Science.gov

Sample records for residual oils

  1. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  2. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  3. Catalyst deactivation model for residual oil hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Takatsuka, T.; Higasino, S.; Hirohama, S.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization process plays a dominant role in the modern refineries to upgrade residual oil either by removing heterogeneous atoms or by hydrocracking the bottom to distillates products. The practical model is proposed to predict a catalyst life which is the most concern in the process. The catalyst is deactivated in the early stage of the operation by coke deposition on the catalyst active site. The ultimate catalyst life is determined by pore mouth plugging depending on its metal capacity. The phenomena are mathematically described by losses of catalyst surface area and effective diffusivity of feedstock molecules in catalyst pore. The model parameters were collected through the pilot plant tests with different types of catalysts and feedstocks.

  4. XAFS SPECTROSCOPY RESULTS FOR PM SAMPLES FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy data were obtained from particulate samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil in a 732-kW fire-tube boiler at EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in North Carolina. Residual oil flyash (ROFA) from fo...

  5. [Quantitative grain fluorescence responds to residual oil zones and paleo-oil zones].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Li, Feng

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate quantitative grain fluorescence responding to residual oil zones and palaeo-oil zones, samples from sandstone reservoirs in well TZ421 in Tazhong area, Tarim Basin, NW China, were used to carry out quantitative grain fluorescence (QGF and QGF-E) measurement and analysis. A palaeo-oil zone can be delineated in well TZ421 between 3 720 and 3 620 m with strong QGF responds. A residual oil zone was discovered in well TZ421 between 3 680 and 3 620 m with strong QGF-E responds. The presence of a residual oil zone and a palaeo-oil zone in well TZ421 below the current oil-water contact indicates that some oils were lost after the initial charge. The reservoir is believed to have been charged initially down to 3 720 m at the depth of the palaeo-oil-water contact. The presence of a 60 m residual oil zone below the current oil-water contact, as delineated by QGF-E, suggests that the palaeo-oil zones leaked in two epochs and part of the oil lost quite recently. The strong QGF responds in the current condensate gas interval indicates that the initially charged oil was partly displaced by gas and formed an oil zone with a gas cap.

  6. Pesticide residues in essential oils: evaluation of a database.

    PubMed

    Klier, B; Knödler, M; Peschke, J; Riegert, U; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a revision of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) general monograph Essential oils (2098), the need to include a test for pesticides is being discussed. According to published literature, some oils, mainly those produced by cold pressing (e.g. citrus oils), can contain relevant amounts of pesticide residues, whereas distilled oils showed positive findings in only a few cases. Recent evaluation of a database containing 127 517 sets of data compiled over 8 years, showed positive results in 1 150 cases (0.90 per cent), and the limits of Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.8.13 Pesticide residues or Regulation (EC) 396/2005, both applicable to herbal drugs, were exceeded in 392 cases (0.31 per cent, equivalent to 34.1 per cent of the positive results), particularly in cases of oils produced by cold pressing. From these results, it can be concluded that a general test on pesticides in the Ph. Eur. general monograph on essential oils is not required for most oils used in medicinal products. Therefore, it is proposed to limit the testing of essential oils for pesticide residues to those cases where potential residues are more of a concern, either due to the type of production process or to those processes where pesticides are actively used during cultivation of the plant (e.g. as documented according to Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP)). Furthermore, in order to assess any potential risk, an approach using the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) can be made.

  7. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  8. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  9. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  10. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated... residues of fatty ] acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  11. Effect of processing on 14C-chlorfenvinphos residues in maize oil and bioavailability of its cake residues on rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, F M; El-Maghraby, S I

    2010-05-01

    Maize seeds obtained from 14C-chlorfenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and cake amounted to 10%, 6% and 69%, respectively of original residues inside the seeds. The 14C-activity in the crude oil could be a gradually reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are the most effective steps in these processes. The refined oil contained small amount of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain the parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailability. After feeding rats for five days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5%), while about 20% excreted in the feces. About 15% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs.

  12. Determination of residual oil in diesel oil by spectrofluorimetric and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Corgozinho, Camila N C; Pasa, Vânya M D; Barbeira, Paulo J S

    2008-07-15

    Multivariate calibration (PLS), principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), associated to synchronous spectrofluorimetry, were used to identify and quantify non-transesterified residual vegetable oil in diesel oil with the addition of 2% of biodiesel (B2). The addition of residual oil, one of the easiest ways of adultering fuel, damages engines and leads to tax evasion. Using this method, the samples of diesel oil, B2, and B2 contaminated with residual oil were classified correctly and separated into three well-defined groups. The quantification of residual oil in B2 was carried out in the 0-25% (w/w) band, RMSEC and RMSEP values ranging from 0.26 to 0.48% (w/w) and 1.6-2.6% (w/w), respectively. The method is highly sensitive and efficient to identify and quantify this type of adulterant in which 100% of the samples were correctly classified and the average relative error was approximately 4% in the range 0.5-25% (w/w).

  13. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  14. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  15. Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Jiang; Zhao, Jimin

    2010-02-01

    Crude oil exploration and production has been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil on wetland soils, we examined the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), as well as pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oil sites and uncontaminated areas in the Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH and TOC, but significantly lower (p < 0.05) TN contents than those of the uncontaminated areas. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C/N and C/P ratios. For TP contents and EC, no significant changes were detected. The level of soil contamination and impact of oil residuals on soil quality greatly depended on the length of time the oil well was in production. Oil residuals had caused some major changes in the soils' chemical properties in the Momoge Wetland.

  16. Natural sunlight and residual fuel oils are an acutely lethal combination for fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hatlen, Kristin; Sloan, Catherine A; Burrows, Douglas G; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P

    2010-08-01

    The majority of studies characterizing the mechanisms of oil toxicity in fish embryos and larvae have focused largely on unrefined crude oil. Few studies have addressed the toxicity of modern bunker fuels, which contain residual oils that are the highly processed and chemically distinct remains of the crude oil refinement process. Here we use zebrafish embryos to investigate potential toxicological differences between unrefined crude and residual fuel oils, and test the effects of sunlight as an additional stressor. Using mechanically dispersed oil preparations, the embryotoxicity of two bunker oils was compared to a standard crude oil from the Alaska North Slope. In the absence of sunlight, all three oils produced the stereotypical cardiac toxicity that has been linked to the fraction of tricyclic aromatic compounds in an oil mixture. However, the cardiotoxicity of bunker oils did not correlate strictly with the concentrations of tricyclic compounds. Moreover, when embryos were sequentially exposed to oil and natural sunlight, the bunker oils produced a rapid onset cell-lethal toxicity not observed with crude oil. To investigate the chemical basis of this differential toxicity, a GC/MS full scan analysis was used to identify a range of compounds that were enriched in the bunker oils. The much higher phototoxic potential of chemically distinct bunker oils observed here suggests that this mode of action should be considered in the assessment of bunker oil spill impacts, and indicates the need for a broader approach to understanding the aquatic toxicity of different oils.

  17. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  18. Are sea otters being exposed to subsurface intertidal oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill?

    PubMed

    Boehm, P D; Page, D S; Neff, J M; Brown, J S

    2011-03-01

    Twenty years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, scattered patches of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) can still be found in intertidal sediments at a small number of shoreline locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Some scientists hypothesize that sea otters continue to be exposed to SSOR by direct contact when otters dig pits in search of clams. This hypothesis is examined through site-specific examinations where SSOR and otter-dug pits co-occur. Surveys documented the exact sediment characteristics and locations on the shore at the only three subdivisions where both SSOR and otter pits were found after 2000. Shoreline characteristics and tidal heights where SSOR have persisted are not suitable habitat for sea otters to dig pits during foraging. There is clear separation between areas containing SSOR and otter foraging pits. The evidence allows us to reject the hypothesis that sea otters encounter and are being exposed by direct contact to SSOR.

  19. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  20. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... required in paragraph (a) of this section must have an adequate capacity that is determined by the: (1) Type of machinery installed on the vessel; and (2) Maximum fuel oil capacity. (c) Each oil...

  1. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... required in paragraph (a) of this section must have an adequate capacity that is determined by the: (1) Type of machinery installed on the vessel; and (2) Maximum fuel oil capacity. (c) Each oil...

  2. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... required in paragraph (a) of this section must have an adequate capacity that is determined by the: (1) Type of machinery installed on the vessel; and (2) Maximum fuel oil capacity. (c) Each oil...

  3. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... required in paragraph (a) of this section must have an adequate capacity that is determined by the: (1) Type of machinery installed on the vessel; and (2) Maximum fuel oil capacity. (c) Each oil...

  4. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... required in paragraph (a) of this section must have an adequate capacity that is determined by the: (1) Type of machinery installed on the vessel; and (2) Maximum fuel oil capacity. (c) Each oil...

  5. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 °API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 °API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 °API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence

  6. Use of Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect and Monitor Inshore Oil Spill Residues During Darkness Hours.

    PubMed

    GRIERSON

    1998-11-01

    / Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.KEY WORDS: Airborne video; Thermal imagery; Global positioning; Oil-spill monitoring; Tracking beacon

  7. Physical and chemical characterization of residual oil-fired power plant emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the toxicity of oil combustion emissions is a significant public health concern, few studies characterize the emissions from plant-scale utility boilers firing residual oil. This study remedies that deficiency by sampling and monitoring stack emissions from a 432 Giga Jo...

  8. Use of airborne thermal imagery to detect and monitor inshore oil spill residues during darkness hours

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, I.T.

    1998-11-01

    Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent`s Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.

  9. Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70-85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels, suggesting that modest increases in CO2 could be offset by efficiency improvements at some refineries. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with fuel switching and other emissions control policies.

  10. Pesticide residues and heavy metals in Lake Victoria Nile perch, Lates niloticus, belly flap oil.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, P; Muyonga, J H; Sserunjogi, M L

    2009-05-01

    Oil was extracted from the belly flaps of varied sizes of Nile perch caught from Lake Victoria (Uganda). The oil was analyzed for pesticide residues and heavy metals. Total residual concentration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, endosulfan, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin, aldrin and chlorofenvinphos increased significantly (p < 0.05) with fish size. Mercury and lead were detected in most samples while arsenic and cadmium were below detection limits. Nile perch may, therefore, accumulate significant amount of chemical contaminants. Levels of contaminants in Nile perch oil were, in general, within limits considered acceptable by the stringent German Food Law for human consumption.

  11. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  12. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  13. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-04-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  14. Long-term weathering and continued oxidation of oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    White, Helen K; Wang, Chloe H; Williams, Patrick L; Findley, David M; Thurston, Alana M; Simister, Rachel L; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the long-term weathering of oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident, oil-soaked sand patties were collected from Gulf of Mexico beaches from Florida to Alabama over a three-year period from 2012 to 2014. Analysis of oil residues by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated uniformity in their chemical composition. Some variability within and between samples was observed, arising from differences in exposure to light and water, which increase the amount of weathering. Oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHC) produced by weathering processes dominate the majority of oil residues. These OxHC have continued recalcitrance in the environment, and increase in relative abundance over time. Analyses of the bulk characteristics of oil residues via TLC-FID and FT-IR should be continued as these techniques provide important insight into the weathering state of oil residues.

  15. Oil residue contamination of continental shelf sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Harding, V; Camp, J; Morgan, L J; Gryko, J

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the distribution of a heavy oil residue in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of the contamination was determined by high-temperature pyrolysis coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) of air-dried sediments. The pyrolysis products contain straight-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as dodecane and 1-dodecene, resulting in a very characteristic pattern of double peaks in the GCMS. Hydrocarbons containing 8 to 23 carbon atoms were detected in the pyrolysis products. Using thermal pyrolysis we have found that the sediment samples collected along Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi shores contain no detectable traces of oil residue, but most of the samples collected along Alabama and Florida shores contain ~200ppm of heavy oil residue.

  16. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic.

  17. Fine Particle Emissions from Residual Fuel Oil Combustion: Characterization and Mechanisms of Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-04

    NC, 1999. 3 . Bachmann, J. D ., Damberg, R. J., Caldwell, J. C., Ed- wards, C., and Koman, P. D ., Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...residual fuel oil combustion to be suspect, as far as emission of toxic fine particles is concerned. Build- ing upon previous work examining the...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 AUG 2000 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3 . DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fine Particle Emissions from Residual

  18. Characterization of emissions and residues from simulations of the Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Aurell, Johanna; Holder, Amara; Mitchell, William; Greenwell, Dale; Hays, Michael; Conmy, Robyn; Tabor, Dennis; Preston, William; George, Ingrid; Abrahamson, Joseph P; Vander Wal, Randy; Holder, Edith

    2017-04-15

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent toxicity testing. A representative crude oil was burned in ocean-salinity seawater, and emissions were collected from the plume by means of a crane-suspended sampling platform. Emissions included particulate matter, aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans, elements, and others, the sum of which accounted for over 92% by mass of the combustion products. The unburned oil mass was 29% of the original crude oil mass, significantly higher than typically reported. Analysis of alkanes, elements, and PAHs in the floating residual oil and water accounted for over 51% of the gathered mass. These emission factors, along with toxicity data, will be important toward examining impacts of future spill burning operations.

  19. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  20. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER PRODUCED BY COMBUSTION OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732-kW boiler. PM emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than (PM2.5) and greater (PM2.5+) that 2.5 micrometers in diameter. However, ex...

  2. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  3. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW-rated fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bimodal PM size distribution (PSD) with over...

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN RESIDUAL OIL ASH AND DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential use of sorbents to manage ultrafine ash aerosol emissions from residual oil combustion was investigated using a downfired 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor. The major constituents were vanadium (V), iron (Fe), nickel, (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Of the...

  5. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  6. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  7. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Eduardo Lucas Terra; Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luiz; dos Santos Moura, Elizabeth; Pereira, Elzânia Sales; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; de Carvalho, Larissa Nóbrega; Pires, Kássia Amariz

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Methods Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM) base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5) design, were used. Results There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total carbohydrates (TCH), and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC). There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE). The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. Conclusion It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE), nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration. PMID:26954203

  8. Detection of chemical residues in food oil via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kexi; Huang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered hexagonally patterned Ag-nanorod (Ag-NR) arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of unhealthy chemical residues in food oil was reported, which was obtained by sputtering Ag on the alumina nanotip arrays stuck out of conical-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. SERS measurements demonstrate that the as-fabricated large-scale Ag-nanostructures can serve as highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates for detection of trace amount of chemicals in oil with the lower detection limits of 2×10-6 M for thiram and 10-7 M for rhodamine B, showing the potential of application of SERS in rapid trace detection of pesticide residues and illegal additives in food oils.

  9. Basic studies in the displacement of residual oil by chemical flooding. Quarterly report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, R.W.; Payatakes, A.C.

    1980-03-31

    Objectives were to study dynamic interfacial effects on the recovery of residual oil in low tension displacements, and the dynamics of oil ganglion populations. Coalescence tests are underway. Experimental results on the behavior of oil ganglions are discussed. 9 figures. (DLC)

  10. Evaluation of residual shale oil as feedstocks for valuable carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Y.Q.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1995-12-01

    Oil shale is one of the largest fossil fuel resources. One of the disadvantages of oil shale liquids is high nitrogen content, especially in high boiling fractions, which causes difficulties in their upgrading to premium quality products. Our earlier studies showed that nitrogen-rich asphalthene fractions of residual shale oils could be used successfully to produce carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers with novel properties. In this study, the maltene fraction (low concentration of nitrogen), was examined as a potential starting material for the production of valuable carbon materials (e.g. mesophase pitch, needle coke), through studies of carbonization behaviors. At normal pressure, carbonizations of the maltene fraction and the parent residue produced porous carbons with isotropic texture, and yields of 8 and 26 wt%, respectively. Pressurized carbonization (at 700 kPa) was found to allow the development of excellent flow texture from the maltene fraction, at a yield of 34 wt%, indicating that this fraction ({approximately}50 wt% of residual shale oils) can be used for the production of premium cokes.

  11. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding.

  12. Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all <5% even in high biodegradation, and such parameters may also provide new methods on oil spill identification. The parameters of monoaromatic sterane and monoaromatic sterane are not used well for oil spill identification after photo-oxidation. The triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification.

  13. Preparation of Three-Dimensional Chitosan-Graphene Oxide Aerogel for Residue Oil Removal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Tian, Mingwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Sun, Kaikai; Tang, Xiaoning

    2016-08-01

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the hydrophily and dispersibility in aqueous solution limit its practical application in environmental protection. In this paper, a novel, environmentally friendly adsorbent, chitosan and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels with a diverse shape, large specific surface area, and unique porous structure were prepared by a freeze-drying method. The structure of the adsorbents was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD); the specific surface area and swelling capability were also characterized. In addition, removal of diesel oil from seawater by chitosan aerogel (CSAG) and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogel (AGGO-1 and AGGO-2) was studied and batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of different adsorbent dosages (0-6 g), contact time (0-120 minutes), pH (3-9), and initial concentrations of oil residue (3-30 g/L) to determine the optimum condition for the adsorption of residue oil from seawater. The results showed that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels were more effective to remove diesel oil from seawater compared with pure chitosan aerogel. A removal efficiency ≥ 95% of the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels could be achieved easily at the initial concentrations of 20 g/L, which indicated that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels can be used to treat the industrial oil leakage or effluent in the natural water.

  14. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-ru; Zhou, Qi-xing; Ren, Li-ping; Zhu, Yong-guan; Sun, Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoliatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S. perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  15. Basic studies in the displacement of residual oil by chemical flooding. Quarterly report, March 1980-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, R.W.; Payatakes, A.C.

    1980-07-09

    Objectives are to study the dynamic interfacial effects on residual oil recovery and the dynamics of oil ganglion populations. A series of coalescence tests on low concentration surfactant systems has been completed. A stability analysis for a stationary film under pure fluid conditions was completed. Visualization experiments were used to determine the velocity of an oil ganglion. A numerical method was developed to study the dynamics of interacting oil ganglia. 20 figures. (DLC)

  16. Evaluation of residues of essential oil components in honey after different anti-varroa treatments.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2005-12-28

    Apiary trials on the use of three different treatments (Apilife Var, thymol solution in olive oil, and thymol solution in ethanol) for the control of Varroa destructor were conducted in Aragon (northeastern Spain). For the evaluation of the presence of residues of these treatments in honey an analytical method was developed. The method is applied to analyze honey samples before and after treatments with the acaricides mentioned. A solid-phase extraction on trifunctional silane SPE C18 cartridge and gas chromatography separation using a flame ionization detector allow reliable and precise determination of residues of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and camphor in honey. The results indicate that camphor is present in only low concentrations, residues of eucalyptol or menthol were not found at all, and only thymol left residues in high concentrations. Residues of thymol found in honey collected from the beehives ranged from 0.75 to 8.20 microg/g for Apilife Var, from 0.03 to 6.30 microg/g for thymol solution in olive oil, and from 0.05 to 6.20 microg/g for thymol solution in ethanol. Even so, natural treatments can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk.

  17. Distribution and weathering of crude oil residues on shorelines 18 years after the Exxon Valdez spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Bragg, James R; Atlas, Ronald M

    2008-12-15

    In 2007, a systematic study was conducted to evaluate the form and location of residues of oil buried on Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines, 18 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS). We took 678 sediment samples from 22 sites that were most heavily oiled in 1989 and known to contain the heaviest subsurface oil (SSO) deposits based on multiple studies conducted since 2001. An additional 66 samples were taken from two sites, both heavily oiled in 1989 and known to be active otter foraging sites. All samples were analyzed for total extractable hydrocarbons (TEH), and 25% were also analyzed for saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon weathering parameters. Over 90% of the samples from all sites contained light or no SSO at all. Of samples containing SSO, 81% showed total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) losses greater than 70%, relative to cargo oil, with most having >80% loss. Samples with SSO were observed in isolated patches sequestered by surface boulder and cobble armoring. Samples showing lowest TPAH loss correlated strongly with higher elevations in the intertidal zones. Of the 17 atypical, less-weathered samples having less than 70% loss of TPAH (>30% remaining), only two were found sequestered in the lower intertidal zone, both at a single site. Most of the EVOS oil in PWS has been eliminated due to natural weathering. Some isolated SSO residues remain because they are sequestered and only slowly affected by natural weathering processes that normally would bring about their rapid removal. Even where SSO patches remain, most are highly weathered, sporadically distributed at a small number of sites, and widely separated from biologically productive lower intertidal zones where most foraging by wildlife occurs.

  18. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  19. Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Saitta, Marcello; La Pera, Lara; Alfa, Maria; Dugo, Giacomo

    2004-08-01

    Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, phosphorated plasticizers, chloroparaffins and phthalate esters contamination in bergamot essential oils produced in Calabria in the crop years 1999-2000 was studied by HRGC in connection with detectors FPD, ECD, MS. Residues of dicofol and tetradifon were found in oils from both crop years. The mean dicofol concentration was 0.26 mg/l in samples from 1999 and 0.20 mg/l in those from 2000; the mean tetradifon content was 0.06 mg/l for both the crop years. Among plasticizers, residues of diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were found in samples from crop years 1999 and 2000, the mean content were 1.22 and 1.23 mg/l, 1.51 and 1.65 mg/l, 1.38 and 1.42 mg/l respectively.

  20. Microbial Physiology of the Conversion of Residual Oil to Methane: A Protein Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.; Bastida-Lopez, Felipe; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2010-05-01

    Traditional petroleum recovery techniques are unable to extract the majority of oil in most petroliferous deposits. The recovery of even a fraction of residual hydrocarbon in conventional reserves could represent a substantive energy supply. To this end, the microbial conversion of residual oil to methane has gained increasing relevance in recent years [1,2]. Worldwide demand for methane is expected to increase through 2030 [3], as it is a cleaner-burning alternative to traditional fuels [4]. To investigate the microbial physiology of hydrocarbon-decomposition and ultimate methanogenesis, we initiated a two-pronged approach. First, a model alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, was used to interrogate the predominant metabolic pathway(s) differentially expressed during growth on either n-decane or butyrate. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed during bacterial growth on butyrate, while 100 proteins were unique to the alkane-grown condition. Proteins related to alkylsuccinate synthase, or the homologous 1-methyl alkylsuccinate synthase, were identified only in the presence of the hydrocarbon. Secondly, we used a newly developed stable isotope probing technique [5] targeted towards proteins to monitor the flux of carbon through a residual oil-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a gas-condensate contaminated aquifer [1]. Combined carbon and hydrogen stable isotope fractionation identified acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant process in this system. Such findings agree with the previous clone library characterization of the consortium. Furthermore, hydrocarbon activation was determined to be the rate-limiting process during the net conversion of residual oil to methane. References 1. Gieg, L.M., K.E. Duncan, and J.M. Suflita, Bioenegy production via microbial conversion of residual oil to natural gas. Appl Environ Micro, 2008. 74(10): p. 3022-3029. 2. Jones, D.M., et al., Crude-oil biodegradation via

  1. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary.

