized. Barriers to commercialization are identified along with strategies for overcoming the barriers. Schedules and resource requirements are discussed. Summaries of the study techniques and additional information are given in the appendices. (MCW)

  10. Collaborative Comparison of High-Energy-Density Physics Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryxell, Bruce Alan; Fatenejad, M.; Lamb, D.; Grazianni, C.; Myra, E.; Fryer, C.; Wohlbier, J.

    2012-05-01

    Performing radiation-hydrodynamic simulations is vital to the understanding of laboratory astrophysics experiments. A number of codes have been developed for this purpose. A collaboration has begun to compare several of these codes, including CRASH (Unversity of Michigan), FLASH (University of Chicago), RAGE and CASSIO (LANL) and HYDRA (LLNL). We are in the process of testing these codes on a wide variety of problems, ranging from very simple tests to full laboratory astrophysics experiments. The algorithms and physics models differ significantly between these codes, so complete agreement is not expected, especially on the full-experiment simulations. The goal is to understand the differences between the codes and how these differences influence the results. We intend to determine which codes contain the most accurate algorithms and physics models and, where possible, to improve the other codes to produce more faithful representations of the experiments. The first set of tests are simple temperature relaxation problems in an infinite, uniform medium. The second suite of tests was designed to test the diffusion solvers (both conduction and radiation) in the codes. Following this, tests will be performed that include hydrodynamic effects. Results of these comparisons will be presented. The eventual goal is to compare the results from all of the codes on simulations of radiative shock experiments being performed by The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics at the University of Michigan and to understand any discrepancies between the results of the simulations and the experiments. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by grant number DEFC52-08NA28616.

  11. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  12. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  13. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  14. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  15. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  16. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  17. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  18. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  19. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  20. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.