  2. Characterization and separation of ash from CANMET coprocessing residue by oil phase agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.; Coleman, R.D.; Toll, R.; Pleizier, G.; Deslandes, Y.; Sparks, B.D.; Ikura, M.

    1993-12-31

    CANMET`s coal/heavy oil coprocessing unit yields a solid residue that contains most of the ash originally associated with the feed coal as well as reacted catalyst solids. Removal of these ash solids would make it possible to recycle the material to extinction, thereby increasing production of lighter oils. In this investigation the authors have used surface characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize toluene insoluble solids associated with the pitch residue, in order to evaluate the separation potential using oil phase agglomeration techniques. Washability studies using float-sink tests were also carried out to determine empirically the level of ash separation attainable. Based on the results of these studies several tests were carried out to beneficiate the organic matter in the residue pitch, by using liquid phase agglomeration techniques. Levels of ash rejection in these tests ranged from 20% to 40%. SEM and EDXA analysis of the agglomerated product and the reject material and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis of the ash from both materials suggest that most of the iron from added catalyst is retained in the agglomerates.

  3. The direct pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis sp. residue for renewable bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pan; Hu, Changwei; Yang, Wenyan; Li, Yuesong; Dong, Linlin; Zhu, Liangfang; Tong, Dongmei; Qing, Renwei; Fan, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Nannochloropsis sp. (a kind of green microalga) residue was pyrolyzed without catalyst or with different amount of HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor in nitrogen flow. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature and catalyst-to-material ratio on product yields were studied. The bio-oils obtained were analyzed by elemental, GC-MS and FTIR analysis. The results indicated that the bio-oils from catalytic pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis sp. residue (BOCP) had lower oxygen content (19.5 wt.%) and higher heating-value (32.7 MJ kg(-1)) than those obtained from direct pyrolysis (BODP) which had an oxygen content of 30.1 wt.% and heating-value of 24.6 MJ kg(-1). The BODP mainly consisted of long carbon chain compounds with various terminal groups (LCTG), while the BOCP mainly consisted of aromatic hydrocarbons. These properties of bio-oils demonstrated that the Nannochloropsis sp. residue can be used as a renewable energy resource and chemical feedstock.

  4. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol.

  5. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  6. A Tale of Two Recent Spills—Comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Residues

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts. PMID:25714100

  7. Coprocessing of hydrocarbonaceous wastes and residual oil - a novel approach to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.E.; Berger, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Plastic and Rubber Recycling (PARR) Process being developed by Kilborn Inc., and Canadian Energy Developments Inc., offers a unique approach to the recovery and recycle of waste hydrocarbonaceous materials as they are simultaneously hydrogenated with low quality residual oil to yield basic petrochemicals and virgin plastic and synthetic rubber compounds. Laboratory scale experiments with used tire rubber crumb, scrap polystyrene and heavy oil residuum as the coprocessing medium gave encouraging results. In excess of 90 percent of the carbonaceous matter was converted to distillate oil product that, upon secondary hydrotreating, could be considered high quality ethylene cracking furnace feedstock or aromatics extraction plant feedstock. This presentation will discuss the technical and economic potential of the PARR Process, the planned technology development program and initial commercialization plans.

  8. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  9. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  10. Catalytic gasification of oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideo; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic gasification of the oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale continuous feeding dual bed reactor. Steam gasification at 1023 K over Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst can completely reform tar derived from pyrolysis of the residue biomass into C1 gases and hydrogen, and has achieved 91%-C conversion to gaseous product (CO+CO2+CH4). Composition of product gas has higher contents of CO and H2 with their ratio (H2/CO) of around 2.4 which is slightly H2-rich syngas. Maximum hydrogen yield of 74.7 mmol g-biomass(-1) obtained in this work is much higher than that from gasification of other algal biomass reported in literature. The residue biomass of B. braunii can be a superior renewable source of syngas or hydrogen.

  11. Spectrochemical study for the in situ detection of oil spill residues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fortes, F J; Ctvrtnícková, T; Mateo, M P; Cabalín, L M; Nicolas, G; Laserna, J J

    2010-12-17

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to identify the differences or similarities between crude oil and fuel residues. Firstly, a man portable LIBS analyzer was used for the on-site environmental control and analysis of the oil spill from The Prestige. An exhaustive analysis of crude oil and oil spill residues (collected during the field campaign in the Galician Coast) was performed in the laboratory. Characteristics elements in petroleum such as C, H, N, O, Mg, Na, Fe and V were detected. In addition, contributions from Ca, Si and Al in the composition of residues have been found. The use of intensity ratios of line and band emissions in the original fuel (crude oil) and in the aged residues allowed a better characterization of the samples than the simple use of peak intensities. The chemical composition between the crude oil and the fuel residues was found completely different. As well, a statistical method was employed in order to discriminate residues. Although significant differences were observed, no conclusions in terms of age and provenance could be reached due to the unknowledgment in the origin of the samples.

  12. Oil residues in Baltic sediment, mussel and fish. II. Study of the Finnish Archipelago 1979-81

    SciTech Connect

    Paasivirta, J.; Kaariainen, H.; Lahtipera, M.; Pellinen, J.; Sinkkonen, S.

    1982-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons and non-polar aromatic compounds have been analyzed after a spill of crude oil at Baltic Sea 1979 from drifting weathered oil glumps, sediment and sediment trap samples and bivalves at five areas of the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mytilus and flounder muscles and flounder livers were analyzed 1980 and 1981 from three of the previous five areas. The glumps were shown to be weathered crude oil. Sediment trap samples on the visibly contaminated area contained higher amounts of oil residues and in different ratios than the bottom sediments at the same areas. Extra local aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution was detected from the sediment traps at the reference area. Bivalves contained high amounts of oil residues at visibly polluted but in some visibly non-polluted areas also 1979. Any significant decontamination was not detected at summer 1979 but next year the Mytilus samples contained only traces if any and 1981 no detectable levels of aromatic oil residues. Aliphatic hydrocarbon residues in flounders showed no regional differences and no significant change of levels between 1980 and 1981. In contrary, the aromatic oil residues decreased to the non-detectable level in flounder muscles and to a significantly lower level in flounder livers 1981 related to 1980. Linear correlations of the analysis results are discussed.

  13. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy.

  14. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.

  15. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  16. Persistence and biodegradation of spilled residual fuel oil on an estuarine beach.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Cundell, A M; Traxler, R W

    1975-05-01

    The enrichment of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons on an estuarine beach after a spill of residual fuel oil on 11 April 1973 in Upper Narragansett Bay, R.I. was investigated. A rapid enrichment occurred during days 4 to 16 after the oil spill and a significant population of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was maintained in the beach sand for at least a year. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the mid-tide area declined rapidly during the bacterial enrichment period, remained fairly constant throughout the summer, and then declined to a low concentration after 1 year. An increased concentration of branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons in the low-tide sediment 128 days after the spill suggested a migration of hydrocarbons during the summer. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was apparent during the winter months at a rate of less than 1 mug of hydrocarbon per g of dry sediment per day.

  17. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  18. Chemical characterization of crude oil residue from an Arctic beach by GC/MS and GC/FID

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sergy, G.

    1995-10-01

    A complete `total oil analysis method` suitable for monitoring chemical composition changes and studying the fate of 12-year-old weathered oil residues from an arctic beach is described. The characterizations not only are through analyses of individual aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker compounds but also are through `pattern recognition` plots involving more than 100 important oil components and component groupings. The weathered percentages of residual oil in Baffin Island oil spill samples are quantified using C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} {alpha}{beta}-hopane in the fresh` source oil as internal oil references. The values of the weathered percentages show excellent correlation to the total solvent-extractable materials (TSEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker compound analysis results. Biodegradation is demonstrated to have played an important role in the degradation and removal of the residual oil. Twelve years after the spill, the composition changes due to weathering progress much more slowly, and this slower rate of change will continue under these arctic conditions. 31 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation gas accumulation of de-oiled algal residues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Algae are widely recognized for their high oil content and for exponentially accumulating biomass with particular potential to provide single cell protein for human consumption or animal feed. It is believed that along with biodiesel from algae, the high protein de-oiled algal residue may become an alternative feed supplement option in the future. This study was conducted to investigate de-oiled algal residue obtained from the common Chlorella species, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Selenarstrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus sp., and Scenedesmus dimorphus for assessment as potential feed supplements for ruminants by comparing with soybean (Glycine max) meal and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. Results With the exception of T. weissflogii, algal residue had higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn and lower concentration of Ca, Mg, and K than soybean meal and alfalfa hay. The algal residue CP (crude protein) concentrations ranged from 140 to 445 g/kg DM and varied among the de-oiled residues. In vitro rumen fermentation gas accumulation curves indicated that algal biomass degradation potential was less than that of soybean meal or alfalfa hay by up to 41.7%. The gas production curve, interpreted with a dual pool logistic model, confirmed that the fraction sizes for fast fermenting and slow fermenting of de-oiled algal residues were smaller than those in soybean meal and alfalfa hay, and the fermenting rate of the fractions was also low. Conclusions Inferior in vitro rumen gas accumulation from the five de-oiled algal residues suggests that these algal byproducts are less degradable in the rumen. PMID:25093078

  20. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  1. Antioxidant activity of cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine residues in continuous phase beta-lactoglobulin in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Elias, Ryan J; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2005-12-28

    Proteins dispersed in the continuous phase of oil-in-water emulsions are capable of inhibiting lipid oxidation reactions. The antioxidant activity of these proteins is thought to encompass both free radical scavenging by amino acid residues and chelation of prooxidative transition metals; however, the precise mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In this study, the oxidative stability of cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine residues in continuous phase beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) in a Brij-stabilized menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was determined. The presence of low concentrations of continuous phase beta-Lg (250 and 750 microg/mL) significantly inhibited lipid oxidation as determined by lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. It was observed that cysteine oxidized before tryptophan in beta-Lg, and both residues oxidized before lipid oxidation could be detected. No oxidation of the methionine residues of beta-Lg was observed despite its reported high oxidative susceptibility. It is conceivable that surface exposure of amino acid residues greatly affects their oxidation kinetics, which may explain why some residues are preferentially oxidized relative to others. Further elucidation of the mechanisms governing free radical scavenging of amino acids could lead to more effective applications of proteins as antioxidants within oil-in-water food emulsions.

  2. Laser cleaning: an alternative method for removing oil-spill fuel residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.; Piñon, V.; Ramil, A.; Yañez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Cleaning methods employed in last oil spills usually require direct contact or the intervention of external agents that can lead to additional contamination and damage of treated surfaces. As an alternative, a laser-based methodology is proposed in this work for controlled removal of fuel residues caused by the accident of Prestige tanker from rocks, as well as tools and equipment employed in fuel retaining and elimination procedures. Ablation thresholds of fuel crust and underlying material have been investigated with the aim to establish operational parameters that preserve the structural integrity and identity of the latter. The clean-up process was controlled by the self-limiting nature of the process or by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Contaminated, no contaminated and cleaned areas of the samples have been characterized by complementary microscopy techniques to help in the task of optimizing the laser cleaning procedure and checking the effectiveness of the removal process.

  3. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chiu-Ling; Su, Ying-Shan; Li, Man-Po; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2015-12-10

    Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chiu-Ling; Su, Ying-Shan; Li, Man-Po; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2015-01-01

    Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries. PMID:26690417

  5. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-12-19

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.

  6. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  7. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  8. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  9. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  10. Needle coke and carbon fiber production from Venezuelan oil residues. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The conversion of high boiling petroleum residues to carbonaceous materials is investigated. A new integrated approach is presented in which Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, optical microscopy, physico-chemical separations, and pilot plant operations are combined to better understand the carbonization process and to develop criteria for prediction of product quality. This methodology is applied to several Venezuelan oil residues obtained from refinery and pilot plant operations to evaluate their potential for producing high value carbon products such as needle coke and carbon fibers. Feedstocks, reaction intermediates, and products are characterized by [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR in terms of basic hydrocarbon constituents, and changes in carbon and proton distributions are measured. The extent of aromatization and other structural changes resulting from thermal cracking reactions are calculated for the first time by combining pilot plant data with NMR spectroscopic data in both the liquid and solid states. Improved methods for interpreting NMR data of liquid and solid materials from petroleum residues are developed. The effects of operating conditions and the role of different fractions obtained by distillation, n-pentane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography during reaction are documented. Delayed coking and thermal cracking pilot plant experiments were designed and carried out to simulate refinery operation and to provide samples for further characterization. Representative samples of coke were evaluated for use as electrodes in electric arc furnaces. It is shown that by proper selection of feedstock and operational parameters, premium quality needle cokes can be produced. A laboratory scale melt spinning apparatus to produce continuous mesophase pitch carbon fibers was designed and built. The ability to produce thin filaments (less than 20 [mu]m diameter) from petroleum pitches was demonstrated.

  11. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  12. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  13. RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and vanadium-induced gene expression profiles in human vascular endothelial cells.
    Srikanth S. Nadadur, Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mary Jane Selgrade and Daniel L. Costa, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, N...

  14. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  15. FORMATION OF FINE PARTICLES FROM RESIDUAL OIL COMBUSTION: REDUCING ULTRAFINE NUCLEI THROUGH THE ADDITION OF INORGANIC SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation, using an 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor, of the characteristics of particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and the reduction of ultrafine nuclei by postflame sorbent injection. Without sorbent a...

  16. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, DW Winsett2, AD Ledbetter2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DC Christiani3, DL Costa2, ...

  17. Workshop report: Residual shoreline oiling. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project. Final report (restoration project 95266). Held in Chenega Bay, Alaska on November 1-2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.M.; Piper, E.; Munson, D.

    1996-02-01

    Significant surface and subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill remains at numerous locations in Prince William Sound, many of which are near the village of Chenega Bay. The Trustee Council sponsored the workshop on Residual Shoreline Oil to attempt to answer the significant technical, social, and policy questions that surround this issue. These include the financial cost, environmental cost, and benefits of additional shoreline treatment. Workshop attendees concluded that it was possible to construct a treatment program that might provide significant benefits to residents of Chenega Bay without incurring environmental harm with area-wide significance. To provide options for Trustee Council consideration, DEC and residents of Chenega Bay constructed five treatment alternatives. Costs include estimates for treatent, monitoring, and agency project management. The workshop also made recommendations with respect to future monitoring of the persistence or degradation of surface and subsurface oil on shorelines in the spill area.

  18. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from buried shoreline oil residues thirteen years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: a multispecies assessment.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Bence, A Edward; Parker, Keith R; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Boehm, Paul D

    2006-04-01

    Seven taxa of intertidal plants and animals were sampled at 17 shoreline sites in Prince William Sound ([PWS]; AK, USA), that were heavily oiled in 1989 by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from buried oil in intertidal sediments are sufficiently bioavailable to intertidal prey organisms that they might pose a health risk to populations of birds and wildlife that forage on the shore. Buried residues of EVOS oil are present in upper and middle intertidal sediments at 16 sites. Lower intertidal (0 m) sediments contain little oil. Much of the PAH in lower intertidal sediments are from combustion sources. Mean tissue total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in intertidal clams, mussels, and worms from oiled sites range from 24 to 36 ng/g (parts per billion) dry weight; sea lettuce, whelks, hermit crabs, and intertidal fish contain lower concentrations. Concentrations of TPAH are similar or slightly lower in biota from unoiled reference sites. The low EVOS PAH concentrations detected in intertidal biota at oiled shoreline sites indicate that the PAH from EVOS oil buried in intertidal sediments at these sites have a low bioavailability to intertidal plants and animals. Individual sea otters or shorebirds that consumed a diet of intertidal clams and mussels exclusively from the 17 oiled shores in 2002 were at low risk of significant health problems. The low concentrations of EVOS PAH found in some intertidal organisms at some oiled shoreline sites in PWS do not represent a health risk to populations of marine birds and mammals that forage in the intertidal zone.

  19. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N.; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously. PMID:25309454

  20. Capillary-Physics Mechanism of Elastic-Wave Mobilization of Residual Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Pennington, W. D.; Turpening, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Much attention has been given to the possibility of vibratory mobilization of residual oil as a method of enhanced recovery. The common features of the relevant applications have nonetheless been inconsistency in the results of field tests and the lack of understanding of a physical mechanism that would explain variable experiences. Such a mechanism can be found in the physics of capillary trapping of oil ganglia, driven through the pore channels by an external pressure gradient. Entrapping of ganglia occurs due to the capillary pressure building on the downstream meniscus entering a narrow pore throat. The resulting internal-pressure imbalance acts against the external gradient, which needs to exceed a certain threshold to carry the ganglion through. The ganglion flow thus exhibits the properties of the Bingham (yield-stress) flow, not the Darcy flow. The application of vibrations is equivalent to the addition of an oscillatory forcing to the constant gradient. When this extra forcing acts along the gradient, an instant "unplugging" occurs, while, when the vibration reverses direction, the flow is plugged. This asymmetry results in an average non-zero flow over one period of vibration, which explains the mobilization effect. The minimum-amplitude and maximum-frequency thresholds apply for the mobilization to occur. When the vibration amplitude exceeds a certain "saturation" level, the flow returns to the Darcy regime. The criterion of the mobilization of a particular ganglion involves the parameters of both the medium (pore geometry, interfacial and wetting properties, fluid viscosity) and the oscillatory field (amplitude and frequency). The medium parameters vary widely under natural conditions. It follows that an elastic wave with a given amplitude and frequency will always produce a certain mobilization effect, mobilizing some ganglia and leaving others intact. The exact macroscopic effect is hard to predict, as it will represent a response of the populations

  1. Hebei Spirit oil spill monitored on site by fluorometric detection of residual oil in coastal waters off Taean, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Hyun-Woo; An, Joongeon; Won, Jongho; Shim, Won Joon

    2010-03-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of dissolved and/or dispersed oil in seawater and pore water were monitored on site by fluorometric detection method after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The oil concentrations in intertidal seawater, 15 days after the spill, were as high as 16,600 microg/L and appeared to decrease below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 microg/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. Fluorometric detection of oil in pore water was introduced to eliminate the effects of grain size for the quantification of oil in sediments and to better explain spatial and temporal distribution of oil pollution at sandy beaches. The fluorescence detection method was compared with the conventional laboratory technique of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis using gas chromatography. The method of fluorescence detection of oil was capable of generating results much faster and more cost-effectively than the traditional GC technique.

  2. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-04-30

    Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200-500°C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)-MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25-28 mg/g, iron 1.3-1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8-1.0mg/g and magnesium 0.4-1.0mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68-73%, hydrogen was 10-14%, nitrogen was 4-5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500°C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  3. Investigation of petroleum residues and microbial PLFA in Barataria Bay sediments one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Mahmoudi, N.; Silliman, B. R.; Slater, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon spill released crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a period of 3 months in 2010. Barataria Bay, Louisiana was among the most heavily impacted and extensively oil-contaminated coastlines. Studies conducted in the marshes show significant ecological and geologic effects from oil residues that reached the bay. Observation of the presence of an oil sheen associated with sediment disturbance raised the question as to whether petroleum residues were also present in the sediments of Barataria Bay. In order to address this question, six sediment cores were collected from non-oiled (#1 & 2) and oiled (#3-6) portions of Barataria Bay approximately one year after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Concentrations of n-alkanes, unresolved complex material (UCM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were determined in these upper sediments. In addition, concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were determined to assess variations in microbial community abundance. Alkane concentrations ranged from 134 to 747 ng/g with chain lengths from C12 to C35. Most cores showed an odd over even preference (carbon preference index of 1.2 to 4.3) with highest concentrations of long chain compounds between C24 and C35 (average chain length 29 to 39), consistent with a terrestrial carbon source such as plant waxes. Core #6 however, in the southwest portion of the bay, had the lowest concentrations of alkanes, and shorter n-alkane chain lengths overall. Despite this difference, the core maintains a relatively high carbon preference index and average chain length compared to that which would be expected from oil contaminated sediments. Measured PAH concentrations were highly variable ranging from undetectable to 436 ng/g. These values are several orders of magnitude lower than what is generally seen in highly contaminated sediments. Further, UCM concentrations were negligible in the cores from the oiled regions. These findings suggest only a minimal presence of

  4. Recovery of phytosterols from waste residue of soybean oil deodorizer distillate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haojun; Yan, Feng; Wu, Daogeng; Huo, Ming; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Yuping; Jiang, Yiming

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a catalytic decomposition and crystallization process to recover phytosterols from the waste residue of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (WRSODD). Various solvents were used for the crystallization of phytosterols. The effect of different solvents on the purity and yield of recovered phytosterols was investigated. The composition of WRSODD was analyzed by silica gel column chromatography and FT-IR spectrum. Gas chromatography (GC), GC-MS, and FT-IR were adopted to determine the purity and structure of phytosterols. Results showed the total amount of phytosterols, in the form of fatty acid steryl esters, was up to 20 wt.% of WRSODD. Through orthogonal experiments, the optimized crystallization conditions were obtained. It's found the mixed solvent of acetone and ethanol (4/1, v/v) could generate good crystallization. The yield of recovered phytosterols was 22.95 wt.% after the 1st crystallization. The purity of phytosterols reached 91.82, 92.73, and 97.17 wt.% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd crystallization, respectively.

  5. Soluble transition metals mediate residual oil fly ash induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Dreher, K L; Jaskot, R H; Lehmann, J R; Richards, J H; McGee, J K; Ghio, A J; Costa, D L

    1997-02-21

    Identification of constituents responsible for the pulmonary toxicity of fugitive combustion emission source particles may provide insight into the adverse health effects associated with exposure to these particles as well as ambient air particulate pollution. Herein, we describe results of studies conducted to identify constituents responsible for the acute lung injury induced by residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and to assess physical-chemical factors that influence the pulmonary toxicity of these constituents. Biochemical and cellular analyses performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from rats following intratracheal instillation of ROFA suspension demonstrated the presence of severe inflammation, an indicator of pulmonary injury, which included recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes into the airway. A leachate prepared from ROFA, containing predominantly Fe, Ni, V, Ca, Mg, and sulfate, produced similar lung injury to that induced by ROFA suspension. Depletion of Fe, Ni, and V from the ROFA leachate abrogated its pulmonary toxicity. Correspondingly, minimal lung injury was observed in animals exposed to saline-washed ROFA particles. A surrogate transition metal sulfate solution containing Fe, V, and Ni largely reproduced the lung injury induced by ROFA. Metal interactions and pH were found to influence the severity and kinetics of lung injury induced by ROFA and soluble transition metals. These findings provide direct evidence for the role of soluble transition metals in the pulmonary injury induced by the combustion emission source particulate, ROFA.

  6. Lung mucin production is stimulated by the air pollutant residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Longphre, M; Li, D; Li, J; Matovinovic, E; Gallup, M; Samet, J M; Basbaum, C B

    2000-01-15

    Human and animal exposure to particulate air pollution is correlated with airway mucus hypersecretion and increased susceptibility to infection. Seeking clues to the mechanisms underlying this pathology, we examined the effect of the particulate air pollutant residual oil fly ash (ROFA) on production of the major component of mucus, mucin, and the major antibacterial protein of the respiratory tract, lysozyme. We found that following in vitro exposure to ROFA, epithelial cells showed an increase in mucin (MUC5AC) and lysozyme (LYS) steady state mRNA. This upregulation was controlled at least partly at the level of transcription as shown by reporter assays. Experiments testing the ability of the major components of ROFA to mimic these effects showed that vanadium, a metal making up 18.8% by weight, accounted for the bulk of the response. A screen of signaling inhibitors showed that MUC5AC and LYS induction by ROFA are mediated by dissimilar signaling pathways, both of which are, however, phosphotyrosine dependent. Recognizing that the ROFA constituent vanadium is a potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor and that mucin induction by pathogens is phophotyrosine dependent, we suggest that vanadium-containing air pollutants trigger disease-like conditions by unmasking phosphorylation-dependent pathogen resistance pathways.

  7. Residual oil fly ash and charged polymers activate epithelial cells and nociceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Oortgiesen, M; Veronesi, B; Eichenbaum, G; Kiser, P F; Simon, S A

    2000-04-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is an industrial pollutant that contains metals, acids, and unknown materials complexed to a particulate core. The heterogeneous composition of ROFA hampers finding the mechanism(s) by which it and other particulate pollutants cause airway toxicity. To distinguish culpable factors contributing to the effects of ROFA, synthetic polymer microsphere (SPM) analogs were synthesized that resembled ROFA in particle size (2 and 6 microm in diameter) and zeta potential (-29 mV). BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons responded to both ROFA and charged SPMs with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, whereas neutral SPMs bound with polyethylene glycol (0-mV zeta potential) were relatively ineffective. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, the SPM-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were correlated with the presence of acid- and/or capsaicin-sensitive pathways. We hypothesized that the acidic microenvironment associated with negatively charged colloids like ROFA and SPMs activate irritant receptors in airway target cells. This causes subsequent cytokine release, which mediates the pathophysiology of neurogenic airway inflammation.

  8. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  9. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, B.E.; Trust, K.A.; Iverson, S.A.; Reed, J.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; McAdie, M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (-2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill.

  11. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  12. Weathering patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in submerged Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues when re-exposed to sunlight.

    PubMed

    John, Gerald F; Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2016-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event released a large amount of sweet crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An unknown portion of this oil that arrived along the Alabama shoreline interacted with nearshore sediments and sank forming submerged oil mats (SOMs). A considerable amount of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were trapped within these buried SOMs. Recent studies completed using the oil spill residues collected along the Alabama shoreline have shown that several PAHs, especially higher molecular weight PAHs (four or more aromatic rings), are slowly weathering compared to the weathering levels experienced by the oil when it was floating over the GOM. In this study we have hypothesized that the weathering rates of PAHs in SOMs have slowed down because the buried oil was isolated from direct exposure to sunlight, thus hindering the photodegradation pathway. We further hypothesized that re-exposing SOMs to sunlight can reactivate various weathering reactions. Also, SOMs contain 75-95% sand (by weight) and the entrapped sand could either block direct sunlight or form large oil agglomerates with very little exposed surface area; these processes could possibly interfere with weathering reactions. To test these hypotheses, we completed controlled experiments to study the weathering patterns of PAHs in a field recovered SOM sample after re-exposing it to sunlight. Our experimental results show that the weathering levels of several higher molecular weight PAHs have slowed down primarily due to the absence of sunlight-induced photodegradation reactions. The data also show that sand particles in SOM material could potentially interfere with photodegradation reactions.

  13. Residual oil combustion: a major source of airborne nickel in New York City.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Richard E; Hsu, Shao-I; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton

    2009-09-01

    On the basis of previous observations that: (1) both the nickel (Ni) concentration in ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and daily mortality rates in New York City (NYC) were much higher than in any other US city; and (2) that peaks in Ni concentration was strongly associated with cardiac function in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we initiated a study of the spatial and seasonal distributions of Ni in NYC and vicinity to determine the feasibility of productive human population-based studies of the extent to which ambient fine particle Ni may account for cardiovascular health effects. Using available speciation data from previous studies at The New York University, Environmental Protection Agency's Speciation Trends Network; and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network, we determined that Ni in NYC is on average 2.5 times higher in winter than in summer. This apparent seasonal gradient is absent, or much less pronounced, at NJ and CT speciation sites. Ni concentrations at a site on the east side of Manhattan and at two sites in the western portion of the Bronx were a factor of two higher than at a site on the west side of Manhattan, or at one at Queens College in eastern Queens County, indicating a strong spatial gradient within NYC. We conclude that the winter peaks of fine particle Ni indicate that space heating, which involves the widespread reliance on residual oil combustion in many older residential and commercial buildings in NYC, is a major source of ambient air Ni. Epidemiologic studies based on data generated by a network of speciation sites throughout NYC could effectively test the hypothesis that Ni could account for a significant portion of the excess mortality and morbidity that have been associated with elevated mass concentrations of PM(2.5).

  14. A plankton-residue model to explain trace-element enrichments in oil-source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D.Z.; Isaacs, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits enriched in organic matter commonly have high concentrations of many trace elements. In the past, trace-element enrichment was attributed to accumulation by precipitation/adsorption reactions under conditions of bottom-water sulfate reduction, or from a seawater that itself had an unusually high concentration of trace elements. Examination of the ancient and modern sediment record shows, however, that many trace elements in these deposits accumulated within an organic fraction whose composition closely approached that of modem plankton; their accumulation further required only a moderate rate of primary productivity. Specific examples are represented by the accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn in the California Borderland today and by their abundance in Quaternary sediment from the Japan Sea, Cretaceous sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, the Miocene Monterey Formation, and the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Accordingly, we propose that the elevated trace-element concentration of many oil-source rocks, above that contributed by the detrital fraction, is a residue from the diagenetic degradation of marine plankton. Recent studies have shown that the burial rate (accumulation rate) of organic matter can rep- resent less than 5% of its rain rate (depositional rate) onto the sea floor and as little as 1 % of primary productivity. By contrast, several of the trace elements, once deposited on the sea floor, can be largely retained. In the Japan Sea sediment, for example, Cu: and Zn: organic-matter ratios in the marine fraction of 9 sediment alone average 10 times their ratios in plankton, suggesting a 90% loss of the organic matter that rained onto the sea floor, but Zn: Cu ratios and other trace-element: Cu ratios in this and other deposits closely approach modern plankton values.

  15. A plankton-residue model to explain trace-element enrichments in oil-source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D.Z.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentary deposits enriched in organic matter commonly have high concentrations of many trace elements. In the past, trace-element enrichment was attributed to accumulation by precipitation/adsorption reactions under conditions of bottom-water sulfate reduction, or from a seawater that itself had an unusually high concentration of trace elements. Examination of the ancient and modern sediment record shows, however, that many trace elements in these deposits accumulated within an organic fraction whose composition closely approached that of modem plankton; their accumulation further required only a moderate rate of primary productivity. Specific examples are represented by the accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Zn in the California Borderland today and by their abundance in Quaternary sediment from the Japan Sea, Cretaceous sediment from the Atlantic Ocean, the Miocene Monterey Formation, and the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Accordingly, we propose that the elevated trace-element concentration of many oil-source rocks, above that contributed by the detrital fraction, is a residue from the diagenetic degradation of marine plankton. Recent studies have shown that the burial rate (accumulation rate) of organic matter can rep- resent less than 5% of its rain rate (depositional rate) onto the sea floor and as little as 1 % of primary productivity. By contrast, several of the trace elements, once deposited on the sea floor, can be largely retained. In the Japan Sea sediment, for example, Cu: and Zn: organic-matter ratios in the marine fraction of 9 sediment alone average 10 times their ratios in plankton, suggesting a 90% loss of the organic matter that rained onto the sea floor, but Zn: Cu ratios and other trace-element: Cu ratios in this and other deposits closely approach modern plankton values.

  16. [Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Jinping; Dai, Lingmei; Liu, Dehua; Zhang, Jian'an; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-04-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 degrees C for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 degrees C for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.

  17. An exergy based assessment of the production and conversion of switchgrass, equine waste and forest residue to bio-oil using fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resource efficiency of biofuel production via biomass pyrolysis is evaluated using exergy as an assessment metric. Three feedstocks, important to various sectors of US agriculture, switchgrass, forest residue and equine waste are considered for conversion to bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) via fast pyro...

  18. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  19. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  20. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  1. Characterization of fine particulate matter produced by combustion of residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Huffman, G P; Huggins, F E; Shah, N; Huggins, R; Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Pugmire, R J; Meuzelaar, H L; Seehra, M S; Manivannan, A

    2000-07-01

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732-kW boiler. PM emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the PM2.5 fraction consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As K-edges and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM2.5 samples than in the PM2.5+ samples. Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agreed fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resembled that of vanadyl sulfate (VO.SO4.xH2O). The other metals investigated (i.e., Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) also were present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic was present as an arsenate (As+5). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM2.5 fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the loss on ignition (LOI) ranging from 64 to 87% for the PM2.5 fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM2.5+ fraction. Based on 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

  2. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...

  3. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: analytical scheme, interpretation of the results, and future needs.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The examination sequence starts with the solvent extraction of the residues from the substrate. The extract is then prepared for instrumental analysis by derivatizing fatty acids (FAs) into fatty acid methyl esters. The analysis is then carried out by gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the results is a difficult operation seriously limited by a lack of research on the subject. The present data analysis scheme utilizes FA ratios to determine the presence of vegetable oils and their propensity to self-heat and possibly, to spontaneously ignite. Preliminary work has demonstrated that it is possible to detect chemical compounds specific to an oil that underwent spontaneous ignition. Guidelines to conduct future research in the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples are also presented.

  4. Element and PAH constituents in the residues and liquid oil from biosludge pyrolysis in an electrical thermal furnace.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Shieh, Zhu-Xin

    2014-05-15

    Biosludge can be pyrolyzed to produce liquid oil as an alternative fuel. The content of five major elements, 22 trace elements and 16 PAHs was investigated in oven-dried raw material, pyrolysis residues and pyrolysis liquid products. Results indicated 39% carbon, 4.5% hydrogen, 4.2% nitrogen and 1.8% sulfur were in oven dried biosludge. Biosludge pyrolysis, carried out at temperatures from 400 to 800°C, corresponded to 34-14% weight in pyrolytic residues, 32-50% weight in liquid products and 31-40% weight in the gas phase. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen decreased and the sulfur content increased with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature at 400-800°C. NaP (2 rings) and AcPy (3 rings) were the major PAHs, contributing 86% of PAHs in oven-dried biosludge. After pyrolysis, the PAH content increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, which also results in a change in the PAH species profile. In pyrolysis liquid oil, NaP, AcPy, Flu and PA were the major species, and the content of the 16 PAHs ranged from 1.6 to 19 μg/ml at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 400 to 800°C. Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and Zn were the dominant trace elements in the raw material and the pyrolysis residues. In addition, low toxic metal (Cd, V, Co, and Pb) content was found in the liquid oil, and its heat value was 7,800-9,500 kcal/kg, which means it can be considered as an alternative fuel.

  5. Comparison of laboratory and in-situ measurements of waterflood residual oil saturations for the Cormorant field

    SciTech Connect

    van Poelgeest, F. ); Niko, H. ); Modwid, A.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Shell Expro and Koninklijke/Shell E and P Laboratorium (KSEPL) have been engaged in a multidisciplinary effort to determine the water flood residual oil saturation (ROS) in two principal reservoirs of the Cormorant oil field in the U.K. sector of the North Sea. Data acquisition included special coring and testing. The study, which involved new reservoir-engineering and petrophysical techniques, was aimed at establishing consistent ROS values. This paper reports that reservoir-engineering work centered on reservoir-condition corefloods in the relative-permeability-at-reservoir-conditions (REPARC) apparatus, in which restoration of representative wettability condition was attempted with the aging technique. Aging results in a consistent reduction of water-wetness of all core samples. The study indicated that ROS values obtained on aged cores at water throughputs of at least 5 PV represented reservoir conditions. The petrophysical part of the study involved ROS estimation from sponge-core analysis and log evaluation.

  6. Temperature influence on product distribution and characteristics of derived residue and oil in wet sludge pyrolysis using microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Zeng, Jun-Yan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2017-04-15

    Sludge taken from a wastewater treatment plant of the petrochemical industry was dewatered and pyrolyzed to produce liquid oil as an alternative fuel via microwave heating. Element contents of dried sludge were 45.9±3.85wt.% carbon, 7.70±1.43wt.% hydrogen, 4.30±0.77wt.% nitrogen and 3.89±0.52wt.% sulfur. Two major thermal degradation peaks of sludge were determined during the microwave pyrolysis process, one at 325-498K (most of the water was vaporized, and the weight loss was over 85wt.%) and the other at 548-898K for sludge constituent decomposition. Zn content was high in the dried raw material and residues. Other toxic elements such as Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd contents were 0.61-0.99, 0.18-0.46, 0.15-0.25, 0.018-0.034, and 0.006-0.017mg/g, respectively. About 14-20wt.% of oil was produced based on the dried sludge cake, and the oil major elements were C (69-72wt.%), H (5.7-6.7wt.%), N (1.9-2.2wt.%), and S (0.58-0.82wt.%). The heat values of liquid oils were 8700-9200kcal/kg at 400-800°C.

  7. Nickel and sulfur speciation of residual oil fly ashes from two electric utility steam-generating units.

    PubMed

    Galbreath, Kevin C; Schulz, Richard L; Toman, Donald L; Nyberg, Carolyn M; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P; Zillioux, Edward J

    2005-03-01

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400- and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned 0.9 and 0.3 wt % S residual (No. 6 fuel) oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for Ni concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). ROFA deionized H2O extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3-1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were 0.990 microg/Nm3 compared with 0.620 microg/Nm3 for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher 400-MW load conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicated that ROFAs from Unit A contain approximately 3 wt % NiSO4 x xH2O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and appoximately 4.5 wt% of a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe)2O4. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2 wt% NiSO4 x 6 H20 and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including carcinogenic nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species accounted for > 97% of the total S in the ROFAs. Unit A ROFAs contained much lower thiophene proportions because cyclone-separated ROFA reinjection is employed on this unit to collect and reburn the larger carbonaceous particles.

  8. Comparison of parallel flow and concentric micronebulizers for elemental determination in lubricant oil, residual fuel oil and biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Jefferson R.; dos Santos, Eider Fernando; Duyck, Christiane B.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2011-05-01

    Two micronebulizers, PFA-100 and Miramist, were evaluated using a method for elemental determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) in lubricant and residual fuel oils diluted in xylene. The facility and speed of direct sample dilution in organic solvents, without additional pretreatment, combined with the multielemental capacity and robustness of ICP OES are advantageous. The operational conditions were optimized through factorial design. Improvement in the signal-to-background ratio was observed for Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti and V. Higher sensitivity was obtained with the PFA-100 micronebulizer, although the limits of detection (LOD) obtained for both micronebulizers were similar, between 0.3 μg kg -1 (Mg) and 18 μg kg -1 (Ni). The certified reference materials NIST 1634c and NIST 1085b were used for method validation and good recoveries were obtained with values between 93% (Pb) and 102% (P) for PFA-100 and 90% (Pb) and 103% (P) for Miramist. The method was also validated for analysis of biodiesel samples by recovery tests, with results from 89% to 103%. The proposed method was employed for the analysis of crude oil, lubricant oil and biodiesel from different raw materials.

  9. Determination of nickel species in stack emissions from eight residual oil-fired utility steam-generating units.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Frank E; Galbreath, Kevin C; Eylands, Kurt E; Van Loon, Lisa L; Olson, Jeremy A; Zillioux, Edward J; Ward, Stephen G; Lynch, Paul A; Chu, Paul

    2011-07-15

    XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ni species in particulate matter collected on quartz thimble filters in the stacks of eight residual (No. 6 fuel) oil-burning electric utility steam-generating units. Proper speciation of nickel in emitted particulate matter is necessary to correctly anticipate potential health risks. Analysis of the spectroscopic data using least-squares linear combination methods and a newly developed method specific for small quantities of Ni sulfide compounds in such emissions show that potentially carcinogenic Ni sulfide compounds are absent within the detection limits of the method (≤ 3% of the total Ni) in the particulate matter samples investigated. In addition to the major nickel sulfate phase (NiSO(4)·6H(2)O), lesser amounts of (Ni,Mg)O and/or NiFe(2)O(4) were also identified in most emission samples. On the basis of the results from these emission characterization studies, the appropriateness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assumption that the Ni compound mixture emitted from residual oil-fired power plants is 50% as carcinogenic as nickel subsulfide (Ni(3)S(2)) should be re-evaluated.

  10. Determination of Nickel Species in Stack Emissions from Eight Residual Oil-Fired Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect

    F Huggins; K Galbreath; K Eylands; L Van Loon; J Olson; E Zillioux; S Ward; P Lynch; P Chu

    2011-12-31

    XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ni species in particulate matter collected on quartz thimble filters in the stacks of eight residual (No. 6 fuel) oil-burning electric utility steam-generating units. Proper speciation of nickel in emitted particulate matter is necessary to correctly anticipate potential health risks. Analysis of the spectroscopic data using least-squares linear combination methods and a newly developed method specific for small quantities of Ni sulfide compounds in such emissions show that potentially carcinogenic Ni sulfide compounds are absent within the detection limits of the method ({le}3% of the total Ni) in the particulate matter samples investigated. In addition to the major nickel sulfate phase (NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O), lesser amounts of (Ni,Mg)O and/or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were also identified in most emission samples. On the basis of the results from these emission characterization studies, the appropriateness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assumption that the Ni compound mixture emitted from residual oil-fired power plants is 50% as carcinogenic as nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) should be re-evaluated.

  11. Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Wendt, J O

    2000-08-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research examining the characteristics of primary PM generated by the combustion of fossil fuels is being conducted in efforts to help determine mechanisms controlling associated adverse health effects. Transition metals are of particular interest, due to the results of studies that have shown cardiopulmonary damage associated with exposure to these elements and their presence in coal and residual fuel oils. Further, elemental speciation may influence this toxicity, as some species are significantly more water-soluble, and potentially more bio-available, than others. This paper presents results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particle size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction as well as electrical mobility, time-of-flight, and light-scattering techniques. Size-classified PM samples from this study are also being utilized by colleagues for animal instillation experiments. Experimental results on the mass and compositions of particles between 0.03 and > 20 microns in aerodynamic diameter show that PM from the combustion of these fuels produces distinctive bimodal and trimodal PSDs, with a fine mode dominated by vaporization, nucleation, and growth processes. Depending on the fuel and combustion equipment, the coarse mode is composed primarily of unburned carbon char and associated inherent trace elements (fuel oil) and fragments of inorganic (largely calcium-alumino-silicate) fly ash including trace elements (coal). The three coals also produced a central mode between 0.8- and 2.0-micron aerodynamic diameter. However, the origins of these particles are less clear because vapor-to-particle growth processes are unlikely to produce particles this large. Possible mechanisms include the liberation of micron-scale mineral inclusions during char fragmentation and burnout

  12. An evaluation of residues at an oil refinery site following fires.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, B; Miljević, N

    2002-01-01

    Soil pollution at the oil refinery at Novi Sad following destruction of crude oil and its products in storage tanks during the Kosovo conflict was investigated. More than 100,000 t of crude oil and its products were destroyed, and about 90% of these were burnt off, 10% leached and 130 t recovered. The acute injection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the air of the town was widespread depending on the weather conditions and ranged from 1-431,000 ng/m3. The presence of PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elements in the surface zone and soil core samples taken from various sites were determined up to a depth of 100 cm. Concentrations of PAHs were in the range between 0.75 and 86.19 microg/g dry soil. The contaminated soil can be expected to act as a permanent pollution source, while the mobile constituents are likely to cause groundwater pollution.

  13. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  14. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  15. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

    2012-02-07

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later.

  16. Nickel speciation of residual oil fly ash and ambient particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galbreath, K C; Toman, D L; Zygarlicke, C J; Huggins, F E; Huffman, G P; Wong, J L

    2000-11-01

    The chemical speciation of Ni in fly ash produced from approximately 0.85 wt % S residual (no. 6 fuel) oils in laboratory (7 kW)- and utility (400 MW)-scale combustion systems was investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and acetate extraction [1 M NaOAc-0.5 M HOAc (pH 5) at 25 degrees C]-anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). XAFS was also used to determine the Ni speciation of ambient particulate matter (PM) sampled near the 400-MW system. Based on XAFS analyses of bulk fly ash and their corresponding acetate extraction residue, it is estimated that > 99% of the total Ni (0.38 wt %) in the experimentally produced fly ash occurs as NiSO4.xH2O, whereas > 95% of the total Ni (1.70 and 2.25 wt %) in two fly ash samples from the 400-MW system occurs as NiSO4.xH2O and Ni-bearing spinel, possibly NiFe2O4. Spinel was also detected using XRD. Acetate extracts most of the NiSO4.xH2O and concentrates insoluble NiFe2O4 in extraction residue. Similar to fly ash, ambient PM contains NiSO4.xH2O and NiFe2O4; however, the proportion of NiSO4.xH2O relative to NiFe2O4 is much greater in the PM. Results from this and previous investigations indicate that residual oil ash produced in the 7-kW combustion system lack insoluble Ni (e.g., NiFe2O4) but are enriched in soluble NiSO4.xH2O relative to fly ash from utility-scale systems. This difference in Ni speciation is most likely related to the lack of additive [e.g., Mg(OH)2] injection and residence time in the 7-kW combustion system.

  17. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  18. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  19. Determination of essential oils residues on zucchini fruits by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Milano, Filomena; Donnarumma, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants as low-risk fungicides has increased considerably owing to their interest with organic growers and environmentally conscious consumers. The proposed method, based upon liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, is suitable for monitoring main components of EOs on zucchini fruits after protection treatments to control crop disease. The aim of this work is to find a rapid, simple and cheap procedure for screening analysis such as quality control of crops' edible portion.

  20. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-03

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days.

  1. Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.

  2. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm biomass residue.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Haafiz, M K; Eichhorn, S J; Hassan, Azman; Jawaid, M

    2013-04-02

    In this work, we successfully isolated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber-total chlorine free (TCF) pulp using acid hydrolysis method. TCF pulp bleaching carried out using an oxygen-ozone-hydrogen peroxide bleaching sequence. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that acid hydrolysis does not affect the chemical structure of the cellulosic fragments. The morphology of the hydrolyzed MCC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a compact structure and a rough surface. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the surface indicates the presence of spherical features. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 87% crystallinity. The MCC obtained from OPEFB-pulp is shown to have a good thermal stability. The potential for a range of applications such as green nano biocomposites reinforced with this form of MCC and pharmaceutical tableting material is discussed.

  3. Production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol from fast pyrolysis of palm residues using a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Yong; Lee, Uen-Do; Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Soo-Hwa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, palm residues were pyrolyzed in a bench-scale (3kg/h) fast pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and bio-oil separation system for the production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol. Pyrolysis experiments were performed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and the types and amounts of activated carbon on the bio-oil composition. The maximum bio-oil yield obtained was approximately 47wt% at a reaction temperature of 515°C. The main compounds produced from the bio-oils were acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, phenol, and phenolic compounds such as cresol, xylenol, and pyrocatechol. When coal-derived activated carbon was applied, the acetic acid and phenol yields in the bio-oils reached 21 and 19wt%, respectively. Finally, bio-oils rich in acetic acid and phenol could be produced separately by using an in situ bio-oil separation system and activated carbon as an additive.

  4. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency

  5. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans.

  6. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil.

  7. Rheology and stability of SRC residual fuel oils - storage evaluation. SRC-1 quarterly technical report, October-December 1982. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    In Air Products ongoing study to characterize the rheology and stability of various SRC residual oils, single-phase blends of 50 wt % HSRC and TSL SRC in 1:1 mixtures of 1st- and 2nd-stage process solvents were subjected to storage stability tests at 150/sup 0/F in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Using viscosity as an indicator, it was observed that the blends studied increased in viscosity with storage time in an air atmosphere; the viscosity increase began after a 4-week storage period. The increase in HSRC blend viscosity was significantly greater than that of the TSL SRC blend. A 60-day air-stored blend will require a pumping temperature about 10/sup 0/F higher than that specified for an unaged blend in order to have the same viscosity. The viscosity increase under nitrogen storage was relatively insignificant. Nitrogen blanketing appears to be important in maintaining the specified viscosity characteristics of the blends during storage in the 150/sup 0/F storage condition tested. A loss of volatiles undoubtedly occurs during high-temperature storage under laboratory conditions. Such losses contribute to an increase in the viscosity of the blend. In commercial practice, volatile losses are expected to be significantly lower. Solvent extraction data and analysis of separated fractions suggest that during storage under the above conditions, some oxidative polymerization of pentane-soluble oil components forms higher molecular weight pentane insolubles (asphaltenes and benzene insolubles). Asphaltenes are also involved in the increase in viscosity and do chemically change. 1 reference, 8 figures, 27 tables.

  8. Effects of alternate fuels report No. 8: analysis of degradiation of magnesia-based refractory bricks from a residual oil-fired rotary cement kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-05-01

    Residual oil was used as an alternate fuel to natural gas to supply heat in a rotary cement kiln. Principal impurities in the residual oil were Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, P.S. and V. the kiln operators were concerned about the effects of these oil impurities on observed degradation of the magnesia-based bricks used as a liner in the burning zone of the kiln. Two degraded bricks, which had been in service for six to nine months, were analyzed to determine the role of fuel impurities on the observed degradation. The maximum hot-face temperature of the refractory during service was about 1500/sup 0/C. One brick had decreased in thickness about 45%, the about 15%. Various analytical measurements on these samples failed to reveal the presence of fuel impurities at or near the hot face of the bricks, and therefore it is concluded that the relatively short service life of these refractories was not due to use of residual oil as the fuel in the kiln. The observed degradation, therefore, was attributed to other reactions and to thermal mechanical conditions in the kiln, which inevitably resulted in extensive erosion of the bricks.

  9. Oxidation/gasification of carbon residue on retorted oil shale. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, W. J.

    1984-01-16

    Studies of the oxidation and gasification of oil shale char were extended to an investigation of the effects of mineral catalysis. Six shales with differing mineral compositions were studied, including samples from the saline zone in the Western Colorado and from the Antrim shales of Michigan. Oxidation kinetics data, corrected for mass transfer effects, were compared for all six samples. A high assay shale from Utah and a sample from the saline zone were found to have the highest oxidation rates. By examining the data for shales which were water leached and thermally pretreated, it was concluded that both NaO and CaO act as oxidation catalysts. However, as a result of mineral decomposition experiments conducted with a sample from the C-a lease tract, it appears as though the ankeritic dolomite fraction will not decompose as long as there is a minimal CO/sub 2/ over pressure. Rather, low temperature silication reactions appear to take place once the temperature exceeds 925/sup 0/K. An extensive evaluation was also completed for the gasification of an Antrim shale from Michigan. Both the rates of CO/sub 2/ and steam gasification of the char were found to be markedly lower than that observed for a shale sample from the Parachute Creek member in Colorado. However, unlike the Colorado shale, the make gas resulting from the steam gasification of the Antrim shale produced nearly equal quantities of CO and CO/sub 2/. Thus, despite the high concentration of iron in the Antrim shale, the water gas shift reaction is not catalyzed nearly to the same extent as in western shales.

  10. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  11. Biokinetically-based in vitro cardiotoxicity of residual oil fly ash: hazard identification and mechanisms of injury.

    PubMed

    Knuckles, Travis L; Jaskot, Richard; Richards, Judy H; Miller, C Andrew; Ledbetter, Allen; McGee, John; Linak, William P; Dreher, Kevin L

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Identification of causal PM sources is critically needed to support regulatory decisions to protect public health. This research examines the in vitro cardiotoxicity of bioavailable constituents of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) employing in vivo, biokinetically-based, concentrations determined from their pulmonary deposition. Pulmonary deposition of ROFA led to a rapid increase in plasma vanadium (V) levels that were prolonged in hypertensive animals without systemic inflammation. ROFA cardiotoxicity was evaluated using neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (RCM) cultures exposed to particle-free leachates of ROFA (ROFA-L) at levels present in exposed rat plasma. Cardiotoxicity was observed at low levels (3.13 μg/mL) of ROFA-L 24 h post-exposure. Dimethylthiourea (28 mM) inhibited ROFA-L-induced cytotoxicity at high (25-12.5 μg/mL) doses, suggesting that oxidative stress is responsible at high ROFA-L doses. Cardiotoxicity could not be reproduced using a V + Ni + Fe mixture or a ROFA-L depleted of these metals, suggesting that ROFA-L cardiotoxicity requires the full complement of bioavailable constituents. Susceptibility of RCMs to ROFA-L-induced cytotoxicity was increased following tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition, suggesting that phosphotyrosine signaling pathways play a critical role in regulating ROFA-L-induced cardiotoxicity. These data demonstrate that bioavailable constituents of ROFA are capable of direct adverse cardiac effects.

  12. Validation of LED spectrofluorimeter for determination of both biodiesel and nontransesterified residual cooking oil in diesel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meira, Marilena; Quintella, Cristina M.; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos; Pepe, Iuri M.; Ribeiro, Erika M. de O.; Silva, Weidson Leal; Cid, Alexandre Lopes Del; Guimarães, Alexandre Kamei

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the validation of a LED spectrofluorimeter patented for the analysis of biodiesel in diesel and non-transesterified residual cooking oil (RCO) in diesel. Detection limit, quantification limit and sensitivity were determined from the regression lines. The spectrofluorimeter validated in this study was adequate for quantifying the amount of biodiesel in diesel in the range from 2% to 45% (B02-B45) with an R-squared value of 0.9962 and a detection limit of 3%. For the analysis of non-transesterified RCO in diesel, the linear range was from 2% to 20% with an R-squared value of 0.9872 and a detection limit of 2%. The accuracy of the equipment for the analysis of biodiesel in diesel and non-transesterified RCO in diesel was evaluated using Student's t-test for paired data. With 95% confidence level there was no significant difference between the actual values and those determined by the equipment.

  13. Experimental and modeling study of residual liquid recovery from spent sand in bitumen extraction processes from oil sands.

    PubMed

    Faradonbeh, Moosa Rabiei; Dong, Mingzhe; Harding, Thomas G; Abedi, Jalal

    2013-02-19

    Disposing solid residue with high liquid content into the environment may impact the immediate ecosystem and its surroundings. In bitumen recovery process from oil sands, it is environmentally and economically desirable to effectively recover as much of the liquid trapped in the spent solids as possible, prior to releasing it into the environment. An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of capillary force to enhance liquid recovery by using a thin, semipermeable layer as the membrane. The results indicate that by employing a membrane at the outlet, and pressurizing the air above the sand bed, the average liquid saturation can be decreased by 50%; however, the maximum pressure applied is restricted by the physical characteristics of the membrane. A mathematical model is developed to predict the liquid saturation profile along the sand pack during transient and steady-state conditions, and results are validated against measured average saturation using two different sand types. Results suggest that more liquid can be recovered from the spent sand bed by increasing the height of the bed; however, the required time to achieve the maximum recovery is increased as well. This method can be applied to reduce the liquid content of spent sand from any process before it is disposed of, thereby reducing possible hazards which may affect the environment.

  14. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  16. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

    2005-06-01

    Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus.

  17. Kinetics of coffee industrial residue pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model and components separation of bio-oil by sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the kinetics of coffee industrial residue (CIR) pyrolysis, the effect of pyrolysis factors on yield of bio-oil component and components separation of bio-oil. The kinetics of CIR pyrolysis was analyzed using distributed activation energy model (DAEM), based on the experiments in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and it indicated that the average of activation energy (E) is 187.86kJ·mol(-1). The bio-oils were prepared from CIR pyrolysis in vacuum tube furnace, and its components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among pyrolysis factors, pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor on components yield of bio-oil, directly concerned with the volatilization and yield of components (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and caffeine). Furthermore, a new method (sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis) was put forward and applied to the components separation of bio-oil. Based on experiments, a solution of components separation of bio-oil was come out.

  18. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  19. Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner.

  1. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  2. Metal and sulfate composition of residual oil fly ash determines airway hyperreactivity and lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gavett, S H; Madison, S L; Dreher, K L; Winsett, D W; McGee, J K; Costa, D L

    1997-02-01

    The biological effects of particulate matter (PM) deposition in the airways may depend on aqueousleachable chemical constituents of the particles. The effects of two residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM samples of equivalent diameters but different metal and sulfate contents on pulmonary responses in Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. ROFA sample 1 (R1) had approximately twice as much saline-leachable sulfate, nickel, and vanadium, and 40 times as much iron as ROFA sample 2 (R2), while R2 had a 31-fold higher zinc content. Four groups of rats were intratracheally instilled with a suspension of 2.5 mg R2 in 0.3 ml saline (R2), the supernatant of R2 (R2s), the supernatant of 2.5 mg R1 (R1s), or saline only. By 4 days after instillation, 4 of 24 rats treated with R2s or R2 had died, compared with non treated with R1s or saline, and pathological indices were greater in both R2 groups compared with the R1s group. In surviving rats, baseline pulmonary function parameters and airway hyperreactivity to acetylcholine challenge were significantly worse in R2 and R2s groups than in the R1s group. Numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, but not other inflammatory cells or biochemical parameters of lung injury, were greater in both R2 groups compared with the R1s group. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the composition of soluble metals and sulfate leached from ROFA, an emission source particle, is critical in the development of airway hyperreactivity and lung injury.

  3. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D.; Paz, M.L.; Vanasco, V.; Tasat, D.; González Maglio, D.H.; and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  4. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash.

    PubMed

    Marchini, T; Magnani, N D; Paz, M L; Vanasco, V; Tasat, D; González Maglio, D H; Alvarez, S; Evelson, P A

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation.

  5. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  6. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in

  7. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahı´a las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  8. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d.

  9. Soluble metals associated with residual oil fly ash increase morbidity and lung injury after bacterial infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenny R; Taylor, Michael D; Castranova, Vincent; Clarke, Robert W; Antonini, James M

    2004-02-13

    Inhalation of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) has been shown to impair lung defense mechanisms in laboratory animals and susceptible populations. Bioavailability of soluble transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury caused by ROFA exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of soluble metals on lung defense and injury in animals preexposed to ROFA followed by pulmonary challenge with a bacterial pathogen. ROFA was suspended in saline (ROFA-TOTAL), incubated overnight at 37 degrees C, and separated by centrifugation into soluble (ROFA-SOL) and insoluble (ROFA-INSOL) fractions. A portion of the soluble sample was treated with the metal-binding resin Chelex for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed at d 0 with ROFA-TOTAL (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), ROFA-INSOL, ROFA-SOL, saline, saline + Chelex, or ROFA-SOL + Chelex. At d 3, 5 x 10(5) Listeria monocytogenes were intratracheally instilled into rats from each treatment group. At d 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, and cultured to assess bacterial clearance. Histopathological analysis was performed on the right lungs. Pulmonary exposure of ROFA-TOTAL or ROFA-SOL before infection led to a marked increase in lung injury and inflammation at all three time points after inoculation, and an increase in morbidity in comparison to saline control rats. Treatment with ROFA-INSOL, saline + Chelex, or ROFA-SOL + Chelex caused no significant increases in lung damage and morbidity when compared to control. By d 10, the ROFA-SOL and ROFA-TOTAL groups had approximately 200-fold more bacteria in the lung than saline control, indicating the inability of these groups to effectively respond to the infection. None of the other treatment groups had significant impairments in bacterial clearance when compared to saline. In conclusion, exposure to ROFA-TOTAL and ROFA-SOL significantly suppressed the lung response to infection. These results suggest that soluble

  10. An improved dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up method for the gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric determination of multiclass pesticide residues in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Deme, Pragney; Azmeera, Tirupathi; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Jonnalagadda, Padmaja R; Prasad, R B N; Vijaya Sarathi, U V R

    2014-01-01

    An improved sample preparation using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up was proposed for the trace level determination of 35 multiclass pesticide residues (organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroids) in edible oils. Quantification of the analytes was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of residues were in the range of 0.01-1ng/g and 0.05-2ng/g, respectively. The analytes showed recoveries between 62% and 110%, and the matrix effect was observed to be less than 25% for most of the pesticides. Crude edible oil samples showed endosulfan isomers, p,p'-DDD, α-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon residues in the range of 0.56-2.14ng/g. However, no pesticide residues in the detection range of the method were observed in refined oils.

  11. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  12. Magnetic composite prepared from palm shell-based carbon and application for recovery of residual oil from POME.

    PubMed

    Ngarmkam, Worawan; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic separation combined with adsorption by activated carbon has been found to be a useful method for removing pollutants. In this paper, the use of palm shell as a source of activated carbon for the removal and recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) is studied. In the first part of the study, the properties of samples of activated carbon prepared from palm shell under a variety of different conditions were characterized for their hydrophobicity, surface areas and pore size distribution. The most effective of the activated carbon samples was prepared by impregnation with ZnCl(2) followed by combined physical/chemical activation under carbon dioxide flow at 800 °C. Four grams of these samples adsorbed 90% of the oil from 50 mL POME. In the second part, the palm shell-based carbon samples were given magnetic properties by the technique of iron oxide deposition. Ninety-four percent of the activated carbon/iron oxide composite containing the adsorbed oil could be extracted from the POME by a magnetic bar of 0.15 T. Four grams of the composite can remove 85% of oil from 50 mL POME and a total of 67% of the initial oil can then be recovered by hexane extraction. Powder X-ray diffractometry showed the presence of magnetite and maghemite in the activated carbon/iron oxide composite.

  13. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki; Miyazato, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  14. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  15. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Miyazato, Akio; Ebitani, Kohki

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H2O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  16. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region.

  17. Effect of cyclodextrin and transformer oil amendments on the chemical extractability of aged [14C]polychlorinated biphenyl and [14C]polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Doick, Kieron J; Burauel, Peter; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-09-01

    Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soils limits chemical and biological availability. Concerns exist regarding the long-term stability of sequestered contaminants in the environment, and stability needs to be demonstrated if bioavailability considerations are to be adopted into the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land. The aim of the present study was to test the short-term influence of two organic amendments on the chemical extractability of HOC residues that had been present in soils for more than 12 years. The amendments investigated were cyclodextrin and transformer oil (a light, nonaqueous phase liquid [LNAPL]). The contaminants investigated were fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in one soil and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 28 and 52 in a second soil. The addition of cyclodextrin to the soils did not result in a significant increase in chemical extractability of the residues after a 36-d contact time. The addition of transformer oil resulted in an increase in chemical extractability of the PCBs after a 14-d soil-LNAPL contact time and a further increase after a 36-d contact time. The present study demonstrates that the chemical availability of aged HOCs in soil may be influenced by the presence of other chemicals and has implications for the long-term management of contaminated land.

  18. Use of residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain for the removal of pollutants from environmental media: A review of batch biosorption approaches.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Massas, Ioannis; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain have been widely studied as biosorbents for the removal of various pollutants from environmental media due to their significant adsorption properties, low cost, production at local level and renewability. In this review, adsorbents developed from olive-tree cultivation residues and olive-oil extraction by-products and wastes are examined, and their sorption characteristics are described and discussed. Recent information obtained using batch sorption studies is summarized and the adsorption mechanisms involved, regarding various aquatic and soil pollutants (metal ions, dyes, radionuclides, phenolic compounds, pesticides) are presented and discussed. It is evident that several biosorbents show the potential to effectively remove a wide variety of pollutants from aqueous solutions, especially Pb and Cd. However, there is need to (a) develop standardized batch study protocols, and potentially reference materials, for effective cross-evaluation of biosorbents of similar nature and for improved understanding of mechanisms involved and (b) investigate scaling-up and regeneration issues that hold back industry-level application of preselected adsorbents.

  19. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  20. Screening for pesticide residues in oil seeds using solid-phase dispersion extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of an oil-absorbing matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry suitable for screening of 68 pesticide residues (PRs) in peanut, soybean, rape seed, sesame, and sunflower seed. The 68 PRs include 27 kinds of organophosphorus, 23 organic chlorines, 11 synthetic pyrethroids, and 7 carbamates. Heptachlor epoxide was used as the internal standard. Aminopropyl silica was chosen as the dispersion sorbent of the oil-absorbing matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and was applied to capture hydrophobic components from high oil samples. A 35-min orthogonal separation was performed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a nonpolar-polar column set. Identification of 68 PRs in the extract was finished by using the time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the assistance of an automated peak-find and spectral deconvolution software. A screening based on control design was introduced and explained. This screening method considerably reduced the cost for the quantitative and confirmatory analyses. The quality of present screening method was evaluated by the Document No. SANCO/10684/2009. The false positive rate and false negative rate provide a useful tool for the evaluation of screening performance.

  1. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Transporter and Transfer Facilities § 279.47 Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil...

  2. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Transporter and Transfer Facilities § 279.47 Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil...

  3. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Transporter and Transfer Facilities § 279.47 Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil...

  4. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  5. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast.

  6. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here.

  7. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst.

  8. The analysis of gun-cleaning oil as long-distance gunshot residue and its implications for chemical tags on bullets.

    PubMed

    Bendrihem, Stacey A; Pyle, Robyn; Allison, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a BB gun, it was shown that a gun-cleaning oil (GCO) can be wiped from the barrel by a projectile and carried much longer distances than those usually associated with solid gunshot residue (GSR). Analysis of GCO subsequently deposited on a target was performed using pentane extraction and gas chromatography. (Hoppe's GCO was used here as a model.) When a 0.45 caliber handgun was used, analysis reveals that most of the GCO wiped from the barrel does not survive, owing to the elevated temperatures encountered. However, two components of the GCO, a long-chain fatty acid and its ethyl ester, do survive and can be detected in the bullet wipe. This suggests that GCO may be considered as GSR, uniquely detectable at long distances, and that other chemical compounds could either be added to a GCO or directly to bullets, to serve as identifying chemical tags.

  9. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, F.; Bertussi, R. A.; Agostini, G.; Atti dos Santos, A. C.; Rossato, M.; Vanderlinde, R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives. PMID:22593706

  10. Recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production using agro-industrial residues: Development of economical medium and application in oil extraction from copra.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Gaurav Singh; Panwar, Deepesh; Kapoor, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    Expression of pRSETA manb-1601 construct in Hi-Control Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells improved recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production by 2.73-fold (1821±100U/ml). A low-cost, agro-industrial residue supplemented industrial medium for enhanced and economical production of ManB-1601 was developed in two mutual phases. Phase-I revealed the potential of various pre- (induction time: 5h, induction mode: lactose 0.5mM) and post-induction [peptone supplementation: 0.94%(w/v), glycerol 0.123%(v/v)] parameters for enhanced production of ManB-1601 and resulted in 4.61-fold (8406±400U/ml) and 2.53-fold (3.30g/l) higher ManB-1601 and biomass production, respectively. Under phase-II, economization of phase-I medium was carried out by reducing/replacing costly ingredients with solubilized-defatted flax seed meal (S-DFSM), which resulted in 3.25-fold (5926U/ml) higher ManB-1601 production. Industrial potential of ManB-1601 was shown in oil extraction from copra as enzyme treatment led to cracks, peeling, fracturing and smoothening of copra, which facilitated higher (18.75%) oil yield.

  11. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  12. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  13. [Low temperature freezing followed by dispersive solid phase extraction for the determination of 104 pesticide residues in vegetable oils using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wenrui; Xiang, Dapeng

    2015-03-01

    A method using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by clean-up steps of centrifugation, freezing and dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been devel- oped for the determination of trace levels of 104 pesticides in vegetable oils. LLE has been optimized to extract these pesticide residues from oils to obtain the highest recoveries of pesticides and the lowest co-extract fat residue in the final extract. In addition, the centrifugation and freezing steps as well as D-SPE with primary secondary amine (PSA), graphite carbon black (GCB) and C18 were used as the clean-up steps to minimize the co-extract fat. The recoveries obtained ranged from 55% to 121% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0. 47% to 19. 2% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg. This method, combining with accurate and sensitive detection, allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 1 µg/kg for 80% of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the most compounds were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Chinese legislations for oils. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of the selected pesticides in oils.

  14. Total sulfur determination in residues of crude oil distillation using FT-IR/ATR and variable selection methods.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; de Azevedo Mello, Paola; Ferrão, Marco Flores; de Fátima Pereira dos Santos, Maria; Guimarães, Regina Célia Lourenço; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Total sulfur concentration was determined in atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) samples obtained from petroleum distillation process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction set consisted of 40 and 20 samples, respectively. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Different treatments and pre-processing steps were also evaluated for the development of models. The pre-treatment based on multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and the mean centered data were selected for models construction. The use of siPLS as variable selection method provided a model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values significantly better than those obtained by PLS model using all variables. The best model was obtained using siPLS algorithm with spectra divided in 20 intervals and combinations of 3 intervals (911-824, 823-736 and 737-650 cm(-1)). This model produced a RMSECV of 400 mg kg(-1) S and RMSEP of 420 mg kg(-1) S, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.990.

  15. Total sulfur determination in residues of crude oil distillation using FT-IR/ATR and variable selection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Mello, Paola de Azevedo; Ferrão, Marco Flores; dos Santos, Maria de Fátima Pereira; Guimarães, Regina Célia Lourenço; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Total sulfur concentration was determined in atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) samples obtained from petroleum distillation process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction set consisted of 40 and 20 samples, respectively. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Different treatments and pre-processing steps were also evaluated for the development of models. The pre-treatment based on multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and the mean centered data were selected for models construction. The use of siPLS as variable selection method provided a model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values significantly better than those obtained by PLS model using all variables. The best model was obtained using siPLS algorithm with spectra divided in 20 intervals and combinations of 3 intervals (911-824, 823-736 and 737-650 cm-1). This model produced a RMSECV of 400 mg kg-1 S and RMSEP of 420 mg kg-1 S, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.990.

  16. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or burning of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  17. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or burning of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  18. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or burning of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  19. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or burning of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  20. Congener specific determination of toxaphene residues in fish liver oil using gas chromatography coupled to ion trap MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Fernández, M A; González, M J

    2005-10-01

    A new approach to the determination of six toxaphene congeners in edible stuff has been accomplished. The analytical procedure presented in this paper involves a single-step cleanup process prior to the analysis. A solution containing three (13)C labelled polychlorinated biphenyls was used as internal standard and tetrachloronaphtalene was used as injection standard. The analytical technique used was gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detector in MS/MS mode. The parameters affecting the successive fragmentations were discussed and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 49pg microl(-1). The toxaphene congeners were determined in two different fish liver oil pills sold in Spain as a supplementary vitamin support.

  1. A multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of halogenated solvent residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Manso, J; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L; González, A G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a method based on the extraction of analytes by multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and detection by ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detectors after gas chromatographic separation. The limits of detection are in the range of 0.13-0.67 μg kg(-1), five orders of magnitude lower than those reached with the European Commission Official method of analysis, with three orders of magnitude of linear range (from the quantification limits to 400 μg kg(-1) for all the analytes) and recoveries in fortified olive oils in the range of 78-104 %. The main advantages of the analytical method are the absence of sample carryover (due to the disposable nature of the membranes), high enrichment factors in the range of 79-488, high throughput and low cost. The repeatability of the analytical method ranged from 8 to 15 % for all the analytes, showing a good performance.

  2. A novel cation exchange polymer as a reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent for the rapid determination of rhodamine B residue in chili powder and chili oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2014-12-29

    This paper presents a new analytical method for the determination of rhodamine B (RB) residue in chili powder and chili oil based on a novel reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-dSPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Chili powder and chili oil samples were first extracted with acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) and acetonitrile, respectively. Then, RB from the extract was adsorbed to the polymer cation exchange (PCX) sorbent with the characteristics of ion exchange and reversed-phase retention. Subsequently, the analyte in PCX sorbent was eluted with ammonium hydroxide/methanol (1:99, v/v) through a simple unit device equipped with 1 mL syringe and 0.22 μm nylon syringe filter. All of the samples were analyzed by UHPLC–HRMS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, and the LODs and LOQs of the r-dSPE cleanup method were investigated. The method showed a good linearity (R2 > 0.999) in the ranges of 0.01–1 μg/L and 1–100 μg/L for the analyte. The LODs of RB for chili powder and chili oil samples were 0.5 μg/kg. The average recoveries of RB from the samples spiked at four different concentrations (2, 20, 500 and 5000 μg/kg) were in a range from 76.7 to 104.9%. Results showed that the proposed method was simple, fast, economical and effective for the determination of RB in chili powder and chili oil. Considering the excellent sorptive performance of PCX for RB, further work should be done to evaluate the usefulness of the PCX in r-dSPE for the clean-up and analyses of other trace-level alkaline contaminants.

  3. Microwave digestion of "residual fuel oil" (NIST SRM 1634b) for the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, T; Goessler, W; Irgolic, K J

    2000-05-01

    A microwave procedure for the digestion of the NIST 1634b reference material "residual fuel oil" in closed pressurized vessels was developed in an attempt to facilitate routine analysis and obtain reproducible conditions or comparable results. The influence of sample size, reagent composition and volume, microwave power, and duration of heating on the digestion procedure was studied. Pressure and temperature inside the reaction vessels were monitored to determine the progression of the reaction and to develop optimal conditions. A nine-step heating program requiring 36.5 min with microwave power not exceeding 450 W in the pulsed mode was found suitable for the digestion of approximately 250 mg fuel oil with a mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mL) and hydrogen peroxide (2.0 mL). The reproducibility of microwave power was determined in terms of the relative standard deviations (n = 3) for temperature (2.7%) and pressure (4.9%) data. The vapor pressures obtained with 5.0 mL Milli-Q water (heated) in an 80-mL digestion vessel showed good agreement with literature data. The excess acid in the resulting digests was removed by evaporation and the concentrations of 24 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, U, and Zn) were determined in the diluted digests by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The experimental results were in good agreement with the certified and recommended concentrations for eight elements (Al, As, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in solutions obtained after one digestion step. An additional digestion step, consisting of intermediate cooling and venting stages, was required for the accurate determination of Fe. No agreement was reached for Ca and Ba even after two-step digestion. The proposed method of digestion provided precise results with relative standard deviations generally less than 5% for most of the elements determined.

  4. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI.

  5. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  6. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  7. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.59 Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or...

  8. Automated determination of pesticide residues in olive oil by on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface with electron-capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors operating simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Plaza, Eva M; Cortés, Jose M; Vázquez, Ana; Villén, Jesús

    2007-12-07

    A rapid method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in olive oil is presented. Pesticides are analyzed by on-line coupling reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface with subsequent simultaneous electron-capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection by post-column splitter. An autosampler is employed and the olive oil is simply filtered before the chromatographic analysis. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and triazine pesticides are determined in one run. The limits of detection are below the required maximum residue levels and calibration curves are linear in the range tested. Repeatabilities (intra-day and inter-days) are good. The method was satisfactory applied to the routine analysis of numerous olive oil samples.

  9. Inhibition of beta-defensin gene expression in airway epithelial cells by low doses of residual oil fly ash is mediated by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Klein-Patel, Marcia E; Diamond, Gill; Boniotto, Michele; Saad, Sherif; Ryan, Lisa K

    2006-07-01

    Poor ambient air quality is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including respiratory infections. However, its effects on various host-defense mechanisms are poorly understood. This study utilized an in vitro model to study the effect of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on one antimicrobial mechanism of host defense in the airway, beta-defensin-2 and its bovine homologue, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) induction in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1beta. Our model utilized cultured primary bovine tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells and the human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549, treated with 0-20 microg/cm(2) residual oil fly ash (ROFA) for 6 h. The cells were then washed and stimulated for 18 h with 100 ng/ml LPS or for 6 h with 100 ng/ml IL-1beta. ROFA inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TAP mRNA and protein without inducing significant cytotoxicity. As little as 2.5 microg/cm(2) of ROFA inhibited LPS-induced TAP gene expression by 30%. The inhibitory activity was associated with the soluble fraction and not the washed particle. The activity in the leachate was attributed to vanadium, but not nickel or iron. SiO(2) and TiO(2) were utilized as controls and did not inhibit LPS induction of TAP gene expression in BTE. ROFA also inhibited the increase of IL-1beta-induced human beta-defensin-2, a homologue of TAP, in A549 cells. The results show that ROFA, V(2)O(5), and VOSO(4) inhibit the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to inflammatory stimuli at low, physiologically relevant doses and suggest that exposure to these agents could result in an impairment of defense against airborne pathogens.

  10. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.59 Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re-refining of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  11. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.59 Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re-refining of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e)....

  12. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  13. Evaluation of energies of interaction correlated with observed stabilities and rheological properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures of western shale-oil residue as a modifier to petroleum asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Ensley, E.K.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of improving bonding and aging characteristics using a distillation residue from the Green River Formation (western) shale oil as a modifier to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. This study was to examine the differences in moisture damage resistance and adhesion properties, as measured by bonding energy, of shale-oil modified asphalts compared with non-modified asphalts. The shale-oil modified asphalts mechanical properties were not expected to match those of the rubberized asphalt. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested only for comparison of mechanical properties. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation type of experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. Energy of interaction (bonding energy) measurements were performed on asphalt materials with portland cement concrete, two silicate aggregates, and a limestone aggregate to evaluate the compatibility of the asphalt materials with various aggregates. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalt improved the relaxation time, percent recovery, and bonding energy compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  14. Morphological Variation and Recovery Mechanism of Residual Crude Oil by Biosurfactant from Indigenous Bacteria: Macro- and Pore-Scale Experimental Investigations.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Yong; Han, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Wei-Yao

    2015-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is being used more widely, and the biological contributions involved in MEOR need to be identified and quantified for the improvement of field applications. Owing to the excellent interfacial activity and the wide distribution of producing strains in oil reservoirs, lipopeptides have proved to be an essential part of the complex mechanisms in MEOR. In this study, crude lipopeptides were produced by a strain isolated from an indigenous community in an oil reservoir. It was found that crude lipopeptides can effectively reduce the IFT (interfacial tension) to 10(-1)~10(-2) mN/m under high salinity without forming stable emulsions, and the wettability of natural sandstone can be enhanced (Amott index, from 0.36 to 0.48). The results of core flooding experiments indicate that an additional 5.2% of original oil in place can be recovered with a 9.5% reduction of injection pressure. After the shut-in period, the wettability of the core, the reduction of injection pressure, and the oil recovery can be improved to 0.63, 16.2% and 9.6%, respectively. In the microscopic flooding experiments, the crude oil in membrane, cluster, and throat states contribute nearly 90% in total of the additional oil recovery, and the recovery of membranestate oil was significantly enhanced by 93.3% after shut in. Based on the results in macro and pore scale, the IFT reduction and the wettability alteration are considered primary contributors to oil recovery, while the latter was more dominant after one shut-in period.

  15. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  16. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  17. [Determination of 61 organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables, milk, vegetable oils and animal muscles by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ruihong; Su, Jianfeng

    2011-07-01

    A dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 61 organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables, milk, vegetable oils and animal muscles. The fruit, vegetable and milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and separated with salting out method; vegetable oil samples were dissolved by n-hexane, and extracted with acetonitrile; animal muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water assisted by n-hexane and separated with salting out method. And then the supernatants were purified using dispersive solid-phase extraction (C18 and primary secondary amine powder) prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The analytes were indentified in positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (S/N > or = 10) of the method were 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries were 62.8%-107%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.2%-19%. The method has the advantages of easy, fast, and more sensitive, and can meet the requirement of the determination of organophosphorous pesticide residues in the foods.

  18. [Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae) in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae), in populations of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Lima, Waldemir Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Dibo, Margareth Regina

    2009-01-01

    The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP) and São José do Rio Preto (SP) that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect.

  19. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD.

  20. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  1. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas; Olarte, M. V.; Hart, T. R.

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  2. Direct analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil by on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography using an automated through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel; Vázquez, Ana; Riquelme, David; Villén, Jesús

    2003-10-08

    A fully automated on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography system is described. The system uses a prototype of the automated through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface. The system is demonstrated by presenting a new rapid method for the determination of pesticide residue in olive oil, which is injected directly with no sample pretreatment step other than filtration. Methanol:water is used as the eluent in the LC preseparation step, while the LC fraction containing the pesticide is automatically transferred to the gas chromatograph. Detection limits of pesticides varied from 0.18 to 0.44 mg/L when a flame ionization detector was used. As an example, relative standard deviation and linear calibration are presented for terbutryne.

  3. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.

    PubMed

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  4. Separation and preparation of 6-gingerol from molecular distillation residue of Yunnan ginger rhizomes by high-speed counter-current chromatography and the antioxidant activity of ginger oils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhilin; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Xiaosong; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Mo; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-02-01

    Molecular distillation residue (MD-R) from ginger had the most total phenol content of 247.6mg gallic acid equivalents per gram (GAE/g) among the ginger oils. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully performed in separation and purification of 6-gingerol from MD-R by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:5:7, v/v/v/v). The target compound was isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by HPLC. A total of 90.38±0.53mg 6-gingerol was obtained from 600mg MD-R, with purity of 99.6%. In addition, the structural identification of 6-gingerol was performed by EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Moreover, the orders of antioxidant activity were vitamin E (VE)>supercritical fluid extraction oleoresin (SFE-O)=MD-R=6-gingerol>molecular distillation essential oil (MD-EO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)=VE>6-gingerol>MD-R=SFE-O>MD-EO, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and β-Carotene bleaching.

  5. Two schemes for production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01: Applying residues from soybean oil industry and silica sol-gel immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Lotfabad, Tayebe; Ebadipour, Negisa; Roostaazad, Reza; Partovi, Maryam; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2017-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are the most common biosurfactants and P. aeruginosa strains are the most frequently studied microorganisms for the production of rhamnolipids. Eco-friendly advantages and promising applications of rhamnolipids in various industries are the major reasons for pursuing the economic production of these biosurfactants. This study shows that cultivation of P. aeruginosa MR01 in medium contained inexpensive soybean oil refinery wastes which exhibited similar levels and homologues of rhamnolipids. Mass spectrometry indicated that the Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10 constitute the main rhamnolipids in different cultures of MR01 including one of oil carbon source analogues. Moreover, rhamnolipid mixtures extracted from different cultures showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in the range of ≃24 to ≃36mg/l with capability to reduce the surface tension of aqueous solution from 72 to ≃27-32mN/m. However, the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a gentler method in order to entrap the P. aeruginosa MR01 cells in mold silica gels. Immobilized cells can be utilized several times in consecutive fermentation batches as well as in flow fermentation processes. In this way, reusability of the cells may lead to a more economical fermentation process. Approximately 90% of cell viability was retained during the silica sol-gel immobilization and ≃84% of viability of immobilized cells was preserved for 365days of immobilization and storage of the cells in phosphate buffer at 4°C and 25°C. Moreover, mold gels showed good mechanical stability during the seven successive fermentation batches and the entrapped cells were able to efficiently preserve their biosurfactant-producing potential.

  6. Radionuclide concentration variations in the fuel and residues of oil shale-fired power plants: Estimations of the radiological characteristics over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2016-10-19

    Several multi-day samplings were conducted over a 2-year period from an oil shale-fired power plant operating with pulverized fuel type of boilers that were equipped with either novel integrated desulphurization system and bag filters or with electrostatic precipitators. Oil shale, bottom ash and fly ash samples were collected and radionuclides from the (238)U and (232)Th series as well as (40)K were determined. The work aimed at determining possible variations in the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides within the collected samples and detect the sources of these fluctuations. During the continuous multi-day samplings, various boiler parameters were recorded as well. With couple of exceptions, no statistically significant differences were detected (significance level 0.05) between the measured radionuclide mean values in various ash samples within the same sampling. When comparing the results between multiple years and samplings, no statistically significant variations were observed between (238)U and (226)Ra values. However, there were significant differences between the values in the fly ashes when comparing (210)Pb, (40)K, (228)Ra and (232)Th values between the various samplings. In all cases the radionuclide activity concentrations in the specific fly ash remained under 100 Bq kg(-1), posing no radiological concerns when using this material as an additive in construction or building materials. Correlation analysis between the registered boiler parameters and measured radionuclide activity concentrations showed weak or no correlation. The obtained results suggest that the main sources of variations are due to the characteristics of the used fuel. The changes in the radionuclide activity concentrations between multiple years were in general rather modest. The radionuclide activity concentrations varied dominantly between 4% and 15% from the measured mean within the same sampling. The relative standard deviation was however within the same range

  7. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-04-29

    A process for the preparation of gas oil from residual oils by combination of two stages of thermal cracking, cyclone separation, vacuum distillation, deasphalting, atmospheric distillation, and recycling of certain streams.

  8. Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Jarboui, R; Hachicha, S; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2008-03-01

    The co-composting of exhausted olive-cake with poultry manure and sesame shells was investigated. These organic solid wastes were watered by the confectionary wastewater which is characterized by its high content of residual sugars raising its COD. Four aerated windrows were performed to establish the effects of confectionary by-products on the compost process. Different mixtures of the agro-industrial wastes were used. During the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 70 days. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 14-17. The humidification of the windrows with the wastewater seemed to have accelerated the composting process in comparison to a windrow humidified with water. In addition, the organic matter degradation was enhanced to reach 55-70%. The application of the obtained composts to soil appeared to significantly improve the soil fertility. Indeed, field experiments showed an increase in potato yield; the production was 30.5-37.5 tons ha(-1), compared to 30.5 tons ha(-1) with farm manure.

  9. Oil degradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Raymond, R L; Hudson, J O; Jamison, V W

    1976-04-01

    The environmental effects of adding certain selected petroleum products to field soils at widely separated geographical locations under optimum conditions for biodegradation were studied. The locations selected for study of soil biodegradation of six oils (used crankcase oil from cars, used crankcase oil from trucks, an Arabian Heavy crude oil, a Coastal Mix crude oil, a home heating oil no. 2, and a residual fuel oil no. 6) were Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The investigative process, covering a period of 1 year at each location, was conducted in 14 fields plots (1.7 by 3.0 m) to which the oils were added in a single application at a rate of 11.9 m3/4 X 10(3) m2. One-half of the plots at each location were fertilized, and the incorporation of the oils and fertilizers was accomplished with rototillers to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. Concentrations of all oils decreased significantly at all locations. The average reduction ranged from 48.5 to 90.0% depending upon the type of oil and location. Rates of degradation did not exceed 2.4 m3/4 X 10(3) m2 per month. Compositional changes in the oil with time were investigated using silica gel fractionation, gas chromatography, and ultraviolet absorbance. With the possible exception of the two fuel oils, the compositional changes were generally in the same direction for all of the oils. The silica gel fractionation and gravimetric data on residual oils show that all classes of compounds were degraded, but the more polar type degrade more slowly. Analysis of runoff water, leachate, and soils indicated that at the concentration applied no oil less was observed from these plots via water movement. No significant movement of lead compounds added to the soils in the used crankcase oils was observed. Significant increases in hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated in all treated plots using either the pure hydrocarbon, n-hexadecane, or the applied oils as the growth substrate

  10. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  11. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  12. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  13. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... residual structural strength calculation programs. (b) Vessel baseline strength and stability..., the program must facilitate calculation of the following: (1) Residual hull girder strength based...

  14. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... residual structural strength calculation programs. (b) Vessel baseline strength and stability..., the program must facilitate calculation of the following: (1) Residual hull girder strength based...

  15. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... residual structural strength calculation programs. (b) Vessel baseline strength and stability..., the program must facilitate calculation of the following: (1) Residual hull girder strength based...

  16. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... residual structural strength calculation programs. (b) Vessel baseline strength and stability..., the program must facilitate calculation of the following: (1) Residual hull girder strength based...

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  18. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate (CAS Reg. No. 220037-02-5) with a... residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation...

  19. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride... oil, polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. (CAS Reg. No... residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene...

  20. Alveolar macrophages stimulated with titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and residual oil fly ash upregulate the PDGF receptor-alpha on lung fibroblasts through an IL-1beta-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, P M; Coin, P G; Badgett, A; Morgan, D L; Bonner, J C

    1997-03-01

    Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts is a primary characteristic of lung fibrosis. Macrophage-secreted platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for lung fibroblasts. The magnitude of the fibroblast PDGF response is dependent on the number of PDGF receptor alpha (PDGF-R alpha) relative to PDGF-R beta at the cell surface. We recently reported that upregulation of the PDGF-R alpha subtype by interleukin (IL)-1beta results in enhanced lung fibroblast proliferation in response to PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has the opposite effect. Both IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 are produced by particle-activated macrophages in vivo and in vitro. We studied the net effect of macrophage conditioned medium (MOCM), which contains both IL-1beta and TGF-beta1, on the expression of the lung fibroblast PDGF receptor system. MOCM obtained from unstimulated, titanium dioxide (TiO2)-, chrysotile asbestos-, or residual oil fly ash (ROFA)-exposed macrophages in vitro increased [125I]PDGF-AA binding 3-, 6-, 6-, and 20-fold, respectively. These increases correlated with increased PDGF-R alpha mRNA and protein expression as shown by northern and western assays. PDGF-AB and -BB-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation by fibroblasts was enhanced 5-, 5-, 10-, and 20-fold by pretreatment with MOCM from unstimulated, TiO2-, asbestos-, and ROFA-exposed macrophages, respectively. [125I]PDGF-AA binding experiments using the IL-1 receptor antagonist blocked the upregulatory effect of all MOCM samples. Latent TGF-beta1 present in MOCM was activated by acid treatment, inhibiting upregulation by approximately 60%, a result similar to experiments with IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 mixtures. Treatment with a TGF-beta neutralizing antibody restored full upregulatory activity to acidified MOCM. Thus activated macrophages increase lung fibroblast PDGF-R alpha primarily due to the secretion of IL-1beta. Intratracheal instillation of ROFA

  1. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  2. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  3. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  4. Use of vacuum residue in thermal cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Mikulla, K.D.; Wernicke, H.J.

    1981-03-24

    Vacuum residue is used for production of olefins by first separating, preferably by solvent extraction, the asphalt therein , blending resultant asphalt depleted fraction with a lighter fraction, E.G., a vacuum gas oil, and then subjecting the blend to a conventional catalytic hydrogenation step prior to thermal cracking. The hydrogenate may be separated into fractions with the heavy fraction only being thermally cracked.

  5. Chronic effects of natural and synthetic oils on freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Accidental releases of synthetic oils during storage and transportation may be a major environmental concern for a commercial synthetic fuels industy. To help determine the potential long-term environmental consequence of oil releases in aquatic systems, we measured the chronic toxicity of two synthetic and two natural oils in experiments with four representative aquatic species. The oils selected for study were a direct coal liquefaction product (H-Coal heavy fuel oil), a crude shale oil (Paraho shale oil), and two petroleum crudes (Wilmington and Kern River). Test species were the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, the crustacean Daphnia magna, the midge Chironomus tentans, and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. In this project pelagic organisms (S. capricornutum, D. magna, and P. promelas larvae) were tested in experiments with water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of the oils, and benthic organisms (C. tentans larvae and juvenile P. promelas) were tested with weathered oil residues. In general, WSFs of H-Coal heavy fuel oil and Paraho crude shale oil were more toxic to the test organisms than WSFs of the two petroleum crudes. Residues of H-Coal were more toxic than petroleum residues to C. tentans, but residues of Paraho shale oil were less toxic than petroleum residues. None of the residues had toxic effects on juvenile fathead minnows. 45 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the pesticide chemical deltamethrin and alpha-R-deltamethrin in or on the following... 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.03 Corn, sweet, stover 15 Cotton, refined oil...

  7. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the pesticide chemical deltamethrin and alpha-R-deltamethrin in or on the following... 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.03 Corn, sweet, stover 15 Cotton, refined oil...

  8. Process for reducing Ramsbottom Carbon Test of long residues

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1984-07-17

    Process for the preparation of a heavy oil with a low Ramsbottom Carbon Test (RCT) from a long residue by (a) catalytic hydrotreatment for RCT reduction at such severity that the C/sub 4/- gas production per percentage RCT reduction is kept between defined limits, followed by (b) solvent deasphalting of the (vacuum or atmospheric) distillation residue of the hydrotreated product.

  9. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the pesticide chemical deltamethrin and alpha-R-deltamethrin in or on the following... 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.03 Corn, sweet, stover 15 Cotton, refined oil...

  10. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the pesticide chemical deltamethrin and alpha-R-deltamethrin in or on the following... 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.03 Corn, sweet, stover 15 Cotton, refined oil...

  11. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  12. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  13. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  14. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil.

  15. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of crude oils after Dalian oil spill, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; He, Shijie; Zhao, Mingming

    2013-06-15

    In an attempt to analyze the chemical characterization of oil residues and examine the suitability of chemical fingerprinting methods in oil spill investigations, multiple parameters sensitive to both sources and degree of weathering were used to characterize oil residues from "7-16" Dalian oil spill, China. Oil residues collected 90 days to 120 days after the spill showed a weathering pattern where significant amounts of light to middle molecular weight normal alkanes were depleted with pristane and phytane as dominant peaks. Diagnostic ratios developed from n-alkane and selected isoprenoids (e.g. Pr/Ph, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, carbon preference index, LMW/HMW-alkanes ratio), all display obvious changes over weathering time, indicating that these ratios are not valid for oil source identification. Furthermore, the biomarker ratios of hopanes and steranes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.88-4.08% were useful for source identification even for severely weathered oil residues. In addition, RSD of δ(13)C values of individual n-alkanes in oil residue varied from 0.07% to 0.20%, which suggest that stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can also be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill.

  16. Did Millikan observe fractional charges on oil drops?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbank, William M.; Franklin, Allan

    1982-05-01

    We have reanalyzed Millikan's 1913 data on oil drops to examine the evidence for charge quantization and for fractional residual charge. We find strong evidence in favor of charge quantization and no convincing evidence for fractional residual charges on the oil drops.

  17. Case Studies of the ROZ CO2 Flood and the Combined ROZ/MPZ CO2 Flood at the Goldsmith Landreth Unit, Ector County, Texas. Using ''Next Generation'' CO2 EOR Technologies to Optimize the Residual Oil Zone CO2 Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, Robert C.; Melzer, L. Stephen; Kuuskraa, Vello; Koperna, George

    2015-06-30

    The technology for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2 EOR) has significantly advanced since the earliest floods were implemented in the 1970s. At least for the Permian Basin region of the U.S., the oil recovery has been now been extended into residual oil zones (ROZs) where the mobile fluid phase is water and immobile phase is oil. But the nature of the formation and fluids within the ROZs has brought some challenges that were not present when flooding the MPZs. The Goldsmith-Landreth project in the Permian Basin was intended to first identify the most pressing issues of the ROZs floods and, secondly, begin to address them with new techniques designed to optimize a flood that commingled the MPZ and the ROZ. The early phase of the research conducted considerable reservoir and fluid characterization work and identified both technical and commercial challenges of producing the enormous quantities of water when flooding the ROZs. It also noted the differing water compositions in the ROZ as compared to the overlying MPZs. A new CO2 gas lift system using a capillary string was successfully applied during the project which conveyed the CO2 to the deeper and differing ROZ reservoir conditions at Goldsmith and added a second capillary string that facilitated applying scale inhibitors to mitigate the scaling tendencies of the mixing ROZ and MPZ formation waters. The project also undertook a reservoir modeling effort, using the acquired reservoir characterization data, to history match both the primary and water flood phases of the MPZ and to establish the initial conditions for a modeling effort to forecast response of the ROZ to CO2 EOR. With the advantage of many profile logs acquired from the operator, some concentration on the original pattern area for the ROZ pilot was accomplished to attempt to perfect the history match for that area. Several optional scenarios for producing the ROZ were simulated seeking to find the

  18. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  19. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  20. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  1. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  2. All About Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Some oils are used ... such as canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) 1 Tbsp 3 tsp/14 g ...

  3. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  4. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  5. 14C-carbaryl residues in hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Ulkü; Ilim, Murat; Aslan, Nazife

    2006-01-01

    A hazelnut ocak (shrub growing form) in the field in Black Sea region of Turkey was treated with commercial carbaryl insecticide spiked with 14C-carbaryl. Three months later, the harvested hazelnuts were separated into husk, shell, and kernel components, then homogenized and analyzed. The total and unextractable (bound) 14C-residues were determined by combustion and the extractable 14C-residues were obtained by extracting the samples with methanol. Concentrated extracts were first analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracts were also subjected to a series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures for clean-up and the final extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crude hazelnut oil was also extracted with hexane and analyzed for total 14C-residue. A total of 1.3% of applied radioactivity was recovered from the total nut harvested, with 0.04%, 0.06%, and 1.2% present in shell, kernel, and husk, respectively. The results show that the inedible husk and shell contained 95.7% 14C, whereas the edible kernel contained 4.3% of the total 14C recovered. The terminal 14C-residue in hazelnut kernel and oil did not contain carbaryl and/or its metabolite naphthol.

  6. Sequential growth of bacteria on crude oil.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, A; Gutnick, D; Rosenberg, E

    1975-07-01

    By modification of the enrichment culture procedure three bacterial strains capable of degrading crude oil in sea water were isolated in pure culture, UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4. Strain UP-2 appears to be highly specialized for growth on crude oil in sea water since it showed strong preference for oil or oil degradation products as substrates for growth, converted 66% of the oil into a form no longer extractable by organic solvents, quantitatively degraded the paraffinic fraction (gas chromatographic analysis), emulsified the oil during exponential growth, and produced 1.6 x 10-8 cells per mg of oil. After exhaustive growth of UP-2 on crude oil the residual oil supported the growth of UP-3 and UP-4, but not a previously isolated oil-degrading bacterium, RAG-1. Strains UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4 grew on RAG-1-degraded oil (specifically depleted of n-alkanes). The growth of UP-3 and UP-4 on UP-2 and RAG-1-degraded oil resulted in the production of new paraffinic compounds as revealed by gas chromatography. When the four strains were grown either together in a mixed culture or sequentially, there was over 75% oil conversion. By plating on selective media, growth of the individual strains was measured kinetically in the reconstituted mixed culture, revealing competition for common growth substances (UP-2 and RAG-1), emhanced die-off (UP-2), and stabilization (UP-4) during the stationary phase.

  7. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  8. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil comes from the nut (fruit) of the coconut palm. The oil of the nut is used to ... Gras de Noix de Coco, Coconut Fatty Acid, Coconut Palm, Coco Palm, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed ...

  9. SYNTHETIC OIL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a dicarboxylate-base synthetic oil with antiwear and antioxidation additives. The oil is prepared from the esterification of 2- or 3-methylcyclohexanol and 2-ethylhexanol with adipic acid. (Author)

  10. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  11. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  12. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  13. Polymeric nanospheres as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Zhang, Julien

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of using nanoscale polyacrylamide-based spheres (nanospheres) as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Coreflood experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of nanospheres and its concentration dispersed in model formation water on oil recovery during a tertiary oil recovery process. The coreflood results showed that nanospheres can enhance residual oil recovery in the sandstone rock samples and its concentration showed a significant impact into incremental oil. By evaluating the contact angle, it was observed that wettability alteration also might be involved in the possible oil displacement mechanism in this process together with fluid behavior and permeability to water that might divert injected fluid into unswept oil areas and enhance the residual oil recovery. These investigations promote nanospheres aqueous disperse solution as a potential displacement fluid in EOR.

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-22

    Despite the rise in petroleum products prices, a colder-than-normal winter in the latter part of 1989 spurred an increase in demand for distillate fuel oils. The shipping and electric utilities industries contributed to a significant rise in demand for both distillate and residual fuels oils in 1989. A total of 72.9 billion gallons of fuel oil and kerosene were sold to consumers in 1989, an increase of 3.0 percent over 1988 sales volumes. Of all fuel oil sold during 1989, distillate fuel oil accounted for 68.3 percent, which was an increase over 1988 when distillate fuel oil accounted for 67.2 percent of all fuel oil products sold in the United States. Residual fuel oil's share of total fuel oil sold fell slightly to 29.9 percent from 30.7 percent in 1988. Kerosene followed with a 1.8 percent share, also falling from the previous year when it accounted for a 2.1 percent share of total fuel oil sold. 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  16. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  17. 33 CFR 155.245 - Damage stability information for inland oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR..., and residual hull strength assessments are maintained at a shore-based location. (b) Access to...

  18. 33 CFR 155.245 - Damage stability information for inland oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR..., and residual hull strength assessments are maintained at a shore-based location. (b) Access to...

  19. 33 CFR 155.245 - Damage stability information for inland oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR..., and residual hull strength assessments are maintained at a shore-based location. (b) Access to...

  20. 33 CFR 155.245 - Damage stability information for inland oil barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR..., and residual hull strength assessments are maintained at a shore-based location. (b) Access to...

  1. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    PubMed

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  2. Oil Biodegradation and Oil-Degrading Microbial Populations in Marsh Sediments Impacted by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Well Blowout.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Stoeckel, Donald M; Faith, Seth A; Minard-Smith, Angela; Thorn, Jonathan R; Benotti, Mark J

    2015-07-21

    To study hydrocarbon biodegradation in marsh sediments impacted by Macondo oil from the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, we collected sediment cores 18-36 months after the accident at the marshes in Bay Jimmy (Upper Barataria Bay), Louisiana, United States. The highest concentrations of oil were found in the top 2 cm of sediment nearest the waterline at the shorelines known to have been heavily oiled. Although petroleum hydrocarbons were detectable, Macondo oil could not be identified below 8 cm in 19 of the 20 surveyed sites. At the one site where oil was detected below 8 cm, concentrations were low. Residual Macondo oil was already highly weathered at the start of the study, and the concentrations of individual saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons continued to decrease over the course of the study due to biodegradation. Desulfococcus oleovorans, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, and related mycobacteria were the most abundant oil-degrading microorganisms detected in the top 2 cm at the oiled sites. Relative populations of these taxa declined as oil concentrations declined. The diversity of the microbial community was low at heavily oiled sites compared to that of the unoiled reference sites. As oil concentrations decreased over time, microbial diversity increased and approached the diversity levels of the reference sites. These trends show that the oil continues to be biodegraded, and microbial diversity continues to increase, indicating ongoing overall ecological recovery.

  3. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  4. Oil shales and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, E T; Miller, G A

    1980-05-16

    During retorting of oil shales in the western United States, carbonate minerals are calcined, releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide. Residual organic matter in the shales may also be burned, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on the retort process and the grade and mineralogy of the shale. Preliminary calculations suggest that retorting of oil shales from the Green River Formation and burning of the product oil could release one and one-half to five times more carbon dioxide than burning of conventional oil to obtain the same amount of usable energy. The largest carbon dioxide releases are associated with retorting processes that operate at temperatures greater than about 600 degrees C.

  5. Nondestructive Testing Residual Stress Using Ultrasonic Critical Refracted Longitudinal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunguang; Song, Wentao; Pan, Qinxue; Li, Huanxin; Liu, Shuai

    Residual stress has significant impacts on the performance of the mechanical components, especially on its strength, fatigue life and corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, the testing principle of ultrasonic LCR wave method is analyzed. The testing system of residual stress is build. The method of calibration of stress coefficient is proposed in order to improve the detection precision. At last, through experiments and applications on residual stress testing of oil pipeline weld joint, vehicle's torsion shaft, glass and ceramics, gear tooth root, and so on, the result show that it deserved to be studied deeply on application and popularization of ultrasonic LCR wave method.

  6. Pyrolysis of Woody Residues: Impact of Mineral Content

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina; Zacher, Alan; Sykes, Robert; Preto, Fernando; Bronson, Benjamin

    2014-11-21

    Woody residues represent a lower cost option for feedstocks for the production of biofuels. In this study, the pyrolysis of woody residues was investigated as part of Clean Energy Dialogue between the U.S. and Canada. Three pine-based hog fuels from saw mills and wood from pine beetle killed trees were chosen as the woody residue feedstocks and pine and birch as the reference clean feedstocks. The yields and quality of the oil were evaluated in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor and a laboratory-scale pyrolyzer connected to a molecular beam mass spectrometer.

  7. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.M.

    1992-02-26

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3 in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4 polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5 steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

  8. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  9. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers.

  10. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively.

  11. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  12. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA binding following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues generated during repeated fish fried oil in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Yadav, Sanjay; Parmar, Devendra; Das, Mukul . E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

    2006-06-01

    In the present study the effect of repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) and its extract (RFFE) on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation was undertaken. HPLC analysis of RFFO showed the presence of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. CYP in microsomes from control and RFFO-treated animals showed a peak at 450 nm; however, a shift of 2 nm in the SORET region along with significant induction was observed in microsomes prepared from 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)- and RFFE-treated animals. Activities of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and erythromycin-N-demethylase were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) induced following exposure of RFFE, whereas none of these enzymes were altered in RFFO-treated group. Immunoblot analysis revealed that RFFE and MC were potent inducers of CYP1A1, 1A1/2 and 3A1 isozymes, where as RFFO showed no change in these protein levels. RT-PCR analysis showed induction of cDNA of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 by RFFE treatment. Hepatic microsomes prepared from RFFE exposed animals enhanced BP metabolism with a concomitant increase in the relative proportion of BP 7,8-diol. Hepatic microsomes prepared from animals pretreated with RFFE and MC significantly enhanced the binding of [{sup 3}H]-BP to calf thymus DNA. The overall results suggest that exposure to RFFE may induce hepatic CYP isozymes thereby producing enhanced reactive metabolites with a potential to bind with DNA that may result in cancer.

  13. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  14. Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

    2005-01-01

    A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail.

  15. Mathematical modeling of oil mist formation, deposition, and drainage during oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model of oil mist formation and deposition, and liquid oil drainage during retorting has been formulated. The model was incorporated into the one-dimensional model of oil shale retorting developed by Braun. In this report a description of the development of the model is given. Results of a simulation of a batch retort are presented and compared with results from Braun's original model. The model predicts the expected physical behavior of liquid oil in a retort: accumulation in the cooler sections of the retort by deposition of mist, downward flow by gravity after a residual saturation is reached, and evaporation of residual oil as the retort front moves through the retort. The model is applicable both to modified in situ retorts and to surface batch retorts. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

  17. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  18. Elastic Waves Push Residual Organic Fluids From Saturated Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Vigil, R. D.; Li, W.

    2004-12-01

    With world oil reserves dwindling and production shifting to increasingly forbidding environments, the emphasis is greater than ever on the more efficient extraction of the existing oil. Yet typically up to two-thirds of the U. S. domestic oil is abandoned underground. Elastic waves have been observed to increase productivity of oil wells, although the reason for the vibratory motion mobilizing the residual organic fluids has remained unclear. Residual oil is entrapped as blobs or ganglia in narrow pore constrictions due to the resisting capillary forces that prevent free motion of non-wetting fluids driven by water. A finite external pressure gradient, exceeding an "unplugging" threshold, is needed to carry the residual ganglia through. We show that vibrations help overcome the resistance of capillary forces by adding an oscillatory inertial forcing to the external gradient; when the vibratory forcing acts along the gradient and the threshold is exceeded, instant "unplugging" occurs. This mechanism predicts the mobilization effect to be proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the frequency of vibrations. We observe this dependence in a laboratory experiment, in which residual saturation of an organic fluid is created in a glass micromodel, and mobilization of the dyed ganglia is monitored using digital photography. We also directly demonstrate the release of an entrapped ganglion from a pore constriction by the application of vibrations in a computational fluid-dynamics simulation. The technologies that can utilize this phenomenon are not limited to enhanced oil recovery, but also apply to the remediation of groundwater contaminated by leaks from underground storage tanks and surface spills of organic fluids.

  19. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  20. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, C. J.

    1985-07-02

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  1. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L.

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  2. Classification of Explosive Residues on Organic Substrates Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    samples include Arizona road dust, sand, diesel fuel, lubricant oil, fingerprint oil, and blank (no residue) car panels. Arizona road dust and sand...then wiped down with a cloth, leaving behind a minimal amount of coverage. No es- timation of the coverage was determined for fuel or oil. Fingerprint ...generates pre- dictor variables ( latent variables, LV) used to classify samples [22]. The goal of PLS-DA is to find the max- imum separation between each

  3. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb, and honeycomb with honey when used at 2g or less eucalyptus oil per hive, where the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb, and honeycomb with honey when used at 2g or less eucalyptus oil per hive, where the...

  5. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  6. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  7. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields.

  8. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  9. Low Viscosity Lubricating Oils with Superior Cold Properties,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention concerns low viscosity lubricating oils based on polyakylbenzenes. The patent claims the use of low boiling portions of the...distillation residues occurring in the alkylation of benzene with chloroparaffins or olefins of the C10 to C14 chain length, as low viscosity and low congealing lubricating oils or as congealing point lowering mix components.

  10. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  11. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  12. OIL BOND®

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  13. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  14. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss ... to decrease symptoms of malaria. High blood pressure. Cyanide poisoning. Weight loss agent. Cancer. Anti-aging. Brain ...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of...

  16. The successive displacement process: Oil recovery during blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, D.D.; Batychy, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Much of Western Canada`s conventional crude oil occurs in vertically-continuous reefal carbonate structures. A common strategy has been to support oil production through downward vertical gas displacement. The gravity stable displacement yields excellent conformance and high oil recoveries with typical residual levels of 20% pore volume. Once the oil zone has been depleted leaving only a sandwich loss, the pools enter a blowdown phase to produce the gas cap from the top of structure. During the blowdown phase, if there is an underlying aquifer, the oil sandwich is displaced upwards into the previously gas-displaced oil zone, trapping gas. Due to the presence of the trapped gas saturation and the low connate water saturation (typical of carbonate reefs), the remaining oil saturation in this zone, as it is displaced by the underlying water is reduced to near miscible levels (10 - 15% PV), mobilizing incremental oil equal to 5 - 10% PV. Whether or not there an aquifer is present, bottom water injection can be applied to ensure displacement through the entire gas-displacement oil zone. The Successive Displacement (SDP), as this tertiary waterflood concept has been named, has been confirmed with full-diameter reservoir-condition core tests on carbonate cores in the laboratory. Observation from the initial stages of a full-field SDP application in Imperial Oil`s Bonnie Glen reservoir after about four years of operation provide further encouragement with performance indicating a reduction in the residual of 5-6% PV.

  17. The ASCE Residuals Transport Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, O.E.; Bizier, P.A.; Brown, J.; Koch, C.; Sadick, T.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation will highlight the ASCE Residuals Transport Manual, which has been published by ASCE this year. This document, which represents the state of the art in information on residuals transport, is designed to be used by both the active practitioner, as well as for instructional purposes. The authors will present the various chapters which cover the following topics: Conveyance of Water and Wastewater Residuals, Rheology, Sludge Characteristics, Quality and Quantity, Overview of Residuals Conveyance Devices, Pumping of Viscous Sludges and Slurries, Transport of Thickened Residuals, Conveyance of Dewatered Residuals, Transport of Granular and Compactable Residuals, and Case Studies. The Objective of the Transport Monograph is to summarize in one concise volume the general state of knowledge regarding residuals transport from both water and wastewater residuals. The presentation will cover each chapter and will review the pertinent information contained in the manual.

  18. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2002-07-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.

  19. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  20. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  1. Conventional and fast pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues (ASR).

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Marcello; Nicolella, Cristiano; Ferrara, Sebastiano; Iacobucci, Cesare; Rovatti, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing performance and product yields in conventional pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis of automotive shredded residues. In both processes, carbon conversion to gaseous and liquid products was more than 80%. Gas production was maximised in conventional pyrolysis (about 35% by weight of the initial ASR weight), while fast pyrolysis led to an oil yield higher than 55%. Higher heating values (HHV) of both conventional pyrolysis gas and fast pyrolysis oil increased from 8.8 to 25.07 MJ/Nm3 and from 28.8 and 36.27 MJ/kg with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent. (3) The.... An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less. (3) The ingredient is used...

  6. Toxicity of crude oil to the mayfly, Hexagenia bilineata (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ort, Mark P.; Finger, Susan E.; Jones, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of crude oil on survival and behavior of the mayfly Hexagenia bilineata were evaluated in laboratory studies. Mayfly nymphs were exposed to the water soluble and oil residue fractions of crude oil. Mayfly survival was not reduced by a 96-h exposure to either the water soluble fraction or the oil residue mixed with sediment. However, significant mortality did result from a 21-day exposure to oil residue mixed with sediment at concentrations as low as 500 μg g−1. Survival was also reduced after a 21-day exposure to oil-contaminated sediments (1905 μg g−1) collected 6 weeks after a crude oil spill in the Chariton River, Missouri. In a behavioral test measuring habitat exclusion, organisms did not avoid contact with sediment containing oil residue (50–800 μg g−1). Collectively, results from these studies indicate that exposure to oil residue in sediment will reduce survival of H. bilineata in the laboratory and may reduce survival in the environment for 6 weeks or more after an oil spill,

  7. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  8. Identification of remaining oil resource potential in the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone play, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.; Tyler, N.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion stock tank barrels (BSTB) of oil, yet still contains about 1.2 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil and an even greater amount of residual oil resources (1.5 BSTB). More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced. Interwell-scale geological facies models of Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Reservoir attribute data were statistically analyzed from oil and gas fields throughout the geographic area covered by the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone oil play. General reservoir attributes analyzed in detail included porosity, initial water saturation, residual oil saturation, net pay, reservoir area, and fluid characteristics. Statistical analysis of variance demonstrated no difference between oil reservoir attributes and gas reservoir attributes. Probability functions that describe attribute frequency distributions were determined for use in risk adjusting resource calculations. The oil play was found to contain significant volumes of remaining oil. The volumetric probability distribution between 5- and 95-percent probability for original oil in place ranges from 3.8 to 5.6 BSTB, original mobile oil in place ranges from 2.5 to 3.6 BSTB, and residual oil ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 BSTB. The untapped oil resource may be 10 percent of the original oil in place, or 380 million stock tank barrels.

  9. Myristica oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  10. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  12. Science: Oil Slick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment about oil spills and oil pollution for 7th- and 8th-grade science students. This variation on a method used by pollution control experts to clean up oil spills shows students how oil is collected after an oil spill, explaining that with this method, much of the damage from an oil spill can be averted. (SM)

  13. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  14. Co-processing of residual oil and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1983-04-05

    Visbreaking a mixture of petroleum residuum, coal and catalytic cracking catalyst under conditions severe enough to effect conversion but not so severe as to produce substantial quantities of coke produces a range of products including gaseous olefins and gasoline distillate. The solids recovered from the visbreaking operation can be processed to produce a synthesis gas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

  15. Oil-foam interactions in a micromodel

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, N.S.; Castanier, L.M.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents results of a pore-level visualization study of foam stability in the presence of oil. Many laboratory investigations have been carried out in the absence of oil, but comparatively few have been carried out in the presence of oil. For a field application, where the residual oil saturation may vary from as low as 0 to as high as 40% depending on the recovery method applied, any effect of the oil on foam stability becomes a crucial matter. Sandstone patterns were used in this study. The micromodels used are two-dimensional replicas of the flow path of Berea sandstone etched on to a silicon wafer to a prescribed depth, adapting fabrication techniques from the computer chip industry. After flooding the models up to connate water and residual oil saturations, surfactant flood followed by gas injection to generate foam was done. Visual observations were made using a high resolution microscope and pictures were recorded on videotape before being processed as they appear in this report.

  16. Process for reducing Ramsbottom Carbon Test of short residues

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.; Stork, H.J.

    1984-07-24

    In the preparation of a heavy oil with a low Ramsbottom Carbon Test (RCT) from a long residue by a two-stage process comprising catalytic hydrotreatment followed by solvent deasphalting and recycle of the asphalt to the first stage the catalytic hydrotreatment for RCT reduction in the first stage is carried out at such a severity that the C/sub 4/ - gas production per percent RCT reduction is kept between defined limits.

  17. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  19. Effects of crude oil, dispersant, and oil-dispersant mixtures on human fecal microbiota in an in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-10-23

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. IMPORTANCE There have been concerns whether human health is adversely affected by exposure to spilled crude oil, which contains regulated carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we determined the effect of BP Deepwater Horizon crude oil and oil dispersant on the

  20. Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics.

    PubMed

    Beshara, Abdelhamid; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) is a waste generated by the edible oil industry that currently has limited options for beneficial reuse. In excess of ∼2 million tonnes per year of SBE is generated world-wide with major quantities available in the middle-east where significant volumes of edible oils are produced. Low pressure compaction followed by heat treatment at 150°C causes polymerisation of the residual organic components in SBE and this produces monolithic samples with high unconfined compressive strengths (54MPa). SBE can therefore be used to manufacture novel clay blocks for use in construction that are bonded by polymerised vegetable oil. This represents a new, innovative and resource efficient application for SBE. In this research, commercial SBE has been characterised and the effects of key processing variables (temperature and compaction pressure) on the compressive strength, porosity and density of the SBE clay blocks are reported and the mechanisms responsible for strength development are discussed.

  1. Effects of Crude Oil, Dispersant, and Oil-Dispersant Mixtures on Human Fecal Microbiota in an In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. PMID:23093387

  2. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

  3. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  4. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  5. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  6. residue and shunting pinholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  7. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  8. Oil damage

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, R.C.

    1995-03-31

    This book presents the results of a series of studies designed to determine the extent and magnitude of the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on marine mammals, particularly sea otters. A third of the book focuses on studies that quantify population-level impacts, with much of the remainder focusing on behavioral, pathologic, or toxicologic studies designed to understand how petroleum hydrocarbons negatively affect free ranging marine animals.

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  10. CO2CRC's Otway Residual Saturation and Dissolution Test: Using Reactive Ester Tracers to Determine Residual CO2 Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M.; Stalker, L.; LaForce, T.; Pejcic, B.; Dyt, C.; Ho, K.; Ennis-King, J.

    2013-12-01

    oil saturation and the second is based on TOUGH2. The estimates of residual saturation given by these models were similar giving a very low residual CO2 saturation value. We suspect that this low value might be due to CO2 being inadvertently dissolved in the near wellbore region prior to this test. This possible dissolution of CO2 may be attributed to the complexity of the multi-test sequence (including other tracer tests prior to this particular test) used in the overall program at of the Residual Gas Saturation and Dissolution Test. References Myers, M., Stalker, L., Ross, A., Dyt, C., Ho, K.-B., 2012. Method for the determination of residual carbon dioxide saturation using reactive ester tracers. Applied Geochemistry 27, 2148-2156.

  11. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  12. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  13. Asphaltenes and improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Often, asphaltene is related solely to the downstream petroleum refining aspect, the logic being that these large, refractoric molecules in heavy ends or bottoms of barrels are difficult to convert into light petroleum hydrocarbons. The refinery bottoms or residues are largely asphaltics (asphaltene, resin, and preasphaltene). This persuades many investigators to correlate and interrelate asphaltene with catalyst compositions, conversion conditions, etc., in refining operations. Few papers appearing in the literature deal with asphaltene and upstream petroleum production and recovery. To this goal, the present paper summarizes the role which petroleum asphaltene plays in production and recovery, especially to improved oil recovery (IOR).

  14. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  16. The effect of cooking on veterinary drug residues in food: nicarbazin (dinitrocarbanilide component).

    PubMed

    Tarbin, J A; Bygrave, J; Bigwood, T; Hardy, D; Rose, M; Sharman, M

    2005-11-01

    The change of concentration of residues of the marker compound for the anti-coccidial drug nicarbazin, N,N'-bis(4-nitrophenyl)urea (dinitrocarbanilide, DNC), was investigated in model oil and aqueous solutions and in chicken muscle and egg. In model aqueous solutions, DNC decreased rapidly in concentration upon heating followed by a much more gradual decomposition. The curves produced when this information was plotted were not typical of exponential decay. In model cooking oil solutions, DNC generally showed a slower decrease in concentration over time when compared with aqueous solutions. DNC residues in egg were stable to microwave cooking and residues in chicken muscle were stable to stewing and microwaving. Other cooking procedures led to a decrease in amount of DNC by 22% to 48% of the total amount of analyte present. Only a small amount (<2%) of residue leached with juices which exuded as the food was cooked.

  17. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.

    PubMed

    Montes-Belmont, R; Carvajal, M

    1998-05-01

    The effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against Aspergillus flavus were studied. Tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. Principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (origanum), Teloxys ambrosioides (the flavoring herb epazote), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels. Thymol and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde significantly reduced maize grain contamination. The optimal dosage for protection of maize varied from 3 to 8%. Combinations of C. zeylanicum with the remaining oils gave efficient control. A residual effect of C. zeylanicum was detected after 4 weeks of kernel treatment. No phytotoxic effect on germination and corn growth was detected with any of these oils.

  18. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  19. Catalytic hydroprocessing of heavy oil feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunev, A. G.; Parkhomchuk, E. V.; Lysikov, A. I.; Parunin, P. D.; Semeikina, V. S.; Parmon, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    A grave problem of modern oil refining industry is continuous deterioration of the produced oil quality, on the one hand, and increase in the demand for motor fuels, on the other hand. This necessitates processing of heavy oil feedstock with high contents of sulfur, nitrogen and metals and the atmospheric residue. This feedstock is converted to light oil products via hydrogenation processes catalyzed by transition metal compounds, first of all, cobalt- or nickel-promoted molybdenum and tungsten compounds. The processing involves desulfurization, denitrogenation and demetallization reactions as well as reactions converting heavy hydrocarbons to lighter fuel components. The review discusses the mechanisms of reactions involved in the heavy feedstock hydroprocessing, the presumed structure and state of the catalytically active components and methods for the formation of supports with the desired texture. Practically used and prospective approaches to catalytic upgrading of heavy oil feedstock as well as examples of industrial processing of bitumen and vacuum residues in the presence of catalysts are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 140 references.

  20. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  1. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  2. Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by hydrocarbon mixtures: the residual concentration problem.

    PubMed

    Nocentini, M; Pinelli, D; Fava, F

    2000-10-01

    The phenomenon of residual concentration was investigated in the aerobic biodegradation of three different petroleum commercial products (i.e., kerosene, diesel fuel and a lubricating mineral oil) in static microcosms. Two different soils exhibiting different physical-chemical characteristics were used (i.e., a biologically treated hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and a pristine soil). Residual concentrations were observed and a simple way to take this phenomenon into account was proposed.

  3. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic

  4. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  5. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  6. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches.

  7. Biodegradability of lingering crude oil 19 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Albert D; Campo, Pablo; Suidan, Makram T

    2010-10-01

    In 2001 and 2003, geospatial surveys of lingering oil were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) resulting in a prediction of significant acreage being contaminated with substantial subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). In 2007, other researchers developed a mass weathering index (MWI) based on the degree of weathering of PAHs normalized to conserved biomarkers: if the degree of weathering of oil is 70% or more, further attempts at bioremediation would be unjustified. The objective of our study was to measure the biodegradability of the 19-year lingering oil in laboratory microcosms. Samples of beach substrate were collected from representative sites in PWS contaminated with oil residues of varying weathering states according to the MWI model. Enough sacrificial microcosms were set up to accommodate two treatments for each site (natural attenuation and biostimulation). Results indicated that lingering oil is biodegradable. Nutrient addition stimulated biodegradation compared to natural attenuation in all treatments regardless of the degree of weathering. The most weathered oil according to the MWI was the most biodegradable. Substantial biodegradation occurred in the natural attenuation microcosms due to the high sediment Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), which served as a nitrogen source for biodegradation. Most of the observed biodegradation was due to the presence of dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen was a limiting factor but oxygen was the predominant one.

  8. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  9. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.

  10. Residue-based scattering factors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    A glob is defined as a group of atoms in the crystal which can be chosen in various ways. Globs themselves can be used as scattering elements in the theory of structure determination, just as atoms are used at present. In this paper, amino-acid residues are chosen to form globs and empirical formulas for residue-based scattering factors have been developed.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1160 - Jojoba oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide and spray tank adjuvant jojoba oil is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1160 - Jojoba oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide and spray tank adjuvant jojoba oil is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  14. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil

  15. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  16. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  17. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    PubMed

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  18. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS. [NONE

    SciTech Connect

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency..

  19. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency

  20. Analysis of oil used in late Roman oil lamps with different mass spectrometric techniques revealed the presence of predominantly olive oil together with traces of animal fat.

    PubMed

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2001-12-07

    The lipid fraction of residues in ancient oil lamps found at the archaeological site of Sagalassos (south-west Turkey) was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). The identification of plant sterols and long chain alcohols suggested that a vegetable oil was used in these lamps. The lipid sample was also analysed with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The identification of TAG's detected with LC-APCI-MS showed that predominantly olive oil was used as a fuel for the antique oil lamps. The presence of large quantities of multiply unsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) and traces of saturated TAG indicated that also other oils and animal fat were added. Summarizing, the analysis of TAG's with LC-APCI-MS in lipid extracts of ancient ceramics proved to be a valuable method to reconstitute the original contents.

  1. Biodegradability of dispersed crude oil at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Venosa, A D; Holder, E L

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20 degrees C and the other at 5 degrees C. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated. Each experiment required treatment flasks containing 3.5% artificial seawater and crude oil previously dispersed by either Corexit 9500 or JD2000 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:25. Two different concentrations of dispersed oil were prepared, the dispersed oil then transferred to shake flasks, which were inoculated with a bacterial culture and shaken on a rotary shaker at 200 rpm for several weeks. Periodically, triplicate flasks were removed and sacrificed to determine the residual oil concentration remaining at that time. Oil compositional analysis was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the biodegradability. Dispersed oil biodegraded rapidly at 20 degrees C and less rapidly at 5 degrees C, in line with the hypothesis that the ultimate fate of dispersed oil in the sea is rapid loss by biodegradation.

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: MAGNETIC TAPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  3. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  4. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Neff, Jerry M; Johnson, Charles B

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince William Sound, Alaska more than 17 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Forty-three shoreline segments, whose oiling history has been documented by prior surveys, were surveyed. These included all shoreline segments reported by a 2003 NOAA random site survey to contain SSO residues in NKI. Sites were surveyed for the presence and location of otter foraging pits. Only one of 29 SSO sites surveyed was identified as an otter foraging site. Most buried SSO residues are confined to tide elevations above +0.8 m above mean lower low water (MLLW), above the range of intertidal clam habitat. More than 99% of documented intertidal otter pits at all sites surveyed are in the lower intertidal zone (-0.2 to +0.8 m above MLLW), the zone of highest clam abundance. The spatial separation of the otter pits from the locations of SSO residues, both with regard to tidal elevation and lateral separation on the study sites, coupled with the lack of evidence of intertidal otter foraging at SSO sites indicates a low likelihood of exposure of foraging otters to SSO on the shores of the NKI area.

  5. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  6. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  7. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  8. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  9. Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G.

    1998-11-01

    Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

  10. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  11. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  12. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  13. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  14. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  15. Cessation of oil exposure in harlequin ducks after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Cytochrome P4501A biomarker evidence.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Dickson, Rian D; Henderson, John D

    2016-10-20

    The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22-25 yr following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). Average EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. The present study replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 demonstrating that harlequin ducks using areas oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post spill. In the present study, it was found that average EROD activity during March 2011 was significantly higher in wintering harlequin ducks captured in oiled areas relative to unoiled areas, which the authors interpret to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 22 yr after the original spill. However, the 2011 results also indicated reductions in exposure relative to previous years. Average EROD activity in birds from oiled areas was approximately 2 times that in birds from unoiled areas in 2011, compared with observations from 2005 to 2009, in which EROD activity was 3 to 5 times higher in oiled areas. It was also found that average EROD activity during March 2013 and March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks from oiled areas. The authors interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 yr after the original spill. The present study finalizes a timeline of exposure, extending over 2 decades, for a bird species thought to be particularly vulnerable to oil contamination in marine environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-7. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  16. Elastic waves and plasma - a new era of enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. F.; Ageev, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    New technology of enhanced oil recovery - plasma pulse treatment is described. The basic problems of residual oil recovery observed, taking in consideration elastic properties of a reservoir and dominant frequencies of a stratum. Numerical estimates of major parameters of an impact to the reservoir while plasma pulse treatment obtained. Positive results of PPT application introduced.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF OIL COMBUSTION EMISSION EXPOSURE IN NORMAL AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been suggested that the increased morbidity and mortality associated with exposure to airborne particulates (PM) is related to materials derived from combustion sources such as gasoline, diesel, oil, wood and coal. In these studies heavy oil # 5 was burned in a residual oi...

  18. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  19. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  20. Characterization of Petroleum Residue in the Entrada Sandstone, Colorado National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; King, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) petroleum resource assessment of the Uinta-Piceance Province, Colorado and Utah, in 2000 (USGS Uinta-Piceance Assessment Team, 2003), some 170 oils, oil stains, and oil seeps were geochemically characterized and divided into genetic types (Lillis and others, 2003). Recognized oil types include Minturn, Phosphoria, Grassy Trail Creek, Mancos, Mesaverde, and Green River. Subsequent to that study, the existence and general locality of petroleum residue in the Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone in Colorado National Monument (CNM) was brought to the attention of the authors (Scott and others, 2001). Because the analysis of such non-commercial petroleum deposits commonly yields valuable regional resource-trend information, we collected and characterized the reported CNM petroleum residue and compared the results with identified oil types in the Uinta-Piceance Province. Three samples of Entrada Sandstone with petroleum residue were collected near Little Park Road along the south edge of the CNM in sec.20, T.12S., R.101W. The approximate extent of the petroleum staining was determined by field testing with solvent, and the stains appear to be restricted to the upper part of the 'board beds' unit (informal name, Scott and others, 2001) of the Entrada Sandstone between the two fault traces of the Glade Park fault.

  1. Efficient carbon rejection upgrades Mexico's Maya crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanek, A.J.; Moore, A.S.

    1986-08-01

    Poor-quality crude oils and resids can be effectively upgraded by a chemically efficient carbon-rejection process followed by hydrotreating. The effectiveness is demonstrated by utilizing the asphalt residual treating (ART) process to upgrade whole Maya crude oil from Mexico, in a 100,000-b/d refinery. Maya was chosen because it represents most of the world's poor-quality crude oils and resids, and because the results of processing Maya will be similar for other poor-quality feed stocks. Here is a review of the upgrade process, along with investment and operating economics of the Maya upgrade.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on honey and honeycomb in connection with use of the pesticide under section 18 emergency...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on honey and honeycomb in connection with use of the pesticide under section 18 emergency...

  4. Development of methods for the stabilization of pyrolytic oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, M.B.; Phingbodhippakkiya, M.

    1981-09-01

    Capillary gas chromatographic, liquid chromatographic and coupled gas/mass spectrometric analysis procedures were developed to analyze pyrolytic oils produced from cellulosic waste residues. Some of the major components identified were: ethanol, 1-butanol; acetaldehyde; furfuryl alcohol; 5-methylfurfural; and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene. The pyrolytic oils contained a number of valuable chemicals. Further investigations on the isolation of these valuable chemicals from pyrolytic oils are recommended.

  5. Essential Oils and Non-volatile Compounds Derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa: Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity against Infectious Bacteria and MDR(multidrug resistant) Strains.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Suk; Park, Dae-Hun; Choi, Chul-Yung; Kim, Gye-Yeop; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Cho, Seung-Sik

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa against general infectious microbes and drug resistant strains of clinical origin. The results indicate that both essential oil and non-volatile residue have broad inhibitory activity against test strains. Essential oil and non-volatile residues showed antimicrobial activity not only against general infectious bacteria, but also against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains.

  6. New coal-derived catalyst for transfer hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikusei; Fujimoto, Kaoru

    1995-12-31

    Liquid phase hydrocracking of Arabian Heavy vacuum residue conducted in the presence of metal supported active carbon catalyst gave large amount of distillates (70%) with small hydrogen consumption. Especially the Yallourn coal derived active carbon catalyst showed high activity for the cracking of Arabian Heavy vacuum residue. The yield of asphaltene in the product oil was very low, whereas the coke yield was relatively high (about 4 wt%). In the metal-free active carbon system, the coke yield and the content of olefins, sulfur compounds, and asphaltene in the product oil were higher than those of the metal-supported active carbon system. These results suggest that asphaltene in feed oil was adsorbed on the metal supported active carbon catalyst and was decomposed or dehydrogenated on it to form coke and hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms formed migrated on the carbon surface to reach the metal site and transferred to free radicals, olefins, or organo sulfur compounds.

  7. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-01

    It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250°C, a reaction time of 60min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  8. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  9. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    PubMed Central

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; D’Andrea, Daniel; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the assessment of the intra-molecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect inter-domain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9. PMID:23760879

  10. Large-scale biohydrogen production from bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit

    2010-10-01

    Large amount of hydrogen is consumed during the upgrading of bitumen into synthetic crude oil (SCO), and this hydrogen is exclusively produced from natural gas in Western Canada. Because of large amount of emission from natural gas, alternative sources for hydrogen fuel especially renewable feedstocks could significantly reduce CO(2) emissions. In this study, biomass is converted to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. This bio-oil is steam reformed near bitumen upgrading plant for producing hydrogen fuel. A techno-economic model is developed to estimate the cost of hydrogen from biomass through the pathway of fast pyrolysis. Three different feedstocks including whole-tree biomass, forest residues (i.e. limbs, branches, and tops of tree produced during logging operations), and straw (mostly from wheat and barley crops) are considered for biohydrogen production. Delivered cost of biohydrogen from whole-tree-based biomass ($2.40/kg of H(2)) is lower than that of forest residues ($3.00/kg of H(2)) and agricultural residues ($4.55/kg of H(2)) at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. In this study, bio-oil is produced in the field/forest and transported to a distance of 500 km from the centralized remote bio-oil production plant to bitumen upgrading plant. Feedstock delivery cost and capital cost are the largest cost contributors to the bio-oil production cost, while more than 50% of the cost of biohydrogen production is contributed by bio-oil production and transportation. Carbon credits of $133, $214, and $356/tonne of CO(2) equivalent could make whole-tree, forest residues, and straw-based biohydrogen production competitive with natural gas-based H(2) for a natural gas price of $5/GJ, respectively.

  11. High Levels of Residue within Polymeric Hollow Fiber Membranes Used for Blood Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Joseph V; Grulke, Eric A; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    A number of research teams are developing surface coatings for hollow fiber membrane (HFM) blood oxygenators to improve their biocompatibility and service life. Surface coating techniques can be quite sensitive to the presence of contaminants on the exterior surface of the hollow fibers. We found large amounts of leachable oils associated with several commercial HFMs, i.e., as much as 2.5-7.5 weight percent. Leachable residues were suspected when a surface coating, a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (s-ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, resulted in areas of 100 µm devoid of coatings on the exterior surfaces of HFMs. After leaching residual oils, s-ATRP coatings were uniform and continuous across the hollow fibers. Therefore, removal of residual material should be considered before applying coating technologies to commercial HFMs. The effects of such leachable agents on the performance of blood oxygenators are not known.

  12. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  13. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  14. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) characterization for a valuable management.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Luciano; Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

    2010-11-01

    Car fluff is the waste produced after end-of-life-vehicles (ELVs) shredding and metal recovery. It is made of plastics, rubber, glass, textiles and residual metals and it accounts for almost one-third of a vehicle mass. Due to the approaching of Directive 2000/53/EC recycling targets, 85% recycling rate and 95% recovery rate in 2015, the implementation of automotive shredder residue (ASR) sorting and recycling technologies appears strategic. The present work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant, representative of the Italian situation, as for annual fluxes and technologies involved. The aim of this study is to characterize ASR in order to study and develop a cost effective and environmentally sustainable recycling system. Results show that almost half of the residue is made of fines and the remaining part is mainly composed of polymers. Fine fraction is the most contaminated by mineral oils and heavy metals. This fraction produces also up to 40% ashes and its LHV is lower than the plastic-rich one. Foam rubber represents around half of the polymers share in car fluff. Moreover, some chemical-physical parameters exceed the limits of some parameters fixed by law to be considered refuse derived fuel (RDF). As a consequence, ASR needs to be pre-treated in order to follow the energy recovery route.

  15. A comparison between the toxicity of oil and condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Foekema, E.; Schobben, H.P.M.; Marquenie, J.; Scholten, M.C.T.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of condensate from the `Ameland` gasfield was compared to the toxicity of the standard North Sea oil `Forties`. The comparison was based on the `topped` (residue after distillation at 200 C) fraction. This fraction is comparable with the fraction of the oil that is hazardous to the marine environment because the topped fraction will almost immediately evaporate. Hundred individuals of Corophium were placed in experimental systems with a surface of 500 CM{sup 2} filled with 10 cm sediment and 15 cm of water from the Wadden Sea. After two days the oil and condensate were added to the water surface in concentrations between 100 {micro}g/m{sup 2} to 100 {micro}g/m{sup 2}. After application a low tide was simulated until the oil or condensate covered the sediment. After five hours the sediment was inundated again. After three days the survival of the individuals and the remaining concentrations of oil and condensate in sediment were measured. From video images taken directly after application of the oil it can be seen that the Corophiums crept out of the polluted sediment. Despite the fact that the topped condensate contained much more lower alkanes, almost no difference was found between the toxicity of the topped oil and condensate. This leads to the conclusion that the effect of oil is mainly based on physical damage and not so much on the composition. The results of a later experiment with sunflower oil confirmed this conclusion.

  16. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Blöhse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Günter

    2013-08-01

    The work presented in this article addresses the application of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce a solid fuel named HTC-Biochar, whose characteristics are comparable to brown coal. Several batch HTC experiments were performed using agricultural residues (AR) as substrates, commonly treated in farm-based biogas plants in Germany. Different AR were used in different combinations with other biomass residues. The biogas potential from the resulting process water was also determined. The combination of different AR lead to the production of different qualities of HTC-Biochars as well as different mass and energy yields. Using more lignocellulosic residues lead to higher mass and energy yields for the HTC-Biochar produced. Whilst residues rich in carbohydrates of lower molecular weight such as corn silage and dough residues lead to the production of a HTC-Biochar of better quality and more similar to brown coal. Process water achieved a maximum of 16.3 L CH4/kg FM (fresh matter).

  18. Oil persistence on beaches in Prince William Sound - a review of SCAT surveys conducted from 1989 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elliott; Reimer, Doug

    2008-03-01

    In 2002, 13 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 39 selected sites in Prince William Sound (PWS) were re-surveyed following established shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) field observation procedures to document surface and sub-surface oiling conditions in shoreline sediments and to compare results with those from previous Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) surveys and other surveys in PWS. The selected sites are locations where EVOS oil persisted in 1992, at the time the Federal and State On-Scene Coordinators determined that the cleanup was complete and that further cleanup activities would provide no net environmental benefit. These sites had been included in a 2001 NOAA survey of shoreline oiling conditions and account for 88% of the sub-surface oil residues (SSO) oil documented by that study. The 2002 field survey found isolated occurrences of residual EVOS surface oil residues (SO) in the form of weathered asphalt pavement at 15 of the 39 sites. This residual SO typically consisted of asphalt in mixed sand/gravel substrate, located within a wave shadow effect created by boulders or bedrock in the upper intertidal to supratidal zone. Residual SO, expressed as a continuous oil cover, was less than 200 m(2) within the approximately 111,120 m(2) surveyed. A total of 1182 pits were dug at locations where SSO residues were present in 1992. Six of the 39 sites and 815 (68%) of the pits contained no residual SSO. Eighty-three percent of pits with SSO residues were found primarily in middle to upper intertidal locations. SSO residues commonly occurred in a discontinuous approximately 3 cm thick band 5-10 cm below the boulder/cobble or pebble/gravel veneer. The SO and SSO occurrences in the 2002 survey closely match the locations where they were found in 1992 and earlier surveys; however, in 2002 residual SSO patches are more discontinuous and thinner than they were in the earlier surveys. These sites are biased toward SSO persistence; those that

  19. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oil (ULO), max Fuel shall be free of ULO. We consider a fuel to be free of ULO if one or more of...). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0 80.0 180.0 380.0 700.0 ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997. Flash point,...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be used by the engine in actual use. (b) The fuel must be free of used lubricating oil. Demonstrate... 991.0 1010.0 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 (see also ISO 8217). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0...

  1. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  2. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  3. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  4. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters.

    PubMed

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  5. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  6. Ketonization of Cuphea oil for the production of 2-undecanone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

  7. Combustion of various types of residues in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Frade, E.; Lopes, H.; Figueiredo, F.; Cabrita, I.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion studies of different wastes alone or mixed were undertaken in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed. The combustor was operated over a temperature range of 700 to 1,000 C. The residues studied included biomass, tyres, and oil sludges. The main parameters that were investigated are (1) where and how to feed residues, (2) the ratios of amounts of residues when they are burned mixed, (3) air staging, and (4) excess air levels along the riser. The main conclusions are: (1) a large variation in the combustion efficiency was observed depending on the fuel, its particle size and where the fuel was fed in the combustor, (2) in the case of the use of mixture of wastes the utilization of biomass residues as the base fuel increased their combustion efficiency and resulted in very stable combustion conditions, (3) temperature appeared to be still very influential in reducing the levels of unburned carbon and hydrocarbons released from residues, and (4) the air staging in the freeboard improved combustion efficiency by enhancing the combustion of volatiles released from residues in the riser and produced lower emissions of both NO{sub x}. Particles collected in the cyclone and those removed from the bed were also analyzed to determine the levels of heavy metals. When oil sludge was added, high amounts of very fine particles of heavy metals were observed in the combustion gases.

  8. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  9. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  10. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... margarine are not the best choices. Choose liquid vegetable oils or margarines made from these oils when possible. ... over harder stick forms. Choose margarines with liquid vegetable oil, such as olive oil, as the first ingredient. ...

  11. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  12. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a good'' surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  13. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a ``good`` surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  14. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  15. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of the shale-oil produced in the Estonian Kiviter retort.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P; Veidebaum, T; Tamme, J; Põldvere, E

    1990-01-01

    Skin painting experiments in CC57Bl mice showed that the total oil (TO) obtained by thermal processing of lump oil shale in the high capacity 'Kiviter' retort containing 56 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and diluted with benzene (66.6%) induced skin tumours in five out of 60 effective mice--in three mice squamous-cell papillomas and in two mice carcinomas. The light fraction (230-350 degrees C) of this oil and the laboratory residue (82 ppm BP) of the latter failed to induce skin tumours. An industrial residue of a blend of shale oils containing 590 ppm BP induced in 10 mice papillomas and in three mice carcinomas, gave a positive response in the Ames assay and also induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. The laboratory residue and light fraction were clearly mutagenic in the Ames assay and positive responses were also obtained with the basic and neutral fractions and a polynuclear aromatics fraction.

  16. A techno-economic analysis of using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource.

    PubMed

    Brown, Duncan; Rowe, Andrew; Wild, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. Results show that the levelised delivered cost of a forest residue resource using mobile facility networks can be lower than using conventional woodchip delivery methods under appropriate conditions. Torrefied wood is the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.5 million m(3) or when transport distances greater than 300 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced.

  17. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  18. Impact of heavy metals on the oil products biodegradation process.

    PubMed

    Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2008-12-01

    Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process

  19. Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

  20. Prestige oil spill. III. Fate of a heavy oil in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Díez, Sergi; Jover, Eric; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2007-05-01

    More than 200 oil samples were collected along the Northern Spanish coast, from December 2002 to December 2003, as part of the extensive monitoring program carried out by the Spanish Marine Safety Agency after the Prestige heavy oil spill (November 13, 2002). The GC FPD/ FID and comprehensive GC x GC/TOFMS sample profiles revealed the main characteristics of the oil residues. Chemical fingerprinting of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions by GC/ MS was performed to determine the source of the oil as well as to follow its weathering at sea. The (n-C13 + n-C14)/(n-C25 + n-C26), n-C18/phytane, and methylnaphthalene [(N + N1)/N2] ratios were found to be useful for assessing the evaporation, biodegradation, and dissolution processes, respectively. Other indicators of more advanced degradation processes, including photo-oxidation, were unaltered, showing the low incidence of natural weathering processes on the spilled heavy oil 1 year after the accident. The survey also demonstrated the occurrence of continued discharges of ballast waters at sea and the need for a more stringent surveillance of the area, beyond accidental oil spills.

  1. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  2. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  3. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  4. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  5. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  6. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  7. Lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of borage oil: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G; Otero, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    Ethanolysis of borage oil catalyzed by two commercial lipases (from Pseudomonas cepacia and Candida antarctica) was studied using two different methodologies. Multiresponse models derived from a generalized Michaelis-Menten mechanism were utilized to describe the rates of formation of ethyl esters of the primary fatty acids present in the precursor oil. The relative rate constants determined for each of the fatty acid residues indicated that both lipases discriminate against release of gamma-linolenic acid residues under the reaction conditions studied. However, both lipases also released some of the residues located at the sn-2 position, indicating that for the experimental conditions studied, both lipases are nonspecific. Moreover, inactivation of Novozym 435 was rapid. Because the half-life of this enzyme (ca. 2.2 h) is comparable to the half-life of the reaction, the intrinsic reaction rate and enzyme deactivation must both be considered in modeling the kinetics.

  8. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  9. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  10. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Potential hazards of fumigant residues.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of fumigants (primarily ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene oxide, symdibromotetetrachloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorovos, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide) as well as their degradation products in foodstuffs and soil have been examined mainly in regard to the potential mutagenicity of their residues. PMID:789068

  12. Residual Stresses in Ground Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-13

    stress near the surface can be lower. The level of residual stress is also strongly affected by carbon,’3 which influences the microplastic behaviour of...1966, Vol. 14, 99-104. 14. C. 3. )4cMahon: “ Microplastic Behaviour in Iron” in Mv. in Mater . S d . Res., Vol. 2, 121-140, Interscience, New York

  13. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  14. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  15. Sassafras oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  17. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  18. Why Big Bad Oil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olien, Diana Davids; Olien, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the negative and hostile public opinion towards the oil industry, in general, and Standard Oil, in particular. Discovers that those most responsible for criticizing Standard Oil had an economic interest in doing so. Defends the company's record and refutes its critics' charges. (MJP)

  19. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  20. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  1. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  2. In situ retorting of oil shale with pulsed water purge

    SciTech Connect

    Forgac, J.M.; Hoekstra, G.R.

    1987-01-20

    A process is described for retorting oil shale, comprising the steps of: heating a portion of a rubblized mass of oil shale in a retorting zone of an underground retort to a retorting temperature to liberate shale oil and retort water from the oil shale leaving retorted shale containing residual carbon; combusting the residual carbon in the oil shale in a combustion zone behind the retorting zone in the underground retort with a flame front fed by an oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas to provide a substantial portion of the heating, the flame front advancing generally in the direction of flow of the feed gas; injecting a purge liquid comprising retort water in the absence of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the underground retort to quench the flame front while substantially stopping and blocking the flow of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the retort while simultaneously continuing to liberate shale oil and retort water in the underground retort; the retort water liberated from the retort and injected into the underground retort as the purge liquid, comprising raw, retorted and spent oil shale particulates ranging in size from less than 1 micron to 1000 microns, water, shale oil, phenols, organic carbon, ammonia, sodium, iron, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, nitrogen, nickel, copper, phosphorus, zinc, and arsenic; reigniting the flame front with the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas by feeding the oxygen-containing feed gas into the retort in the absence of the retort water purge liquid while simultaneously substantially stopping and preventing the flow of the retort water purge liquid into the retort; and withdrawing the liberated shale oil and retort water from the underground retort.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particulate matter and diesel fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, A; Aoyama, H; Ohi, A; Ohuchi, H

    1984-11-16

    Clean-up procedures were developed for a method for determining the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel exhaust particulate matter and in diesel fuel oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They were based mainly on the elimination of insoluble matter and aliphatic compounds that affect the performance of HPLC, from the dichloromethane extracts of particulate matter or from oils, with the aid of a disposable preparation column containing reversed-phase packings (Sep-Pak C18). Using these procedures, it is possible to detect 1 ng of benzo(a)pyrene in 30 mg of particulate matter with more than a 97% recovery or 0.5 ng in 50 microliters of oil with 91% recovery. Examples of analyses are given for particulate matter emitted from a diesel test engine and for diesel fuel oils, such as gas oil, residual oil and coal-liquefied oil.

  4. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Zhu, Weiyao; Song, Zhiyong; Long, Yunqian; Song, Hongqing

    2017-02-01

    In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can't sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  5. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Utility of process residues as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Kay, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tuna processing wastes (sludges high in fat, oil, and grease [FOG]) and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal challenge. The biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products, including methane and fertilizer-grade residue, through anaerobic high-solids digestion is currently in scale-up development. The suitability of the anaerobic digestion residues as a soil amendment was evaluated through extensive chemical analysis and greenhouse studies using corn as an indicator crop. Additionally, native Samoan soil was used to evaluate the specific application rates for the compost. Experiments established that anaerobic residues increase crop yields in direct proportion to increases in the application rate. Additionally, nutrient saturation was not demonstrated within the range of application rates evaluated for the Samoan soil. Beyond nutrient supplementation, organic residue amendment to Samoan soil imparts enhanced water and nutrient-binding capacities.

  7. Combustion of oil on water. November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Baum, H.; McCaffrey, B.; Mulholland, G.; Harkleroad, M.

    1986-06-01

    This report contains the results of measurements performed on both 0.4-m and 0.6-m diameter pool fires produced by burning a layer of Prudhoe Bay crude oil supported by a thermally deep layer of water. Both steady and vigorous burning caused by boiling of the water sublayer were observed. The measured energy release rate for steady burning was about 640 kW per sq meter. The emission rate, the size distribution, and specific extinction coefficient were measured for the smoke aerosol produced by the fires. Data were also obtained on the structure of the smoke aerosol by electron microscopy and on emission of CO and CO/sub 2/. Analysis of the crude oil burn residue indicated selected depletion of the short-chain alkanes and cycloalkanes when compared to the fresh oil. Mono-ring aromatics including benzene, toluene, and xylenes present in the fresh crude were absent in the burn residue. Calculations of the induced air flow into a simulated distribution of 20 fires over a 100 m x 100 m area showed that the maximum inflow velocity near the largest size fire (2.5 m diameter, 3.2 MW) was 1.1 m/s.

  8. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium. PMID:11834466

  9. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium.

  10. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  11. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  12. Determination of protein levels in soy and peanut oils by colorimetric assay and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Fu, Tong-Jen; Jackson, Lauren S; Gendel, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical methods are needed for measuring the levels of protein from allergenic food transferred into cooking oil. A simple method for determination of total protein in cooking oils was developed. Oil was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween (PBST) and the extracts were partitioned with hexane to remove residual oil. Total protein in the PBST extracts was assayed with bicinchoninic acid (BCA), micro-BCA, reducing-agent compatible BCA and CB-XT kits. These methods were used to measure recovery of protein from peanut butter spikes of soy and peanut oil in the range of 50-1000 ppm. Recoveries were generally above 70%. However, the BCA and micro-BCA assays were subject to interference and enhanced color formation which were probably due to co-extracted antioxidants present in oil. The reducing agent-compatible BCA and CB-X protein assays reduced interference and gave lower protein values in crude, cold-pressed, and refined peanut oils. Heating oil to 180 degrees C before extraction also reduced interference-induced color enhancement. A commercial ELISA test kit was also used to measure peanut protein in oil spiked with peanut butter. Recovery of peanut residues measured by ELISA was significantly decreased when the peanut butter-spiked oil was heated to 180 degrees C compared to unheated oil. Recovery of spiked peanut butter protein measured by the buffer extraction-colorimetric method was not decreased in heated oil. The method developed here could be used to determine protein levels in crude and refined oil, and to assess the potential for allergen cross-contact from reused cooking oil.

  13. Effects of low sulfur fuel oils on combustion performance and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, H.; Omata, T.; Sekimoto, M.; Watanabe, H.

    1993-09-01

    Marine diesel fuels mainly consist of residual components that have a high sulfur content. In order to reduce the sulfur content of the fuel, it is necessary to remove the sulfur from these residual components by applying hydrodesulfurization, In a study that included engine tests, the effect of the composition change of the residual oil on engine combustion performance, especially the exhaust gas, was analyzed using both raw and product oil from a commercial residue desulfurization unit. The results showed that the amount of asphaltenes, resins and other heavy components in the residue decreased due to the hydrodesulfurization. Conversely, the saturate content increased, resulting in a drop in the NO[sub x] and smoke emissions under low load conditions. This residue desulfurization process presents several problems, however. The sulfur compounds contained in the residual oil are very difficult to remove. Furthermore, during the desulfurization process, vanadium and asphaltenes precipitate from the residue on the catalyst and shorten its life. As a result, large amounts of catalyst are required when operating in the high-temperature, high-pressure conditions; this leads to much higher construction and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  15. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

  16. [When necrosis smells of heating oil... what damage fuels can do].

    PubMed

    Federmann, G; Föhlinger, J; Kurtz, V

    2000-02-03

    The subcutaneous injection of heating oil or other crude oil distillates are rare injuries. In the present case, a 26-year-old man injected heating oil subcutaneously into the left cubital region. He then developed massive swelling, pain, local necrosis and abscess, accompanied by fever and leukocytosis. Radical surgical debridement and open wound treatment successfully stopped the necrotic process. Subsequently, a mesh-graft was applied to the wound, which healed with no residual defects. The course of the present case, and the results of a review of the literature on similar occurrences involving mineral oil suggest early extensive debridement of such injuries.

  17. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  18. Persistence of spilled oil on shores and its effects on biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Over two million tonnes of oil are estimated to enter the world's oceans every year. A small percentage, but still a large volume, of this oil strands onshore, where its persistence is governed primarily by the action of physical forces. In some cases, biota influence the persistence of stranded oil or the rate of its weathering. Oil's deleterious effects on biota are frequently related to the persistence and degree of weathering of the oil, with long-lasting effects in low-energy environments such as salt marshes and coastal mangroves, or in higher-energy environments where oil is sequestered. However, an oil spill can have disproportionately large biological effects when it affects key species or processes (e.g., structurally important species, predators, prey, recruitment, or succession). In these cases, the continuing presence of oil is not always a prerequisite for continuing biological effects. There are relatively few long-term studies of the effects of oil spills; data from these suggest that oil can persist for decades in some environments or situations, and that biological effects can be equally persistent. Broad-based, integrated studies have been the most revealing in terms of the importance of direct and indirect effects, spillover effects between different parts of the environment, and continuing linkages between residual oil and biologic effects. Clean-up and treatment techniques applied to spilled or stranded oil can also have significant, long-lasting effects and need to be carefully evaluated prior to use.

  19. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions

    PubMed Central

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10–13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  20. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions.

    PubMed

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10-13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  1. Reactivity study on thermal cracking of vacuum residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Díaz, S. D.; Rodríguez, R. C.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the process reactivity of thermal cracking of vacuum residues from crude oils mixtures. The thermal cracking experiments were carried out under a nitrogen atmosphere at 120psi between 430 to 500°C for 20 minutes. Temperature conditions were established considering the maximum fractional conversion reported in tests of thermogravimetry performed in the temperature range of 25 to 600°C, with a constant heating rate of 5°C/min and a nitrogen flow rate of 50ml/min. The obtained products were separated in to gases, distillates and coke. The results indicate that the behaviour of thermal reactivity over the chemical composition is most prominent for the vacuum residues with higher content of asphaltenes, aromatics, and resins. Finally some correlations were obtained in order to predict the weight percentage of products from its physical and chemical properties such as CCR, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, asphaltenes) and density. The results provide new knowledge of the effect of temperature and the properties of vacuum residues in thermal conversion processes.

  2. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1167 - Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used as a component of food grade oil of mustard, in or on all raw agricultural commodities, when... food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1167 Section 180.1167... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1167 Allyl...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1167 - Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used as a component of food grade oil of mustard, in or on all raw agricultural commodities, when... food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1167 Section 180.1167... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1167 Allyl...

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency. The formation of by-products by residual w...

  6. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1167 - Allyl isothiocyanate as a component of food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used as a component of food grade oil of mustard, in or on all raw agricultural commodities, when... food grade oil of mustard; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1167 Section 180.1167... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1167 Allyl...

  8. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ Huff 'n' Puff process for light-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G. ); Coma, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    Cyclic CO/sub 2/ injection for enhanced recovery of light crude oil is investigated. Results from watered-out Berea corefloods and 14 field tests demonstrate that first and second cycled recover waterflood residual oil. Factors that may improve performance include larger reservoir slug volume, soak period, thicker interval, and lower prior water cut.

  9. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  10. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O`Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination.

  11. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  12. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1992-12-22

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis.

  13. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  14. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  15. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  16. Effects of the components of coal hydro-liquefaction residue on its rheological characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y.; Jin, S.; Xu, Y.; Wei, A.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J.

    2009-07-01

    Four kinds of typical coal liquefaction residue samples, coming from Shenhua coal liquefaction pilot plant, were used to investigate the effects of components of residue, separation time, and temperature on its rheological characteristics. Coal liquefaction residue is a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid whose apparent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Moreover, the residue has high viscosity at the initial softening temperature, and its viscosity drops greatly with increasing temperature. The oil content in residue has a great effect on the decline of the apparent viscosity of residue. The asphaltene can increase the apparent viscosity at lower temperatures but decrease it at higher temperatures. However, the solid only increases the apparent viscosity as it can be neither softened nor dissolved to become fluid. After simulating the separation condition, it is found that prolonging the separation time and enhancing the separation temperature will increase the apparent viscosity of residue, which is bad for preventing pipes from being blocked. So choosing the right separation time and separation temperature is necessary to actual industrial production.

  17. A microalgae residue based carbon solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobo; Li, Dianhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yuanming; Huang, Weiya; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae is recognized as one of the best solutions to deal with the energy crisis issues. However, after the oil extraction from the microalgae, the microalgae residue was generally discarded or burned. Here a novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from microalgae residue by in situ hydrothermal partially carbonization were synthesized. The obtained catalyst was characterized and subjected to both the esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of triglyceride to produce biodiesel. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity and can be regenerated while its activity can be well maintained after five cycles.

  18. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  19. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  20. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...